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Chapter02

CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

Multiple Choice Questions


1.

2.

Trademarks

A. forthemostpartneedtobeestablishedonacountrybycountrybasis.
B.
canbeestablishedglobally.
C. werealegalconcerninthepastbutwiththeriseofglobalizationarenolongeranissue.
D. representanaspectpowerdistanceinglobalmarketingefforts.
E.
alloftheabove.
Whichofthefollowingisaculturalfactorthataffectsconsumerbehaviorandmarketingstrategy?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

demographics
values
language
nonverbalcommunications
alloftheabove

3.

4.

HowardIndustriesisacomputermanufacturerlocatedinLaurel,MS.Thiscompanyisinterestedin
expandinginternationally.Whichofthefollowingisaculturalfactorthataffectsconsumerbehaviorand
marketingstrategythatHowardIndustriesneedstobeawareof?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

nonverbalcommunications
naturalresources
economicconditions
exchangerates
alloftheabove

WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSEregardingcrossculturalmarketing?

A. Marketingacrossculturalboundariesisadifficultandchallengingtask.
B.Increasingly,globalizationmeansmutualinfluenceasproducts,brands,cultures,andvaluesmoveback
andforthacrosstheworld.
C. Therearebothsubtleanddirectethicalissuesinvolvedininternationalmarketing.
D.Whilemarketingstrategyisheavilyinfluencedbyculturalfactors,itdoesnotinfluenceaspectsof
cultures.
E. Culturesmaydifferindemographics,languages,nonverbalcommunications,andvalues.

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5.

Whichoneofthefoursegmentsofworldcitizensfeelspositivelyaboutinternationalbrands,valuestheir
symbolicaspects,andislessconcernedaboutcorporateresponsibility?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

globalcitizens
globaldreamers
antiglobals
globalagnostics
globaltrendsetters

6.

Whichoneofthefoursegmentsofworldcitizensfeelspositivelyaboutinternationalbrandsbecausethey
viewthemasasignalofhigherquality?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

globalcitizens
globaldreamers
antiglobals
globalagnostics
globaltrendsetters

7.

_____isthecomplexwholethatincludesknowledge,belief,art,law,morals,customs,andanyother
capabilitiesandhabitsacquiredbyhumansasmembersofsociety.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Referencegroup
Government
Culture
Authority
Gestalt

8.

9.

WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUEregardingculture?

A.
Cultureisarelativelysimpleconcept.
B.
Cultureisacquired.
C. Cultureoftenprovidesdetailedprescriptionsforappropriatebehavior.
D. Thenatureofculturalinfluencesissuchthatweareconsciouslyawareofthem.
E.
Alloftheabovearetrue.
IntheUnitedStates,promptnessisconsideredavirtue.Americansareexpectedtobeontimetoanevent,
andtheyexpectotherstodosoaswell.Whichaspectofculturebestexplainsthisbehavior?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Cultureisasimpleconcept.
Cultureissomethingoneisbornwith.
Cultureisuniquetoeachindividualinasociety.
Cultureistimebound.
Cultureisacquired,thatis,itislearned.

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10. Theboundariesthatculturesetsonbehaviorarecalled_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

rules
norms
prescriptions
precepts
sanctions

11. _____arerulesthatspecifyorprohibitcertainbehaviorsinspecificsituations.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Norms
Precepts
Sanctions
Prescriptions
Values

12. Karen'sfatherisanexecutiveforamajorinternationalcorporationandhasbeentransferredtovarious
countriesovertheyears.Witheachmove,Karenisenrolledinanewschool.EventhoughEnglishis
spokenintheschoolssheattends,therearestudentsfromallovertheworldwhoseparentshavejobs
similartoKaren'sfather.Witheachnewschool,Karenspendsthefirstfewweeksmerelyobservingthe
otherstudentstolearnwhichbehaviorsareappropriateinspecificsituationsbecauseshe'slearnedthatat
eachschoolthekidsbehavedifferently.Karenisattemptingtolearnthatstudentbody'sspecific_____
regardingbehavior.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

rules
guidelines
precepts
norms
prescriptions

13. Normsarederivedfrom_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.

culturalvalues
laws
education
internationalprotocol

14. _____arewidelyheldbeliefsthataffirmwhatisdesirable.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Laws
Religions
Edicts
Culturalvalues
Sanctions

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15. Marketersthatwishtoexpandinternationallyneedtounderstandaculture'swidelyheldbeliefsthataffirm
whatisdesirable.Todothis,marketersshouldstudy_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

laws
religions
culturalvalues
sanctions
edicts

16. Violationofculturalnormsresultsin_____,orpenaltiesrangingfrommildsocialdisapprovalto
banishmentfromthegroup.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

norms
sanctions
proclamations
ostracization
sentencing

17. Robertis15yearsoldandhasrecentlymovedtoanewtownandtherefore,anewhighschool.Hewas
tryingtogetacceptedbyagroupofkidsthathewantedtobefriendswith.Whentheyaskedhimtoattenda
partyovertheweekend,hesaidhe'dhavetoaskhisparentsforpermission.Thisgroupofstudentslaughed
athimandcalledhima"momma'sboy"andtoldhimhecan'tbeoneofthembecausetheydon'taskparents
forpermission,theyjustdowhattheywant.ThissocialdisapprovalofRobert'sbehaviorisanexampleof
a(n)_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

norm
violation
sanction
precept
edict

18. WhichofthefollowingisNOTabroadformofculturalvalues?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

otheroriented
environmentoriented
selforiented
objectoriented
Alloftheabovearebroadformsofculturalvalues.

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19. _____valuesreflectasociety'sviewoftheappropriaterelationshipsbetweenindividualsandgroupswithin
thatsociety.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Otheroriented
Environmentoriented
Selforiented
Externallyoriented
Internallyoriented

20. Asiansocieties(i.e.,Japan)valuecollectiveactivity.Thatis,consumerslooktowardothersforguidancein
purchasedecisionsanddonotrespondfavorablytopromotionalappealsfocusingonindividualism.Which
categoryofculturalvaluesdoesthisrepresent?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

internallyoriented
environmentoriented
otheroriented
selforiented
grouporiented

21. _____valuesprescribeasociety'srelationshiptoitseconomicandtechnologicalaswellasitsphysical
environment.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Otheroriented
Selforiented
Externallyoriented
Internallyoriented
Environmentoriented

22. Samhaslearnedthatacountrytowhichhiscompanydesirestoexpandplacesahighvalueoncleanliness
andadmiresnatureimmensely.Whichcategoryofculturalvaluesdoesthisrepresent?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

otheroriented
selforiented
environmentoriented
externallyoriented
internallyoriented

23. _____valuesreflecttheobjectivesandapproachestolifethattheindividualmembersofsocietyfind
desirable.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Otheroriented
Selforiented
Environmentoriented
Externallyoriented
Internallyoriented

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24. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofanotherorientedvalue?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

problemsolving/fatalistic
postponedgratification/immediategratification
religious/secular
individual/collective
risktaking/security

25. WhichofthefollowingisNOTanexampleofanotherorientedvalue?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

youth/age
extended/limitedfamily
tradition/change
masculine/feminine
diversity/uniformity

26. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofanenvironmentorientedvalue?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

active/passive
tradition/change
extended/limitedfamily
masculine/feminine
material/nonmaterial

27. WhichofthefollowingisNOTanexampleofanenvironmentorientedvalue?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

cleanliness
tradition/change
nature
competitive/cooperative
problemsolving/fatalistic

28. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofaselforientedvalue?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

religious/secular
individual/collective
risktaking/security
tradition/change
diversity/uniformity

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29. Whichofthefollowingcountriestendstovalueindividualismovercollectivism?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Mexico
India
UnitedStates
Korea
Japan

30. Jakeisinthemarketforanewcar.He'slookingatbrandssuchasMercedes,Lexus,andBMWbecausehe
feelstheytellotherpeoplethathe'ssuccessfulinlife.Thisisanillustrationofwhichvalue?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

collectivism
youth
masculine
individualism
active

31. Whichculturehastraditionallyvaluedthewisdomthatcomeswithage?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

American
Australian
British
European
Asian

32. WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSEregardingyouthandage?

A.MaturespokespersonswouldtendtobemoresuccessfulinAsianculturesbecausetheyhave
traditionallyvaluedthewisdomthatcomeswithage.
B. Arabcountriesarebecomingincreasinglyyouthoriented.
C.
Americansocietyisyouthoriented.
D. Childreninallcountrieshaveasignificantinfluenceonpurchases.
E. China'spolicyoflimitingfamiliestoonechildhasproducedastrongfocusonthechild.

33. Whatisthebasisforvirtuallyallsocieties?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

familyunit
government
schools
religion
workplace

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34. Whichofthefollowingstatementsregardingthemasculine/femininevalueisFALSE?

A. Basically,weliveinamasculineorientedworld.
B. Therolesofwomenarechangingandexpandingthroughoutmuchoftheworld.
C. WomeninSouthKoreafrequentlyparticipatemoreinsportsandexercisethanmen.
D.ManyJapanesewomenfeelguiltypreparingfrozenvegetablesinamicrowaveratherthanpreparing
freshvegetables.
E.Traditionalandmodernsegmentswithregardtothisvalueexistsimultaneouslyinmanycultures,so
marketersmustadaptnotonlyacrossbutwithincultures.

