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Adoption at Organizational Level of Analysis

Willy Abdillah 1

A. Introduction
This paper is aim to explore green information systems (IS) adoption model based on literature
study. Concept of green technology and strategy was not current issue in area of management,
but research reveals about the adoption of green IS still relatively limited. Melvilles (2010)
literature reviewed on the IS top tier journals during 2000 to 2008 (see Table 1, attachment 1)
found only one article who discussed the relationship of technology and environmental
preservation. The discussion has not been revealed in a comprehensive manner the issue of
adoption of green IS which practically and theoretically complex (Molla, 2008). This condition
indicates the opportunity to comprehensively examine the issue of green IS adoption.
IS Researches have discussed the issues of adoption by adapting the root concepts of attitudes
and behavior from theory of organizational behavior and psychology. Perceptual constructs (e.g.
attitudes and beliefs) based on the assumption of voluntarism and at individual level of
analysisare the main predictors of adoption intention and behavior of IS (McElroy et al.,
2007). Robey and Zmud (1992) predicted that the issue of IS adoption would continue to grow
and become a major topic of IS research.
Researches on IS adoption not only has developed the empirical model but also moved level of
analysis from individual level toward organizational level. This movement indicated by
increasing roles of top management in the initiation process of adoption and implementation of
IS carried out the mandatory system within organization. These conditions indicate that
institutional factors begin to play an important role in the process of adoption of IS within
organization. Molla (2008) argued that changed in the factors driving adoption of IS due to the
individual factors only partially encourage voluntary behavior of IS adoption while institutional
factors can encourage structurally and comprehensively in the organization.
The development level of analysis of IS adoption studies have implications for the increasing
complexity on studies of the IS adoption, both in the conceptual framework and research
methods. Molla (2009) revealed that there are at least four conceptual frameworks in the study of
current adoption of the IS, i.e. technological, managerial action, organizational and institutional.
Technological conceptual framework explains that the adoption of IS has driven by factors
associated with technological aspects of IS, such as perceived ease of use and perceived
usefulness of IS. Conceptual framework of managerial actions explains that the adoption of IS in
the organization has influenced by managerial involvement and participation. Commitment and
managers innovativeness influenced organization's successful in IS adoption. Conceptual
framework of organizational explains that the adoption of IS in the organization has influenced
by organizational factors, such as: organizational structure, vision and mission of the
organization, participation from top management and industry types. Institutional conceptual
framework explains that the adoption of IS in the organization has influenced by institutional

Lecturer of Management Departement, Faculty of Economics Universitas Bengkulu.

factors, such as rules and procedures that exist inside and outside the organization, including
standards and regulations. The four conceptual frameworks are complementary influence the IS
adoption process within the organization, both at the individual level or organizational
level.Meanwhile, development of IS adoption studies also developed in the complexity of the
research methods. Prior studies revealed that the changes of the level of analysis and conceptual
framework required a robust research design. Studies with questionnaire survey data collection
method in cross-section are considered not enough to explain complexity of research questions
of IS adoption. Research design of mixed methods with longitudinal data collection techniques
are expected to explain the complexities of IS adoption study. Therefore, research on IS adoption
should compile four conceptual framework and design a robust research methods.
Today, IS research has lead the issues of environmental preservation. Gartner (2008) predicts the
study of green IT will continue to be a top priority in IS research area. Study of green IT has
initiated by Hart (1997) whom proposed a model of green IT which called green IT Matrix.
This model then became reference for various further publications on green IS issues. The
development of green IS researches include the study of IS development, technology adoption
and utilization, until the final disposal of IT products, but the research of adoption of green IS
still relatively limited. Empirical studies conducted by Huang and Chen (2007) in electronics
firms in Taiwan has still reviewing the adoption process at the individual level while the
conceptual model GITAM (green information technology acceptance model) proposed by Molla
(2008) has not been verified empirically. Therefore, this paper will develop model of adoption
green IS which institutional factors as predictors of the green IS adoption process at the
organizational level of analysis.
This paper is arranged as follows. Discussion begins with literature review of various green IS
academic publications that are directed to build models of green IS adoption. Proposition of
model green IS then described. Finally, this paper concludes with implication for future research.
B. Green Information System Adoption Model
Environmental issues began to flourish area of IS research. This development has occurred along
with the increasing attention to business organizations in the form of corporate social
responsibility and sustainable business initiatives (Molla et al., 2009). However, the uniqueness
of environmental issues in IS area lead to empirical research in the field of green IT still
relatively limited.
The relationship between IT and the environment is unique in terms of scope, complexity and
level of interest because it covers social domain, organizational, individual and environment.
Scope includes the breadth of the scope of the study and robust research methods. Complexity
describe multilevel relationship between IS and environmental studies, nonlinearity
interdependence and thus require the presence of an alternative framework issues, namely:
rationality (economic considerations, such as productivity and profitability), natural
(environmental sustainability, including natural resource protection and mitigation of climate
change), and humanity (personal satisfaction and social needs, such as unfair trade practices and
human rights) (Elkington, 1994). Level of interest include the question of what, why, and how
the role of information and IT in environmental conservation (Straub & Ang, 2008). The
uniqueness of the green IS issues offer conceptual framework and extensive research

