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STAINLESS STEEL DATA

Stainless Steel Classification


The entire family of stainless steels may be divided into the following
groups:
1. MARTENSITIC: Straight chromium, hardenable by heat treatment.
Representative types are 410. 420, 431, and 440C.
2. FERRITIC: Straight chromium, non-hardenable by heat treatment.
Representative types are 405 and 430.
3. AUSTENITIC: Chromium-Nickel, non-hardenable by heat
treatment. Representative types are 303, 304, and 316.
4. PRECIPITATION HARDENING
A)The martensitic chromium types are hardenable by heat
treatment and are produced in bars and wire only, with the exception
of Type 410. They are hardened by heating above the critical or
transformation temperature and then rapidly cooled in oil or air. By
proper selection of grades and analyses a wide range of ''as quenchedhardness is available, depending primarily on carbon and chromium
content. These grades attain maximum corrosion resistance in the
hardened condition. They may be annealed for best cold working and
machining characteristics. All martensitic types are . consistently
magnetic.
B) The ferritic chromium types are non-hardenable by heat
treatment. Also, they cannot be hardened to any appreciable extent by
quenching from high temperature. They are generally used in the
annealed or soft condition. Called the 'straight' chromium grades, they
contain no nickel, but are quite adequate for many applications.
C) The austenitic chromium-nickel grades have the highest corrosion
resistance of all stainless steels, as well as very fine mechanical
properties. They cannot be hardened by heat treatment, but great
tensile strength and hardness may be developed by cold working.
While these alloys are normally non-magnetic, they become slightly
magnetic as they are cold worked. They are widely used, with or
without additional alloying elements, in sheet strip, and plate form, as
well as in bar and wire products. In the annealed state, the austenitic

types have a tensile strength of 75,000 to 100,000 psi, considerably


higher than mild steel. Grades with a high chromium-to-nickel ratio,
such as Type 301, can be cold work hardened to extremely high
tensile strengths and still maintain good ductility.
D) The precipitation hardening groups contain steels that may be
either martensitic or austenitic as used but they develop strength
during heat treatment by utilizing precipitation hardening reactions
rather than phase transformations such as is employed in heat treating
steel. None of these types have an AISI Type number at present
because each is a proprietary, patented by Armco Steel Corporation.

Type 301 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.015 2.00 .045 .030 .75 16/18 6/8

This grade of austenitic stainless steel has less chromium and nickel
than 302/304, and hence will provide valuable mechanical properties
through cold-working. It is frequently supplied in high tensile tempers,
e.g. quarter-hard, half-hard, etc.
Applications: Structural parts where a corrosion resisting steel is
required, and where higher strength characteristics are required than
exist in the standard annealed metal.
Corrosion Resistance: The corrosion resisting properties of Type 301
are comparable to those of Types 302 and 304.

Type 302 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.15 2.00 .045 .030 .75 17/19 8/10

Type 302 is the original general purpose austenitic chromium nickel


stainless steel. Its corrosion resistance is somewhat superior to that of

Type 301. It is used largely in the annealed condition. It can be cold


worked to high tensile strengths but with slightly lower ductility than
Type 301. Type 302 is essentially non-magnetic when annealed, and
becomes slightly magnetic when cold worked.
Applications: Because of its excellent corrosion resistance and good
fabricating and mechanical properties, Type 302 Stainless Steel finds
application in architecture, food processing and serving, appliances,
hospital and institution equipment, and in chemical processing. It is
also used in consumer products such as electric skillets, sinks,
dishwashers, cooking utensils, and sporting equipment.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 302 Stainless Steel has excellent
corrosion resistance to a large number of corrosive media. Its
corrosion resistance is superior to that of Type 301.

Type 303 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.15 2.00 .020 .15 1.00 17/19 8/10

Type 303 is a chromium-nickel stainless steel modified by the addition


of selenium or sulphur, as well as phosphorous, to improve
machinability and non-seizing properties. It is the most readily
machinable of all the chormium-nickel grades and has good corrosion
resistance. It is non-magnetic in the annealed condition and nonhardenable by heat treatment. Tensile strength can be increeased by
cold working.
Applications: Used almost exclusively for parts requiring machining,
grinding or polishing where good corrosion resistance is also required.
Its non-seizing and non-galling properties make it ideal for moving
parts. Being an austenitic steel, it is useful where low magnetic
permability is desired.
Corrosion Resistance: Because of the elements which are added to
improve machinability, Type 303 has slightly less general corrosion
resistance than the regular chromium-nickel grades such as Type 302.
Maximum corrosion resistance is obtained in the annealed condition.

