Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

g

GEK 110917a
Revised, April 2008

GE Energy

Combustion Monitor Function

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to
be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular
problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company.
General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

The below will be found throughout this publication. It is important that the significance of
each is thoroughly understood by those using this document. The definitions are as follows:
NOTE
Highlights an essential element of a procedure to assure correctness.
CAUTION
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which, if not avoided, could result in minor
or moderate injury or equipment damage.

WARNING
INDICATES A POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SITUATION, WHICH, IF
NOT AVOIDED, COULD RESULT IN DEATH OR SERIOUS INJURY

***DANGER***
INDICATES AN IMMINENTLY HAZARDOUS SITUATION,
WHICH, IF NOT AVOIDED WILL RESULT IN DEATH OR
SERIOUS INJURY.

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

XIV.

XV.

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 4
COMBUSTION MONITORING FUNCTION........................................................................................ 4
COMBUSTION MONITORING FUNCTION SOFTWARE................................................................ 4
THERMOCOUPLES SCAN AND COLD JUNCTION COMPENSATION ....................................... 4
ACTUAL SPREADS .................................................................................................................................. 4
ALLOWABLE SPREAD........................................................................................................................... 5
SPREAD TESTS......................................................................................................................................... 5
DISPLAY MESSAGES.............................................................................................................................. 5
A. Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm (L30SPTA).............................................................................. 5
B. Combustion Trouble Alarm (L30SPA).................................................................................................. 5
C. High Exhaust Temp Spread Trip (L30SPT) .......................................................................................... 5
D. Monitor Enable (L83SPM) .................................................................................................................... 6
TROUBLESHOOTING WITH THE COMBUSTION MONITOR FUNCTION ............................... 6
A. General................................................................................................................................................... 6
THERMOCOUPLE CHECKING ............................................................................................................ 7
THERMOCOUPLE RESISTANCE CHECK ......................................................................................... 7
INTERPRETING FAILED THERMOCOUPLE PATTERNS ............................................................. 7
A. Automatic Trip....................................................................................................................................... 7
COMBUSTION TROUBLE MODES TO BE CONSIDERED.............................................................. 7
A. Combustor.............................................................................................................................................. 7
B. Fuel System............................................................................................................................................ 8
C. Fuel Nozzle ............................................................................................................................................ 8
D. Atomizing Air System ........................................................................................................................... 8
E. Pressure Vessel Integrity........................................................................................................................ 8
F. First Stage Nozzle .................................................................................................................................. 8
CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 9
A. Combustion Alarm - Corrective Action................................................................................................. 9
B. Turbine Trip - Corrective Action (See Figure 5) ................................................................................. 10
C. Automatic Trip - Corrective Action..................................................................................................... 10
WATER INJECTION (OPTIONAL)..................................................................................................... 11

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Combustion Monitoring Function Algorithm (Schematic)................................................................... 12
Figure 2. Exhaust Temperature Spread Limits..................................................................................................... 13
Figure 3. ............................................................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 4. ............................................................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 5. ............................................................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 6. ............................................................................................................................................................... 17

