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Definite and Indefinite Integrals

If we call an antiderivative of .
As an example, let Then . Therefore, is an antiderivative of Let Then This means that is also an
antiderivative of Note that the two antiderivatives and differ by a constant, that is, In our example, the
constant is

Suppose that one antiderivative of a function is known, say Then any other antiderivative of is of the form
where is an arbitrary constant. We shall refer to as the general antiderivative of . We shall also refer to it as
the indefinite integral of with respect to . In symbols,

The symbol is called the integral sign while the function is called the integrand. Note the presence of
after the integrand. This tells us that the process of antidifferentation is with respect to Another name
for this process is integration.

From a previous example, the indefinite integral of is . Therefore, in symbols, we write

Notice that the derivative of is In general, if then .

Theorem. Let be a constant not equal to Then


(Give and explain the details of a solution to this problem)




To check the result of integration, differentiate the answer and see if you will get the integrand.

Integration by substitution
By inspection, it sometimes help to take a portion of the integrand and denote it by a new variable symbol. As
an example, consider the problem of evaluating the following indefinite integral:

Our substitution is let Then Using these two equations, we can transform the given problem to an integration
problem involving the variable only (without the variable ).

Exercise. Using the substitution evaluate the indefinite integral