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 Last analysis use various simplifying assumptions.  In this section, we will include other

Last analysis use various simplifying assumptions.

In this section, we will include other parameter that is essential in analog circuit

analysis. Three second-order effects are:

Body effect

Channel Length Modulation

Sub-threshold conduction

 Three second-order effects are: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
 Three second-order effects are: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
 Three second-order effects are: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
 Three second-order effects are: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction

Second-order effects:

Body effect

Channel Length Modulation

Subthreshold conduction

Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
 In previous analysis, we have assumed that the bulk and the source of the

In previous analysis, we have assumed that the bulk and the source of the transistor were tied to

ground.

What happen if the bulk voltage of an nFET drops below the source voltage as shown below?

of an nFET drops below the source voltage as shown below? Since the S and D
of an nFET drops below the source voltage as shown below? Since the S and D

Since the S and D junctions remains reverse-biased, the device continues to operate properly but with certain

characteristics may change.

D junctions remains reverse-biased, the device continues to operate properly but with certain characteristics may change.
D junctions remains reverse-biased, the device continues to operate properly but with certain characteristics may change.
 Let V S =V D =0 , and V G is less than V
 Let V S =V D =0 , and V G is less than V

Let V S =V D =0, and V G is less than V TH so that a depletion region is formed under the gate but no inversion layer exists. As V B become more negative, more holes are attracted to the substrate connection, leaving a larger negative charge behind, i.e the depletion region becomes wider.

attracted to the substrate connection, leaving a larger negative charge behind, i.e the depletion region becomes
attracted to the substrate connection, leaving a larger negative charge behind, i.e the depletion region becomes
 The threshold voltage is a function of the total charge in the depletion region
 The threshold voltage is a function of the total charge in the depletion region

The threshold voltage is a function of the total charge in the depletion region because the gate charge must mirror Q d before an inversion layer is formed.

Thus, as V B drops and Q d increases, V TH also increase.

This is called the “body effect” or the “backgate effect”

Q d increases, V T H also increase.  This is called the “ body effect
Q d increases, V T H also increase.  This is called the “ body effect
• With body effect, the threshold voltage is given as: V TH  V TH

With body effect, the threshold voltage is given as:

VTH VTH 0 2F VSB 2F

V TH 0    2  F  V SB  2  F
V TH 0    2  F  V SB  2  F

Where V SB is the sourcebulk potential difference and the body effect coefficient, γ is

difference and the body effect coefficient, γ is   2 q  N si sub

2 qN

si

sub

C ox

The body effect can occur if the source voltage varies with respect to V sub .

 2 q  N si sub C ox • The body effect can occur if
 2 q  N si sub C ox • The body effect can occur if
 The body effect can occur if the source voltage varies with respect to V

The body effect can occur if the source voltage varies with respect to V sub .

From Fig (a),

varies with respect to V s u b .  From Fig (a), ◦ the substrate

the substrate tied to ground

Let V in become more positive

V out , will also become more positive

This increase the potential difference between the source and the

bulk

Thus, rising the value of V TH .

Therefore, V in -V out must increase to maintain I D constant.

No Body

With Body

Effect

Effect

V i n -V o u t must increase to maintain I D constant. No Body

Second-order effects:

Body effect

Channel Length Modulation

Subthreshold conduction

Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Subthreshold conduction
 From previous analysis, we noted that the actual length of the inverted channel gradually

From previous analysis, we noted that the actual length of the inverted channel gradually decreases as the potential difference between the gate and the drain decreases. Thus, L’ is a function of V DS . This is called “channel length modulation”

and the drain decreases.  Thus, L’ is a function of V D S . This
 L'  L L 1 1/ L ' (1L / L ) L 1

L'  L L 1 1/ L ' (1L / L ) L 1 L
L'  L L
1
1/ L '
(1L / L )
L
1
L
VDS L
/ L
where
 n
C W
ox
2
2
L '
C W
n o x
2
L

1/ L '

(1

VDS

)

I D

(

V

GS

V

TH

)

I

D

( V

GS

V TH

)

2 (1

V

DS

I D  ( V GS  V TH ) 2 (1  V  DS
I D  ( V GS  V TH ) 2 (1  V  DS

)

 λ is the channel length modulation coefficient.  This phenomenon results in a nonzero

λ is the channel length modulation coefficient.