35. TheUnitedStatesiscomprisedofaculturethatacceptsawidearrayofpersonalbehaviorsandattitudes,
foods,dress,andotherproductsandservices.Thus,theUnitedStatesvalues_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

uniformity
collectivism
power
diversity
cooperation

36. _____referstothedegreetowhichpeopleacceptinequalityinpower,authority,status,andwealthas
naturalorinherentinsociety.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Cooperation
Powerdistance
Collectivism
Individualism
Status

37. Whichvaluerelatestotoleranceforambiguityanduncertaintyavoidance?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

youth/age
risktaking/security
individual/collective
masculine/feminine
diversity/uniformity

38. Whichvaluehasastronginfluenceonentrepreneurshipandeconomicdevelopmentaswellasnewproduct
acceptance?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

individual/collective
competitive/cooperative
tradition/change
risktaking/security
masculine/feminine

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39. _____tendtofeeltheydon'thavecontrolovertheoutcomeofevents.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Fatalists
Individualists
Collectivists
Females
Males

40. Mariehaspurchasedabrandthatshehaspurchasedbefore.However,thefirsttimesheusedthisbrand,the
productfailedandshewasdissatisfied.Unfortunately,thesecondtimeshepurchasedthisbrand,thesame
thinghappened.She'sfrustratedandwantshermoneyback,butshedoesn'tfeelasthoughshehasany
controloverthissituation.She'sdecidedthatshejustneedstoacceptthispoorqualityandnotexpectso
muchfromthenextproductshepurchases.Mariecanbedescribedasa(n)______.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

individualist
fatalist
collectivist
cooperativist
otherorientedconsumer

41. ThefactthatAmericansarepronetoengageinphysicalactivitiesandtotakeanactionorientedapproach
toproblemscanbeexplainedthroughwhichselforientedvaluedichotomy?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

sensualgratification/abstinence
competitive/cooperative
diversity/uniformity
active/passive
age/youth

42. Whatarethetwotypesofmaterialism?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

primaryandsecondary
internalandexternal
instrumentalandterminal
masculineandfeminine
individualandcollective

43. Whichtypeofmaterialismistheacquisitionofthingstoenableonetodosomething?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

primary
secondary
terminal
meansend
instrumental

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44. Jamesusedhisbirthdaymoneytobuyaskateboardsothathecanbeoutwithhisfriendsatthepark
skateboarding.Whichtypeofmaterialismdoesthisrepresent?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

primary
secondary
terminal
instrumental
meansend

45. Whichtypeofmaterialismistheacquisitionofitemsforthesakeofowningtheitemitself?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

primary
secondary
terminal
instrumental
endstate

46. Johnandhiswifeloveartandtraveltheworldtopurchaseartworkthatisrepresentativeofacountry's
culture.Whichtypeofmaterialismdoesthisrepresent?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

terminal
instrumental
cultural
primary
secondary

47. InGermany,oneconcernretailershaveisensuringthatcashdrawershaveenoughmoneytomakechange
whenconsumersmakepurchases.Onecompanywentsofarastouseacomputerizedmodelthatmonitored
theweightofthecashdrawerandsignaledaneedforreplenishment.Thisissuchaconcernbecause
consumerstypicallyusecashtomakepurchases,whichdiffersfromothercountries,suchastheUnited
States,wherecreditcarduseismorecommon.Whichculturalvaluedoesthisillustrate?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

hardwork/leisure
competitive/cooperative
material/nonmaterial
postponedgratification/immediategratification
sensualgratification/abstinence

48. Whichofthefollowingismostcloselyrelatedtoverbalcommunications?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

time
space
language
colors
shapes

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49. WhichofthefollowingisNOTafactorthatcreatesproblemsinliteraltranslationsandslangexpressions?

A. differencesinthedirectioninwhichwrittenwordsareread
B.
symbolicmeaningsassociatedwithwords
C. absenceofsomewordsfromvariouslanguages
D.
difficultyofpronouncingcertainwords
E. Alloftheabovearefactorsthatcreateproblemsinliteraltranslationsandslangexpressions.

50. Whichofthefollowingisafactorinfluencingnonverbalcommunications?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

things
relationships
space
symbols
alloftheabove

51. WhichofthefollowingisNOTafactorinfluencingnonverbalcommunications?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

etiquette
time
relationships
values
things

52. NicholasisexamininghowpeopleinIndiaperceivetime,space,symbols,relationships,agreements,
things,andetiquette.Heisinterestedinthesefactorsbecausetheyinfluence_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

language
demographics
nonverbalcommunications
values
laws

53. _____arethearbitrarymeaningsacultureassignsactions,events,andthingsotherthanwords.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Nonverbalcommunicationsystems
Values
Subcultures
Semiotics
Perspectives

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54. Whatarethetwomajorwaystimevariesbetweencultures?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

primaryandsecondary
workandleisure
familyandpersonal
monochronicandpolychronic
perspectiveandinterpretation

55. Aculture'soverallorientationtowardtimeisknownasits_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

timeperspective
timemeaning
usesandgratifications
timesymbolism
timerelationship

56. Beforeamarketercansuccessfullylaunchabrandinaforeigncountry,severalnonverbalcommunication
factorsneedtobeunderstood.Oneofthesefactorsistime,andinternationalmarketersmustunderstanda
culture'soverallorientationtowardtime.Thisisknownasaculture's_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

timemeaning
timeinterpretation
timeperspective
timerelationship
timesymbolism

57. Whichtimeperspectiveviewstimealmostasaphysicalobjectbelievingthatapersondoesonethingata
time?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

lineartimeperspective
paralleltimeperspective
sequentialtimeperspective
monochronictimeperspective
polychronictimeperspective

58. Ralphisveryprompt.Ifhesayshewillbethereat10:00a.m.,hewillbethereexactlyatthattime.
Furthermore,hewillnotbeginanothertaskuntilheiscompletelydonewiththeoneheiscurrentlyworking
on.WhichtimeperspectivedoesRalphhave?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

polychronic
monochronic
linear
parallel
priority

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59. Aculturethattendstoviewtimeasbeinglessdiscreteandlesssubjecttoscheduling,viewssimultaneous
involvementinmanyactivitiesasnatural,allowsactivitiestooccurattheirownpaceratherthanaccording
toapredeterminedtimetableisadheringtoa_____timeperspective.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

polychronic
monochronic
linear
parallel
simultaneous

60. JoseisfromBrazilandiscurrentlyenrolledinanMBAprogramataU.S.university.Heroutinelycomes
toclass3060minuteslateanddoesnotturninassignmentsbythedeadline.Oneofhisprofessorspulled
himasideandaskedhimwhyhe'salwayslateforclassandturnshisworkinlate.Josewassurprisedthat
hisprofessorwasbotheredbythisasthisbehaviorisentirelyacceptableinBrazil.Infact,it'sexpected.
WhichofthefollowingbestdescribesJose'stimeperspective?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

spontaneous
parallel
monochronic
polychronic
variable

61. Thenearnessthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutyourfeelinguncomfortableis
knownas_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

intimatespace
personalspace
sphereofinfluence
rangeofinteraction
interactionspace

62. Whichofthefollowingisconsideredasymbolthathasvaryingmeaningacrosscultures?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

colors
animals
numbers
music
alloftheabove

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63. Inwhichcountryistheconceptofguanxi,whichinvolvespersonalrelationships,animportant
consideration?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

UnitedStates
Canada
China
India
SaudiArabia

64. _____representsgenerallyacceptedwaysofbehavinginsocialsituations.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Guanxi
Etiquette
Demographics
Culture
Monochronism

65. CharmaineisamemberofaJuniorMissorganizationthatteachesyoungwomenhowtobehaveinvarious
socialsituations.Sheislearningmanners,howtocarryherself,andappropriateattireforspecificsituations.
Charmaineislearning_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

culture
timesymbolism
symbolism
etiquette
verballanguage

66. InJapan,theexchangeofmeishiisthemostbasicofsocialritualsinanationwheresocialritualmatters
verymuch.Theactofexchangingmeishiisweightedwithmeaning.Oncethesocialminuetiscompleted,
thetwoknowwheretheystandinrelationtoeachotherandtheirrespectivestatureswithinthehierarchyof
corporateorgovernmentbureaucracy.Whatis"meishi"?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

shakinghands
exchangeofbusinesscards
introductionsbyathirdparty
formalinvitation
bows

67. Whichofthefollowingisenablingthegrowthofaglobalculture?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

massmedia
work
education
travel
alloftheabove

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68. Whatisthelargestsingleinfluenceonthemovementtowarduniformityintheglobalyouthmarket?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

massmedia
education
work
travel
religion

69. WhichofthefollowingisFALSEregardingtrendsintheglobalyouthmarket?

A. Technologyismainstreamandnotrestrictedtodevelopedcountries.
B. U.S.brandsarecurrentlytheleadersamongglobalteens.
C. U.S.teensnolongerleadthewayinglobaltrends.
D.
BothAandBarefalse.
E.
BothBandCarefalse.