Resistance To Scaling: This grade has excellent scale resistance at


temperatures up to 16O0 Deg. F in continuous service. Like other
chromium-nickel grades, it has a high coefficient of expansion which
should be considered in designing.
Machinability: Type 303 has considerably better machining
characteristics than the other chromium-nickel grades. It has a
machinability rating of approximately 60% with B-1112 rated 100%.
Surface cutting speed on automatic screw machines is approximately
100 feet per minute. Various producers are continually modifying the
basic alloy to improve the machinability of Stainless Steel in general.
303 is still the basic grade, however.
Forming:This grade has fairly good forming properties.
Forging:Forge between 2100 and 2350 Deg. F Do not forge below
1700 Deg. F
Annealing:Annealing range is between 1850 and 2050 Deg. F Cool
rapidly. Water should be used for heavier sections, air for lighter
sections. The stress relieving range is between 400 and 750 Deg. F

Type 304 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.08 2.00 .045 .03 .75 18/20 8/10.5

TYPE 304 is the basic chromium-nickel stainless steel. It combines


excellent mechanical properties with excellent resistance to many
corrosive agents encountered in domestic and industrial use. It is nonmagnetic in the annealed condition and not hardened by heat
treatment. Both hardness and tensile strength can be increased by
cold working. The analysis of Type 304 is similar to that of Type 302,
except that Type 304 is modified by lowered carbon content. This
provides good resistance to corrosion in welded construction where
subsequent heat treatment is not practicable.
Applications: Used where corrosion resistance and good mechanical
properties are primary requirements. These grades are widely
accepted in such industries as dairy, beverage and other food products

where the highest degree of sanitation and cleanliness is of prime


importance. Parts for handling acetic, nitric and citric acids, organic
and inorganic chemicals, dyestuffs, crude and refined oils, etc., are
fabricated from this material. Because of its lack of magnetism it is
highly desirable for instruments. It is also widely used for architectural
trim. Type 304, as noted above, finds - particular use in applications
requiring welding.
Corrosion Resistance: Maximum corrosion resistance is obtained in
the annealed condition. Intergranular corrosion may occur when
material is heated within or cooled through the range of 800 to 1500
Deg. F.
Resistance To Scaling: Excellent scale resistance at temperatures up
to 1600 Deg. F in continuous service. Chromium-nickel grades have a
high coefficient of expansion, which should be considered in designing.
Machinabililty: Type 304 has a machinability rating of approximately
45%, with B-1112 rated 100%. Surface cutting speed on automatic
screw machines is approximately 75 feet per minute.
Weldability: Easily welded by all the commercial processes except
forge or hammer welding. The resulting weld has good toughness and
ductility. Annealing is recommended after welding to maintain
maximum corrosion resistance.
Forming: These grades have very good drawing and stamping
properties.
Annealing: Annealing range is between 1850 and 2050 Deg. F Cool
rapidly Water should be used for heavier sections, air for lighter
sections. The stress relieving range is between 400 and 750 Deg. F.

Type 304 L (ELC) Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.03 2.00 .045 .03 .75 18/20 8/12

Type 304 L (or ELC) is a very low carbon chromium nickel steel with
corrosion resistance similar to T 304, but with superior resistance to

intergranular corrosion following welding or stress relieving. The range


of carbon content is controlled to the level of .03 maximum. This limits
the formation of harmful carbides to a great extent. Post-weld
annealing isn't necessary in most cases.
Applications: Any fabricating applications where annealing after
welding is impractical, or where the specifications are very exact
regarding intergranular corrosion, otherwise used in same types of
equipment as 304.
Corrosion Resistance: Highly resistant to all types of rusting, and is
immune to most foods and organic chemicals.
Scaling Resistance: Excellent up to 1600 Deg. F in continuous
service Could be used in application involving intermittent heating and
cooling up to 1450 Deg. F.

