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CHRISTIE JOHN GEANKOPLIS

University ofMinnesota

Transport Processes and


Separation Process Principles
(Includes Unit Operations)

FOURTH EDITION

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PRENTIC9
HALL

PTR

PRENTICE HALL
Professional Technical Reference
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
wwwphptr.com

Contents

PART I
TRANSPORT PROCESSES; MOMENTUM, HEAT, AND MASS
Introduction to Engineering Principles and Units

1.1 Classification of Transport Processes and Separation Processes


(Unit Operations)
1.2 SI System of Basic Units Used in This Text and Other Systems
1.3 Methods of ExpressingTemperatures and Compositions
1.4 Gas Laws and Vapor Pressure
1.5 Conservation ofMass and Material Balances
1.6 Energy and Heat Units
L7 Conservation of Energy and Heat Balances
1.8 Numerical Methods for Integration

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Chapter I

Chapter2

Principles of Momentum Transfer and Overall Balances

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fluid Statics
2.3 General Molecular Transport Equation forMomentum, Heat, and
Mass Transfer
2.4 Viscosity ofFluids
2.5 Types of Fluid Flow and Reynolds Number
2.6 Overall Mass Balance and Continuity Equation
2.7 Overall Energy Balance
2.8 Overall MomentumBalance
2.9 Shell Momentum Balance and Velocity Profile in Laminar Flow
2.10 Design Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Pipes
2.11 Compressible Flow of Gases

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Chapter3 Principles of Momentum Transfer and Applications


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11

Flow Past Immersed Objects and Packed and Fluidized Beds


Measurement of Flow of Fluids
Pumps and Gas-Moving Equipment
Agitation and Mixing of Fluids and Power Requirements
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Differential Equations of Continuity
Differential Equations of Momentum Transfer or Motion
Use of Differential Equations of Continuity and Motion
Other Methods for Solution of Differential Equations of Motion
Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence
Dimensional Analysis in Momentum Transfer

Chapter4 Principles of Steady-State Heat Transfer


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15

Introduction and Mechanisms of Heat Transfer


Conduction Heat Transfer
Conduction Through Solids in Series
Steady-State Conduction and Shape Factors
Forced Convection Heat Transfer Inside Pipes
Heat Transfer Outside Various Geometries in Forced Convection
Natural Convection Heat Transfer
Boiling and Condensation
Heat Exchangers
Introduction to Radiation Heat Transfer
Advanced Radiation Heat-Transfer Principles
Heat Transfer of Non-Newtonian Fluids
Special Heat-Transfer Coefficients
Dimensional Analysis in Heat Transfer
Numerical Methods for Steady-State Conduction in TWo Dimensions

Chapter5 Principles of Unsteady-State Heat Transfer


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

Derivation of Basic Equation


Simplified Case for Systems with Negligible Internal Resistance
Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in Various Geometries
Numerical Finite-Difference Methods for Unsteady-State Conduction
Chilling and Freezing of Food and Biological Materials
Differential Equation of Energy Change
Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Heat Transfer

Chapter 6 Principles of Mass.Transfer


6.1 Introduction to Mass Transfer and Diffusion
6.2 Molecular Diffusion in Gases
6.3 Molecular Diffusion in Liquids
6.4 Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solutions and Gels

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6.5
6.6

Molecular Diffusion in Solids


Numerical Methods for Steady-State Molecular Diffusion in
Two Dimensions

Chapter 7 Principles of Unsteady-State and Convective Mass Transfer


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

Unsteady-State Diffusion
Convective Mass-Transfer Coefficients
Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Various Geometries
Mass Transfer to Suspensions of Small Particles
Molecular Diffusion Plus Convection and Chemical Reaction
Diffusion of Gases in Porous Solids and Capillaries
Numerical Methods for Unsteady-Skate Molecular Diffusion
Dimensional Analysis in Mass Transfer
Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Mass Transfer

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511.
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PART 2