70. _____describesapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Economics
Demographics
Psychographics
Geographics
Lifestyles

71. DalehastowritearesearchreportaboutPolandinhisInternationalMarketingclass.Oneaspecthemust
learnaboutthecountryisitssize,structure,anddistribution.Whatdoesthisrepresent?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

psychographics
geography
demographics
economics
lifestyles

72. Withrespecttodemographics,whichofthefollowingreferstothenumberofindividualsinasociety?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

distribution
size
structure
dispersion
concentration

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73. ThepopulationoftheUnitedStatesismorethan300millionpeople.Withrespecttodemographics,this
numberrepresents_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

size
structure
dispersion
density
concentration

74. Withrespecttodemographics,whichofthefollowingdescribesthesocietyintermsofage,income,
education,andoccupation?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

size
distribution
concentration
structure
composition

75. _____referstothephysicallocationofindividualsintermsofgeographicregionandrural,suburban,and
urbanlocation.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Size
Structure
Distribution
Dispersion
Concentration

76. _____isbasedonthecostofastandardmarketbasketofproductsboughtineachcountry.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Adjustedgrossincome(AGI)
Grossdomesticproduct(GDP)
Percapitaincome(PCI)
Purchasingpowerparity(PPP)
Crossculturalpurchasingpower(CPP)

77. Whichcountryhasthelargestpercentageofitscitizensolderthan60yearsofage?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Philippines
Canada
UnitedStates
Japan
SaudiArabia

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78. Usingonemarketingstrategyacrossvariousculturesisreferredtoas_____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

standardization
optimization
crossculturalization
marketingimperialism
crossfertilization

79. WhichoneofthesefactorsisNOTtrueregardingglocalization?

A. Standardizedmarketingcanofferacostsavings.
B.
Uniformityisalwayspossible.
C. Valuesanddemographicsrequireadaptingtoculturaldifferences.
D. Anadthatappealstosomecountriesmightbeinappropriateinothers.
E.
Allofthesefactorsaretrue.

80. Whichofthefollowingisakeyconsiderationforeachgeographicmarketthatafirmiscontemplating?

A. Isthegeographicareahomogenousorheterogeneouswithrespecttoculture?
B. Whatneedscanthisproductoraversionofitfillinthisculture?
C. Whatarethedistribution,political,andlegalstructuresfortheproduct?
D. Inwhatwayscanwecommunicateabouttheproduct?
E.
Alloftheabovearekeyconsiderations.

81. UnileverishighlysuccessfulinmarketingitslaundryproductsoutsideoftheUnitedStates.Whichfactors
dotheyusetoadaptwithinandacrosscountrieswheretheydobusiness?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

culturalhomogeneity
ethicalimplications
affordability
infrastructure
alloftheabove

True / False Questions


82. Twocompaniescannotusethesamelogoandbrandnamewhenoperatingindifferentcountries.

TrueFalse

83. Marketingacrossculturalboundariesisadifficultandchallengingtask.

TrueFalse

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84. Whilecultureheavilyinfluencesmarketingstrategy,cultureisnotinfluencedbymarketingstrategy.

TrueFalse

85. GlobalcitizensarehighlyconcentratedintheUnitedStatesandtheUnitedKingdom.

TrueFalse

86. Culturesarestaticandrarelychange.

TrueFalse

87. Otherorientedvaluesreflectasociety'sviewoftheappropriaterelationshipsbetweenindividualsand
groupswithinthatsociety.

TrueFalse

88. CollectivismisadefiningcharacteristicofAmericanculture.

TrueFalse

89. Thefamilyunitisthebasisforvirtuallyallsocieties.

TrueFalse

90. Thechangingandexpandingrolesofwomenthroughoutmuchoftheworldiscreatingnewopportunities
aswellaschallengesformarketers.

TrueFalse

91. Powergapreferstothedegreetowhichpeopleacceptinequalityinpower,authority,status,andwealthas
naturalorinherentinsociety.

TrueFalse

92. Terminalmaterialismistheacquisitionofthingstoenableonetodosomething.

TrueFalse

93. Themeaningoftimevariesbetweenculturesintwomajorways:timeperspectiveandinterpretations
assignedtospecificusesoftime.

TrueFalse

94. Personalspacereferstothenearnessthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutyourfeeling
uncomfortable.

TrueFalse

95. ThecolorblueconnotesfemininityinHollandbutmasculinityinSwedenandtheUnitedStates.

TrueFalse

2-18
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McGraw-Hill Education.

96. Thelargestsingleinfluencetowarduniformityamongyouthworldwideiseducation.

TrueFalse

97. Psychographicsdescribeapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

TrueFalse

98. Adaptingproductsandservicestolocalconsiderationsisknownaslocalizing.

TrueFalse

Essay Questions
99. Listtheculturalfactorsthatinfluenceconsumerbehaviorandmarketingstrategy.

100.Explaintheconceptofculture,anddiscusswhyisitimportanttostudyforunderstandingconsumer
behavior.

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McGraw-Hill Education.

101.Compareandcontrast(a)otherorientedvalues,(b)environmentorientedvalues,and(c)selforiented
values.

102.JasonisplanningabusinesstriptoJapan,anditishisfirsttimedoingbusinessinthatcountry.Discuss
somevaluedifferencesbetweenJapanesecultureandAmericanculturethataremostrelevanttohimina
businessmeetingsituation.

103.Namethesevenfactorsinfluencingnonverbalcommunications,anddescribefourofthem.

104.Listanddescribethethreetrendsintheglobalyouthmarket.

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105.ListandexplainfourofthesevenfactorsthatUnileverutilizesinordertosuccessfullysellitslaundry
productsglobally.

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter02CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehaviorAnswerKey

Multiple Choice Questions


1.

Trademarks

A. forthemostpartneedtobeestablishedonacountrybycountrybasis.
B.
canbeestablishedglobally.
C. werealegalconcerninthepastbutwiththeriseofglobalizationarenolongeranissue.
D. representanaspectpowerdistanceinglobalmarketingefforts.
E.
alloftheabove.
Trademarksaremore"local"thanmightbeexpectedbasedonglobaltrademarklaw.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

2.

Whichofthefollowingisaculturalfactorthataffectsconsumerbehaviorandmarketingstrategy?

A.
demographics
B.
values
C.
language
D.
nonverbalcommunications
alloftheabove
E.
Culturalfactorsthataffectconsumerbehaviorandmarketingstrategyaredemographics,values,
language,andnonverbalcommunications.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

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McGraw-Hill Education.

3.

HowardIndustriesisacomputermanufacturerlocatedinLaurel,MS.Thiscompanyisinterestedin
expandinginternationally.Whichofthefollowingisaculturalfactorthataffectsconsumerbehavior
andmarketingstrategythatHowardIndustriesneedstobeawareof?

nonverbalcommunications
A.
B.
naturalresources
C.
economicconditions
D.
exchangerates
E.
alloftheabove
HowardIndustriesneedstobeawarethatnonverbalcommunicationsisaculturalfactorthataffects
consumerbehaviorandmarketingstrategy.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
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Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

4.

WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSEregardingcrossculturalmarketing?

A. Marketingacrossculturalboundariesisadifficultandchallengingtask.
B. Increasingly,globalizationmeansmutualinfluenceasproducts,brands,cultures,andvaluesmove
backandforthacrosstheworld.
C. Therearebothsubtleanddirectethicalissuesinvolvedininternationalmarketing.
D. Whilemarketingstrategyisheavilyinfluencedbyculturalfactors,itdoesnotinfluenceaspectsof
cultures.
E. Culturesmaydifferindemographics,languages,nonverbalcommunications,andvalues.
Globalizationcaninfluenceculturalvalues.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

5.

Whichoneofthefoursegmentsofworldcitizensfeelspositivelyaboutinternationalbrands,values
theirsymbolicaspects,andislessconcernedaboutcorporateresponsibility?

A.
globalcitizens
globaldreamers
B.
C.
antiglobals
D.
globalagnostics
E.
globaltrendsetters
Globaldreamersarethesegmentofworldcitizenswhofeelpositivelyaboutinternationalbrands,value
theirsymbolicaspects,andarelessconcernedaboutcorporateresponsibility.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

6.

Whichoneofthefoursegmentsofworldcitizensfeelspositivelyaboutinternationalbrandsbecause
theyviewthemasasignalofhigherquality?

globalcitizens
A.
B.
globaldreamers
C.
antiglobals
D.
globalagnostics
E.
globaltrendsetters
Globalcitizensarethesegmentofworldcitizenswhofeelpositivelyaboutinternationalbrandsbecause
theyviewthemasasignalofhigherquality.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

7.

_____isthecomplexwholethatincludesknowledge,belief,art,law,morals,customs,andanyother
capabilitiesandhabitsacquiredbyhumansasmembersofsociety.

A.
Referencegroup
B.
Government
Culture
C.
D.
Authority
E.
Gestalt
Cultureisthecomplexwholethatincludesknowledge,belief,art,law,morals,customs,andanyother
capabilitiesandhabitsacquiredbyhumansasmembersofsociety.