Type 309 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.20 2.00 .045 .03 .75 22/24 12/15

Type 309 is a high chromium and nickel content stainless steel that
has excellent corrosion resistance as well as high creep strength and
mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and excellent
oxidation resistance at temperatures up to approximately 2000 Deg. F.
Applications: Used primarily for high temperature structural
applications where good strength and resistance to oxidation at
elevated temperatures are required. Uses include furnace parts such
as dampers, baffle plates, supports, and fixtures. It is also used in
chemical plant equipmentfor handling of acids, sulfite liquors, etc.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 309 has better corrosion resistance than
Type 304, and for resistance to specific corrosive media may be
compared to Type 304.
Resistance To Scaling: Excellent scale resistance at temperatures up
to 2O00 Deg. F for continuous service, up to 1800 Deg. F for
intermittent service.

Weldability: Easily welded by all commercial processes except forge


or hammer welding. For maximum corrosion resistance annealing is
recommended after welding.
Forming: Good drawing and stamping properties.
Annealing: Annealing range is between 1900 and 2050 Deg. F cool
rapidly. Water quench heavier sections. Thin sections may be air
cooled.

Type 310 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.25 2.00 .045 .03 1.50 24/26 19/22

Type 310, With high chromium and nickel content, has the greatest
heat resisting properties of the more commonly used stainless steels.
It has high creep strength and mechanical properties and does not
become brittle at elevated temperatures. It is non-magnetic in the
annealed condition and not hardenable by heat treatment.
Applications: Used primarily where high heat resisting properties are
required, such as for the more critical parts in oil refining equipment,
oil burners, furnace's, heat exchangers, etc. In the aircraft industry,
Type 310 is used for parts requiring welding during fabrication, or
oxidation resistance up to about 2O00 Deg. F. Useful at higher
temperatures only when stresses are low.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 310 has excellent corrosion resistance,
which is at a maximum in the annealed condition. Its resistance to
specific chemical media may be compared to that of Type 304.
Resistance To Scaling: Excellent scale resistance at temperatures up
to 2O00 Deg. F in continuous service. In comparison with the other
chromium-nickel grades this type has a slightly lower coefficient of
expansion, which results in less tendency to warp.
Weldability: Easily welded by all the commercial processes except
forge or hammer welding. Annealing after welding is recommended in
order to obtain maximum corrosion resistance.

Forming: This grade has good drawing and stamping properties.


Annealing: Annealing range is between 1900 and 2100 Deg. F Cool
rapidly. Water should be used for heavier sections, air for lighter
sections. The stress relieving range is between 400 and 750 Deg. F

Type 316 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo

.08 2.00 .045 .03 .75 16/18 10/14 2/3

Type 316 is a chromium-nickel stainless steel modified by the addition


of molybdenum, which greatly increases its corrosion resistance as
well as its mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. It is nonmagnetic in the annealed condition and not hardenable by heat
treatment. It is an outstanding stainless steel suitable for large
numbers of applications. It is also available in an extra low carbon
analysis, Type 316L.
Applications: Widely used in the paper, textile and chemical
industries, where parts are subjected to the corrosive effects of salts
and reducing acids. Also used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals
in order to avoid excessive metallic contamination. Since Type 316
possesses the highest creep and tensile strength at elevated
temperatures of any of the more commonly used stainless steels, it
finds extensive use where the combination of high strength and good
corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures is required. In aircraft
applications, Type 316 is used for parts requiring good corrosion
resistance and low magnetic permeability.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 316 is more resistant to atmospheric
and general corrosive conditions than any of the other standard
stainless steels. It has good resistance to the corrosive effects of
sulphates, phosphates and other salts as well as reducing acids such
as sulphuric. sulphurous and phosphoric. It is less susceptible to
pitting in applications where acetic acid vapors or solutions of
chlorides, bromides or iodides are encountered. When heated to within
the temperature range of 8O0-15O0 Deg. F or when slowly cooled
through this range, this grade is subject to intergranular corrosion.