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

I. INTRODUCTION
Monitoring of the exhaust thermocouples to detect combustion problems is performed by the
SPEEDTRONIC software coupled with solid state analog devices for interfacing with the primary
controls and protective devices. For operating instructions, calibration, constant listing and operational
check procedures for a specific gas turbine, refer to the Control Specifications. Refer to the software
Master Sequence Document for details of algorithm implementation and identification of selectable
display lists and constants.
II. COMBUSTION MONITORING FUNCTION
The primary function of the combustion monitor is to reduce the likelihood of extended damage to the
gas turbine if the combustion system deteriorates. The monitor does this by examining the temperature
control system exhaust temperature thermocouples and compressor discharge temperature thermocouples.
From changes that may occur in the pattern of the thermocouple readings, warning and protective signals
are generated by the combustion monitor and sent to the gas turbine control panel.
This means of detecting abnormalities in the combustion system is effective only to the extent there is
incomplete mixing as the gases pass through the turbine, and an uneven inlet pattern will cause an uneven
exhaust pattern. The uneven inlet pattern could be caused by a rupture in a transition piece, loss of fuel or
flame in a combustor, or other combustion malfunctions. The usefulness and reliability of the combustion
monitor depends on the condition of the exhaust thermocouples. It is important that each of the
thermocouples is in good working condition.
III. COMBUSTION MONITORING FUNCTION SOFTWARE
The controllers contain a series of programs written to perform the monitoring task (see Combustion
Monitoring Schematic Figure 1). The main monitor program is written to analyze the thermocouple
readings and make appropriate decisions. Several different algorithms have been developed for doing this
depending on the turbine model series, and the type of thermocouples used. The significant program
constants used with each algorithm are specified in the Control Specification for each gas turbine.
IV. THERMOCOUPLES SCAN AND COLD JUNCTION COMPENSATION
The exhaust thermocouple values, read and sorted in the exhaust temperature feedback algorithm, are
used by the combustion monitor. From each set of readings, the median exhaust temperature, the
allowable spread, and two sets of spread ratios are calculated and compared with specific exhaust
temperature limits to determine whether alarm and trip conditions have been exceeded.
V. ACTUAL SPREADS
Three spreads are calculated from the exhaust thermocouple readings:
SPREAD #1 (TTXSP1)--The difference between the highest and the lowest thermocouple reading;
SPREAD #2 (TTXSP2)--The difference between the highest and the 2nd lowest thermocouple reading;
and,
SPREAD #3 (TTXSP3)--The difference between the highest and the 3rd lowest thermocouple readings.

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

VI. ALLOWABLE SPREAD


The allowable spread is the sum of two values: a nominal allowable spread and a bias.
The nominal allowable spread is the steady state spread limit. It varies, typically, between 30 and 125F
as a function of average exhaust temperature and compressor discharge temperature.
The bias is an adder to the nominal allowable spread which accounts for the temporary increase in actual
spreads that occur during transient operational periods. It is a temperature value which varies between 0
and TTKSPL8 degrees F (typically, 100 to 200 F).
During steady state operation, the bias value is 0 degrees F. When a transient operational condition
occurs, such as a rapid change in load, the bias value steps to TTKSPL8 degrees F. It remains at that
value until K2SPMB2 seconds (typically, 15 to 60 seconds) after the transient condition ends. Its value
then decays exponentially to 0F on a time constant of TTKSPL9 seconds (typically, 30 to 100 seconds).
Refer to Figure 6.
The transient conditions which cause the bias to step to 200F are: 1) fuel transfer, 2) turbine startup and
shutdown, 3) load changes produced by a governor RAISE or LOWER signal, and 4) load changes
produced by a rapid change in FSR.
VII. SPREAD TESTS
The combustion monitor algorithm uses the acutal spreads, the allowable spread, and adjacency tests to
determine if an actual combustion problem exists. The algorithm logic is summarized by the Venn
diagram shown in Figure 2.
VIII. DISPLAY MESSAGES
The various monitor outputs to the control panel cause alarm message display as well as appropriate
control action. The combustion monitor outputs are given below.
A. Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm (L30SPTA)
If any thermocouple value causes the largest spread to exceed a constant (usually 5 times the
allowable speed) a thermocouple alarm (L30SPTA) is produced. If this alarm persists for four
seconds, the alarm will latch and the alarm message EXHAUST THERMOCOUPLE TROUBLE
will be displayed and remain on until acknowledged and reset.
B. Combustion Trouble Alarm (L30SPA)
A combustion alarm can occur if a thermocouple value causes the largest spread to exceed a constant
(usually the allowable spread). If this alarm persists for three seconds, the alarm will latch and the
COMBUSTION TROUBLE message will be displayed and remain on until it acknowledged and
reset.
C. High Exhaust Temp Spread Trip (L30SPT)
A high exhaust temperature spread trip can occur if a combustion trouble exists and the second
largest spread exceeds 0.8 times the allowable spread and the first and second lowest thermocouples
are adjacent or if an exhaust thermocouple trouble exists and the second largest spread exceeds 0.8
times the allowable spread and the second and third lowest thermocouples are adjacent or if the third
spread exceeds 0.8 times the allowable spread or if a combustion trouble exists and a controller
failure occurs. If any of these conditions exist for 9 seconds, the trip will latch and HIGH
EXHAUST TEMP SPREAD TRIP message will be displayed. The turbine will be tripped through
General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