SEPARATION PROCESS PRINCIPLES


(INCLUDES UNIT OPERATIONS)
Chapter8 Evaporation
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8

Introduction
Types of Evaporation Equipment and Operation Methods
Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients in Evaporators
Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators
Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
Condensers for Evaporators
Evaporation of Biological Materials
Evaporation Using Vapor Recompression

Chapter9 Drying of Process Materials


Introduction and Methods of Drying
Equipmentfor Drying
Vapor Pressure of Water and Humidity
Equilibrium Moisture Content of Materials
Rate-of-Drying Curves
Calculation Methods for Constant-Rate Drying Period
Calculation Methods for Falling-Rate Drying Period
Combined Convection, Radiation, and Conduction Heat Transfer
in Constant-Rate Period
9.9 Drying in Falling-Rate Period by Diffusion and Capillary Flow
9.10 Equations for Various Types of Dryers
9.11 Freeze-Drying of Biological Materials
9.12 Unsteady-State Thermal Processing and Sterilization of Biological Materials
9.1.
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

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Chapter l0
10 .1
10 .2
10.3
10 .4
10 .5
10.6
10 .7
10.8
10.9

Stage and Continuous Gas-Liquid Separation Processes

Types of Separation Processes and Methods


Equilibrium Relations Between Phases
Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages
Mass Transfer Between Phases
Continuous Humidification Processes
Absorption in Plate and Packed Towers
Absorption of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Towers
Estimation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Packed Towers
Heat Effects and Temperature Variations in Absorption

Chapter 11 Vapor-Liquid Separation Processes


1.7..1
11.2
11,3
11A
11 .5
IL.6
11.7

Vapor--Liquid Equilibrium Relations


Single-Stage Equilibrium Contact for Vapor-Liquid System
Simple Distillation Methods
Distillation with Reflux and McCabe Thiele Method
Distillation and Absorption Efficiencies for Tray and Packed Towers
Fractional Distillation Using Enthalpy-Concentration Method
Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures

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Chapter 12 Liquid-Liquid and Iluid-Solid Separation Processes

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12.1
7.2.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12,9
12.10
12.11
12.12

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Introduction to Adsorption Processes


Batch Adsorption
Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorption Columns
Ion-Excbange Processes
Single-Stage Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes
Types of Equipment and Design for Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Continuous Multistage Countercurrent Extraction
Introduction and Equipment for Liquid-Solid Leaching
Equilibrium Relations and Single-Stage Leaching
Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
Introduction and Equipment for Crystallization
Crystallization Theory

Chapter13 Membrane Separation Processes


13.1
33.2
13.3
13A
13 .5
13.6
13.7
13 .8

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Introduction and Types of Membrane Separation Processes


Liquid Permeation Membrane Processes or Dialysis
Gas Permeation Membrane Processes
Complete-Mixing Model for Gas Separation by Membranes
Complete-Mixing Model for Multicomponent Mixtures
Crass-Flow Model for Gas Separation by Membranes
Derivation of Equations for Countercurrent and Cocurrent Flow
for Gas Separation for Membranes
Derivation of Finite-Difference NumericalMethod for Asymmetric
Membranes

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Contents

13 .9
13.10
13.11
13.12

Reverse-Osmosis Membrane Processes


Applications, Equipment, and Models for Reverse Osmosis
Ultrafiltration Membrane Processes
Microfiltration Membrane Processes

Chapter 14 Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes


14,1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5

Introduction and Classification o Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes


Filtration in Solid-Liquid Separation
Settling and Sedimentation in Particle-Fluid Separation
Centrifugal Separation Processes
Mechanical Size Reduction

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Appendix
Appendix A.1
Appendix A.2
Appendix A.3
Appendix A.4
Appendix A.5
Notation

Contents

Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors


Physical Properties of Water
Physical Properties of Inorganic and Organic Compounds
Physical Properties of Foods and Biological Materials
Properties of Pipes, Tubes, and Screens

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