Resistant To Scaling: Excellent scale resistance at temperatures up


to 1650 F in continuous Service.
Machinability: Type 316 has a machinability rating of approximately
36% with B-1112 rated 100%. Surface cutting speed on automatic
screw machines isapproximately 60 feet per minute.
Weldability: Easily welded by all the commercial processes except
forge or hammer welding. Annealing after welding is recommended to
obtain maximum corrosion resistance.
Forming: This grade has good drawing and stamping properties.
Forging: Forge between 2100 and 2300 Deg. F Do not forge below
1700 Deg. F.
Annealing: Annealing range is between 1850 and 2050 Deg. F Cool
rapidly. Water should be used for heavier sections, air for lighter
sections. The stress relieving range is between 400 and 750 Deg. F.

Type 316L (ELC) Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo

.03 2.00 .045 .03 .75 16/18 10/14 2/3

Type 316L is a very low carbon grade with general corrosion resistance
similar to Type 316, but with superior resistance to intergranular
corrosion during welding or stress relieving. This precludes any
harmful carbide precipitation in the 800 to 1500 Deg. F range, such as
might otherwise occur in welding heavy sections.
Applications: Same as those for Type 316. All other physical
characteristics and applications are similar or equivalent to regular
Type 316.

Type 321 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Ti

.08 2.00 .045 .03 .75 17/19 9/12 5X(C+N) Min./.070 Max.

Type 321 is chromium-nickel stainless steel modified by the addition of


titanium to overcome the danger of intergranular corrosion 'common
to other austenitic stainless steels during or after exposure to
temperatures of 800 to 15O0 Deg. F This type is-non-magnetic in the
annealed condition and not hardenable by heat treatment.
Applications: Used where freedom from intecgranular corrosion is
desired and milder corrosive conditions exist. It is used in parts
subjected to sustained heating in or slow cooling through the range of
800 to 15O0 Deg. F It is well suited for cold drawing and forming
operations. In the aircraft industry it is used particularly for such
applications as exhaust stacks, manifolds and ring collectors.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 321 is resistant to intergranular
corrosion. fts general corrosion resistance is somewhat less than that
of Type 302. It tends to form a light rust film in corrosive
atmospheres', but this rusting is not progressive.
Resistance To Scaling: Excellent scale resistance at temperatures up
to 1650 Deg. F in continuous service.
Machinability: Type 321 has a machinability rating of approximately
36%, with B-1112 rated 100%. Surface cutting speed on automatic
screw machines is approximately 60 feet per minute.
Weldability: Easily welded by all the commercial processes except
forge or hammer welding.
Forming: This grade has good forming and stamping properties.
Forging: Forge between 2100 and 2300 Deg. F Do not forge below
1800 Deg. F.
Annealing: Annealing range is between 1850 and 2050 Deg. F. Cool
rapidly Water should be used for heavier sections air for lighter
sections. The stress relieving range is 400-750 Deg. F.

Type 347 Stainless Steel

Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

Cb+Ta

Ta Co

.08 2.00 .045 .03 .75 17/19 9/13 10xC Min. -

Type 347 is a chromium-nickel stainless steel modified by the addition


of columbium and.tantalum to overcome the dangers of intergranular
corrosion common to other austenitic stainless steels during or after
exposure to temperatures of 800 to 1500 Deg. F. It is non-magnetic in
the annealed condition and not hardenable by heat treatment.
Applications: Used for heavy welded assemblies which cannot be
annealed after welding. Also used where operating conditions cause
exposure within the temperature range between 800 and 15O0 Deg. F
and where corrosive conditions are severe, such as aircraft exhaust
stacks, manifolds and ring collectors. It is used to advantage in
combating corrosion cracking resulting from stress in corrosive media
due to vibration or other causes.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 347 is resistant to intergranular
corrosion. It has about the same general corrosion resistance as Type
304.
Resistance To Scaling: Excellent scale resistance at temperatures up
to 1650 Deg. F in continuous service.
Machinability: Type 347 has a machinability rating of approximately
36%, with B-1112 rated 100%. Surface cutting speed on automatic
screw machines is approximately 60 feet per minute.
Weldability: Easily welded by all the commercial processes except
forge or hammer welding.
Forming: This grade has good drawing and stamping properties.
Forging: Forge between 2100 and 2300 Deg. F Do notforge below
1800 Deg. F
Annealing: Annealing range is between 1850 and 2050 Deg. F Cool
rapidly. Water should be used for heavier sections, air for lighter
sections. The stress relieving range is between 400 and 750 Deg. F