the master protective circuit. The alarm and trip signals will be displayed until they are acknowledged
and reset.
D. Monitor Enable (L83SPM)
The protective function of the monitor is enabled when the turbine is above L14HS and the master
protective logic L4 is enabled. The purpose of the enable signal (L83SPM) is to prevent false
action during part speed conditions. The exhaust spread monitor enable auxiliary (L83SPMX) is to
continue protection during turbine unloading from when the STOP signal is enabled to when the
turbine is below L14HS. When the monitor is not enabled, no new protective actions are taken. To
troubleshoot the monitor when the gas turbine is not running, the enable signal must be simulated,
i.e., logic signal L14HS, and L4 inputs must be 1 s. The combustion monitor will also be disabled
during a high rate of change of FSR. This prevents false alarms and trips during large fuel and load
transients.
IX. TROUBLESHOOTING WITH THE COMBUSTION MONITOR FUNCTION
A. General
The two main sources of alarm and trip signals being generated by the combustion monitor are failed
thermocouples and combustion system deterioration. Other causes include poor fuel distribution due
to plugged or worn fuel nozzles, and flameout due to water injection (if used).
The tests for combustion alarm and trip action have been designed to minimize signals due to failed
thermocouples but it is impossible to always isolate this cause.
The best protection against shutdowns due to failed thermocouples is good thermocouple
maintenance. Replace failed thermocouples promptly during normal downtime so that the likelihood
of operation with more than one failed thermocouple is low.
The TC TROUBLE ALARM is intended to call attention to failed thermocouples so that they will be
promptly replaced. The TC ALARM will also be activated by the early stages of some combustion
problems.
The COMBUSTION TROUBLE ALARM is intended as an early warning of an actual combustion
malfunction. DO NOT OPERATE THE GAS TURBINE FOR A PROLONGED TIME PERIOD
WHEN THE COMBUSTION ALARM HAS BEEN ACTIVATED. If black smoke is seen in the
exhaust, trip the machine immediately. If there is no black smoke in the exhaust, any period of
operation with this alarm should be used to diagnose the trouble, as failed thermocouples are much
easier to detect when hot than at an ambient temperature. In addition, the fuel oil nozzle pressure can
be read during operation to help diagnose poor fuel distribution. (See Combustion Alarm - Corrective
Action.) If the gas turbine has been tripped by the monitor, it will be necessary to determine the
cause.
Figure 3 through Figure 5 are troubleshooting flowcharts to help in that determination.
Condition
Only the TC Failure Alarm occurs
Combustion Alarms occurs (with or without TC
failure alarm)
Combustion Alarm and Trip occur (with or
without TC failure alarm) and gas turbine has
tripped