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LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

2-24
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McGraw-Hill Education.

8.

WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUEregardingculture?

A.
Cultureisarelativelysimpleconcept.
Cultureisacquired.
B.
C. Cultureoftenprovidesdetailedprescriptionsforappropriatebehavior.
D. Thenatureofculturalinfluencesissuchthatweareconsciouslyawareofthem.
E.
Alloftheabovearetrue.
Cultureisacquired;itdoesnotincludeinheritedresponsesandpredispositions.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

9.

IntheUnitedStates,promptnessisconsideredavirtue.Americansareexpectedtobeontimetoan
event,andtheyexpectotherstodosoaswell.Whichaspectofculturebestexplainsthisbehavior?

A.
Cultureisasimpleconcept.
B.
Cultureissomethingoneisbornwith.
C.
Cultureisuniquetoeachindividualinasociety.
D.
Cultureistimebound.
Cultureisacquired,thatis,itislearned.
E.
Cultureisacquired;itdoesnotincludeinheritedresponsesandpredispositions.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

10.

Theboundariesthatculturesetsonbehaviorarecalled_____.

A.
rules
norms
B.
C.
prescriptions
D.
precepts
E.
sanctions
Theboundariesthatculturesetsonbehaviorarecallednorms.Normsarerulesthatspecifyorprohibit
certainbehaviorsinspecificsituations.

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Difficulty:2Medium
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Topic:TheConceptofCulture

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11.

_____arerulesthatspecifyorprohibitcertainbehaviorsinspecificsituations.

Norms
A.
B.
Precepts
C.
Sanctions
D.
Prescriptions
E.
Values
Normsarerulesthatspecifyorprohibitcertainbehaviorsinspecificsituations.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

12.

Karen'sfatherisanexecutiveforamajorinternationalcorporationandhasbeentransferredtovarious
countriesovertheyears.Witheachmove,Karenisenrolledinanewschool.EventhoughEnglishis
spokenintheschoolssheattends,therearestudentsfromallovertheworldwhoseparentshavejobs
similartoKaren'sfather.Witheachnewschool,Karenspendsthefirstfewweeksmerelyobservingthe
otherstudentstolearnwhichbehaviorsareappropriateinspecificsituationsbecauseshe'slearnedthat
ateachschoolthekidsbehavedifferently.Karenisattemptingtolearnthatstudentbody'sspecific
_____regardingbehavior.

A.
rules
B.
guidelines
C.
precepts
norms
D.
E.
prescriptions
Normsarerulesthatspecifyorprohibitcertainbehaviorsinspecificsituations.

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Topic:TheConceptofCulture

13.

Normsarederivedfrom_____.

culturalvalues
A.
B.
C.
education
D.
internationalprotocol
Normsarederivedfromculturalvalues.

laws

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

14.

_____arewidelyheldbeliefsthataffirmwhatisdesirable.

A.
Laws
B.
Religions
C.
Edicts
Culturalvalues
D.
E.
Sanctions
Culturalvaluesarewidelyheldbeliefsthataffirmwhatisdesirable.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

15.

Marketersthatwishtoexpandinternationallyneedtounderstandaculture'swidelyheldbeliefsthat
affirmwhatisdesirable.Todothis,marketersshouldstudy_____.

A.
laws
B.
religions
culturalvalues
C.
D.
sanctions
E.
edicts
Marketerswhowishtoexpandinternationallyshouldstudyculturalvaluestounderstandaculture's
widelyheldbeliefsthataffirmwhatisdesirable.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

16.

Violationofculturalnormsresultsin_____,orpenaltiesrangingfrommildsocialdisapprovalto
banishmentfromthegroup.

A.
norms
sanctions
B.
C.
proclamations
D.
ostracization
E.
sentencing
Sanctionsarepenaltiesrangingfrommildsocialdisapprovaltobanishmentfromthegroup.

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Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

17.

Robertis15yearsoldandhasrecentlymovedtoanewtownandtherefore,anewhighschool.Hewas
tryingtogetacceptedbyagroupofkidsthathewantedtobefriendswith.Whentheyaskedhimto
attendapartyovertheweekend,hesaidhe'dhavetoaskhisparentsforpermission.Thisgroupof
studentslaughedathimandcalledhima"momma'sboy"andtoldhimhecan'tbeoneofthembecause
theydon'taskparentsforpermission,theyjustdowhattheywant.ThissocialdisapprovalofRobert's
behaviorisanexampleofa(n)_____.

A.
norm
B.
violation
sanction
C.
D.
precept
E.
edict
Sanctionsarepenaltiesrangingfrommildsocialdisapprovaltobanishmentfromthegroup.

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Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

18.

WhichofthefollowingisNOTabroadformofculturalvalues?

A.
otheroriented
B.
environmentoriented
C.
selforiented
objectoriented
D.
E.
Alloftheabovearebroadformsofculturalvalues.
Objectorientedisnotabroadformofculturalvalues.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

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19.

_____valuesreflectasociety'sviewoftheappropriaterelationshipsbetweenindividualsandgroups
withinthatsociety.

Otheroriented
A.
B.
Environmentoriented
C.
Selforiented
D.
Externallyoriented
E.
Internallyoriented
Otherorientedvaluesreflectasociety'sviewoftheappropriaterelationshipsbetweenindividualsand
groupswithinthatsociety.

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Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

20.

Asiansocieties(i.e.,Japan)valuecollectiveactivity.Thatis,consumerslooktowardothersforguidance
inpurchasedecisionsanddonotrespondfavorablytopromotionalappealsfocusingonindividualism.
Whichcategoryofculturalvaluesdoesthisrepresent?

A.
internallyoriented
B.
environmentoriented
otheroriented
C.
D.
selforiented
E.
grouporiented
Otherorientedsocietiesvaluecollectiveactivity.

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Difficulty:2Medium
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Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

21.

_____valuesprescribeasociety'srelationshiptoitseconomicandtechnologicalaswellasitsphysical
environment.

A.
Otheroriented
B.
Selforiented
C.
Externallyoriented
D.
Internallyoriented
Environmentoriented
E.
Environmentorientedvaluesprescribeasociety'srelationshiptoitseconomicandtechnologicalaswell
asitsphysicalenvironment.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

22.

Samhaslearnedthatacountrytowhichhiscompanydesirestoexpandplacesahighvalueon
cleanlinessandadmiresnatureimmensely.Whichcategoryofculturalvaluesdoesthisrepresent?

A.
otheroriented
B.
selforiented
environmentoriented
C.
D.
externallyoriented
E.
internallyoriented
Environmentorientedisthecategoryofculturalvaluesthatplacesahighvalueoncleanlinessand
admiresnatureimmensely.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

23.

_____valuesreflecttheobjectivesandapproachestolifethattheindividualmembersofsocietyfind
desirable.

A.
Otheroriented
Selforiented
B.
C.
Environmentoriented
D.
Externallyoriented
E.
Internallyoriented
Selforientedvaluesreflecttheobjectivesandapproachestolifethattheindividualmembersofsociety
finddesirable.

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Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

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McGraw-Hill Education.

24.

Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofanotherorientedvalue?

A.
problemsolving/fatalistic
B.
postponedgratification/immediategratification
C.
religious/secular
individual/collective
D.
E.
risktaking/security
Individual/collectiveisanexampleofanotherorientedvalue.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

25.

WhichofthefollowingisNOTanexampleofanotherorientedvalue?

A.
youth/age
B.
extended/limitedfamily
tradition/change
C.
D.
masculine/feminine
E.
diversity/uniformity
Tradition/changeisnotanexampleofanotherorientedvalue;itisanexampleofanenvironment
orientedvalue.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

26.

Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofanenvironmentorientedvalue?

A.
active/passive
tradition/change
B.
C.
extended/limitedfamily
D.
masculine/feminine
E.
material/nonmaterial
Tradition/changeisanexampleofanenvironmentorientedvalue.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
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Difficulty:3Hard
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Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

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McGraw-Hill Education.

27.

WhichofthefollowingisNOTanexampleofanenvironmentorientedvalue?

A.
cleanliness
B.
tradition/change
C.
nature
competitive/cooperative
D.
E.
problemsolving/fatalistic
Competitive/cooperativeisnotanexampleofanenvironmentorientedvalue;itisanexampleofan
otherorientedvalue.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

28.

Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofaselforientedvalue?

religious/secular
A.
B.
individual/collective
C.
risktaking/security
D.
tradition/change
E.
diversity/uniformity
Religious/secularisanexampleofaselforientedvalue.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

29.

Whichofthefollowingcountriestendstovalueindividualismovercollectivism?

A.
Mexico
B.
India
UnitedStates
C.
D.
Korea
E.
Japan
TheUnitedStatestendstovalueindividualismovercollectivism.

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Difficulty:2Medium
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Topic:OtherOrientedValues

2-32
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McGraw-Hill Education.

30.

Jakeisinthemarketforanewcar.He'slookingatbrandssuchasMercedes,Lexus,andBMWbecause
hefeelstheytellotherpeoplethathe'ssuccessfulinlife.Thisisanillustrationofwhichvalue?