Type 410 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.15 1.00 .040 .03 1.00 11.5/13.5 0.75

Type 410 is the basic chromium grade of stainless steel. It combines


excellent corrosion resistance with the ability to develop hardness and
mechanical properties by conventional heat treating methods that are
similar to those of Type 4130 Alloy Steel. It is magnetic in all
conditions.
Applications: This grade is used for applications requiring good
mechanical properties and involving corrosive conditions that are not
too severe, such as valve parts, cutlery, good industry machine parts,
screws, bolts, pump rods and pistons, etc. In the annealed condition, it
may be drawn or formed. In the aircraft industry Type 410 is used for
parts such as compressor shrouds, where oxidation resistance is
required up to 1OO0 Deg. F. Useful at higher temperatures only when
stresses are low.
Corrosion Resistance: Excellent resistance to corrosion from the
atmosphere, fresh water, iron bearing mine waters, food acids, neutral
and basic salts, mild acids and alkalis. This grade has excellent
corrosion resistance in all conditions of heat treatment, but maximum
resistance is obtained by hardening and polishing. In general,
corrosive resistance qualities are only slightly less than those of Type
430.
Resistance To Scaling: Resists scaling at temperatures up. to
approximately 1200-1300 Deg.F in continuous service. Over 1300
Deg. F it has relatively low strength, and resistance to oxidation is
reduced.
Hardenability: specification AMS-5504C requires that material 3/8"
thick and under, and 3/8" specimens from heavier material, shall be
capable of attaining hardness of Rockwell 'C' 35-45 after being heated
to 1740-1760 Deg. F held at heat for 15-30 minutes, and cooled in still
air.
Machinability: Type 410 has better machining characteristics than

the chromium-nickel grades. It has a machinability rating of 54%, with


B-1112 rated 100%. Surface cutting speed on automatic screw
machines is approximately 90 feet per minute.
Weldability: May be welded by all the commercial processes except
forge or hammer welding. Large sections should be preheated prior to
welding. Because of its air hardening properties, annealing after
welding is recommended to obtain maximum ductility and toughness.
Forming: This grade has fair forming and stamping properties.
Forging: Forge between 2000 and 2200 Deg. F Do not forge below
1650 Deg. F. Cool slowly.
Annealing: Full annealing range is between 1550 and 1650 Deg. F.
Cool slowly in furnace. Low annealing range is between 1200 and 1400
Deg. F. Cool in air.
Hardening: Hardening range is between 1750 and 1850 Deg. F
Quench large sections in oil. Small sections may be quenched in air.
Temper to required hardness.

Type 416 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo Se

.15 1.25 .060 .15 1.00 12/14 0.60 -

Type 416 is a chromium grade of stainless steel modified by the


addition of phosphorus and sulphur to produce a free machining steel.
lt is the most readily machinable of all stainless steels. A wide range of
mechanical properties may be obtained by conventional heat treating
methods. It is magnetic in all conditions.
Applications: Type 416 is used for applications demanding the
mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Type 410 combined
with free machining properties. It can be turned, threaded, formed or
drilled at speeds approaching those of screw stock.
Corrosion Resistance:Excellent resistance to corrosion from
atmosphere, fresh water, food acids and neutral and basic salts. This
grade has excellent corrosion resistance in all conditions of heat

treatment, but maximum resistance is obtained by hardening and


polishing. In general, corrosive resistant qualities are slightly less than
those of Type 430.
Resistance To Scaling:Resists scaling at temperatures up to
approximately 12O0-1300 Deg. F in continuous service.
Hardenability: A 3/8" section quenched in oil from 1825 Deg. F will
harden to a minimum of Rockwell 'C' 35.
Machinability:Type 416 has very good machining characteristics. It
has a machinability rating of approximately 91% with B-1112 rated
100%. Surface cutting speed on automatic screw machines is
approximately 150 feet per minute.
Weldability:This grade has poor welding properties. Welds are brittle,
with tendency to crack.
Forging:Forge between 2100 and 2300 Deg. F Do not forge below
1700 F. Cool slowly.
Annealing:Full annealing range is between 1550 and 1650 Deg. F.
Cool slowly in furnace. Low annealing range is between 1200 and 1400
Deg. F. Cool in air.
Hardening:Hardening range is between 1750 and 1850 Deg. F
Quench large sections in oil. Small sections may be quenched in air.
Temper to required hardness.

