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Explain 5 theories of motivation:

Expectancy theory proposes that an individual will decide to behave or act in a certain
way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to
what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. Expectancy can be described
as the belief that higher or increased effort will yield better performance. This can be
explained by the thinking of "If I work harder, I will make something better". The
Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals
choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to
achieve the end they value. Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy
theory which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). The three elements
are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined:
effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy
(P>O expectancy)
Needs theories are based on the understanding that motivation stems from an individual's
desire to fulfill or achieve a need. This also states that human beings are motivated by
unsatisfied needs, and, in some cases, certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher
needs can be satisfied. In general terms, motivation can be defined as the desire to
achieve a goal, combined with the energy, determination and opportunity to achieve it.
Need theory, also known as Three Needs Theory which include need for affiliation, need
for achievement and need for power.
Equity theory is a theory that attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of
perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships.
Concept that people derive job satisfaction and motivation by comparing their efforts
(inputs) and income (outputs) with those of the other people in the same or other firms.
This is in direct contrast with the idea of equity theory, the idea is to have the rewards
(outcomes) be directly related with the quality and quantity of the employees
contributions (inputs). Inputs are defined as each participants contributions to the
relational exchange and are viewed as entitling him/her to rewards or costs. Outcomes are
defined as the positive and negative consequences that an individual perceives a
participant has incurred as a consequence of his/her relationship with another.

Goal setting Theory is the theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are
most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining
why goals have these effects. This theory focuses on motivating workers to contribute
their inputs to their jobs and organization, in this way it is similar to expectancy theory
and equity theory. Goal setting involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable,
realistic and time-targeted (S.M.A.R.T) goals. Work on the theory of goal-setting
suggests that an effective tool for making progress is to ensure that participants in a group
with a common goal are clearly aware of what is expected from them. Goals are a form of
motivation that sets the standard for self-satisfaction with performance. Achieving the
goal one has set for oneself is a measure of success, and being able to meet job challenges
is a way one measures success in the workplace.
Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed,
processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental
influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world
view, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained. Learning is a relatively
permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experiences.