A.
collectivism
B.
youth
C.
masculine
individualism
D.
E.
active
Inindividualisticcultures,luxuryitemsarepurchasedasameanofselfexpressionortostandout.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

31.

Whichculturehastraditionallyvaluedthewisdomthatcomeswithage?

A.
American
B.
Australian
C.
British
D.
European
Asian
E.
TheAsianculturehastraditionallyvaluedthewisdomthatcomeswithage.

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LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

32.

WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSEregardingyouthandage?

A. MaturespokespersonswouldtendtobemoresuccessfulinAsianculturesbecausetheyhave
traditionallyvaluedthewisdomthatcomeswithage.
B. Arabcountriesarebecomingincreasinglyyouthoriented.
C.
Americansocietyisyouthoriented.
D. Childreninallcountrieshaveasignificantinfluenceonpurchases.
E. China'spolicyoflimitingfamiliestoonechildhasproducedastrongfocusonthechild.
WhileAmericansocietyisclearlyyouthoriented,thisfocusvarieswithcultures.

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Topic:OtherOrientedValues

2-33
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McGraw-Hill Education.

33.

Whatisthebasisforvirtuallyallsocieties?

familyunit
A.
B.
government
C.
schools
D.
religion
E.
workplace
Thefamilyunitisthebasisforvirtuallyallsocieties.

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Topic:OtherOrientedValues

34.

Whichofthefollowingstatementsregardingthemasculine/femininevalueisFALSE?

A.
Basically,weliveinamasculineorientedworld.
B. Therolesofwomenarechangingandexpandingthroughoutmuchoftheworld.
C. WomeninSouthKoreafrequentlyparticipatemoreinsportsandexercisethanmen.
D. ManyJapanesewomenfeelguiltypreparingfrozenvegetablesinamicrowaveratherthanpreparing
freshvegetables.
E. Traditionalandmodernsegmentswithregardtothisvalueexistsimultaneouslyinmanycultures,so
marketersmustadaptnotonlyacrossbutwithincultures.
Theretendstobeawidedisparitybetweenmenandwomenparticipationrates(menhigher)incountries
andcultureshighinmasculineorientationsuchasSouthKorea,Mexico,Brazil,andFrance.

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Topic:OtherOrientedValues

35.

TheUnitedStatesiscomprisedofaculturethatacceptsawidearrayofpersonalbehaviorsand
attitudes,foods,dress,andotherproductsandservices.Thus,theUnitedStatesvalues_____.

A.
uniformity
B.
collectivism
C.
power
diversity
D.
E.
cooperation
TheUnitedStatesvaluesdiversity.

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LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

36.

_____referstothedegreetowhichpeopleacceptinequalityinpower,authority,status,andwealthas
naturalorinherentinsociety.

A.
Cooperation
Powerdistance
B.
C.
Collectivism
D.
Individualism
E.
Status
Powerdistancereferstothedegreetowhichpeopleacceptinequalityinpower,authority,status,and
wealthasnaturalorinherentinsociety.

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Difficulty:2Medium
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Topic:EnvironmentOrientedValues

37.

Whichvaluerelatestotoleranceforambiguityanduncertaintyavoidance?

A.
youth/age
risktaking/security
B.
C.
individual/collective
D.
masculine/feminine
E.
diversity/uniformity
Risktaking/securityisthevaluethatrelatestotoleranceforambiguityanduncertaintyavoidance.

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Topic:EnvironmentOrientedValues

38.

Whichvaluehasastronginfluenceonentrepreneurshipandeconomicdevelopmentaswellasnew
productacceptance?

A.
individual/collective
B.
competitive/cooperative
C.
tradition/change
risktaking/security
D.
E.
masculine/feminine
Risktaking/securityisthevaluethathasastronginfluenceonentrepreneurshipandeconomic
developmentaswellasnewproductacceptance.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:EnvironmentOrientedValues

39.

_____tendtofeeltheydon'thavecontrolovertheoutcomeofevents.

Fatalists
A.
B.
Individualists
C.
Collectivists
D.
Females
E.
Males
Fataliststendtofeeltheydon'thavecontrolovertheoutcomeofevents.

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Topic:EnvironmentOrientedValues

40.

Mariehaspurchasedabrandthatshehaspurchasedbefore.However,thefirsttimesheusedthisbrand,
theproductfailedandshewasdissatisfied.Unfortunately,thesecondtimeshepurchasedthisbrand,the
samethinghappened.She'sfrustratedandwantshermoneyback,butshedoesn'tfeelasthoughshehas
anycontroloverthissituation.She'sdecidedthatshejustneedstoacceptthispoorqualityandnot
expectsomuchfromthenextproductshepurchases.Mariecanbedescribedasa(n)______.

A.
individualist
fatalist
B.
C.
collectivist
D.
cooperativist
E.
otherorientedconsumer
Marieisafatalistbecauseshefeelsshedoesn'thavecontrolovertheoutcomeofevents.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:EnvironmentOrientedValues

2-36
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McGraw-Hill Education.

41.

ThefactthatAmericansarepronetoengageinphysicalactivitiesandtotakeanactionoriented
approachtoproblemscanbeexplainedthroughwhichselforientedvaluedichotomy?

A.
sensualgratification/abstinence
B.
competitive/cooperative
C.
diversity/uniformity
active/passive
D.
E.
age/youth
"Don'tjuststandthere,dosomething"isacommonresponsetoproblemsinAmerica.Emphasisis
placedondoing.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

42.

Whatarethetwotypesofmaterialism?

A.
primaryandsecondary
B.
internalandexternal
instrumentalandterminal
C.
D.
masculineandfeminine
E.
individualandcollective
Thetwotypesofmaterialismareinstrumentalandterminal.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

43.

Whichtypeofmaterialismistheacquisitionofthingstoenableonetodosomething?

A.
primary
B.
secondary
C.
terminal
D.
meansend
instrumental
E.
Thetypeofmaterialismthatistheacquisitionofthingstoenableonetodosomethingisinstrumental.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
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Topic:SelfOrientedValues

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McGraw-Hill Education.

44.

Jamesusedhisbirthdaymoneytobuyaskateboardsothathecanbeoutwithhisfriendsatthepark
skateboarding.Whichtypeofmaterialismdoesthisrepresent?

A.
primary
B.
secondary
C.
terminal
instrumental
D.
E.
meansend
Thetypeofmaterialismdescribedhereisinstrumental:theacquisitionofthingstoenableonetodo
something.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

45.

Whichtypeofmaterialismistheacquisitionofitemsforthesakeofowningtheitemitself?

A.
primary
B.
secondary
terminal
C.
D.
instrumental
E.
endstate
Thetypeofmaterialismthatistheacquisitionofitemsforthesakeofowningtheitemsitselfis
terminal.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

46.

Johnandhiswifeloveartandtraveltheworldtopurchaseartworkthatisrepresentativeofacountry's
culture.Whichtypeofmaterialismdoesthisrepresent?

terminal
A.
B.
instrumental
C.
cultural
D.
primary
E.
secondary
Thetypeofmaterialismdescribedhereisterminal:theacquisitionofitemsforthesakeofowningthe
itemitself.

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Blooms:Understand
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

47.

InGermany,oneconcernretailershaveisensuringthatcashdrawershaveenoughmoneytomake
changewhenconsumersmakepurchases.Onecompanywentsofarastouseacomputerizedmodelthat
monitoredtheweightofthecashdrawerandsignaledaneedforreplenishment.Thisissuchaconcern
becauseconsumerstypicallyusecashtomakepurchases,whichdiffersfromothercountries,suchasthe
UnitedStates,wherecreditcarduseismorecommon.Whichculturalvaluedoesthisillustrate?

A.
hardwork/leisure
B.
competitive/cooperative
C.
material/nonmaterial
postponedgratification/immediategratification
D.
E.
sensualgratification/abstinence
Thepostponedgratification/immediategratificationculturalvalueisillustratedhere;shouldwe"save
forarainyday"or"livefortoday"?

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

48.

Whichofthefollowingismostcloselyrelatedtoverbalcommunications?

A.
time
B.
space
language
C.
D.
colors
E.
shapes
Languageismostcloselyrelatedtoverbalcommunications.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

2-39
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McGraw-Hill Education.

49.

WhichofthefollowingisNOTafactorthatcreatesproblemsinliteraltranslationsandslang
expressions?

A. differencesinthedirectioninwhichwrittenwordsareread
B.
symbolicmeaningsassociatedwithwords
C.
absenceofsomewordsfromvariouslanguages
D.
difficultyofpronouncingcertainwords
E. Alloftheabovearefactorsthatcreateproblemsinliteraltranslationsandslangexpressions.
Differencesinthedirectioninwhichwrittenwordsarereadisnotafactorthatcreatesproblemsin
literaltranslationsandslangexpressions.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

50.

Whichofthefollowingisafactorinfluencingnonverbalcommunications?

A.
things
B.
relationships
C.
space
D.
symbols
alloftheabove
E.
Things,relationships,space,andsymbolsareallfactorsinfluencingnonverbalcommunications.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

51.