Type 430 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.12 1.00 .040 .030 1.00 16/18 0.75

Type 430 is a 16% straight chromium grade. Due to higher chromium


content, its corrosion and heat resisting properties are superior to
those of Type 410. This is a tough, ductile, non-hardening grade with
good mechanical properties. It is magnetic in all conditions.
Applications: The largest use of Type 430 is in automotive trim and

molding. It is also used extensively in interior architectural decorative


work, where good corrosion resistance is required. Its heat resisting
properties make it suitable for oil refinery equipment and oil-burner
parts.
Corrosion Resistance: Type 430 possesses better general corrosion
resistance than the lower chromium grades, though notthe high
corrosion resistance of the 300 series. It has high resistance to nitric
acid as well as sulphur-bearing gases up to its maximums service
temperatures.
Resistance To Scaling: Resists scaling in continuous service at
temperatures up to approximately 1500 Deg F. Machinability: Type
430 has a machinability rating of approximately 54%, B-1112 rated
100%. Surface cutting speed speed on automatic screw machines is
approximately 90 feet per minute.Type 430F has a rating of 92%, with
surface cutting speed of 150 feet per minute.
Weldability: Fair welding characteristics, with welds tending to be
brittle. Type 430 has low heat conductivity 1/3 that of carbon steeland a low coefficient of expansion - 10% less than carbon steel.
Forming: This grade has fairly good forming and stamping properties.
Sheets and strip are suitable for lock seaming in both directions.
Forging: Forge between 1850 and 1950 Deg. F. Do not forge below
1400 Deg. F. Annealing: Heat to between 1400 and 1500 F and air
cool.

Type 440A Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo

.75 1.00 .040 .030 1.00 16/18 0.75

Type 440A is a hardenable chromium steel with greater attainable


hardness than Type 420 and with greater toughness than Types 440B
and 440C. It has its optimum corrosion resisting qualities in the
hardened and tempered condition. Type area is magnetic in all
conditions.

Type 440B Stainless Steel

Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo

.75/.95 1.00 .040 .030 1.00 16/18 0.75

Type 440B is a hardenable chromium steel with greater attainable


hardness than Type area and greater toughness than Type 440C. It
has its optimum corrosion resisting qualities in the hardened and
tempered conditions.Type 440B is magnetic in all conditions.

Type 440C Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo

.95/1.20 1.00 .040 .030 1.00 16/18 0.75

Type 440C is a hardenable chromium steel which acquires upon heat


treatmentthe highest hardness of any type of corrosion or heat
resisting steel. It has its optimum corrosion resisting qualities in the
hardened and tempered condition. Type 440C is magnetic in all
conditions.

Type 446 Stainless Steel


Elements (Max.)
C

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

.20 1.50 .040 .030 1.00 23/27 0.25 0.75

Type 446 is a corrosion and heat resisting chromium steel with the
maximum amount of chromium in this series of steel and is used
principally for the manufacture of parts which must resist scaling at
high temperatures. Type 446 resists destructive scaling up to a
temperature of 2000 Deg. F. Type 446 is magnetic in all conditions.

Type 15-5 PH VAC CE

Elements (Max.)
Carbon Chromium Manganese Nickel Phosphorus Copper Sulfur
0.07

14.0015.50

1.00

3.505.50

0.04

2.504.50

0.03

Columbium
plus
Tantalum
0.15- 0.45

Type 15-5 PH VAC CE is a precipitation-hardening stainless steel that


offers a unique combination of high strength and hardness, excellent
corrosion resistance plus excellent transverse toughness and good
forgeability. Type 15-5 PH stainless is produced by consumable
electrode vacuum arc remelting (designated VAC CE). 15-5 PH VAC CE
stainless steel is produced by consumable electrode vacuum arc
remelting to meet the stringent mechanical property and cleanliness
requirements of the space and nuclear industries. Besides lowering gas
content, VAC CE adds other advantages to 15-5 PH VAC CE stainless.
It reduces and disperses inclusions, and minimizes alloy segregation
during solidification. These factors, coupled with the elimination of
delta ferrite, combine to give 15-5 PH VAC CE stainless excellent
transverse mechanical properties in any test location. Consequently, it
has good transverse notch-toughness and forgeability. In severe upset
forging or hot flattening operations where splitting or rupturing are
encountered with high strength steels, 15-5 PFI VAC CE stainless
offers valuable advantages. lts forgeability is superior to 17-4 PH
stainless steel.
APPLICATIONS: Type 15-5 PH VAC CE stainless steel is ideal for
applications requiring high strength and toughness in all directions.
Typical applications include forgings, pump and valve pads for high
pressure systems requiring excellent corrosion resistance, pressure
transducers, aircraft components and transversely loaded plate
applications. Registered Trade-Mark of Armco steel Corporation. NOTE:
17-4 PH and 15-5PH VAC Cb are normally stocked in condition A (fully
annealed).

Type 17-4 PH
Elements (Max.)
Carbon Chromium Manganese Nickel Phosphorus Copper Sulfur

Columbium
plus

Tantalum
0.07

15.00 17.50

1.00

3.00 0.04
5.00

3.00 5.00

0.03

Type 17-4 PH is a precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steel. It


contains 17% chromium and 4% nickel and is normally superior in
corrosion resistance to the regular martensitic chromium types. An
addition of 4% copper is used to promote its precipitation hardening
capacity. 17-4 PH can be hardened by a low cost heat treatment
consisting only of holding the steel at 900 Deg. F for one hour, thereby
minimizing scaling and distortion and allowing parts to machine to
close tolerances prior to heat treatment. 17-4 is magnetic in both the
solution annealed and hardened conditions.
Applications: 17-4 PH is used in a wide variety of applications
because of its unique combination of advantages where high strength
and hardness are a must, 17-4 PH provides those properties plus the
added benefited excellent corrosion resistance. Or for applications
requiring excellent corrosion resistance 17-4 PH gives the extra
advantages of high strength and hardness. It's ideal for boat shafts,
pump shafts, valve gated, plugs, seats, stems and trim, springs,
gears, fasteners, chains, mixing equipment, aerospace applications
such as hydraulic actuators, structural components,
fasteners,connectors in high pressure systems, cutter blades, racing
car parts and oil field equipment. Registered Trade-Mark of Armco
Steel Corporation.

COMMON CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTS


BY SIZE, SHAPE, CONDITION AND FINISH
Plates: Flat rolled or forged: over 10 inches (254.0 mm) in width,
3/16 in. (4.76 mm) and over in thickness.
Sheets: In coils or cut lengths: 24 in. (609.6 mm) and over in width,
under 3/16 in. (4.76 mm) in thickness.
Strip: Cold finished in coils or cut lengths: under 24 inches (609.6
mm) in widths under 3/16 in. (4.76 mm) to 0.005 in. (0.13 mm),
inclusive, in thickness Note: Cold finished product 0.005 in. (0.13 mm)
thick, and under 24 in. (609.6 mm) wide, is sometimes identified as