Figure
3
4
5

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

If TC Alarm, Trip and Combustion Alarm occur and the gas turbine continues to run, monitor
malfunction has occurred. Attempt to reset monitor.
All possible problems cannot be foreseen and initiative and judgment may be required to
troubleshoot.
X. THERMOCOUPLE CHECKING
The monitor display and the printer, if available, can be used to check thermocouple readings at any time.
The combustion monitor will continue to protect the gas turbine while the thermocouple readings are
being displayed and printed.
Thermocouple malfunction may be detected by observing the monitor display. An open thermocouple
will indicate a value of -40F. A thermocouple may be intermittently open if the display is erratic or
cyclic. With the turbine coasting down and the exhaust metal still hot, but the exhaust air cooler, a
thermocouple that reads significantly higher than the others is probably shorted in its junction box.
XI. THERMOCOUPLE RESISTANCE CHECK
With the turbine not running, disconnect each thermocouple in turn at the termination board and measure
the thermocouple resistance using a good quality ohmmeter. Measure each thermocouple in each polarity
and average the two results to avoid errors from the thermoelectric action. Record all readings, determine
the average, and the deviation of each reading from the average. Any thermocouple with a deviation of
more than 15 ohms from the average reading should be considered defective.
XII. INTERPRETING FAILED THERMOCOUPLE PATTERNS
A. Automatic Trip
If an automatic trip has occurred and a thermocouple has failed, the failed thermocouple may have
caused the trip. If not, assume a possible combustion or associated problem. Proceed in accordance
with Figure 5.
CAUTION
Follow the restart instructions carefully. It is impossible to be sure there is no
combustion problem from the tests referred to above. In case of doubt or if failed
thermocouple patterns are not found, it is recommended that the General Electric
Company Field Service Representative be consulted.
XIII. COMBUSTION TROUBLE MODES TO BE CONSIDERED
A. Combustor
1. Failed Liner (Cracked or Burned)
2. Failed Transition Piece (Cracked or Burned)
3. Collapsed Liner
4. Hot Crossfire Tubes

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

B. Fuel System
1. Break in Liquid Fuel Line
2. Break in Gas Fuel Line
3. Plugged Check Valve
4. Check Valve Stuck Open/Closed
5. Liquid Fuel in Gas Manifold
6. Stuck Flow Divider
7. Failed Fuel Pump
C. Fuel Nozzle
1. Plugged Fuel Nozzle (Liquid or Gas)
2. Unscrewed Fuel Nozzle
3. Fuel Nozzle Erosion
4. Red Hot Fuel Nozzle
D. Atomizing Air System
1. Break in Atomizing Air Line
2. Faulty Purge System
3. Atomizing Air Compressor Failure
4. Plugged Atomizing Air Passage at Manifold or Nozzle
E. Pressure Vessel Integrity
1. Cracked Combustor Casing
2. Blown Gasket
3. Damaged Crossfire Tube Piping
4. Cracked or Blown Sight Port
5. Leakage at Flame Detector or Spark Plug
F. First Stage Nozzle
1. Burned Out First Stage Nozzle
2. Plugged First Stage Nozzle

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

XIV. CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS


A. Combustion Alarm - Corrective Action
In the event of a Combustion Alarm, it is most likely that a condition exists within the turbine that, if
left alone, could lead to serious combustor or turbine damage. Precautionary measures and
troubleshooting procedures should be initiated immediately to locate and correct the problem.
Proceed in accordance with Figure 4 and the following:

WARNING
KEEP PERSONNEL AWAY FROM THE VICINITY OF THE TURBINE
AND ACCESSORY COMPARTMENTS UNTIL THE PROBLEM HAS
BEEN IDENTIFIED.
1. Look for abnormal smoke from the exhaust. Trip the turbine if abnormal smoke is observed.
CAUTION
During the troubleshooting period, watch the display of temperature spread closely and
trip the turbine in the event of a continuous or sudden increase.
2. Read and record the exhaust thermocouple temperatures using the display and the printer.
3. Record the spread displayed.
4. Proceed with a normal turbine shutdown.
5. If faulty exhaust thermocouples have been discovered, replace the thermocouples.
Proceed with the trouble shooting investigation to locate the problem. Perform the following
steps:
6. Inspect the turbine for signs of leaks or damage.
7. If no evidence is discovered in (6), start the turbine in the crank position (unfired). Inspect the
turbine compartment for leaks or damage.
8. If no evidence is discovered in (7), fire the turbine and hold in a warm-up condition (do not
permit acceleration). Watch for an abnormal smoke condition from the exhaust.
TRIP THE TURBINE IF ABNORMAL SMOKE IS OBSERVED. This fired condition, while
the turbine is at low pressure, will permit personnel to read and record the individual fuel nozzle
pressure readings in the accessory compartment on liquid fuel fired gas turbines.
9. If an abnormal condition is observed, trip the turbine and take corrective action.
10. If no abnormal condition can be discovered at this point, the turbine should be shut down and a
combustion inspection performed. FURTHER ATTEMPTS AT DIAGNOSIS BY OPERATING
THE MACHINE ARE NOT RECOMMENDED.