This phenomenon results in a nonzero slope in the I D /V DS characteristic and hence a non-ideal current source between D and S in saturation. λ represents the relative variation in the length for a given increment in V DS .

For longer channel, λ is smaller.

the relative variation in the length for a given increment in V D S . 
 With channel-length modulation, recalculate the g m  C W n o x I

With channel-length modulation, recalculate the g m

 C W n o x I D  ( V  V ) 2
C W
n
o x
I D
( V
V
)
2 (1
 V
)
GS
TH
DS
2
L
I
D
g 
m
V
GS
V
cons
tan
t
DS
gm nCo x W (V GS  VTH )(1  V DS )
L
W
2
C
I
n
o x
D
L
g 
m
(1
 V
)
DS
gm 
VGS 2  ID VTH , (unchanged)

Second-order effects:

Body effect

Channel Length Modulation

Sub-threshold conduction

Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
Second-order effects: ◦ Body effect ◦ Channel Length Modulation ◦ Sub-threshold conduction
 We have assumed that the device turns off abruptly as V G S drop

We have assumed that the device turns off abruptly as V GS drop below V TH .

In reality, for V GS ≈V TH , a “weak” inversion layer still exists and some current flow from D to S.

Even for V GS <V TH , I D is finite, but it exhibits an exponential dependence on V GS . This is called “sub-threshold conduction”

finite, but it exhibits an exponential dependence on V G S .  This is called
finite, but it exhibits an exponential dependence on V G S .  This is called
finite, but it exhibits an exponential dependence on V G S .  This is called
finite, but it exhibits an exponential dependence on V G S .  This is called
 The quadratic characteristic describe previously form the large-signal model of MOSFETs.  Large-signal model

The quadratic characteristic describe previously form the large-signal model of MOSFETs. Large-signal model is useful when the signal significantly disturbs the bias points. If the case in bias condition is small, a small-signal model is used to approximate

the large-signal model around the operation points

This helps to simplify the calculations.

is used to approximate the large-signal model around the operation points ◦ This helps to simplify
is used to approximate the large-signal model around the operation points ◦ This helps to simplify
is used to approximate the large-signal model around the operation points ◦ This helps to simplify
is used to approximate the large-signal model around the operation points ◦ This helps to simplify
 The small-signal model is derived by producing a small increment in a bias point

The small-signal model is derived by

producing a small increment in a bias point and calculating the resulting increment in

other bias parameters.

derived by producing a small increment in a bias point and calculating the resulting increment in
derived by producing a small increment in a bias point and calculating the resulting increment in
derived by producing a small increment in a bias point and calculating the resulting increment in
derived by producing a small increment in a bias point and calculating the resulting increment in
 Since the drain current is a function of the gate-source voltage, we incorporate a
 Since the drain current is a function of the gate-source voltage, we incorporate a

Since the drain current is a function of the gate-source voltage, we incorporate a voltage-dependent current source equal

to g m V GS

 Due to the channel-length modulation, the drain current also varies with the drain-source voltage.
 Due to the channel-length modulation, the drain current also varies with the drain-source voltage.

Due to the channel-length modulation, the drain current also varies with the drain-source voltage.

This effect can be modeled by a voltage-dependent

current source.

current also varies with the drain-source voltage.  This effect can be modeled by a voltage-dependent
current also varies with the drain-source voltage.  This effect can be modeled by a voltage-dependent
 Since a current source whose value linearly depends on the voltage across, it is
 Since a current source whose value linearly depends on the voltage across, it is

Since a current source whose value linearly

depends on the voltage across, it is equivalent

to a linear resistor.

