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Outline of Jar Testing for Pilot Plant

January 2011 Lower Seletar

Objective :
To determine the suitable coagulant dosages. Coagulant to be tested are :
2

Polyaluminium Chloride ( 10% Al O ) coagulant as per specifications;

Aluminium sulphate (as 17% Al O ) alternative coagulant as per

specifications.
For the optimum jar test for each chemical, please analyse the filtrate water
for these additional parameters
i) iron
ii) manganese
Remarks: The sample of chemicals used by the laboratory for the jar tests
should be obtained from the chemicals supplier to the pilot plant.

Outline Jar Testing Methods


1.0

Determination of the most suitable Coagulant and Optimum

Dosage
1.1

Wide range jar test


To determine the range of the coagulant required, conduct a wide
range test for PAC and aluminium sulphate as follows:
Flash mixing

1 minute at 300 rpm ( maximum jar

test )
Flocculation time :

2 minutes at 100 rpm


7 minutes at 50-60 rpm

10 minutes at 30 rpm (minimum speed)


Jar no.
Liquid PAC (mg/l)

No: 1

No: 2

No: 3

No: 4

No: 5

No: 6

30

35

40

45

50

55

Observation
Floc type
Floc size (mm)
Floc

settling

time

(minutes)
Supernatant quality
Resultant pH
Colour apparent (hazen)
Turbidity (NTU)
Aluminium (mg/l)
Alkalinity

as

CaCO

(mg/l)
Filtered Water Quality
Colour

apparent

(Hazen)
Turbidity (NTU)
Aluminium (mg/l)
Iron (mg/l)
Manganese (mg/l)
e.g. Say the best coagulant dosage is around 40 mg/l for PAC , and
50 mg/l of aluminium sulphate
Note: Both chemicals should be tested as the Specifications call for
either one.

1.2

To determine Optimum Dosage for each coagulant

To further refine and determine the best coagulant dosage required, repeat
the Jar test using PAC and aluminium sulphate with a closer range this time.

Flash mixing :

1 minute at 300 rpm ( maximum jar test )

Flocculation time :

2 minutes at 100 rpm


7 minutes at 50-60 rpm
10 minutes at 30 rpm (minimum speed)

Jar no.
Liquid PAC (mg/l)

No: 1

No: 2

No: 3

No: 4

No: 5

No: 6

37

38

39

40

41

42

Observation
Floc type
Floc size (mm)
Floc

settling

time

(minutes)
Supernatant quality
Resultant pH
Colour

apparent

(hazen)
Turbidity (NTU)
Aluminium (mg/l)
Alkalinity

as

CaCO

(mg/l )
Filtered Water Quality
Colour

apparent

(Hazen)
Turbidity (NTU)
Aluminium (mg/l)
Iron (mg/l)
Manganese (mg/l)
e.g. Say. Optimum dosage: PAC 38mg/l, alum sulphate 48 mg/l

2.0

Sulphuric Acid Chemical Dosing (if necessary)

2.1

Determination of the Sulphuric Acid Dosages ( if necessary)

Repeat the jar test using the optimum coagulant dosage as determined by
the sections above e.g. PAC 38 mg/l l and vary the sulphuric acid dosing
Flash mixing

1 minute at 300 rpm ( add sulphuric acid )

Approx 1 minute at 300 rpm ( add PAC)


Flocculation time :

2 minutes at 100 rpm


6 minutes at 50-60 rpm
10 minutes at 30 rpm (minimum speed)

Jar no.
Sulphuric acid (mg/l)
Liquid PAC (mg/l)

No: 1

No: 2

No: 3

No: 4

No: 5

No: 6

10

20

30

40

50

38

38

38

38

38

38

8.0

7.5

7.0

6.6

6.0

5.5

Observation
Floc type
Floc size (mm)
Floc settling time
(minutes)
Supernatant quality
Resultant pH (e.g.)
Turbidity (NTU)
Colour

apparent

(hazen)
Residual aluminium
Alkalinity
Filtered Water Quality
Colour (Hazen)
Turbidity (NTU)
Aluminium (mg/l)
Manganese (mg/l)
Iron (mg/l)

e.g.

Say the optimum pH of 6.6 requiring 30 mg/l of sulphuric acid for

PAC

Conclude if PAC, or aluminium sulphate is a better coagulant base on the floc


size, type, settling time and supernatant quality etc. and the required
sulphuric acid dosages.