WhichofthefollowingisNOTafactorinfluencingnonverbalcommunications?

A.
etiquette
B.
time
C.
relationships
values
D.
E.
things
Valuesarenotafactorinfluencingnonverbalcommunications.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

2-40
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

52.

NicholasisexamininghowpeopleinIndiaperceivetime,space,symbols,relationships,agreements,
things,andetiquette.Heisinterestedinthesefactorsbecausetheyinfluence_____.

A.
language
B.
demographics
nonverbalcommunications
C.
D.
values
E.
laws
Time,space,symbols,relationships,agreements,things,andetiquettearefactorsthatinfluence
nonverbalcommunications.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

53.

_____arethearbitrarymeaningsacultureassignsactions,events,andthingsotherthanwords.

Nonverbalcommunicationsystems
A.
B.
Values
C.
Subcultures
D.
Semiotics
E.
Perspectives
Nonverbalcommunicationsystemsarethearbitrarymeaningsacultureassignsactions,events,and
thingsotherthanwords.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

54.

Whatarethetwomajorwaystimevariesbetweencultures?

A.
primaryandsecondary
B.
workandleisure
C.
familyandpersonal
D.
monochronicandpolychronic
perspectiveandinterpretation
E.
Thetwomajorwaystimevariesbetweenculturesareperspectiveandinterpretation.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time
2-41
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

55.

Aculture'soverallorientationtowardtimeisknownasits_____.

timeperspective
A.
B.
timemeaning
C.
usesandgratifications
D.
timesymbolism
E.
timerelationship
Aculture'soverallorientationtowardtimeisknownasitstimeperspective.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time

56.

Beforeamarketercansuccessfullylaunchabrandinaforeigncountry,severalnonverbal
communicationfactorsneedtobeunderstood.Oneofthesefactorsistime,andinternationalmarketers
mustunderstandaculture'soverallorientationtowardtime.Thisisknownasaculture's_____.

A.
timemeaning
B.
timeinterpretation
timeperspective
C.
D.
timerelationship
E.
timesymbolism
Aculture'soverallorientationtowardtimeisknownasitstimeperspective.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time

57.

Whichtimeperspectiveviewstimealmostasaphysicalobjectbelievingthatapersondoesonethingat
atime?

A.
lineartimeperspective
B.
paralleltimeperspective
C.
sequentialtimeperspective
monochronictimeperspective
D.
E.
polychronictimeperspective
Havingastrongorientationtowardthepresentandtheshorttermfutureisknownasamonochronic
timeperspective.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time

58.

Ralphisveryprompt.Ifhesayshewillbethereat10:00a.m.,hewillbethereexactlyatthattime.
Furthermore,hewillnotbeginanothertaskuntilheiscompletelydonewiththeoneheiscurrently
workingon.WhichtimeperspectivedoesRalphhave?

A.
polychronic
monochronic
B.
C.
linear
D.
parallel
E.
priority
Havingastrongorientationtowardthepresentandtheshorttermfutureisknownasamonochronic
timeperspective.

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Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time

59.

Aculturethattendstoviewtimeasbeinglessdiscreteandlesssubjecttoscheduling,views
simultaneousinvolvementinmanyactivitiesasnatural,allowsactivitiestooccurattheirownpace
ratherthanaccordingtoapredeterminedtimetableisadheringtoa_____timeperspective.

polychronic
A.
B.
monochronic
C.
linear
D.
parallel
E.
simultaneous
Simultaneousinvolvementinmanyactivitiesisknownasapolychronictimeperspective.

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Difficulty:2Medium
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Topic:Time

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60.

JoseisfromBrazilandiscurrentlyenrolledinanMBAprogramataU.S.university.Heroutinely
comestoclass3060minuteslateanddoesnotturninassignmentsbythedeadline.Oneofhis
professorspulledhimasideandaskedhimwhyhe'salwayslateforclassandturnshisworkinlate.Jose
wassurprisedthathisprofessorwasbotheredbythisasthisbehaviorisentirelyacceptableinBrazil.In
fact,it'sexpected.WhichofthefollowingbestdescribesJose'stimeperspective?

A.
spontaneous
B.
parallel
C.
monochronic
polychronic
D.
E.
variable
Apolychronictimeperspectiveconsidersdeadlinesandschedulesassecondary.

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Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time

61.

Thenearnessthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutyourfeelinguncomfortableis
knownas_____.

A.
intimatespace
personalspace
B.
C.
sphereofinfluence
D.
rangeofinteraction
E.
interactionspace
Thenearnessthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutfeelinguncomfortableisknown
aspersonalspace.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Space

62.

Whichofthefollowingisconsideredasymbolthathasvaryingmeaningacrosscultures?

A.
colors
B.
animals
C.
numbers
D.
music
alloftheabove
E.
Colors,animals,numbers,andmusicareallconsideredsymbolsthathavevariousmeaningacross
cultures.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
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Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Symbols

63.

Inwhichcountryistheconceptofguanxi,whichinvolvespersonalrelationships,animportant
consideration?

A.
UnitedStates
B.
Canada
China
C.
D.
India
E.
SaudiArabia
GuanxiisanimportantconsiderationinChina.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Relationships

64.

_____representsgenerallyacceptedwaysofbehavinginsocialsituations.

A.
Guanxi
Etiquette
B.
C.
Demographics
D.
Culture
E.
Monochronism
Etiquetterepresentsgenerallyacceptedwaysofbehavinginsocialsituations.

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Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Etiquette

2-45
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65.

CharmaineisamemberofaJuniorMissorganizationthatteachesyoungwomenhowtobehavein
varioussocialsituations.Sheislearningmanners,howtocarryherself,andappropriateattirefor
specificsituations.Charmaineislearning_____.

A.
culture
B.
timesymbolism
C.
symbolism
etiquette
D.
E.
verballanguage
Etiquetterepresentsgenerallyacceptedwaysofbehavinginsocialsituations.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Etiquette

66.

InJapan,theexchangeofmeishiisthemostbasicofsocialritualsinanationwheresocialritualmatters
verymuch.Theactofexchangingmeishiisweightedwithmeaning.Oncethesocialminuetis
completed,thetwoknowwheretheystandinrelationtoeachotherandtheirrespectivestatureswithin
thehierarchyofcorporateorgovernmentbureaucracy.Whatis"meishi"?

A.
shakinghands
exchangeofbusinesscards
B.
C.
introductionsbyathirdparty
D.
formalinvitation
E.
Meishiistheexchangeofbusinesscards.

bows

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Etiquette

67.

Whichofthefollowingisenablingthegrowthofaglobalculture?

A.
massmedia
B.
work
C.
education
D.
travel
alloftheabove
E.
Massmedia,work,education,andtravelareallenablingthegrowthofglobalculture.

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Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:GlobalCultures

68.

Whatisthelargestsingleinfluenceonthemovementtowarduniformityintheglobalyouthmarket?

massmedia
A.
B.
education
C.
work
D.
travel
E.
religion
Massmediaisthelargestsingleinfluenceonthemovementtowarduniformityintheglobalyouth
market.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0204Summarizekeyaspectsoftheglobalyouthculture
Topic:AGlobalYouthCulture?

69.

WhichofthefollowingisFALSEregardingtrendsintheglobalyouthmarket?

A. Technologyismainstreamandnotrestrictedtodevelopedcountries.
B. U.S.brandsarecurrentlytheleadersamongglobalteens.
C.
U.S.teensnolongerleadthewayinglobaltrends.
D.
BothAandBarefalse.
E.
BothBandCarefalse.
U.S.brandsusedtobetheleadersamongglobalteens.NowthetopthreeareSony(Japan),Nokia
(Finland),andAdidas(Germany).

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0204Summarizekeyaspectsoftheglobalyouthculture
Topic:AGlobalYouthCulture?

70.

_____describesapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

A.
Economics
Demographics
B.
C.
Psychographics
D.
Geographics
E.
Lifestyles
Demographicsdescribeapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

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Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

71.

DalehastowritearesearchreportaboutPolandinhisInternationalMarketingclass.Oneaspecthe
mustlearnaboutthecountryisitssize,structure,anddistribution.Whatdoesthisrepresent?

A.
psychographics
B.
geography
demographics
C.
D.
economics
E.
lifestyles
Demographicsdescribeapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

72.

Withrespecttodemographics,whichofthefollowingreferstothenumberofindividualsinasociety?

A.
distribution
size
B.
C.
structure
D.
dispersion
E.
concentration
Withrespecttodemographics,sizereferstothenumberofindividualsinasociety.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

73.

ThepopulationoftheUnitedStatesismorethan300millionpeople.Withrespecttodemographics,this
numberrepresents_____.

size
A.
B.
structure
C.
dispersion
D.
density
E.
concentration
Withrespecttodemographics,sizereferstothenumberofindividualsinasociety.

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

74.

Withrespecttodemographics,whichofthefollowingdescribesthesocietyintermsofage,income,
education,andoccupation?

A.
size
B.
distribution
C.
concentration
structure
D.
E.
composition
Withrespecttodemographics,structuredescribesthesocietyintermsofage,income,education,and
occupation.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

75.