Mitchell (2008) stated that green IS assessment can focus along data center management to
corporate social responsibility. It is indicated that the scope of the green IS are not only
discussed the conceptual and theoretical issue but include managerial and social issues (Nunn,
2007). Hart (1997) argues that the concept of green IS covers four areas, i.e. provision of
resources, operations, services and IT infrastructure end management. Thus, the complexity of
green IS with a variety of conceptual frameworks indicates that the opportunities and importance
of this area is comprehensively reviewed, especially regarding the issue of adoption of green IS.
This paper proposed a model adoption of green IS (see Figure 3 below) based on two basic
arguments, i.e. this model uses the term green IS and institutional factors as predictors of green
IS adoption at organizational level of analysis. The usage of term green IS to distinguish the
concept of green IS and green IT. This differences need to be explained because the issue of
adoption of green IS includes not only technical issues (hard technologies) but also the
managerial issues and policies (soft technologies). Complexity of green IS phenomenon
generally not only can be seen from technological but also should be reviewed from framework
of managerial, organizational and institutional (Molla, 2008). In addition, there are various
factors that motivate organizations to adopt green IS, i.e. economic, juridical and ethical (Molla,
2009). Thus, the study of IS adoption should compile both framework of social thought (sociominded) and technical (techno minded).
The second argument is this proposed green IS adoption model use institutional factors as
predictors of the adoption at organizational level of analysis. The use of institutional factors as
predictor of green IS adoption studies have shifted the level of analysis which encourage the
whole aspect within organization. Adoption of green IS within organization is managerial
decisions which directed to all stakeholders. Thus, institutional factors expected directly
influence the decision to adopt green IS within the organization. These arguments need to be
revealed because of current studies of green IS have not explicitly divide level of analysis.
Distribution of level of analysis in the study of green IS adoption can help researchers analyze
the antecedents and consequences more precisely.
Capability of IS Infrastructure
Each information system within the organization are built into structures and processes. The
structure describes the components that make up the system while the process describes the
interaction mechanism and relationship between system components (Weill & Ross, 2004). IS
Infrastructure is one of the main components in the structure of IS.
Green IS requires a set of infrastructure of hardware and software. Tugui et al. (2008) explained
that the development of green IS requires adequate investment in infrastructure and should be
measurable returns. Capabilities of IS infrastructure determine the level of efficiency and
effectiveness (Infotech, 2007) as well as green IS innovation achievement level (Chen, 2007).
Capabilities of IS infrastructure consist of physical infrastructure capabilities (i.e. hardware and
software) and non-physical capabilities (i.e. facilitating coordinated and management practice
system or applied technology within organization) (Hart, 1997).
DiRamio (2009) stated that an organization can implement green IS if they had a set of IT
infrastructure more efficiently by replacing the old hardware, using a multifunctional and
integrated infrastructure, provide infrastructure virtualization and power management facilities.

IS infrastructure capabilities must be measurable through the levels of energy consumption and
economic benefit-cost incurred on infrastructure investment.
Anderson et al. (2008) study on IT professionals in the United States found that green IS can be
applied effectively if it meets internal and external criteria. External requirements are the
standards and regulations from the government while the internal requirements are the
commitment of IT professionals whom supported by adequate IS infrastructure capability. The
capabilities include access and data processing performance level of the lower energy
consumption, ease of use of facilities (e.g. easy to set up power management) and measurability
of infrastructure investments economically (Return on Investment). Joe (2008) states that the size
of the IS infrastructure capabilities is not just an efficiency operating performance but also more
focused on the content of the material infrastructure, likewise harmful to the environment, the
possibility of recyclable and reusable. Based on the explanation the proposition is as follows.
P1. Capabilities of IS infrastructures influence the organization to adopt green IS.
Intellectual Capital
Masoulas (1998) defined intellectual capital as a set of non-physical assets, knowledge and
capabilities possessed by companies that can be used to create value and build competitive
advantage. Youndt et al. (2004) classified intellectual capital into three dimensions, namely:
human capital, social capital and organizational capital. Human capital was the knowledge and
skills that were owned and attached to each individual that make up the competency. This
knowledge was easy to get out and moved the organization along with the release of these
individuals from the organization. Social capital was the knowledge embedded in values and
norms were not written in the organization that was used at the time of interaction between
individuals within the organization. This knowledge was flexible and not bound by rules written
within the organization so as to evolve in accordance with the development of values and norms
agreed upon the organization. This knowledge could grow and evolve or even be lost in the
organization, depend on the social organization. Organizational capital was the knowledge
possessed by organizations that were formally institutionalized in the form of patents, manuals,
systems, processes and standard procedures. This was a wealth of knowledge and intangible
assets of the company. But this knowledge was rigid because it was governed by written rules
and their development depends on the willingness and the legitimacy of top managers.
Intellectual capital associates with organizational innovation capability and organizational
competitive advantage. The study Ahuja (2000), Dougherty (1992), Subramaniam and
Venkatraman (2001); Tsai and Ghosal (1998) found that intellectual capital was a determinant of
innovation. Empirical Study of Chen (2007) found that intellectual capital influenced the
adoption of green IS which then affected the organization's competitive advantage. The results of
these studies indicated that intellectual capital played an important role for organizations in
developing innovation capabilities and competitive advantage.
The dimensions of innovation capability consist of incremental innovation capability and radical
innovation capability. Incremental innovation capability is the ability of companies to develop
existing knowledge as a source of innovation (Chandy & Tellis, 2000). Radical innovation
capability is the ability of organizations to significantly alter the existing knowledge into new
knowledge as a source of innovation.

Research conducted by Subramaniam and Youndt (2005) to the CEO at 919 companies which
have a formal system of innovation and R & D indicated that human capital has negative effect
on the capability of radical innovations but the interaction of social capital with human capital
affected the relationship of human capital and capabilities of radical innovations, social capital
could change the nature of the relationship. In addition, the organizational capital has positive
influence on incremental innovation capabilities. The results of this study indicate that individual
knowledge and skills reduce the organization's radical innovation capability.
Regardless of the IS function relationship with environmental preservation, intellectual capital
can be a source of creating innovation of the organization's business process, such as product
innovation and IT-based services. Intellectual capital can encourage the acceleration of the
process of acceptance and migration of green IS regarding to create an environmental friendly
business processes (Chen, 2007). Based on the explanation above, the propositions are as
P2a. Human capital influences the adoption of green IS within organization.
P2b. Social capital influences the adoption of green IS within organization.
P2c. Organizational capital influences the adoption of green IS within organization.
Green Core Competence
Porter and van der Linde (1995) argued that companies have the innovation would be the winner
of the first advantages than its competitors. Organizations could build innovation based on core
competence (Hamel and Prahalad, 1990). The core competencies then maintained for the process
of creation and innovation continue to grow within the organization to maintain competitive
Regardless to environmental issues, the organization encouraged to apply management and
environment-oriented strategies voluntarily or mandatory, including green IS. Core competencies
can be source of organizational innovation in creating products and IT-based services that are
environmentally friendly. Core competencies would lead a company in managing complexity of
interests in the process of adoption green IS and surviving into a turbulence environment (Hafeez
et al., 2002, Lei et al., 1996). Core competencies also encourage businesses to increase
productivity through environmentally friendly innovations to reduce environmental costs (Chen
et al., 2006), such as energy-efficient technologies, pollution prevention, waste recycling, and
corporate environmental management.
Empirical research conducted by Chen (2007) to the CEOs of companies in electronics and
information industry in Taiwan, found that the green core competencies have positive effect on
the innovation process of green IT products and services. Core competencies have also positive
effect on improving corporate image. Based on the explanation above, the proposition is as
P3. Green core competencies influences the adoption green IS in organization.
Top Management Involvement and Participation

The study of IT adoption shows that the success of the adoption process is influenced by the
level of IS utilization. The IS successful model developed by DeLone and McClean (2003)
showed that the level of usage and user satisfaction are key indicators of IS adoption success
while Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991) stated that the participation and involvement of top
management are also as key indicators.
Green IS adoption decision in the organization is the initiation of a formal decision from the
decision makers at top management level (Thibodeau, 2008). Valanju (2008) stated that green IS
challenges complexity of human behavior, networking and technology tools in the organization
of SI. Complexity can be handled either through the initiation of top management participation,
particularly Chief Information Officer (CIO) who encouraged systemically in organizational
behavior. Top management commitment and participation influence process of migration and
adoption of green IS until at lower levels in the organization. Initiation will continue on a
massive scale if top management does not just make decisions but also involved in the utilization
process of green SI.
Based on the above explanation, the proposition that is built is as follows.
P4. The involvement and participation of top management influence on the adoption of green IS.
Individual Factors of Green IS Adoption
Perceived Ease-of-use
TAM uses perception factors namely perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as the main
variables. Legris et al. (2003) analyzed TAM by examining 80 research related articles. They
concluded that most of the constructs and external variables of TAM were consistently
significant, only a few were not. Sun (2003) conducted a study to analyze the TAM. He found
that ease of use (perceived ease of use) significantly related to behavioral intention in the six of
the nine studies reviewed. Szajna (1994) conducted a study to test the TAM. The study found
that the construct perceived ease of use was significantly explained intention to use the system.
Igbaria et al. (1996) used three constructs to examine the impact on individual choice in using a
computer. The factors were the perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment and social pressure.
Two indicators were used to represent use of microcomputers, self-reported daily use of
microcomputers and self-reported frequency of microcomputers. The results of this study
indicated that the three constructs were significantly affected the use of microcomputers.
Gefen and Straub (1997) investigated the influence of gender differences in TAM model. They
extended the TAM by adding the constructs perceived social presence and information richness.
They found that women would be more likely to cooperate and men tend to be more competitive.
Compared with women, men more likely looked to the perceived ease of use in the use of
Agarwal and Prasad (1998) developed the TAM by connecting the construct perceptions of
relative advantage, ease of use, and compatibility with the decision to adopt an innovation. The
results showed that the ease of use predicted since the decision to adopt an innovation.
Van der Heijden (2000) developed TAM by adding two new constructs, perceived entertainment
value and presentation perceived attractiveness to examine the acceptance and use of website
revisit. They found no significantly relationship between ease of use on the use of the website.

