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5 vues16 pagesPlanning Groundwater Development in Coastal Aquifers

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Planning Groundwater Development in Coastal Aquifers

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5 vues16 pagesPlanning Groundwater Development in Coastal Aquifers

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155

aquifers

S. V. N. RAO, V. SREENIVASULU

National Institute of Hydrology, Deltaic Regional Centre, Siddartha Nagar, Kakinada 533003,

Andhra Pradesh, India

shedimbi@yahoo.com

K. P. SUDHEER

Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

coastal aquifers. The seawater intrusion is controlled through a series of barrier extraction wells. The multi-objective management problem is cast as a nonlinear, nonconvex

combinatorial model and is solved using a coupled simulationoptimization approach.

A density-dependent groundwater flow and transport model, SEAWAT is used for

simulating the dynamics of seawater intrusion. The Simulated Annealing algorithm is

used for solving the optimization problem. The idea of replacing the SEAWAT model

with a trained artificial neural network (ANN) to manage the computational burden

within practical time frames on a desktop computer is explored. The utility of the

study is demonstrated through a trade-off curve between prioritizing groundwater

development and controlling seawater intrusion at desired levels.

Key words density-dependent flow; simulated annealing; seawater intrusion;

artificial neural network; coastal aquifers

des aquifres ctiers

Rsum Cette tude concerne la planification du dveloppement de la ressource en

eau souterraine dans des aquifres ctiers. Lintrusion marine est contrle grce une

srie de puits dextraction. Le problme de la gestion multi-objectifs est traduit sous la

forme dun modle non-linaire et combinatoire non-convexe, et est rsolu par une

approche couple de simulationoptimisation. SEAWAT, modle dcoulement et de

transport souterrains prenant en compte la densit de leau, est utilis pour simuler la

dynamique de lintrusion marine. Lalgorithme de recuit simul est utilis pour

rsoudre le problme doptimisation. Nous explorons lide de remplacer le modle

SEAWAT par un rseau de neurones artificiels (RNA) entran, afin de rendre ltape

de calcul compatible avec les dlais concrets dun ordinateur de bureau. Ltude est

valorise sous la forme dune courbe darbitrage entre le dveloppement de

lutilisation de leau souterraine et diffrents niveaux de contrle de lintrusion

marine.

Mots clefs coulement densit-dpendant; recuit simul; intrusion marine;

rseau de neurones artificiels; aquifres ctiers

INTRODUCTION

Groundwater extraction is required in many coastal areas where the freshwater supply

from surface sources is not adequate. However, excessive groundwater extraction may

lead to seawater intrusion into the aquifer, and hence excessive salinity. Therefore,

groundwater development in coastal aquifers must involve management strategies such

that the demand is met in terms of both quality and quantity. Groundwater manageOpen for discussion until 1 August 2004

156

S. V. N. Rao et al.

ment models for coastal aquifers should combine an accurate process model for

seawater intrusion with an appropriate technique for solving the optimization problem.

In this study, a nonlinear optimization model is developed as a tool to determine the

optimal operation strategy wherein the groundwater extraction is maximized, while the

seawater intrusion is minimized through a series of barrier wells.

The seawater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers occurs as a result of reversal in

hydraulic gradients. There exists a transition zone between the freshwater and saltwater

zones, in which there is a gradual change in the density. Disperse interface or miscible

flow simulation models (Huyakorn et al., 1987; Anderson et al., 1988; Guo & Langevin,

2002) explicitly represent the dynamics of flow in this zone through an advection

dispersion equation. An alternative approach (Essaid, 1990) to the analysis of seawater

intrusion problems is based on the simplifying assumption that the transition zone can be

replaced by a sharp interface, when the width of the transition zone is small compared to

the thickness of the aquifer. The freshwater and saltwater flow domains are coupled

through an interfacial boundary condition of continuity of flux and pressure. The density

of the water in each zone is considered to be constant. Although both the approaches

account for saltwater dynamics, the miscible flow approach is closer to reality than the

sharp interface approach. However, use of the miscible flow approach in the management

models has been limited because of the high computational burden (Das & Datta, 1999).

The response of an aquifer system to specified recharge and pumping rates can be

determined using simulation models. However, coupled simulationoptimization (S/O)

models need to be used to arrive at management decisions during planning, design and

operation stages. Gorelick (1983), Peralta & Datta (1990), Hallaji & Yazicigil (1996),

Karatzas & Pinder (1996) and Zheng & Wang (2002), among others, have developed a

number of such groundwater management models. With regard to coastal aquifers in

particular, Willis & Finney (1988) developed an optimization model for minimizing

the seawater intrusion as well as the cost of pumping and recharge. In this model, the

sharp interface approach (Mercer et al., 1980) was used to simulate the seawater

intrusion. A reduced gradient quasi-Newton method was used for solving the optimization problem. Emch & Yeh (1998) developed a nonlinear multi-objective management

model for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. This

model was based on the SHARP interface approach for the aquifer response (Essaid,

1990), and the MINOS (Murtagh & Saunders 1980) nonlinear optimization package

for the solution of the optimization problem. Recently, Das & Datta (1999) developed

multi-objective management models involving groundwater development in a hypothetical coastal aquifer. These authors used an embedding approach and the MINOS

package for the solution of the optimization problem. The three-dimensional (3-D)

flow and transport equations were embedded as equality constraints in the optimization

model. The embedding procedure and the use of 3-D density-dependent flow equations

result in high computational burdens.