_____referstothephysicallocationofindividualsintermsofgeographicregionandrural,suburban,
andurbanlocation.

A.
Size
B.
Structure
Distribution
C.
D.
Dispersion
E.
Concentration
Distributionreferstothephysicallocationofindividualsintermsofgeographicregionandrural,
suburban,andurbanlocation.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

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76.

_____isbasedonthecostofastandardmarketbasketofproductsboughtineachcountry.

A.
Adjustedgrossincome(AGI)
B.
Grossdomesticproduct(GDP)
C.
Percapitaincome(PCI)
Purchasingpowerparity(PPP)
D.
E.
Crossculturalpurchasingpower(CPP)
Purchasingpowerparity(PPP)isbasedonthecostofastandardmarketbasketofproductsboughtin
eachcountry.

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Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

77.

Whichcountryhasthelargestpercentageofitscitizensolderthan60yearsofage?

A.
Philippines
B.
Canada
C.
UnitedStates
Japan
D.
E.
SaudiArabia
Japanhasthelargestpercentageofitscitizensolderthan60yearsofage.

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Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

78.

Usingonemarketingstrategyacrossvariousculturesisreferredtoas_____.

standardization
A.
B.
optimization
C.
crossculturalization
D.
marketingimperialism
E.
crossfertilization
Usingonemarketingstrategyacrossvariousculturesisreferredtoasstandardization.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:CrossCulturalMarketingStrategy

2-50
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McGraw-Hill Education.

79.

WhichoneofthesefactorsisNOTtrueregardingglocalization?

A.
Standardizedmarketingcanofferacostsavings.
Uniformityisalwayspossible.
B.
C. Valuesanddemographicsrequireadaptingtoculturaldifferences.
D. Anadthatappealstosomecountriesmightbeinappropriateinothers.
E.
Allofthesefactorsaretrue.
Uniformityissometimespossible,butcompaniesmustoftenadapttoculturaldifferences.

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Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:CrossCulturalMarketingStrategy

80.

Whichofthefollowingisakeyconsiderationforeachgeographicmarketthatafirmiscontemplating?

A. Isthegeographicareahomogenousorheterogeneouswithrespecttoculture?
B. Whatneedscanthisproductoraversionofitfillinthisculture?
C. Whatarethedistribution,political,andlegalstructuresfortheproduct?
D.
Inwhatwayscanwecommunicateabouttheproduct?
Alloftheabovearekeyconsiderations.
E.
Therearesevenkeyconsiderationsforeachgeographicmarketthatafirmiscontemplating.

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Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0206Listthekeydimensionsindecidingtoenteraforeignmarket
Topic:ConsiderationsinApproachingaForeignMarket

81.

UnileverishighlysuccessfulinmarketingitslaundryproductsoutsideoftheUnitedStates.Which
factorsdotheyusetoadaptwithinandacrosscountrieswheretheydobusiness?

A.
culturalhomogeneity
B.
ethicalimplications
C.
affordability
D.
infrastructure
alloftheabove
E.
TherearesevenglobalconsiderationsthatrelatetoUnilever'sglobalstrategy:(1)culturalhomogeneity,
(2)needfulfillment,(3)affordability,(4)relevantvalues,(5)infrastructure,(6)communications,and
(7)ethicalimplications.

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Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0206Listthekeydimensionsindecidingtoenteraforeignmarket
Topic:ConsiderationsinApproachingaForeignMarket
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McGraw-Hill Education.

True / False Questions


82.

Twocompaniescannotusethesamelogoandbrandnamewhenoperatingindifferentcountries.

FALSE
Globaltrademarklawallowsfortwocompaniestohavethesamelogoandnameindifferentcountries.

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Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

83.

Marketingacrossculturalboundariesisadifficultandchallengingtask.

TRUE
Thesuccessofglobalmarketersdependsonhowwelltheyunderstandandadapttothedifferencesin
cultures.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

84.

Whilecultureheavilyinfluencesmarketingstrategy,cultureisnotinfluencedbymarketingstrategy.

FALSE
Thereismutualinfluenceasproducts,brands,cultures,andvaluesmovebackandforthacrossthe
world.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

85.

GlobalcitizensarehighlyconcentratedintheUnitedStatesandtheUnitedKingdom.

FALSE
GlobalcitizensarehighlyconcentratedinBrazil,China,andIndonesia.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
2-52
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

86.

Culturesarestaticandrarelychange.

FALSE
Culturesarenotstatic;theytypicallyevolveandchangeslowlyovertime.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:TheConceptofCulture

87.

Otherorientedvaluesreflectasociety'sviewoftheappropriaterelationshipsbetweenindividualsand
groupswithinthatsociety.

TRUE
Ifthesocietyvaluescollectiveactivity,consumerswilllooktowardothersforguidanceinpurchase
decisionsandwillnotrespondfavorablytopromotionalappealsto"beanindividual."

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

88.

CollectivismisadefiningcharacteristicofAmericanculture.

FALSE
IndividualismisadefiningcharacteristicofAmericanculture.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

89.

Thefamilyunitisthebasisforvirtuallyallsocieties.

TRUE
Thedefinitionofthefamilyandtherightsandobligationsoffamilymembersvarywidelyacross
cultures.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

2-53
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

90.

Thechangingandexpandingrolesofwomenthroughoutmuchoftheworldiscreatingnew
opportunitiesaswellaschallengesformarketers.

TRUE
Basically,weliveinamasculineorientedworld,yetthedegreeofmasculineorientationvarieswidely.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

91.

Powergapreferstothedegreetowhichpeopleacceptinequalityinpower,authority,status,andwealth
asnaturalorinherentinsociety.

FALSE
Powerdistancereferstothedegreetowhichpeopleacceptinequalityinpower,authority,status,and
wealthasnaturalorinherentinsociety.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:EnvironmentOrientedValues

92.

Terminalmaterialismistheacquisitionofthingstoenableonetodosomething.

FALSE
Terminalmaterialismistheacquisitionofitemsforthesakeofowningtheitemitself.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:SelfOrientedValues

93.

Themeaningoftimevariesbetweenculturesintwomajorways:timeperspectiveandinterpretations
assignedtospecificusesoftime.

TRUE
Themeaningoftimevariesbetweenculturesintwomajorways:timeperspectiveandinterpretations
assignedtospecificusesoftime.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Time

2-54
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

94.

Personalspacereferstothenearnessthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutyour
feelinguncomfortable.

TRUE
Personalspacereferstothenearnessthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutyour
feelinguncomfortable.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

95.

ThecolorblueconnotesfemininityinHollandbutmasculinityinSwedenandtheUnitedStates.

TRUE
Symbolshavevaryingmeaningsacrosscultures.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:Symbols

96.

Thelargestsingleinfluencetowarduniformityamongyouthworldwideiseducation.

FALSE
Thelargestsingleinfluencetowarduniformityamongyouthworldwideismassmedia.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0204Summarizekeyaspectsoftheglobalyouthculture
Topic:AGlobalYouthCulture?

97.

Psychographicsdescribeapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

FALSE
Demographicsdescribeapopulationintermsofitssize,structure,anddistribution.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:GlobalDemographics

2-55
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

98.

Adaptingproductsandservicestolocalconsiderationsisknownaslocalizing.

FALSE
Adaptingproductsandservicestolocalconsiderationsisknownasglocalization.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0205Understandtheroleofglobaldemographics
Topic:CrossCulturalMarketingStrategy

Essay Questions
99.

Listtheculturalfactorsthatinfluenceconsumerbehaviorandmarketingstrategy.

Language,demographics,values,andnonverbalcommunications.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Remember
Difficulty:1Easy
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
Topic:CrossCulturalVariationsinConsumerBehavior

100.

Explaintheconceptofculture,anddiscusswhyisitimportanttostudyforunderstandingconsumer
behavior.

Cultureisthecomplexwholethatincludesknowledge,belief,art,law,morals,customs,andanyother
capabilitiesandhabitsacquiredbyhumansasmembersofsociety.Itisimportanttostudyculturefor
severalreasons.First,cultureisacomprehensiveconceptandincludesalmosteverythingthatinfluences
anindividual'sthoughtprocessesandbehaviors.Second,cultureisacquired.Itdoesnotinclude
inheritedresponsesandpredispositions,andbecausemuchofhumanbehaviorislearnedratherthan
innate,culturedoesaffectawidearrayofbehaviors.Third,thecomplexityofmodernsocietiesissuch
thatcultureseldomprovidesdetailedprescriptionsforappropriatebehavior.Instead,inmostindustrial
societies,culturesuppliesboundarieswithinwhichmostindividualsthinkandact.Finally,thenatureof
culturalinfluencesissuchthatweareseldomawareofthem.Onebehaves,thinks,andfeelsinamanner
consistentwithothermembersofthesameculturebecauseitseems"natural"or"right"todoso.Thus,
itisimportanttostudycultureforunderstandingconsumerbehaviorbecauseitispervasiveand
influencesconsumers'behavior,ofteninwaystheyareunawareof.Marketersmustunderstandthis
influencetoeffectivelyservecustomers'needsanddesires.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0201Definetheconceptofculture
2-56
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Topic:TheConceptofCulture

101.

