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Abacus

The word is derived from the Greek word 'abax', meaning calculating board or
calculating table. The first Chinese Abacus was invented around 500 B.C.
The Abacus, as we know it today, was used in China around 1300 A.D.
John Napier & Napier's Bones
In the early 17th century, John Napier, a Scottish mathematician, invented another
calculating tool. It used marked strips of wood or bone, side by side, to multiply
and divide. This tool became known as "Napier's Bones."

1642-Biaise Pascal & The Pascaline

1673-Wilhelm Gottfried Liebniz and The Stepped


Reckoner
In 1673, German inventor Gottfried Liebniz perfected the Liebniz Calculator.

1801-Joseph-Marie Jacquard & the Jacquard's


Loom
In 1801, Jacquard invented the Jacquard loom.

Charles Babbage & his Engines


n the early 1820s, an English mathematician by the name charles Babbage,
designed a computing machine called the Difference Engine. This machine was to
be used in the calculating and printing of simple math tables. In the 1830s, he
designed a second computing machine called the Analytical Engine. This machine
was to be used in calculating complicated problems by following a set of
instructions.

Analytical Engine
The Analytical Engine was a mechanical computer that can solve any
mathematical problem. It uses punch-cards similar to those used by the Jacquard
loom and can perform simple conditional operations.

Difference Engine
However, neither of these machines were ever finished because the technology at
the time was not advanced enough, and both of his projects lacked financial
funding. The computing machines made in the 1900s, and even those today are
based on the designs of the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. This is
why charles Babbage is known as the "Father of Computers."

Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace

Electro-mechanical Machines
1890-Herman Hollerith & his Tabulating Machine

1930-Vannevar Bush and the Differential Analyzer


In 1930, Vannevar Bush introduced the first electronic "computer" in the United
States.

1944-Howard Aiken and the Mark I


In 1944, IBM paid engineers to build Aiken's machine. Called the Mark I, it was
made up of 78 adding machines and desk calculators that were connected by
almost 500 miles of wires. In one second, the Mark I could add three eight-digit
numbers; for example, 12,345,678 plus 90,123,456 plus 78,901,234. It could print
out its results on punched cards or on an electric typewriter.

A Colossus to solve an Enigma


The First Generation: 1945-1956 (The Vacuum
Tube Years)
The Second Generation: 1956-1963 (The Era of
the Transistor)
The Third Generation: 1965-1970 (Integrated
Circuits-Miniaturizing the Computer)
The Fourth Generation: 1971-Today (The
Microprocessor)
The Fifth Generation: Present & Beyond (Artificial
Intelligence)

ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


AGP Accelerated Graphics Port
ALI Acer Labs, Incorporated
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMD Advanced Micro Devices
APC American Power Conversion
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
AT Advanced Technology
ATI ATI Technologies Inc.
ATX Advanced Technology Extended

B
BFG BFG Technologies
BIOS Basic Input Output System
BNC Barrel Nut Connector

C
COMPUTER Common Operating Machine particularly Used For Trade, Education
and Research.
CAS Column Address Signal
CD Compact Disk
CDR Compact Disk Recorder

CDRW Compact Disk ReWriter


CD-ROM Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CFM Cubic Feet per Minute
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CPU Central Processing Unit
CTX CTX Technology Corporation

D
DDR Double Data Rate
DDR-SDRAM Double Data Rate - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DFI DFI Inc. Design for Innovation
DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DPI Dots Per Inch
DSL See ASDL
DVD Digital Versatile Disc
DVD-RAM Digital Versatile Disk - Random Access Memory

E
ECC Error Correction Code
ECS Elitegroup Computer Systems
EDO Extended Data Out
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory


EVGA EVGA Corporation

F
FC-PGA Flip Chip Pin Grid Array
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
FDD Floppy Disk Drive
FPS Frame Per Second
FPU Floating Point Unit
FSAA Full Screen Anti Aliasing
FS For Sale
FSB Front Side Bus

G
GB Gigabytes
GBps Gigabytes per second or Gigabits per second
GDI Graphical Device Interface
GHz GigaHertz

H
HDD Hard Disk Drive
HIS Hightech Information System Limited

HP Hewlett-Packard Development Company


HSF Heatsink Fan

I
IBM International Business Machines Corporation
IC Integrated Circuit
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics
IFS- Item for Sale
IRQ Interrupt Request
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISO International Standards Organization

J
JBL JBL, Jame B. Lansing., Speakers
JVC JVC Company of America

K
Kbps Kilobits Per Second
KBps KiloBytes per second

L
LG LG Electronics

LAN Local Area Network


LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LDT Lightning Data Transport
LED Light Emitting Diode

M
MAC Media Access Control
MB MotherBoard or Megabyte
MBps Megabytes Per Second
Mbps Megabits Per Second or Megabits Per Second
MHz MegaHertz
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MMX Multi Media Extensions
MSI Micro Star International

N
NAS Network Attached Storage
NAT Network Address Translation
NEC NEC Corporation
NIC Network Interface Card

O
8

OC Over Clock
OCZ OCZ Technology
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer

P
PC Personal Computer
PCB Printed Circuit Board
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PCMCIA Peripheral Component Microchannel Interconnect Architecture
PGA Professional Graphics Array
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PM Private Message or Private Messaging
PnP Plug n Play
PNY PNY Technology
POST Power On Self Test
PPPoA Point to Point Protocol over ATM
PPPoE Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet
PQI PQI Corporation
PSU Power Supply Unit

R
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

RAM Random Access Memory


RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital Analog Convertor
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
ROM Read Only Memory
RPM Revolutions Per Minute

S
SASID Self scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display
SCA SCSI Configured Automatically
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SECC Single Edge Contact Connector
SODIMM Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module
SPARC Scalable Processor ArChitecture
SOHO Small Office Home Office
SRAM Static Random Access Memory
SSE Streaming SIMD Extensions
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
S/PDIF Sony or Philips Digital Interface

T
TB Terabytes
TBps Terabytes per second

10

Tbps Terabits per second


TDK TDK Electronics
TEC Thermoelectric Cooler
TPC TipidPC
TWAIN Technology Without An Important Name

U
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver or Transmitter
USB Universal Serial Bus
UTP Unshieled Twisted Pair

V
VCD Video CD
VPN Virtual Private Network

W
WAN Wide Area Network
WTB Want to Buy
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get

X
11

XGA Extended Graphics Array


XFX XFX Graphics, a Division of Pine
XMS Extended Memory Specification
XT Extended Technology

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