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Boolean algebra

Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole (1815-1864) in 1854. He gave the symbolic
form to Aristotlesystem of logic - the rules laws and theorems in Booless work were known as
logical algebra or Boolean algebra.
Later, in1938, Claude Shannon in his thesis, titled A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching
Circuits, put Booles theoretical work to use in a way Boole never could have imagined. The
powerful mathematical tool for designing and analyzing digital circuits was created.

Suppose that A and B are symbols for 0 and 1. Thus with Boolean variables A and B Boolean
expressions such as A+B, AB and are formed.

The operations + and are analogous with in the set theory and thus

Boolean (Algebra ) Axioms are


ANDing/ ORing is commutative
A+ B = B + A
AB= BA

ANDing/ ORing is associative


A+ (B+C )= (A + B) + C
A(BC)= (AB)C
A+ (BC )= (A + B) (A + C)
A (B+C )= (A B) +(A C)

Identity rules

A+0 =A
A1=A

Complement laws
+ =1
A1=A

= 0
=

Laws derived from the Boolean Laws


Absorption laws
A+ AB =A
A( A+B )=A
Minimization laws
(AB) + (A ) =A

(A+B) (A+ ) =A

De Morgans law

+ =

= +
A+1=1
A0=0

NOTE:
Boolean numbers 0 and 1 are not the same as binary numbers.
The difference is that Boolean quantities are restricted to a single bit ,either 1 or 0, whereas binary
numbers may be composed of many bits adding up in place-weighted form to a value of any finite
size. The binary number 100112 (nineteen) has no more place in the Boolean world than the
decimal number 210 (two) or the octal number 328

Example 1
Binary number 100112 is decimal number (16+0+0+2+1)10=1910
Adding binaries 12 + 12= 102
Adding Boolean quantities 1+1=1

Logic circuits ( also called logic networks) are structures that are built up from certain element
circuit called logic gates. Each logic circuit may be viewed as a machine L which contains one or
more input devices and exactly one output device.

Before a circuit is constructed from Boolean expressions, the expression is reduced to lower amount
of terms. The reduced expression can often be built using fewer gates and fewer connections. This
can result in less expensive printed circuit boards, less power drawn from the power supply, and
less time and fewer materials used in construction circle. Expression are reduced using Boolean
algebra based on Boolean theorems.

Example 2 NOT-gate or an inverter


NOT gate has only one input, whereas the OR and AND gates may have two or more inputs.
So what are results of inversion Z=A when X=A
and A get values
a) 110001
b) 10001111
c) 101100111000
The NOT gate changes 0 to 1 and 1 to 0. Thus
Z = A => a) 001110, b) 01110000,c)010011000111
Example 3 OR-gate

From the figures truth table could be read that the gate with inputs A and B gives output Y=A+B.
Thus the output Y=0 only when the inputs A and B are zeros.
What is Y=A+B+C+D if
A, B ,C and D are following 8-bit sequences:
A=10000101, B=10100001, C=00100100,D=10010101?
The OR-gate only yields 0 when all input bits are 0. This occurs only in the 2nd, 5th
and 7th positions (reading from left to right)
Thus the output is Y=101100101.

Example 4 AND -gate


The Output Y=1 only when inputs A=1 and B=1; otherwise Y=0.
What is Y=ABCD if
A=11100111, B=01111011, C=01110011, D=11101110
The AND gate only yields 1, when all inputs are 1. This occurs only in the 2nd, 3rd,and 7th positions
(reading from left to right)
Thus the output is the sequence Y=01100010.

Example 5 page 165 Engineering Mathematics

Example 6 page 168 Engineering Mathematics

Before a circuit is constructed from Boolean expressions, the expression is reduced to lower terms.
The reduced expression can often be built using fewer gates and fewer connections. This can result
in less expensive printed circuit boards, less power drawn from the power supply, and less time and
fewer materials used in construction circle. Expression are reduced using Boolean algebra based on
Boolean theorems.