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# Process Variables and Sensors

## Parts and materials needed for today

(instructor will provide):

DP transmitters

Thermocouples

RTDs

## Heat source (e.g. cigarette lighter)

Vortex flowmeter

Thermal flowmeter

Magnetic flowtube

Turbine flowmeter

Orifice plates

Coriolis flowmeter

Multimeters

## Realistic Instrumentation Diagrams

worksheet (from the Socratic
Instrumentation project website)

Fundamental Principles
Brainstorm all the fundamental principles of physics you can recall that
are relevant to the sensing of process variables such as pressure,
level, temperature, and flow!

Pressure Measurement
Explain proper
operation of
block and bleed
valves in this
natural gas
pressuremeasurement
system
Are these
differential
pressure
transmitters or
gauge pressure
transmitters?

Pressure Measurement

## Examine some real Rosemount 1151 and 3051 DP

transmitters
Examine some non-Rosemount brand pressure
transmitters. What is similar, and what is different, between
some of the brands you examine?
Identify the H and L pressure ports on each DP
transmitter, and explain their respective functions
Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
these measuring instruments

Pressure Measurement
Suppose 600 PSI
natural gas pressure
applied to H side with
L side vented; 1 dia
sensing diaphragm.
Calculate force applied
to diaphragm.

Pressure Measurement
Suppose 250 PSI crude
oil pressure applied to
H side and 175 PSI
water pressure applied
to L side. Calculate
force applied to
diaphragm.

Level Measurement
Identify the most likely
principle of physics employed
by this liquid level switch
Is this a low-level switch or a
high-level switch?

Level Measurement
There are two level-sensing instruments on this
fuel gas scrubber vessel (separating liquid from
natural gas fuel prior to combustion in a GE
Frame 7 gas turbine). Identify these level
instruments, and their operating principles.
Are these instruments detecting low-level
conditions, high-level conditions, or both?

Level Measurement
Identify the most likely principle of physics
employed by this liquid level
indicator/switch instrument, as it senses
liquid level in the boot of a knockout
drum on the suction side of a natural gas
compressor.
Is this a low-level switch or a high-level
switch, or both (combination)? How can
we tell?

Level Measurement
Identify the most likely principle of physics
employed by this liquid level
sensor/controller, as it senses liquid level
at the bottom of a separator vessel in a
refinery.
How does this instrument exert control
over the liquid level in the separator?

Level Measurement
Identify the most likely
principle of physics
employed by these liquid
level sensors, as thet
sense water level in
mixed-media filter beds
Why choose this kind of
sensor for potable water
measurement?

Temperature Measurement
How does this
temperature control
system work, at the
top of a sour water
stripper tower (loop
21)?
Assuming an air-toopen control valve
(TV-21), should TIC21 be direct-acting
or reverse-acting?

## Temperature Measurement: filled-bulb

sensor
Examine a real filled-bulb temperature sensor
Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument

## Examine a real RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)

Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument
Connect a multimeter to the RTD and experiment with it to
see what the effect of temperature is on its electrical
resistance

## Examine a real thermocouple

Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument
Connect a multimeter to the thermocouple and experiment
with it to see what the effect of temperature is on its
electrical output

## Flow Measurement: orifice

Examine a real orifice plate
Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument
Can you identify which is the upstream and which is the
downstream side of the orifice plate?

## Flow Measurement: orifice

Is this a liquid or a gas
flow application? How
can we tell?
What is the purpose of
using two pressure
transmitters in this
flow-measurement
application?

## Flow Measurement: orifice

Why is an
electronic flow
computer used in
this custodytransfer natural
gas measurement
application?
What is the
purpose of using
a quick-change
orifice fitting such
as the Daniel
Junior shown
here?

## Flow Measurement: vortex

Examine a real vortex flowmeter assembly
Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument
Can you identify which is the upstream and which is the
downstream side of the flowmeter?

## Flow Measurement: magnetic

Examine a real magnetic flowmeter assembly
Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument
flowmeter type? Can we use them in oil refineries?

## Flow Measurement: turbine

Examine a real turbine flowmeter assembly
Identify any fundamental principles of physics that apply to
this measuring instrument
flowmeter type? Can we use them in oil refineries?

## Flow Measurement: ultrasonic

Identify any
fundamental
principles of
physics that apply
to this measuring
instrument
What are some
this flowmeter
type?

## Flow Measurement: true mass

Identify the
fundamental
principle of physics
explaining how a
thermal mass
flowmeter works
Identify the
fundamental
principle of physics
explaining how a
Coriolis mass
flowmeter works

## Application: distillation process

Refer to generic
distillation process
P&ID
Identify pressure
sensors
Identify level sensors
Identify temperature
sensors
Identify flow sensors
In each case: how
does the sensor
work? What is it
being used for?

## Extra: hydrostatic level sensor calculation

Calculate transmitter
LRV (WC units)
Calculate transmitter
URV (WC units)

## Extra: hydrostatic level sensor calculation

Calculate transmitter
LRV (WC units)
Calculate transmitter
URV (WC units)