0.15- 0.45

'foil'.
Foil: Cold finished in coils: under 24 inches (609.6 mm) in width, .005
in. (0.13 mm) and under in thickness. Note: Cold finished product
0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick, and under 24 in. (609.6 mm) wide, is
sometimes identified as 'strip'.
Bars: Hot finished rounds squares, octagons and hexagons: 1/4 in.
(6.35 mm) and over in diameter or size. Hot finished flats: 1/4 (6.35
mm) to 10 in. (254.0 mm) inclusive, in width, 1/8 in. (3.18 mm) and
over in thickness. Cold finished rounds, squares, octagons, hexagons
and shapes: over 1/2 in. (12.70 mm) in diameter or size. Cold finished
flats: 3/8 in. (9.52 mm) and over in width 1/8 in. (3.18 mm) and over
in thickness.
Wire: Cold finished only: round, square, octagon, hexagon and shape
wire, 1/2 in. (12,70 mm) and under in diameter or size. Cold finished
only: flat wired 1 /16 in. (1.59 mm) to under 3/8 in. (9.52 mm) in
width, 0.010 to under 3/16 in. (0.25 to under 4.76 mm) in thickness.
Rods: Hot rolled or hot rolled annealed and pickled: rounds squares,
octagons, hexagons and shapes, in coils, for subsequent cold drawing
or cold rolling, 1/4 to 3/4 in. (6.35 to 19.05 mm) in diameter or size.
Structural Shapes including Hot Extrusions: One dimension of the
cross section is 3 in. (76.20 mm) or greater.
Bar Size Shapes including Hot Extrusions: Greatest crosssectional dimension is less than 3 in. (76.20 mm).
Blooms, Billets and Slabs: Hot rolled round cornered squares and
round cornered flats are blooms, billets or slabs: 4 in. (101.6 mm)
square or larger or 16 sq. Inches (10323 mm2) ln cross-sectional area
or larger.
Widths less than 3/8 in. (9.52 mm) and thicknesses less than
3/16 in. (4.76 mm) are generally described as flat wire.
Thicknesses 1/8 in. (3.18 mm) to under 3/16 in. (4.76 mm)
can be cold rolled strip as well as bar.

STANDARD FINISHES OF STAINLESS


STEEL FLAT-ROLLED PRODUCTS

Surface finishes on'stainless steel sheets, strip, and plates are


generally selected for appearance, although degree and extent of
forming and welding should be taken into consideration. Where
forming is severe, or much welding is done, it is often more
economical to use a cold rolled finish and then polish.
UNPOLISHED FINISHES
No. 1 Finish
Hot rolled, annealed and discased. Produced by hot rolling followed by
annealing and resealing. Generally used in industrial applications, such
as for heat or corrosion resistance, where smoothness offinish is not of
particular importance.
No. 2D Finish
A dull cold rolled finish. Produced by cold rolling, annealing, and
resealing. The dull finish may result from the resealing or pickling
operation or may be developed by a final light cold roll pass on dull
rolls. The dull finish is favorable fortune retention of lubricants on the
surface In deep drawing operations. This finish is generally used in
forming deep drawn articles which may be polished after fabrication.
No. 2B Finish
A bright cold rolled finish commonly produced in the same manner as
No. 2D, except twattle annealed and resealed sheet receives a
finalxlight cold rolled pass on polished rolls. This is a general purpose
cold rolled finish. It ii-commonly used for all but exceptionally difficult
deep drawing applications. This finish is more readily polished than No.
1 or No. Ad Finish.
POLISHED FINISHES
Sheets can be produced with one ortho side? polished.Whenrpolished
(none side only, sheather side may be rough ground in order to obtain
the necessary flatness.
No. 3 Finish
is a polished finish obtained with abrasives approximately 100 mesh,
and which may or may not be additionally polished during fabrication.
No. 4 Finish
is a general purpose polished finish widely used for restaurant
equipment, kitchen equipmentstorefronts, dairy equipment

Mc.Following initial grinding with coarserabrasives, sheets are


generally finished last with abrasives approximately 120 to 154 mesh.
No.6 Finish
is a dull satin finish having lower reflectivitythap No. 4 Finish. It is
produced by Tampico brushing.
No. 4 Finish
sheets in a medium of abrasive and oil. It is used for architectural
applications and ornamentation where a high luster is undesirable', it
is also used effectively to contrast with brighter finishes.
No. 7 Finish
has a high degree of reflectivity. It is produced by buffing of finely
ground surface, but the grit lines are not removed. It is chiefly used
for architectural and ornamental purposes.
No. 8 Finish
is the most reflective finish that is commonly produced. It is obtained
by polishing with successively finer abrasives and buffing extensively
with very fine buffing rouges. The surface is essentially free of grit
lines from preliminary grinding operations. This finish is most widely
used for press plates, as well as forsmall mirrors and reflectors.

Please Note: Information provided on this page has not been


independently verified. Although this information is believed to be
accurate we will bear no responsibility for the accuracy of this
information.