 Since a current source whose value linearly depends on the voltage across, it is equivalent
 Since a current source whose value linearly depends on the voltage across, it is equivalent
 Recall that the bulk potential influences the threshold voltage and hence the gate-source overdrive.

Recall that the bulk

 Recall that the bulk potential influences the threshold voltage and hence the gate-source overdrive. 

potential influences the threshold voltage and hence the gate-source overdrive.

With all other terminals held at a constant voltage, the drain current is a function of the bulk voltage.

Modeling this dependence by a current source connected between D and S, we write the value as

 Modeling this dependence by a current source connected between D and S, we write the
 Modeling this dependence by a current source connected between D and S, we write the

g mb V BS

 Modeling this dependence by a current source connected between D and S, we write the
 Modeling this dependence by a current source connected between D and S, we write the
 To represent the behavior of transistors in circuit simulation.  TSMC 0.35um/0.13um spice model

To represent the behavior of transistors in circuit simulation. TSMC 0.35um/0.13um spice model How to relate the spice model with device

How to simulate dc, trans & ac

Frequency response

model  How to relate the spice model with device  How to simulate dc, trans
model  How to relate the spice model with device  How to simulate dc, trans
model  How to relate the spice model with device  How to simulate dc, trans
model  How to relate the spice model with device  How to simulate dc, trans
 In most CMOS technology, pMOS devices are quite inferior to nMOS transistors.  This

In most CMOS technology, pMOS devices are quite inferior to nMOS transistors.

This is due to the lower mobility of holes, yielding low current drive and transconductance.

For given dimension and bias currents, nMOS

transistors exhibits a higher output resistance, providing more ideal current source and higher gain in amplifier.

For these reason, it is preferred to incorporates

nMOS rather than pMOS wherever possible.

higher gain in amplifier.  For these reason, it is preferred to incorporates nMOS rather than
higher gain in amplifier.  For these reason, it is preferred to incorporates nMOS rather than
higher gain in amplifier.  For these reason, it is preferred to incorporates nMOS rather than
higher gain in amplifier.  For these reason, it is preferred to incorporates nMOS rather than
 VTO: threshold voltage with zero V s b (unit: V)  GAMMA: body effect

VTO: threshold voltage with zero V sb (unit: V)

GAMMA: body effect coefficient (unit: V 1/2 )

PHI: 2Φ F (unit: V)

TOX: gate oxide thickness (unit: m) NSUB: substrate doping (unit: cm -3 )

LD: source/drain side diffusion (unit: m)

UO: channel mobility (unit: cm 2 /V/s)

LAMBDA: channel-length modulation coefficient (unit: V -1 )

CJ: source/drain bottom-plate junction capacitance per unit area (unit: F/m 2 )

coefficient (unit: V - 1 )  CJ: source/drain bottom-plate junction capacitance per unit area (unit:
coefficient (unit: V - 1 )  CJ: source/drain bottom-plate junction capacitance per unit area (unit:
coefficient (unit: V - 1 )  CJ: source/drain bottom-plate junction capacitance per unit area (unit:
coefficient (unit: V - 1 )  CJ: source/drain bottom-plate junction capacitance per unit area (unit:
 CJSW: source/drain sidewall junction capacitance per unit length (unit: F/m)  PB: source/drain junction

CJSW: source/drain sidewall junction capacitance per unit length (unit: F/m)

PB: source/drain junction built-in potential (unit: V)

MJ: exponent in CJ equation (unitless)

MJSW: exponent in CJSW equation (unitless)

CGDO: gate-drain overlap capacitance per unit width (unit: F/m) CGSO: gate-source overlap capacitance per unit width (unit: F/m) JS: source/drain leakage current per unit area (unit:

A/m 2 )

overlap capacitance per unit width (unit: F/m)  JS: source/drain leakage current per unit area (unit:
overlap capacitance per unit width (unit: F/m)  JS: source/drain leakage current per unit area (unit:
overlap capacitance per unit width (unit: F/m)  JS: source/drain leakage current per unit area (unit:
overlap capacitance per unit width (unit: F/m)  JS: source/drain leakage current per unit area (unit: