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KollamdistrictWikipedia
Coordinates:8.80N76.6E

Kollamdistrict
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Kollamdistrict(formerlyQuilon)isoneof14districtsofthestateofKerala,India.Thedistrict
hasacrosssectionofKerala'snaturalattributesitisendowedwithalongcoastline,amajor
ArabianSeaseaportandaninlandlake(AshtamudiLake).Thedistricthasmanysourceof
waterbodies.KalladariverisoneamongitandtheeastsidelandofriverisEastKalladaandthe
westsidelandisWestKallada.KalladaBoatraceisoneamongthefamousfestivaleventsof
district.Eventhoughitisacompetitionbetweentwolandsidesofrivermanyboatclubsfrom
variousplacesevenbeyondthedistrictusetoparticipateintheevent.Kollamisthecapitalof
Kerala'scashewindustry.Plains,mountains,lakes,lagoonsandbackwaters,forests,farmland
andriversmakeupthetopographyofthedistrict.Theareahadtradingrelationshipswith
PhoeniciaandAncientRome.

KollamDistrict

QuilonDistrict

District

Geography
KollamdistrictislocatedonthesouthwestcoastofIndia,borderingLaccadiveSeainthewest,
TirunelvelidistrictofTamilNadustateintheeast,KeraladistrictsofAlappuzhainthenorth,
PathanamthittainthenortheastandThiruvananthapuraminthesouth.Itcovers2,492square
kilometres(962sqmi),istheseventhlargestdistrictinKeralaandisdenselypopulated.Ithas
theshortestcoastallineamongdistrictsinKerala(37Kilometers).
Fivemajorurbancentresare:Kollam,Paravur,Punalur,Karunagapally,andKottarakara
().
SasthamkottaLake,thelargestfreshwaterlakeinKerala,islocatedinKollamthislakeprovides
drinkingwatertothecityofKollam.Twomajorrivers(theKalladaandtheIthikkara)drainthe
district.AshtamudiLakeandParavurLakearetwoimportantlakesinthedistrict.Ashtamudi
Lakecovers30percentoftotalareaofthedistrict.KollamislocatedonAshtamudiLake.
Neendakara,amajorfishingportinsouthernKerala,isalsolocatedonthissceniclake.Edava
andNadayaraLakesarealsopartlylocatedinKollamdistrict.TheKollamseaportwasfounded
byMarAbowithasanctionfromUdayamarthandavarmatheTamilkingfromVenad,otherwise
calledAy,KingdominAD825insteadofreopeningtheinlandseaport(korekenikollam)near
Backare(Thevalakara),alsoknownasNelcyndaandTyndistotheRomansandTheGreeksand
ThonditotheTamils,andwasalsothefoundationofthenewcity.ItisalsobelievedthatMar
AboactuallyvolunteeredtotheCherakingtocreateanewseaporttownnearKollaminsteadof
hisrequestforrenewingthealmostvanishingTyndisorNelcyndainlandseaport(korekeni)at
Kollam,lyingidlewithouttradeforafewcenturiesbecauseoftheCherasbeingoverrunby
Pallavasinthe6thcenturyADendingthespicetradefromMalabarcoast.ThisallowedMarAbo
tostayformanydecadesinCherakingdomandstreamlineChristianfaithamongthe
NampoothiriVaishnavites&NairsubcastesintheSt.ThomastraditionwithSyrianliturgyas
referenceforthedoctrineofTrinitywithoutreplacingtheSanskritandVedictraditions.

Climate
Kollam'stemperatureisalmoststeadythroughouttheyear.Theaveragetemperaturerangesfrom
25to32degreesCelsius.SummerusuallyrunsfromMarchuntilMaythemonsoonbeginsby
JuneandendsbySeptember.Kollamreceivesanannualaveragerainfallofaround2,700
millimetres(110in).Kollamreceivesbothsouthwestandnortheastmonsoons.Winterisfrom
NovembertoFebruarythetemperatureismoderatelycool,rangingfrom18to25degrees
Celsius.[2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

Fromtop:Paravurestuary,Lighthouseandclock
towerinKollamcity,13RingbridgeofThenmala,
CheckdamacrossKalladariver
Nickname(s):Cashewcapitaloftheworld

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KollamdistrictWikipedia

Coordinates:8.80N76.6E
Country
State

India
Kerala

Headquarters

Kollam

Government
Collector

T.MitraIAS

Area
Total
Arearank

2,491km2(962sqmi)
6th

Population(2011)
Total
2,635,375
Density
1,058/km2(2,740/sqmi)
Languages
Official
Timezone
ISO3166
code
Vehicle
registration

Sexratio
Literacy
Website

Malayalam,English
IST(UTC+5:30)
INKL(KL02,KL23,KL24,KL
25,KL61)
Kollam,Paravur:KL02,
Karunagappally:KL23,
Kottarakkara:KL24,Penalisedr:
KL25,Kunnathur:KL61
1112/
93.77%[1]
www.kollam.gov.in(http://www.koll
am.gov.in),www.kollam.nic.in(htt
p://www.kollam.nic.in/)

Kollam
Climatechart(explanation)
J

32

33

33

33

33

22

23

24

25

25

30

30

30

31

31

31

32

24

23

23

24

24

23

23

Cashewisthemainindustryof
Kollam

24 31 78 160 247 459 409 259 211 333 231 65


Averagemax.andmin.temperaturesinC
Precipitationtotalsinmm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

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Source:Govt.ofKerala(http://old.kerala.gov.in/knowk
erala/klm.htm)
Imperialconversion
J

90

91

91

91

91

72

73

75

77

77

J
86

86

S
88

86

88

88

90

75

73

73

75

75

73

73

1 1.2

3.1 6.3 9.7 18 16 10 8.3 13 9.1 2.6

Averagemax.andmin.temperaturesinF
Precipitationtotalsininches

ClimatedataforKollam(Quilon)[2]
Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Averagehigh
C(F)

32
(90)

33
(91)

33
(91)

33
(91)

33
(91)

30
(86)

30
(86)

30
(86)

31
(88)

31
(88)

31
(88)

32
(90)

33
(91)

Averagelow
C(F)

22
(72)

23
(73)

24
(75)

25
(77)

25
(77)

24
(75)

23
(73)

23
(73)

24
(75)

24
(75)

23
(73)

23
(73)

22
(72)

Average
24.4
30.9
77.7 159.5 246.9 458.8
408.9
258.9 211.2 332.5 230.8 65.4
2,700
precipitation
(0.961) (1.217) (3.059) (6.28) (9.72) (18.063) (16.098) (10.193) (8.315) (13.091) (9.087) (2.575) (106.299)
mm(inches)
Source#1:[3]
Source#2:[4]

Demographics
Accordingtothe2011censusKollamdistricthasapopulationof2,629,703,[5]roughlyequaltothenationofKuwait[6]ortheUSstateofNevada.[7]
Thisgivesitarankingof155thinIndia(outofatotalof640districts).[5]Thedistricthasapopulationdensityof1,056inhabitantspersquare
kilometre(2,740/sqmi).[5]Itspopulationgrowthrateoverthedecade20012011was1.72percent.[5]Kollamhasasexratioof1113femalesforevery
1000males,[5]andaliteracyrateof93.77percent.[5]
In2001IndianCensusMuslimpopulationis4,74,071(18.34%),Hindu16,85,044(65.18%),andChristian4,23,745(16.39%).

Urbanstructure
TheKollamUrbanAgglomeration(UA)isthe6thmostpopulousUAinthestate.Kollamisplaced49thinthelistofmostpopulousurban
agglomerationsinIndia.Thetotalurbanpopulationoftheentiredistrictis1,187,158.[1]ThemetropolitanareaofKollamincludesAdichanalloor,
Adinad,Ayanivelikulangara,Chavara,Elampalloor,Eravipuram(part),Chengamanadau,Karunagappally,Kollam,Kottamkara,Kulasekharapuram,
Mayyanad,Meenad,Nedumpana,Neendakara,Oachira,Panayam,Panmana,Paravur,Perinad,Poothakkulam,Thazhuthala,Thodiyoor,
Thrikkadavoor,Thrikkaruva,Thrikkovilvattom,andVadakkumthala[Thevalakkara][8]

Administration
Thehistoryofthedistrict'sadministrationcanbetracedbackto1835,whentheTravancorestateconsistedof
tworevenuedivisionswithheadquartersatKollamandKottayam.WhenTravancoreandCochinwere
combinedintoTravancoreCochin,Kollamwasoneofthethreerevenuedivisions.WhenthestateofKerala
wasformedin1957,ChenkottatalukwasmergedwiththestateofMadras.Laterin1957,theCherthala,
Ambalapuzha,Mavelikara,Karthikapalli,ChengannurandThiruvallataluks(formerlyinKollamdistrict)were
unitedtoformthenewdistrictofAlappuzha.In1983,PathanamthittatalukandninevillagesofKunnathur
talukwereremovedfromKollamdistricttoformthenewPathanamthittadistrict.[9]
Lighthouse,Thangasseri,Kollam

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

Districtadministration

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Kollamdistricthassixadministrativesubdivisions(taluks):Pathanapuram(newtaluk),Punalur,Kunnathur,
Kottarakkara,KarunagappallyandKollam.Thedistrictcollector,akeyfunctionaryofthegovernment,heads
thedistrictadministration.Heorsheplaysadualrole:theagentofgovernmentandchiefadministratorofthe
district,reportingtothestategovernment.Amongothertasks,maintaininglawandorderisapriorityfor
districtcollector.ThedistrictcollectorisalsotheheadoftheLandRevenueDepartmentofthedistrict.The
districthasonerevenuedivision,withitsheadquartersatQuilon.Foradministrativepurposes,Kollamdistrict
isdividedinto6taluks,13blocks,69Panchayats,1corporation,3municipalitiesand104villages.TheKollam
CivilStationwasbuiltin1956toincorporateallgovernmentofficesinoneplace.

Policeadministration

Paravurestuary:Scenicbeautyof
backwatersandbeaches

PoliceadministrationinKollamisdividedintotwodistricts:urbanandrural.TheCityPoliceisheadedbya
CityPoliceCommissioner,anIPS(IndianPoliceService)officerwiththerankofSPitsheadquartersisat
Kollam.TheruralpoliceisheadedbytheRuralSuperintendentofPolice(SP),withitsheadquartersatKottarakkara.BothheadsreporttotheInspector
GeneralofPolice(IGP),ThiruvananthapuramRange(Kerala).
TheKollamCityPoliceisdividedintothreesubdivisions,eachunderanAssistantCommissionerofPolice(ACP):Karunagappally,Kollamand
Chathannoor.Eachsubdivisionisdividedintocircles,headedbytheCircleInspectorofPolice.Eachcircleisdividedintoanumberofpolicestations,
headedbyaSubInspectorofPolice.TheKollamRuralPoliceDistrictisdividedintotwosubdivisions,eachunderaDeputySuperintendentofPolice
(DySP):KottarakkaraandPunalur.Thereareatotalof29policestations,in13circles.KollamcitytrafficiscontrolledbytheCityTrafficPolice,with
aTrafficPoliceStationlocatedneartheAsramamGround.Kerala'sfirstcoastalpolicestationwasestablishedinNeendakara,Kollam.[10]
ThefirstpolicemuseuminIndia(theSardarVallabhbhaiPatelPoliceMuseum)hasalargecollectionofpoliceartefactsandrarephotographs.The
museumhasaroomdedicatedtoofficerskilledinthelineofduty.[10]Theforensicsectionhasalargecollectionofphotographs.Themuseumis
locatedattheKollamEastPoliceStation.

Taluks
Kollamisadministrativelydividedinto6taluks.TheyareKollam,Karunagappally,Kunnathur,Kottarakkara,PunalurandPathanapuram,whichare
subdividedinto104villages.Thetahsildaristherevenueofficialinchargeofeachtaluk.
Taluk
KollamTaluk

Headquarters
Kollam

KarunagappallyTaluk Karunagappally
KunnathurTaluk

Sasthamkotta

KottarakkaraTaluk

Kottarakkara

PunalurTaluk

Punalur

PathanapuramTaluk

Pathanapuram

Municipalities
TherearefourmunicipalitiesinKollamDistrict.Punalur,Paravur,KarunagappallyandKottarakkaraarethemunicipalities.Thereisalongstanding
demandforupgradingPathanapuram&Anchalpanchayathsintomunicipalstatus.

LokSabhaconstituencies
KollamdistricthasthreeLokSabha(lowerhouse)constituencies.TheyincludetheChavara,Kundara,Eravipuram,Kollam,Chathannoor,
ChadayamangalamandPunalurassemblyconstituencies.WhiletheKunnathur,KottarakkaraandPathanapuramconstituenciesareintheMavelikkara
LokSabhaconstituency,theKarunagapallyassemblyconstituencyisintheAlappuzhaLokSabhaconstituency.

Politics
Kollamdistrictelects11representatives(MLAs)totheKeralaLegislativeAssembly.Thedistricthasarichpoliticalhistorythepartyreceivingthe
majorityofvotesinKollamhasalwaysgoneontoformthegovernmentinKerala.KollamdistricthasthreeministersintheKeralagovernment.
KollamisatraditionalstrongholdforCPI(M)ledleftdemocraticfront.CurrentlyLDFhas11seatsintheassemblyfromKollamdistrict.
LeaderslikeT.M.Varghese,C.KesavanandKumbalathuSankuPillaiwerethearchitectsoffreedommovementinKollam.R.Shanker,whoplayeda
prominentroleasaneducationalistandsocialreformist,hailsfromKolam.ThedistrictgavebirthtowellknownfreedomfighterslikeChandiranKali
ambi(KadakkalManthri)andFrancoRaghavanPillai.

Culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

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Kollam,thecapitaloftheerstwhileVenad,wasagreatcentreoflearningandculture.Itattracteddistinguished
scholarsfromallpartsofsouthIndia.LeelethilakamandUnnuneeliSandesam,twooutstandingliteracyworks
ofhistoricalimportance,arecontributionsof14thcenturyKollam.ThedanceformofKathakaliinitsnew
versionofRamanattamwasthecreationofKottarakkaraThampuran,whoalsoimprovedKrishnanattamby
substitutingMalayalamforSanskrit.
MahakaviK.C.KesavaPillai,borninParavur,agiftedpoet,prosewriter,
dramatistandscholar,originatedthemusicalplayinMalayalamthroughhiswork
Sadarama.HisKesaveeyam,aMahakavyam,isofoutstandingliterary
importance.InthehistoryofMalayalammusic,hehasaprominentplaceasa
giftedcomposerofsongs.ParavoorKesavanAsan,thefoundereditorof
Sujananandini,anotherprominentliteracyfigure,wasajournalistandaprose
writerofeloquence.HisSaratchadrikaisacontributiontothestudyofAyurvedic
systemofmedicine.E.V.KrishnaPillai,anotherliteracycelebrityhasetchedhis
nameinthefieldofhumourandsatire.C.V.Kunjuraman,editorofKerala
KaumudiandMalayalarajayamwasapoet,literarycritic,prosewriterand
journalistofoutstandingdistinction.

ParavurK.CKesavaPillai
Mahakavi

Comingtomoderntimes,ElamkulamKunjanPillaiandSooranaduKunjanPillai
arenotedliteraryluminarieshailingfromthisdistrict.OyoorKochuGovinda
Pillai,andChavaraParukkuttytheKathaKaliartistsandParisViswanathanandJayapalaPanickertherenownedartists
alsobelongtothisdistrict.FamouspoetsO.N.V.Kurup,ThirunalloorKarunakaran,PunaloorBalan,novelistsK.
SurendranandA.P.Kalakkad,journalistK.Balakrishnan,actorsJayan,KottarakkaraSreedharanNairandO.Madhavan,andKadhaprasangamartist
V.SambasivanarefromKollam.
MusicDirectorParavur
G.Devarajan

Religion
Hinduism,IslamandChristianityaretheprominentreligionsinthisdistrict.

Hinduworship
Oachira,locatedinthenorthofthedistrictonNationalHighway47,isknownforitsOachiraParabrahmaTemple.[11]Oachirakaliisanannualeventat
thepadanilam(paddyfields)inthemonthofVrichikam.TheOachiraTownMasjid(mosque)andtheOachiraTemplearesituatedclosetooneanother,
asymbolofcommunalharmony.ThistempleisalsoaSabarimalaedathavalam.
TheMahaganapathi(Ganesha)TempleatKottarakara,[12]famousforitsUnniappom,isoneofthemost
veneratedGaneshatemplesinKerala.Themajorvazhipadu(offerings)oftheKottarakkaratemplearethe
Udayasthamayapooja.ThemaindeityofthistempleisShiva,butitisnowaGaneshatemple.[12]Edakkidom
ThettikkunilSreeMahaDeviTemple,Themajor"vazhipadu"oftheEdakkidomtemplearetheAdamoodal,
Kadumpayasam.
AnandavalleswaramisanothermajortempleinKollamneartheDistrictjail.HerebothMahadeva(facingwest)
andDevi(facingeast)areworshipped.Inadditiontothem,Ganesh,Ayyappa,SreeKrishnaandalsoMurugaare
worshipped.WecouldfindHanumanSwamyalsobeingworshippedthere.
KottarakkaraSreeMahaganapathi
Kshethram

Aryankavu,intheWesternGhats,istheeasternmostpointinthedistrictontheNationalHighway.Oneoffive
ancientAyyappatemplesissituatedheretwoothersareatAchankovilandKulathupuzhainthedistrict.
Ashram

PattazhyDeviTemple

TheguruMataAmritanandamayihasherspiritualabodeontheshoresoftheLaccadiveSeaatAmritapuri,[13]
intheKarunagappallitalukofKollamdistrict.Parayakadavu,acoastalvillagenearKarunagapally,isthe
birthplaceofMataAmritanandamayiandherheadquarters.TheThirumullavaromTempleisanotherwell
knowntempleinKollam,situatedneartheLaccadiveSeawherethousandscameannuallyfortheVavuBali.

Christianworship
TheRomanCatholicDioceseofQuilonorKollamisthefirstCatholicdioceseinIndiainthestateofKerala.Firsterectedon9August1329andre
erectedon1September1886,thevibrantCatholiccommunityofQuilon(Kollam)cherishesitsuniquehistoryofbeingfoundedbySt.Thomasthe
ApostleofJesus,nurturedbythegreatapostlesSt.BartolommeoandSt.FrancisXavierandfosteredbythesaintlymartyrslikeArchbishopJordanus
CatalanideSeveracandGiovanniMarignoli.Accordingtotradition,St.ThomastheApostleestablishedsevenchurchesalongthesouthernpartof
westcoastofIndia,andQuilon(pronouncedKoylon)isthesecondinthelistoftheabovesevenchurches.

Muslimworship

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

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Sheikhmasjidkarunagapally'ochirajumaathmasjid'kottukadujumamasjidchavara'Valiyapalli,
Janakappuram,JumaMasjidKolloorvila,JummaAthMasjid,Thattamala,NMuslimJummaAthPalli,
KalamalaPalli(Karuva),MuthirapparambuPalli(Kalamala),MuthirapparambuandSiyavathummoduPalli
(Kilikolloor)arethebestknownmosques.

Health
KollamhasafairlywelldevelopednetworkofmedicalfacilitiesatthefootofthemountainsoutsideKollam
alsobelievedtoasupposedplaceforthefountainofyouthaccordingtoTheTravelsofSirJohnMandeville.
NewcathedralinThangassery,Kollam
ThehealthcaresectorofKollamhaschangedalotinthepast
decade.Oncetherewerenomedicalcollegesinthedistrict,butit
nowhasatotalofthreemedicalcolleges.Twoareunder
considerationoftheofficials(oneisaKeralaGovernmentMedicalCollegeandtheotheroneisValiyath
InstituteofMedicalSciences,Karunagappally).TheoneandonlyESImedicalcollegeinKeralaissituatedin
theKollamdistrict.[14]AzeeziaMedicalCollegeandDentalCollegeinMeeyannoorandTravancoreMedicity
MedicalCollegeinMevarambypassjunctionarethetwoothermedicalcollegesinthedistrict.
EntranceofParavurTalukHospital

ThefamousSamadinVitroFertilization(IVF)hospitalhasabranchinKollam.PadmavathiMedical
FoundationandHospitalisaspecialityhearthospital,situatedinSasthamkotta.AlotofChristianMissionary
HospitalsarethereinthedistrictlikeBishopBenzigerHospitalandHolyCrossHospital,Kollam,CSIHospitalandChristurajHospital,Kottarakkara
etc.ThedistrictishavingGovernmentTalukhospitalsinevery30kilometredistance.TheimportantTalukHospitalsaresituatedinKollam,
Kottarakkara,Paravur,Punalur,KarunagappallyandSasthamkotta.

AzeeziaInstituteofMedicalScienceandResearch,Kollam

Transportation
Road
Kollamiswellconnectedtoallpartsofthestatebybusandtrainservice.[15][16]Itisalsoconnectedto
neighbouringstatesbyfrequentbusserviceoperatedbytheKeralaStateRoadTransportCorporation(KSRTC)
andIndianRailways.[15][16]ThesearetheKSRTCDepots&SubDepots&OperatingCentres(OC)inthe
district:
Kollam
Chathannoor
Karunagappally
Ochira
Punalur
Kottarakkara
Chadayamangalam
Pathanapuram
Sasthamkotta
Aryankavu(OS)
Kulathupuzha(OS)

ViewofKollamKSRTCBusStation
fromAshtamudiLake

ThedistrictiswellconnectedtootherpartsofKeralaandIndiathroughtheNationalHighwaysNH66(earlierNH47),NH183(earlierNH220),
NH744(earlierNH208).ThestatehighwayMainCentralRoad(MCRoad)andPunalurPathanamthittaMuvattupuzhaMainEasternHighway
connectsKollamwithotherdistricts.IntrastateroadtransportationisservedbytheKSRTC,TamilNaduStateTransportandKarnatakaStateTransport
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

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Companies.KSRTCInterstatebusserviceoperatesfromtheKollamandKottarakkaraKSRTCbusstations.
KollamzoneofKSRTCisnowthesecondmostrevenuegeneratingzoneinKerala.[17]

Rail
KollamJunctionrailwaystation(QLN)istheoneandonlyrailheadinthedistrict.Atotalof128short&long
distantservices(includingweekly)and10servicesofMEMUarerunningthroughKollamJunctionrailway
station.AmostmodernMEMUmaintenanceshedisworkingintherailwaystationpremisesofKollamcity.In
additiontothat,therearesomeothermajorrailwaystationsinthedistrictnamelyKarunagappally(KPY),
Paravur(PVU),Punalur(PUU),Sasthamkotta(STKT),Kottarakkara(KKZ),Kundara(KUV)andMayyanad
(MYY).

KollamKSRTCBusStation

Thedistricthasagoodrailwaynetwork,with25stationsandabout132kilometres(82mi)oftrack.Kollam
districtboaststherecordofhavingmostnumbersofrailwaystationsinthestate.[18]
Ochira

RailwaystationsinKollamDistrict
Karunagapally Sasthamkotta

Munrothuruthu Perinad

KollamJunction

Eravipuram

Mayyanad

Paravur

Kilikollur

Chandanathoppe Kundara

KundaraEast

Ezhukone

Kuri

Auvaneeswaram Punalur

Edamon

Ottakkal

Kazhuthurutty Edappalayam

Kottarakkara

EntranceofKollamJunctionrailway
station

Thenmala
Aryankavu[18][19][20]

TrainsfromhereconnectthecityofKollamtomajorcitiesofIndia,includingNewDelhi,Bangalore,Chennai,
Indore,Bhopal,Hyderabad,Thiruvananthapuram,Mumbai,Madurai,Vizag,Jammu,Howrah,Guwahati,
Madgaon,Itarsi,Hubli,Ahmedabad,Kanyakumari,Gwalior,Nagpur,Pune,Kota,Bhubaneshwar,Gorakhpur,
Kochi,Kozhikode,Amritsar,Vijayawada,Coimbatore,ChandigarhandMangalore.Therearealsopassenger
servicesrunninginKollamThiruvananthapuram,KollamErnakulamandKollamPunalurroutes.[21]

Air

ParavurRailwayStation

AsramamAirportinKollamCitywasthefirstairportofKerala.ThefirstflighttoKeralalandedinKollamAirport.Thefirstamphibianaircraft
(seaplane)ofKeralaalsolandedinKollam.HoweverKollamdistricthasnoairportrightnow.ThenearestairportisTrivandrumInternationalAirport,
about65kilometres(40mi)away.[22]DailydomesticflightservicesareavailabletomajorcitieslikeMumbai,Chennai,Delhi,BangaloreandKochi.
InternationalflightservicesconnectingtoSharjah,Dubai,AbuDhabi,Bahrain,Kuwait,Muscat,Male,Doha,SingaporeandColomboareavailable
fromhere.AprojectisunderplanningstagetobuildanairstripinPathanapuramareaofKollamdistrict.

Water
Thedistrictishavingafairlygoodnetworkofwaterways.TheStateWaterTransportDepartmentoperatesboat
servicestoWestKallada,MunroeIslandandAlappuzha.DoubledeckerluxuryboatsrunbetweenKollamand
Allepeydaily.Luxuryboats,operatedbyGovernmentandprivateowners,operatefromthemainboatjetty
duringthetouristseason.Thewestcoastcanalsystem,whichstartsfromThiruvananthapuraminthesouthand
endsatHosdurginthenorth,passesthroughParavur,thecityofKollamandKarunagappallytaluk.The
ThiruvananthapuramShornurcanal,whichformsapartoftheThiruvananthapuramHosdurgsystem,runsa
distanceofabout62km.TheothercanalsystemsincludetheParavurKayal,KollamCanalandChavara
canal.[23][24]Thewaterwaysarepopularattractionsandscenictouristdestinationsinthearea.TheKeralaState
WaterTransportDepartment(KSWTD)hasanoperatingcentreneartheKSRTCbusstand.[25][26]Touristsmay
hiremotorisedcountryboatsandhouseboatswithamenities(KettavulaminMalayalam)tocruisealongthe
waterways.[27]

KollamDalavapuramboatservice

Sports
Kollamdistrictisveryfamousbecauseofitsinteresttohockey.Thedistrictisgivingmaximumimportancetohockey,cricketandfootball.Kollamis
hometoanumberoflocalcricket,hockeyandfootballteamsparticipatingindistrict,statelevelandzonalmatches.Ahockeystadiumwithmost
modernfacilitiesandinternationalhockeyturfisunderconstructioninthecity.ThelandfortheconstructionofstadiumistakenoverfromthePostal
DepartmentatAsramam,Kollam.LalBahadurShastriStadiumisthefamousstadiuminthedistrict,situatedattheheartofKollamcity.Thatisa
multipurposestadium,hostedthesportseventslikeRenjiTrophy,SanthoshTrophyandNationalGamesmanytimes.[28]GroundslikeAsramam
MaidanamandPeerankiMaidanaminthecityarealsousedforsportsevents,practisingandwarmupmatches.TheLalBahadurShastriStadium
hostedthe35thNationalGamesofIndia.TheconstructionworksoftheInternationalHockeystadiumareinfullpaceforthesamereason.
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KeralaFirstClassMatchesplayedonLalBahadurShastri
Stadium,Kollam(Quilon)
Year
Date
Tournament
TeamsPlayed
1979 3November RanjiTrophy1979/80 KeralavsAndhra
1988 10December RanjiTrophy1988/89 KeralavsGoa
1988 17December RanjiTrophy1988/89 KeralavsKarnataka
Therearesomanygrounds,ministadiumsinthedistrictcapabletohostthedistrictandstatelevelmatches.

WesternentranceofLalBahadur
ShastriStadium,Kollam

Education
Accordingtothe2001census,Kollamhasanoverallliteracyrateof91.18percentthemaleliteracyrateis
94.43percentandthefemalerateis88.18percent.Thesestatisticsareconsistentwiththestateaverage,which
ishigherthanthenationalaverage.[2]
Kollamhasanumberofprivatelyownedandstateownededucationalinstitutions.
InEngineeringfieldtherewasfourGovt.EngineeringCollegeandoneAidedCollege.
FirstEngineeringCollegewasTKMCE