They only found indirectly effect of ease of use on the use of the website. From the descriptions
of previous studies, the proposition is as follows.
P5. Perceived ease of use influences the adoption of green IS.
Perceived usefulness
Sun Research (2003) who analyzed the TAM also found that the perceived usefulness also
influenced behavioral intention in all 13 studies reviewed. Research conducted by Szajna (1994)
found that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have explain attitudes toward the use
of the system, intentions to use the system, self-report usage, and self-predicted usage.
Chau (1996) modified the TAM to distinguish between perceived near-term usefulness and longterm usefulness. This study supported the results of TAM in general that the intention of
individuals in using the system was determined by perceived usefulness, not by perceived ease of
use. The results of this study indicated that the perceived ease of use did not significantly affect
intention to use the system, but significantly affected near-term perceived usefulness.
Research of Gefen and Straub (1997) whom investigated the influence of gender differences in
TAM model found that women would be more likely to cooperate and men tended to be more
competitive. Van der Heijden (2000) examined the use of a return visit to the site. He found a
significant relationship between perceived usefulness and website revisit.
Taylor and Todd (1995) conducted research in the survey form to the visitor of computing
resource center (CRC) which was provided a facility at a student of business school. The use of
this facility was free to students and only charged a fee on any printouts. Use of CRC also
volunteered for other facilities such alternatives are also available on campus. This study used a
survey technique. Complete surveys were returned and there are as many as 786 students.
Respondents consisted of 430 participants who had previous experience using the CRC and 356
participants who do not have experience using the CRC. Research Taylor and Todd (1995)
modified the TAM to compare the behavior of higher user experienced with less experienced
users. The results of their research showed that there were differences in the causes of the use of
information systems by the higher user experienced with less experienced users. The results of
this study also showed that perceived usefulness was a strong predictor of behavioral intention.
Research Chau and Hu (2002) investigated the decision of telemedicine technology usage by
individual physicians for health services in Hong Kong. This study used survey data collection
techniques. Before the questionnaire sent, a letter, which explains the purpose of research and
assure confidentiality guaranteed has sent to the heads of departments or divisions of hospitaltargeted in Hong Kong. Personal visits and phone calls then made to the head of department to
provide detailed information on the research and requesting their support. From 70 departments
or divisions contacted, 41 agreed to participate in this research that showed 59 percent of
response rate. With the assistance from head of department, the package of questionnaire was
sent to physicians who practice in the departments or divisions. Out of 1728 questionnaires
distributed, 421 questionnaires have sent back. Thirteen of them were not filled out completely
and removed from the sample. Thus respondents who effectively were numbered 408 showed
23.6 percent response rate. Doctors who were respondents in a wide range of expertise that could
be grouped into 10 areas; Internal medicine, Geriatrics, Pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology,
surgery, emergency care, intensive care, psychiatry, pathology, and radiology. The results of this
study indicated that perceived usefulness was the most important determinant to the doctors

willing to accept telemedicine technology. From the descriptions of previous studies, the
proposition is as follows.
P6. Perceived usefulness influences the adoption of green IS.
In previous studies, perception of self-efficacy has been supported influence decisions about
which behaviors will be performed (e.g. Bandura et al., 1977; Betz and Hackett, 1981), effort
and persistence in trying to behaviors (e.g. Barling and Beattie 1983, Brown and Inouye, 1978),
emotional responses (including stress and anxiety) than did individual behaviors (e.g. Bandura et
al. 1977; Stumpf et al., 1987), and the actual performance of individual associated with behavior
(e.g. Barling and Beattie, 1983; Colins, 1985, Locke et al., 1984, Schunk,1981, Wood and
Bandura, 1989).
In management area, self-efficacy has been found to be associated with attendance (Frayne and
Latham, 1987; Latham and Frayne 1989), selection and career development (Betz and Hackett,
1981; Jones 1986), research productivity (Taylor et al., 1984), and sales performance (Barling
and Beattie, 1983). Recent studies (Burkhardt and Brass, 1990; Gist et al., 1989; Hill et al., 1986;
1987; Webster and Martocchio, 1992; 1993) have examined the relationship between selfefficacy with the use of computers with a variety of behaviors computer. These studies found
evidence of an association between self-efficacy by-course enrollment in college computer
courses (Hill et al., 1987), adoption of high technology products (Hill et al., 1986), innovations
(Burkhandt and Brass, 1990), and also the performance in software training (Gist et al., 1989;
Webster and Martocchio, 1992; 1993).
Compeau et al. (1999) developed the TAM based on Social Cognitive Theory which was
developed first by Bandura (1982). Their research tried to study the effect of self-efficacy,
performance and personal outcome expectations, feelings (affect), and anxiety in the use of
computers. The relationship of personal outcome expectations and feelings has no relationship
with use of computers and even obtained a negative coefficient for personal outcome
expectations. They found themselves unable to explain the 18 percent variance of self-efficacy
toward use of individual computers. These results indicate that the need to emphasize selfefficacy in computer use training.
Research Hsu and Chiu (2004) in Taiwan regarding the continued use of the tax charge via
electronic (e-filing) using questionnaires sent to information system managers at 100 companies
found that significantly influence the results of self-efficacy on the intention to pass the tax
charge electronics. Hsieh et al. (2005) conducted a study to explain people's behavior in
accepting the internet technology in the condition of the digital inequality. Digital inequality (DI)
was the imbalance of access to and use of information technology and communication between
individuals (DiMaggio et al. 2004). Research Hsieh et al. (2005) focused on differences in
behavior before the adoption of the implementation of free Internet access to communities and
the factors that caused it. Application of free Internet access to the public conducted in the city of
LaGrange, Georgia, United States, which was only a population of 27,000 residents. The Internet
can be accessed via TV cable with no additional cost. The data in this study were collected by
survey. Survey questionnaire was tested previously by using 20 subjects from the town of
LaGrange. In summer 2003, a survey instrument sent to all households in LaGrange to identify
who have adopted Internet TV. According to city records, a total of 3,500 households or roughly