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

11. Preliminary disassembly of the combustor end cover will permit inspection of the combustion
liner, a portion of the transition piece, the fuel nozzles and the crossfire tubes. The extent of the
inspection must be dictated by the nature of the problem.
12. The problem area discovered during the combustion inspection should be corrected and the
turbine should be returned to normal operation.
B. Turbine Trip - Corrective Action (See Figure 5)
In the event of an emergency turbine trip due to the following conditions.
1. Abnormal smoke condition at any time.
2. Combustion Alarm. Thermocouples show combustion alarm pattern, and the thermocouples have
not failed.
3. Thermocouple Alarm, Combustion Alarm and Trip. Trip pattern, and thermocouples have not
failed.
4. Combustion Alarm and Trip. Trip pattern exists and thermocouples have not failed.
Proceed with the following action:
1. It is likely that an abnormal condition exists within the turbine and corrective action should be
initiated.
2. Inspect the turbine compartment hardware for signs of leaks or damage.
3. Perform a combustion inspection. Inspect all combustor hardware including the transition piece
for signs of damage. Replace the damaged hardware and return the turbine to normal operation.
C. Automatic Trip - Corrective Action
In the event of an automatic trip due to COMBUSTION ALARM and TRIP (THERMOCOUPLE
TROUBLE ALARM or not) and investigation shows failed thermocouples could have caused the
trip, proceed with the following action.
1. Replace the failed thermocouples.
2. Open the turbine compartment doors and keep all personnel away from line-of-sight of the
turbine compartment.
3. Proceed with a normal start. If an abnormal smoke condition is observed from the exhaust stack,
trip the turbine and proceed with a complete combustion inspection of the liner, transition pieces,
crossfire tubes and fuel nozzles.
4. If no further alarms are noted by FSNL (full speed, no load), proceed with a normal loading
procedure and observe the temperature spread reading and exhaust smoke.
5. Any further trips due to the combustion monitor indicates an unsatisfactory condition, and a
complete combustion system inspection should be performed.
6. Otherwise resume normal operation.

10

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

XV. WATER INJECTION (OPTIONAL)


During water injection, if one or more combustors are extinguished by the water, the combustion alarm
function will shut off the water and the COMBUSTION ALARM will be displayed. The Trip function
will trip the gas turbine if the combustors do not refire within a short time period.
If the combustion alarm function operates, and the water injection is turned off, reset the monitor. If the
alarm does not recur, restart the water injection as desired, using the normal procedures. If the alarm does
recur proceed with troubleshooting procedures in accordance with Figure 4. If a trip occurs during water
injection operation, proceed with troubleshooting procedures in accordance with Figure 5.

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

11

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

Figure 1. Combustion Monitoring Function Algorithm (Schematic)

12

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

Figure 2. Exhaust Temperature Spread Limits

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

13

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

Figure 3.

14

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

Figure 4.

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

15

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

Figure 5.

16

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Combustion Monitor Function

GEK 110917a

Figure 6.

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

17

GEK 110917a

Combustion Monitor Function

g GE Energy
General Electric Company
www.gepower.com

18

General Electric Company, 2008. GE Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.