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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN SCIENCE

SSI3013
LECTURER : ENCIK AZMI BIN IBRAHIM
NAME

MATRIC NUMBER

1) SITI NOR LIYANA BINTI


MOHD TASRIB
2) NUR FATIN INSYIRAH BINTI
MOHAMED PUAID
1) D20161073940
2) D20161073919

SIMULATION USING
STELLA SOFTWARE

TITLE : PREY AND PREDATOR BETWEEN LYNX AND HARE


OBJECTIVES :
1) To conduct an experiment using STELLA Software.
2) To know how to make the stimulation using STELLA Sofware
3) To study how to integrate STELLA in teaching and learning process.
4) To understand natural selection pressure of rabbits on a specific area.
5) To study the relationship between the predator and prey.

INTRODUCTION:
SIMULATION
Simulation is the applying of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The
act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed, this model represents
the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The
model represents the system itself, whereas the stimulation represents the operation of the
system over time. Computer simulation is the discipline of designing a model of an actual
theoretical physical system, executing the model on a digital computer, and analyzing the
execution output. Stimulation is used in many contexts such as simulation of technology for
performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games.
Training simulators include flight simulators for training aircraft pilots to provide them with a
life like experience.
Simulation is also used with scientific modelling of natural systems or human systems
to gain insight into their functioning. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects
of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system
cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable
to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist. Key issues in
simulation include acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key
characteristics and behaviours, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within
the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes. Simulation embodies the
principle of learning by doing to learn about the system we must first build a model of some
sort and then operate the model.

The use of simulation is an activity that is as natural as a child who role plays.
Children understand the world around them by simulating with toys and figurines most of
their interactions with other people, animals and objects. As adults, we lose some of this
childlike behavior but recapture it later on through computer simulation. To understand
reality and all of its complexity, we must build artificial objects and dynamically act out roles
with them. Computer simulation is the electronic equivalent of this type of role playing and it
serves to drive synthetic environments and virtual worlds. Less theoretically, an interesting
application of computer simulation is to simulate computers using computers. In computer
architecture, a type of simulator, typically called an emulator, is often used to execute a
program that has to run on some inconvenient type of computer or in a tightly controlled
testing environment.
WHAT IS STELLA SOFTWARE?
There are numerous simulation software packages available, and the discussions as to
which one is the best are endless. Stella software is one of the software system thinking for
education and research. Stella models provide endless opportunities to explore by knowing
what and watching what happens, inspiring the exciting moments of learning for
students.Stella software is the gold standard and suitable for education.Thousands of
educators and researchers have made simulation by stella software and using it to study
everything from economics to physics, literature to calculus, chemistry to public policy and
research communities have recognized the unique of stellas ability to stimulate learning
during education process. There are a lot of model experiments in stella software.Those
models are mental model which are used to construct, simulate and relate the real experiment.
Stella models also allow you to communicate how a system works and know what goes in,
how the system is impacted and what are the outcomes.
Stella software also supports diverse learning styles with a wide range of storytelling
features including diagrams, charts, and animation. It help visual learners to discover
relationships between variables in an equation. For verbal learners, they might surround
visual models with words or attach documents to explain the impact of a new environmental
policy. Moreover, Stella software is used to simulate a system overtime,jump the gap between
theory and the real world, enable students to creatively change the systems given, teach
students to look for relationships and it help students clearly communicate system inputs and
outputs and demonstrate the outcomes.

RESULT:
GRAPH 1

GRAPH 2

GRAPH 3

GRAPH 4

DISCUSSION:
In an ecosystem, there is always an interaction between organisms. That is the nature of this
world. Some people might think that it is cruel to kill other organism but, if some animal do
not kill other animal, they will not survive. There are a lot of interaction between organism in
this earth like mutualism, parasitism and prey-predator interaction. In this graph, we will
discuss more about the interaction between prey and predator.
A predator is the organism that eats another organism while prey is the organism that
predator eats. All four graphs above show the interaction between predators (lynx) and prey
(hares). Lynx is the type of wild cat. Hares may be looks like rabbit but they are not from
rabbit family. Hares have 48 chromosomes while rabbit only 44 chromosomes. As being
mention before, the interaction between lynx and hares is prey predator. We will see the
pattern of the interaction in the graph above.
For graph 1, it shows that the number of lynx and hares is stable throughout the years.
This means that there is no environmental complexility in the ecosystem. The number of lynx
is balance with the number of hare. The birth rate of hares can afford the needed from lynx.
That is why from the graph we can see that the interaction between the predator and prey is
constant throughout the year. There is no increasing or decreasing number for both predator
and prey.
For graph 2, it shows that the size of 1 time lynx harvest is increasing as the number
of hares increase. At the beginning of the graph, the lynx is drop a little bit as the hares
constant. This is because when the number of hares becomes constant for such a long time,
the number of lynx will decrease because there is no food for them. If the food source
decreases, the competition between predators will become tight. There is no increasing in
food source so the predator will die thus the shows the decreasing in number. The following
pattern shows that the increasing of food source for predator (lynx) which is prey (hares) will
simultaneously increase the number of predator.
For graph 3, compared to graph 2 the number of both prey (hares) and predator
(predator) is slightly increase. The concept is still same as is mention at graph 2. Graph 4 also
shows the same pattern with tremendously increasing number of both lynx and hares. This
shows that the lynx have enough food supply from the increasing number of hare.

The conclusion that we can make from the relation between prey and predator is when
the prey is numerous their predators increase in numbers this then will reducing the prey
population which then make the number of predator to decreases. After sometimes, the
relation is expected to recover and starting a new cycle. According to the recent research, the
predator and prey systems are potentially unstable because predators often extinguish their
prey and then starve. In nature, there is at least three factors that can promote stability and
coexistence.
All of the graph shows above is one of the example of simulation. From the graph itself we
can see that by using the simulation the learning and teaching process will become more
interesting and effective. There is a lot of benefits that teacher can get by using simulation as
one of their teaching tools. Simulations are low cost to create than the real life counterparts.
Simulation is also easy to use and less risky. Other than that simulation can be repeated over
and over again whereas real life cannot.
To the students, using the simulation can give them motivation. This motivation will develop
when using the simulation. The motivation that students will get is they will highly anticipate
learning more about the topic. The most important things when using teaching tools, teacher
must choose the one that can increase student interest and simulation is one of the best
choices. When students involve in the activity they will be interested to learn more about the
activity and also the subject or topic.

CONCLUSION :
In conclusion, the traditional method of teaching should change because students nowadays
are totally different from 20 years ago. Simulation is one of the new teaching method that
teacher can use nowadays. Teacher role nowadays also different from before, they are not
only give knowledge to students but also guide them. Simulations give new dimension to the
learning experience and develop the teachers role even further. Students also will experience
new method of learning.

REFERENCES:
1.http://www.slideshare.net/enspirelearning/how-simulations-can-change-the-future-oflearning
2.http://www.creativeteachingsite.com/edusims.html
3.http://www.creativeteachingsite.com/virtual.htm
4.http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/mcvittiej/methods/simul.html
5.http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~fishwick/introsim/node1.html
6.http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/predation/predation.ht
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