EntranceofInternationalHockey
Stadium,Kollam

SecondCollege:CollegeofEngineeringKarunagappally(UnitofIHRD,Govt.ofKerala)KnownasCEK
St.Joseph'sConventSchoolatTuetreceivesnogovernmentaidandhasthelargestnumberofstudentsinthe
worldforaschoolofitstype(over12,000).ThestaterunschoolistheGovernmentModelHigherSecondary
SchoolforBoys,theoldestschoolinKollam.Thedistricthasatotalof128educationalinstitutionsunderthe
DepartmentofHigherEducation.TheMeenakshiVilasamGovernmentVocationalHigherSecondarySchool
(MVGVHSS)isoneoftheoldestschoolsinthedistrict,withover1,000students.
S.N.Polytechnicisanodalpolytechnicinthedistrict.SNPTCwas
foundedin1957bytheSriNarayanaTrusts,Kollamundertheinitiative
ofitssecretary(R.Sankar,formerchiefministerofKerala).
KollamhasonekendriyavidyalayaandthreeotherCBSEschools.
SchoolsinKeralafollowboththeEnglishandMalayalammethodsof
education.Kollamhastenprofessionalengineeringcollegesandtwo
SNPolytechnicCollege(SNPTC),
medicalcolleges.Ithas17artsandsciencecolleges,11teachertraining
Kottiyam,in2008
collegesand7nursingschools.TheTKMCollegeofEngineeringhas
beenattheforefrontofengineeringeducationinthestateforthepast
fivedecades.AlsoGovernmentEngineeringCollegesLikeCollegeofEngineeringKarunagappally(CEK)also
performingkeyroleinEngineeringeducationinKollamOvertheyears,theTKMCollegeofEngineeringand
CEKhasbeenonthedeclineandisindangerofanoofprivateengineeringinstitutesusurpingitspositionas
numberoneandnumbertwo.

TKMEngineeringCollege,Kollam

MVGovt.VHSSPeroor,Kollam,
coveringtwoacres

Industry
Kollamdistrictismoderatelyindustrialised.Twogovernmententerprises(theIndianRareEarthsLimitedin
ChavaraandParvathiMills)areamongtheindustriesinKollam.KeralaCeramicsLtd.(Kundara),[29]Kerala
ElectricalandAlliedEngineeringCompany(Kundara),KeralaPremoPipeFactory(Chavara),KeralaMinerals
andMetalsLimited(Chavara),UnitedElectricalIndustriesKollamandKeralaAgroFruitProductsinPunalur
arestategovernmentownedcompanies.PrivatesectorindustriesincludeThomasStephen&Co.(Kollam),
Floorco(Pozhikkara,Paravur),CooperativeSpinningMill(Chathannur)andPunalurPaperMills(Punalur).
Nearly2,000SSIenterpriseshavebeenregisteredinthedistrict.

Chinesenetsonthebanksof
AshtamudiLake

KeralaMineralsandMetals(KMML),aGovernmentofKeralaundertakinglocatedonthebeachesof
Shankaramangalam(Chavara),produceshighgradechemicalcompoundsoftitaniumsuchastitaniumdioxide
pigment,hafniumore,sillimaniteandmonazite.Thesechemicalsareusedinpaints,weldingelectrodes,
ceramicsandfoundries.[30]

IndianRareEarthsLimited,aGovernmentofIndiaundertakingundertheDepartmentofAtomicEnergywhichincorporatedon18August1950,has
fourproductionplants:MineralsDivisionsatChavaraandManavalakurichiandanOSCOMandRareEarthsDivisionatAluva.IRELisapioneerin
theminingandseparationofheavyminerals(suchasilmenite,rutile,zircon,sillimanite,garnetandmonazite)fromsand.[31]IRELalsoconducts
researchanddevelopmentinminingandminerals.

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UnitedElectricalIndustriesLtd.(UNILEC)isapublicsectorcompanyunderthegovernmentofKerala.This
ISO9001:2000certifiedcompanyproduceselectromechanicalmetersfordomesticandindustrialuse.This
company,uniqueinKerala,canproduceonehundredthousandmeterspermonth.[32]

TechnoparkKollam
TheTechnoparkKollam(abusinesspark)providingdedicatedhighspeedlineswithitsownuninterrupted
sourceofpowersupplyisnearingcompletiononthebankofKanjiracodeLakeinKundara.Theparklocatedin
a40acre(16ha)SpecialEconomicZone(SEZ)isuniqueinthatitoffersaccessthroughthebackwatersof
KeralafromKollamorfromAllepeyfortheadventurous.Theseidyllicsurroundsareexpectedtogenerate
around10,000jobswithinitsfirstthreeyearsofoperation.Aniconicbuildinghasbeenconstructedonthelake,
alongwithaboatterminalforcommuterboatsfromotherpartsofKollamcity.

Womenatasmallscalecoir(coconut
fibre)spinningunitatKollam

Constructionstatusis:
SEZNotificationissued
Thesiteofficeisopen
Workonthecanalembankmenthasbegun
WorkhasbegunonthefirstphaseoftheITbuilding(100,000squarefeet(9,300m2))
Landdevelopment(compoundwall,internalroads)isinprogress
Theworkorderfora110kVsubstationhasbeenawardedtoSiemensIndiaLtd.
Workonthewatersupplyanddistributionsystemisinprogress

Cashewindustry
Thecashewindustryiscentralisedinthisdistrict.Kollamisapprovedbythecentralgovernmentasa"centreofcashewindustry".Mostworkersinthis
industryarewomenamongthem,amajoritycomesfromthepoorersectionsofthesociety.Thereareseveralcashewprocessingunitsinthedistrict.
TheKeralaStateCashewDevelopmentCorporationLtd.,aGovernmentofKeralaundertaking,hasitsheadquartersinKollamandservesasamodel
agencyforthecashewprocessingindustry.Thecorporationhas30cashewfactoriesandemploysmorethan20,000workers.Anothergovernment
organisationinthisfieldisCAPEX,whichispartofthecooperativesectorandhas10cashewfactories.[33]Coirproduction,handloomindustry,clay
andwoodbasedindustriescontributetotheindustrialhealthoftheregion.[34]

Forestsandwildlife
AccordingtoGovernmentofKeralaestimates81,438hectares(314.43sqmi)oflandareunderforestcover,mainlyintheeasternportionofthe
district(includingtheThenmala,PunalurandaportionoftheAchencoilforestdivisions).TheThenmalaRange,AryankavuRangeandShendurney
SanctuarycomprisetheThenmaladivisionandtheAchencoil,KallarandKanayarRangesmakeuptheAchencoildivision.ThePathanapuramand
AnchalRangesconstitutethePunalurdivision.
TheShendurunywildlifesanctuary,66kilometres(41mi)fromKollam,issituatedonthesouthernpartoftheWesternGhats(850'and855'N
775'and7715'E)inthePathanapuramtalukofthedistrict.[35]Thename"Shenduruny"isderivedfromthenameofatreespecieslocallycalled
"Shenkuruny"or"Chenkuruny"(Glutatravancorica),atreemainlyfoundinthisarea.Anartificiallakeofabout26squarekilometres(10sqmi)has
developedfollowingconstructionofadamacrosstheKalladaRiver.RemnantsofStoneAgeculturefromalargecavesituatedatthenorthwesternpart
oftheShendurunyRiverwereexcavatedfromthissanctuary.[35]TheseremainsbelongtotheMesolithicperiod.
Thistropicalrainforesthasawidevarietyofwildlife,andsomeendangeredspeciesarefoundhere.SpeciesfoundinthesanctuaryincludeTiger,
bonnetandliontailedmacaques,Nilgirilangur,gaur(orIndianbison),sambardeer,muntjac(orbarkingdeer),IndianSpottedChevrotain(ormouse
deer),wildboar,Indianelephantanddifferentspeciesofsquirrels,suchastheIndiangiantandIndianpalmsquirrels.[35]

Agriculture
Thedistricthasatotalcultivatedareaof218,267hectares(842.73sqmi).Paddy,tapioca,coconut,rubber,
pepper,banana,mangoandcashewsaretheprominentcrops.Theaverageperfamilyholdingoffarmlandis
0.21hectares(2,100m2).70percentofthedistrict'slabourforceisengagedinagricultureoralliedactivities.
KollamishistoricallyknownforCashewnutcultivationandishometoanumberofcashewnutfactories.
However,onanalysingtheareaoflastfewyears,itisseenthattheareaofcashewcultivationiscontinuously
decreasinginthedistrict.Kollamdistrictoccupiesthefirstpositionintheproductionoftapiocaandtuber
(colocasiaandyam)inthestate.
CheckdamacrosstheKalladaRiver

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AgriculturalproductioninKollamdistrict
Products Areaundercultivation(ha) Production(intonnes)
Rice

11,457

24,204

Pepper

10,633

3,235

Ginger

612

1,648

Cashewnut 4,663

3,043

Tapioca

24,065

556,140

Coconut

71,310

411million

Arecanut

2,502

1,710

Rubber

36,797

48,386

Irrigation
Twomajorrivers,theKalladaandIthikkara,flowthroughKollam.TheKalladaIrrigationProject(KIP)uses
waterfromtheKalladaforirrigation.TheprojectconsistsofadamatThenmala,fromwhichwaterisdiverted
forirrigation.

Fishing
ThewesternportionofKollamisborderedbytheLaccadiveSea.Kollam'scoastlineis37.3kilometres
(23.2mi),6.3percentofKerala'stotalcoastline.NeendakaraandSakthikulangaraareimportantfishing
villages.Thereareanestimated26villageswhoselivelihooddependsentirelyonfishing.Cheriazheekkal,
KalladaRiver
Alappad,Pandarathuruthu,Puthenthura,Neendakara,Thangasseri,EravipuramandParavoorareamongthe
prominentfishingvillages.[36]OnethirdofKerala'sfishproduction(including60percentofitsprawncatch)is
contributedbyKollam,whoseaveragefishproductionisestimatedat5,275tonnes.Nearly3,000mechanisedboatsoperateoutofitsfishing
harbour.[36]

Animalhusbandry
KollamdistricthasoneofthelargestlivestockpopulationsinKerala.Cattlearerearedchieflyfordairyfarming.Accordingtothe2000animalcensus,
Kollamhasanestimatedpopulationof182,434cows,6,162buffalo,131,714goatsand1,034pigs.Inpoultry,thedistrictranksthirdinKerala.

Tourism
PalaruviFalls,Thenmala(forestsandreservoir),theAgasthyamalaiBiosphereReserve,Ashtamudi(backwater)
andbeachesatKollam,ThirumullavaramandThangasseryarescenicareas.
AshramamTouristVillageisawellknowntouristdestinationinKollamcitythetouristvillageislocatedon
thebanksofAshtamudiLake.AshramamisahuboftourismactivitiesinKollam,andtheDistrictTourism
PromotionCouncil(DTPC)officeislocatedwithinthevillage.
TheAsramamMaidan(Ashramamground),adjacenttothetouristvillage,isthelargestopenspacewithina
Keralamunicipalcorporation.Itisusedforevents,sports,asahelipad,forKollamPooramandbydriving
schools.Itcoversover60acres(24ha)inanoval.

Thirteenringbridge,Punalur

ThefirstcommunitytourismprograminthestateisbeingestablishedontheMunroethuruthislands.Backwater
tourismisanactivityenjoyedinKollamAshtamudiLake,Paravur,MunroeIsland,andAlumkadavuarethe
mainbackwaterdestinations.Accommodationisinresortsandonhouseboats.
Thenmala,located66kilometres(41mi)eastofKollam,isthefirstecotourismprojectinIndiaandrunbythe
ThenmalaEcotourismPromotionSociety.[37][38][39]
KollamwastheseatoftheDesinganadkings.Kottarakaraiswellknownastheplacewhereanewversionof
theclassicaldanceformofKathakaliwasconceived.ItwasalsothecapitaloftheElayidathSwaroopam.
Kundaraisknownforthe1812proclamationagainsttheBritishbyVeluThampiDalawa.[34]

ThenmalaDam

Alappadvillage,locatedontheseashore,wasimpactedbythe2004IndianOceanearthquakeandtsunami.VarkalaBeach(alsoknownasPapanasham)
is26kilometres(16mi)southofKollam.TheDuriyodanaTempleisinKunnathurTaluk.TheSakthikulangaraDharmaSasthaTempleSreeAyyappa
SwamyTempleisknownforitsUtsavaminthemonthofMakaram(betweenmidJanuaryandmidFebruary).

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KottarakkaraPalace

KollamdistrictWikipedia

Polachira,inChirakkaraGramapanchayat,isasightseeingdestination.
TheAnathavalamisnearherewhereonecanseedomesticelephants,
touchandridethem.MannathipparaisatPolachira,4kilometres
(2.5mi)southofChathannoor.SasthamcottaLake,about19kilometres
(12mi)fromKollam,isthelargestfreshwaterlakeinKeralaanda
domestictouristdestination.[40]JetayuPara,alargeboulder,islocated
inChadayamangalamitisnamedforamythicalcharacterinthe
Ramayana.ItisbelievedthatJatayufellhere,afterhisfailedattemptto
stopRavana.[40][41]
Thekkumbhagambridge,Paravur

KollamBeach

SuspensionbridgeatThenmala

KollamBeachisalsoknownasMahatmaGandhiBeach.Itisone
amongthetwinbeachesofthecity.TheotheroneisThirumullavaram
beach.KollamBeachissituatedatadistanceof2kmfromKollamcity.
ItisoneofthetopcrowdpullingbeachesinKerala.Thebeachalsohas
aparkofinternationalstandard.TheMahatmaGandhiParkwas
inauguratedonJanuary1,1961bythethenVicePresidentofIndia,
ZakirHussein.KollamCorporationhadstartedtheconstructionofa
marineaquariumatKollamBeachwhichisfirstofitskindinthestate
ofKerala.HarbourEngineeringDepartmentisconstructingthe
aquariumattheeasternsideofthebeach.

Seealso
Kollam
KollamJunctionRailwayStation
KollamMEMUShed
KollamPort
AsramamMaidan
MMNSSCollegeKottiyam
FatimaMataNationalCollege
Karunagappallirailwaystation
Paravur
ParavurRailwayStation
EducationalInstitutionsinKollamDistrict
KollamBeach

AneveningviewofArabianSea
fromKollamBeach

ParavurKayal
Valacode
President'sTrophyBoatRace
Kollampooram
MuslimMappila
ListofSreeNarayanaInstitutions
ListofHindutemplesinKerala
RomanCatholicDioceseofQuilon
UniversityofKerala
ProtectedareasofKerala

References
1."KollamDistrictLevelStatistics2011"(PDF).ecostat.kerala.gov.in.2012.
Retrieved1January2014.
2.Covtofkeralawebsite,kollampage(http://www.kerala.gov.in/knowkerala/k
lm.htm)
3."OfficialWebPortalofGovernmentofKerala".Retrieved8March2010.
4."MSNWeather".Retrieved8March2010.
5."DistrictCensus2011".Census2011.co.in.2011.Retrieved30September
2011.
6.USDirectorateofIntelligence."CountryComparison:Population".
Retrieved1October2011."Kuwait2,595,62"
7."2010ResidentPopulationData".U.S.CensusBureau.Archivedfromthe
originalon19October2013.Retrieved30September2011."Nevada
2,700,551"
8."KollamcitypopulationCensus".census2011.co.in.Retrieved16December
2013.
9.Administrationpageofquilon.com(http://www.quilon.com/Html/administra
ion.htm)
10.kollampoliceofficialwebsite(http://www.kollampolice.com/)
11.Oachirawebsite(http://www.ochira.com/)
12.Officialwebsiteofkottarakkaraganapathytemple(http://www.kottarakarate
mple.org/)
13.Amrithapuriwebsite(http://www.amritapuri.org/)
14.Title=ESIMedicalCollegeInaugurated(http://www.newindianexpress.co
m/states/kerala/ESICMedicalCollegeInaugurated/2013/12/22/article19590
32.ece)
15.SouthernRailway(http://www.southernrailway.gov.in)
16.KSRTCofficialwebsite(http://www.keralartc.com)
17.KollamKSRTCZone(http://i1173.photobucket.com/albums/r599/ArunVR/
Kollam_Zone.jpg)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kollam_district

18.Kollamrailwayinformation(http://kollam.nic.in/rail.html)
19."56331/PunalurKollamPassenger".IndiaRailInfo.Retrieved
10November2016.
20."66309/ErnakulamKollamMEMU".IndiaRailInfo.Retrieved
10November2016.
21."KollamJunctionrailwaystation".IndiaRailInfo.Retrieved10November
2016.
22.ThiruvananthapuramInternationalairport(http://www.trivandrumairport.co
m)
23."IntrueTravancoretradition".ExpressTravelWorld.Retrieved
10November2016.
24."KollamCanal".Retrieved10November2016.
25."TransportKollamCorporation".KollamMunicipalCorporation.
Retrieved10November2016.
26."ImportantplacesenrouteKSWTD".KSWTD.Retrieved10November
2016.
27."JhankarServiceOpenedTheNewIndianExpress".TheNewIndian
Express.Retrieved10November2016.
28.StadiumsinIndiaKCACricketArchive(http://cricketarchive.com/Kerala/G
rounds/1095_f.html)
29.http://www.keralaceramics.com
30.KMMLofficialwebsite(http://kmml.com/)
31.IRELofficialwebsite(http://www.irel.gov.in/)
32.OfficialwebsiteofUNILEC(http://www.unilecindia.com/)
33.http://www.cashewcorporation.com
34.http://www.kollamcity.com
35.keraprdsite(http://www.prd.kerala.gov.in/shenduruny.htm)
36.Keralamatsyafed(http://www.kerala.gov.in/knowkerala/klm.htm)
37.ThenmalaEcotourismwebsite(http://www.thenmalaecotourism.com/)
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38.ThenmalaEcotourismnewsHinduDaily(http://www.hindu.com/2006/11/2
9/stories/2006112907880400.htm)
39.ThenmalaEcotourismnewsHinduDaily(http://www.hinduonnet.com/2008/
01/14/stories/2008011456640600.htm)

40.tourismpageofKollamofficialwebsite(http://kollam.nic.in/Tou.html).
41.JatayuparaarticlefromHinduDaily(http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/08/0
7/stories/2006080700160300.htm)t.

Externallinks
Officialwebsite(http://www.kollam.nic.in)
Officialtourismwebsite(http://www.dtpckollam.com)

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