about 40% than 9,000 households are eligible. The results of this study indicated that selfefficacy was significantly influenced factor of perceived behavioral control and intention to use
the internet. From the description of these previous studies, the following propositions can be
Q7. Self-efficacy influences the adoption of green IS.
Organization Level of Analysis
IS Infrastructure capabilities
Intellectual capital
Green core competences
TOP management Involvement
and participation

Green IS Adoption
Individual Level of Analysis
Perceived ease-of-use,
perceived usefulness, selfefficacy
Control variables
Standard and regulation

Figure1. Green IS Adoption Model

Control Variables
In addition to the antecedent organizational and individual levels, external factors also affect the
adoption of green IS within the organization. These factors are regulation or standard (Molla,
Motivation of organizations to adopt green IS is affected by two forms of institutional
intervention (i.e. the influence factors and regulation) and two drivers of innovation (i.e. the pull
factor of demand and boost supply) (King et al., 1994). Those factors can influence behavior of
organizational change through coercion or duress, while without regulation has a purpose that
directly affects the behavior of entities within the limits of jurisdiction regulations. Influence and
regulation generate pop-up (outcomes) that differ depending on the shape of the driver of

innovation (King et al., 1994). Regulation is an institutional force that can influence
organizational behavior through the act of imitating (mimetic), force (coercive) and the
encouragement of normative (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983).
Mollas research (2009) of 109 respondents in Australia and New Zealand has explored and
examined the organization's motivation in adopting green IS. The research found that the
regulation could be a driving force of motivation to obey regulations (compliance) for
organizations to implement green IS. This finding was in line with the opinion of Olson (2008)
and Gonzalez (2005) which stated that the requirements of regulatory and legislative action
tended to force the organization to receive technology or practices if these organizations do not
have a strong intention to implement it. Based on the description above, then the proposition can
be developed as follows.
P8. Regulations and standards influence the adoption of green IS.
Conclusion and Research Implications
The growing studies of IS research has led to environmental issues. Concept of green IS still
relatively limited to be explored. Therefore, the opportunity to study this topic is still very open
area, along developing concept, testing instruments and examining empirical model.
This paper aims to build a model of adoption green IS based on literature review. The difference
between IT and IS and the definition level of analysis are the argument of this paper. This paper
confirms that the complexity of the adoption of green IS cannot be tested only with one single
model. Therefore, all current concepts and frameworks should not to be debate in terms of their
advantages and disadvantages, but rather complement each other.
The focus of future research is to explore the interaction relationship between the dependent
variable (green IS) with the antecedents. Determination of the dependent variable with
measurement indicators is an important factor in the study of adoption of green IS. The proposed
model in this paper does not specify the measurement indicators because researchers can use
variety of existing concepts of green IS.
The complexities of green IS adoption impacts design of research methods. Further research may
test the proposed model in this paper using research design of mixed methods. Adoption green IS
a process that occurs within organization. In accordance to explore comprehensively, further
research should take a longitudinal study. The uniqueness of the adoption process in each
organization should also be considered by examining more specifically for any organizational
context using case study.

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