Compareandcontrast(a)otherorientedvalues,(b)environmentorientedvalues,and(c)selforiented
values.

a.Otherorientedvaluesreflectasociety'sviewoftheappropriaterelationshipsbetweenindividuals
andgroupswithinthatsociety.
b.Environmentorientedvaluesprescribeasociety'srelationshiptoitseconomicandtechnologicalas
wellasitsphysicalenvironment.
c.Selforientedvaluesreflecttheobjectivesandapproachestolifethattheindividualmembersof
societyfinddesirable.
Ofthe18valuesdiscussedinthischapter(seeTable21forasummary),somearemoreimportantin
societiesthanothersbasedontheirvalueorientation.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:2Medium
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:VariationsinCulturalValues

102.

JasonisplanningabusinesstriptoJapan,anditishisfirsttimedoingbusinessinthatcountry.Discuss
somevaluedifferencesbetweenJapanesecultureandAmericanculturethataremostrelevanttohimin
abusinessmeetingsituation.

OnekeyareawheretherearesubstantialdifferencesbetweentheJapaneseandAmericanculturesisthe
areaof"otheroriented"values.IndividualismisadefiningcharacteristicofAmericanculture,whereas
theJapanesearemorecollectiveintheirorientation.WhileAmericansocietyisclearlyyouthoriented,
manyAsiancultureshavetraditionallyvaluedthewisdomthatcomeswithage.Cultureswithmore
masculineandindividualisticorientationssuchastheUnitedStatestendtovaluecompetitivenessand
demonstrateitopenly,butcollectivistscultures,evenhighlymasculineonessuchasJapan,tendtofind
openlycompetitivegesturesoffensiveastheycauseothersto"loseface."Finally,Japanandother
collectivistculturestendtoplaceastrongvalueonuniformityandconformity,whereasothercultures,
suchastheUnitedStates,valuediversitymore.
AnotherareawheretherearedifferencesbetweentheJapaneseandAmericanculturesistheareaof
"selforiented"values.AmericansaremuchmorepronethantheJapanesetotakeanactionoriented
approachtoproblems.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0202Describecorevaluesthatvaryacrosscultureandinfluencebehaviors
Topic:OtherOrientedValues

2-57
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

103.

Namethesevenfactorsinfluencingnonverbalcommunications,anddescribefourofthem.

Nonverbalfactorsinfluencingnonverbalcommunicationsincludetime,space,symbols,relationships,
agreements,things,andetiquette.Studentscandiscussanyfourofthefollowing:
a.TimeThemeaningoftimevariesbetweenculturesintwomajorways:timeperspective,whichisa
culture'soverallorientationtowardtime,andtheinterpretationsassignedtospecificusesoftime.Time
perspectivescanbemonochronic(i.e.,onethingatatime,promptness,adheringtoplans,etc.)or
polychronic(i.e.,doingmanythingsatonce,committedtorelationships,changeplansoften,etc.).
b.SpacePersonalspaceisthenearestthatotherscancometoyouinvarioussituationswithoutyour
feelinguncomfortable,andthisspacevariesamongcultures.
c.SymbolsColors,animals,shapes,numbers,andmusichavevaryingmeaningacrosscultures.
d.RelationshipsWhileAmericansformrelationshipsandmakefriendsquicklyandeasilyanddrop
themeasilyalso,inmanyotherpartsoftheworld,relationshipsandfriendshipsareformedslowlyand
carefullybecausetheyimplydeepandlastingobligations.Chineserelationshipsarecomplexand
describedundertheconceptofguanxi.
e.AgreementsAmericansrelyonanextensiveandgenerally,highlyefficientlegalsystemfor
ensuringthatbusinessobligationsarehonoredorforresolvingdisagreements.Manyothercultureshave
notdevelopedsuchasystemandrelyinsteadonrelationships,friendship,andkinship,localmoral
principles,orinformalcustoms.
f.ThingsThedifferentmeaningsthatculturesattachtothings,includingproducts,makegiftgivinga
particularlydifficulttask.
g.EtiquetteGenerallyacceptedwaysofbehavinginsocialsituationsrepresentetiquette.Behaviors
consideredrudeandobnoxiousinoneculturemaybequiteacceptableinanother.MeishiinJapan(i.e.,
theexchangeofbusinesscards)isanimportantpartofJapanesebusinessetiquette.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0203Understandcrossculturalvariationsinnonverbalcommunications
Topic:CulturalVariationsinNonverbalCommunications

104.

Listanddescribethethreetrendsintheglobalyouthmarket.

Severalrecenttrendsintheglobalyouthmarketarecriticalforglobalmarketerstounderstand.These
include:
TechnologyismainstreamWiredteensareaglobalphenomenonnotrestrictedtodeveloped
countries.Fiftysixpercentofteensgloballyare"superconnectors,"meaningtheyusetwoormore
electronicdevices(e.g.,cellphoneandInternet)daily.
U.S.teensnolongerleadthewayNowit'smoreaboutmindsetandthe"creatives"areleadingthe
way.CreativesaremostprevalentinEurope(nottheUnitedStates),areopentonewideas,andlike
expressingthemselvesinvariousways,includingpersonalwebpagesandart.
U.S.brandsarenotcurrentlytheleadersU.S.brandsusedtobetheleadersamongglobalteens.
NowthetopthreeareSony(Japan),Nokia(Finland),andAdidas(Germany).

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Understand
2-58
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0204Summarizekeyaspectsoftheglobalyouthculture
Topic:AGlobalYouthCulture?

105.

ListandexplainfourofthesevenfactorsthatUnileverutilizesinordertosuccessfullysellitslaundry
productsglobally.

CulturalhomogeneityInthegloballaundrymarket,heterogeneity,evenwithinacountry,can
occur.Forexample,Brazil'sNortheastandSoutheastregionsareverydifferent.Onedifferenceisthatin
thepoorerNortheastregion,mostlaundryisdonebyhandandmorebarsoapthanpowderisused.In
themoreaffluentSoutheastregion,mostlaundryisdoneinawashingmachineandmorepowder
detergentisusedthanbarsoapintheprocess.
NeedsHandwashingversusmachinewashingleadstodifferentlaundryproductneeds.Inaddition,
indevelopingcountrieswhichareanimportantfocusforUnilever,productsmustbeadaptedtomeet
strengthofcleaningneedsrelatedtoremovingsweat,odors,andtoughstainsduetophysicallabor.
AffordabilityClearly,affordabilityisacomponentinpricingthelaundrydetergentsthemselvesto
becompetitive.However,Unileveralsofacesthesituationthatatransitionfromhandwashingto
washingmachinesdependsinlargepartontheeconomicprosperityofacountryorregionasthis
determinestheaffordabilityofwashingmachines.Adoptionofwashingmachines,inturn,changesthe
typeandamountsoflaundryproductsusedaswesawearlier.
RelevantvaluesOnesourceindicatesthatcleanliness,convenience,andsustainabilityarekeyvalue
aspectsinlaundryproductsthatvaryacrossculture.InmanycountrieswhereUnileveroperatesthere
aresegmentsofkids,dubbed"NintendoKids,"whodon'ttendtogooutsideandplayandthusdon'tget
dirty.Acorestrategyforanumberoftheirbrandsinthesemarketsisthe"dirtisgood"campaignthat
stressesthatplayingandgettingdirtyarepartofahealthychild'sdevelopment...and"letUnilever
worryaboutgettingtheirclothesclean."
InfrastructureAbroadinfrastructureissueinlaundryisaccesstohotwater.Manyindeveloping
countriesdon'thaveaccesstohotwaterorlargequantitiesofwater.UnileverrespondedinIndiawith
SurfExcelQuickWash,anenzymebasedproductthatuseslesswaterandworksunderlowerwater
temperatures.
CommunicationEuropeanshavetraditionallycleanedtheirclothesinmuchhotterwaterwiththe
logicbeingthat"boilingclothes"istheonlyrealwaytogetthemcleanandkillgerms.Thistrendis
reversingasUnileverpushesmoreenvironmentalfriendlyproductsandasEuropeanshavebegunto
washincoolertemperaturestosaveenergy.Aninterestingconsequenceoftheshiftisthatantibacterial
additivesarenowdemandedbyEuropeancustomerstokillthegerms.
EthicalimplicationsWhileconversionoftheworld'sconsumerstofullyautomatedwashing
machineswouldhelpstandardizeUnilever'sapproach,ithasmajorimplicationsforwaterusage.Thisis
becausecomparedtohandwashing,machinewashingcan,dependingcriticallyonthenumberofrinse
cyclesneeded,usemorewater.Continuedinnovationinproductstowardlowerwaterusewillbeakey
ethicalandperformanceissueforUnilevermovingforward.

AACSB:AnalyticalThinking
Blooms:Understand
Difficulty:3Hard
LearningObjective:0206Listthekeydimensionsindecidingtoenteraforeignmarket
Topic:ConsiderationsinApproachingaForeignMarket

2-59
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.