The S/O approach is appealing because it can readily use existing simulation

models and can account for the complex behaviour of a groundwater flow system in a

coastal aquifer. Although the S/O approach can identify the best management strategy

under a set of constraints, the computational burden is generally high and more so

when evolutionary optimization procedures are used. During the last 10 years, evolutionary or heuristic (non-exact) methods have become popular for solving the

nonlinear, non-convex optimization problems. In these cases, the presence of multiple

157

local minima poses problems if classical optimization techniques based on the gradient

search approach are used (Emch & Yeh 1998). Since no method exists that can

guarantee a global optimum, heuristic and evolutionary approaches are often referred

to as global optimization methods. Among these, the Simulated Annealing (SA) and

the Genetic Algorithms (GA) are the two most popular methods. Dougherty &

Marryott (1991) have demonstrated the application of SA to hypothetical groundwater

management problems in non-coastal regions. More recently, Zheng & Wang (2002)

have demonstrated the applicability of this approach to a field problem. These authors

used a response function to replace the simulator to reduce the computational burden.

In the present study, a coupled S/O approach is used to prioritize groundwater

development in a coastal aquifer system. A management problem is formulated with two

conflicting objectives involving maximization of groundwater development in coastal

zones while limiting the head and seawater intrusion to desired levels of salinity by the use

of barrier wells. Unlike many earlier models, the proposed model is based on a recently

developed 3-D density-dependent seawater intrusion model, SEAWAT (Guo & Langevin,

2002). Use of SEAWAT as the simulator is expected to result in a better representation of

the flow system, as compared to the sharp interface approach. Also, the SA technique is

used to solve the optimization problem in order to avoid problems common to classical

gradient search methods such as those used in MINOS. The coupled S/O model based on

the SA technique results in significant computational burden. This problem is tackled

herein by replacing the simulator with an artificial neural network (ANN), and the

computational burdens are kept within practical time frames for a desktop computer.

GOVERNING EQUATIONS

The 3-D density-dependent miscible flow and transport equations (Guo & Langevin,

2002) for a coastal aquifer may be written as follows:

()

t

Flow equation:

(q ) + q s =

Transport equation:

D(c) (vc) + q s =

(1)

c

t

(2)

k y P

k P

k P

, qy =

, q z = z + g ;

+

+ ; qx = x

x y z

y

z

x

is the variable fluid density [M L-3]; q is the specific discharge vector [L T-1]; is

the density of water entering from a source or leaving through a sink [M L-3]; qs is the

volumetric flow rate per unit volume of aquifer representing sources/sinks [T-1]; is

porosity [-]; t is time [T]; c is solute concentration [M L-3]; qx, qy, qz are the individual

components of specific discharge; is the dynamic viscosity [M L-1 T-1]; kx, ky, kz

represent intrinsic permeabilities [L2] in the three coordinate directions; g is the gravitational constant [L T2] and treated here as positive scalar quantity; P is the fluid pore

pressure [M L-1 T-2]; D is the dispersion coefficient [L2 T-1]; and v represents the

seepage velocity [L T-1].

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S. V. N. Rao et al.

Baxter & Wallace (1916) as follows:

= f + Ec

(3)

concentrations (c) ranging from zero for freshwater to 35 kg m-3 for seawater.

MANAGEMENT MODEL

A hypothetical 3-D aquifer system as shown in Fig. 1 is considered. The problem

involves maximizing groundwater pumpage for beneficial purposes from a group of

wells with an equal rate of pumping near the coast. A series of extraction (barrier or

control or cleanup) wells are used (Todd, 1980) to ensure that the groundwater salinity

at the pumping location is below the desired level. Barrier wells simply pump the

water and throw it back to the sea. Therefore, the second objective is to minimize the

pumping in the barrier wells. Constraints are imposed on heads and concentrations in

both space and time. Mathematically, the two-objective problem may be formulated

within the S/O framework as follows:

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1 Definition sketch of hypothetical 3-D aquifer system. (a) plan; (b) cross-section

AB.

159

1. Minimize pumping in extraction barrier wells near the coast along space and time:

N

J 1 = Qsin , j ,k

(4)

n =1 k =1 j =1 i =1

where Qsin , j ,k is the pumpage (decision variable) from the barrier wells located at

the node (i, j, k) during the time period n.

2. Maximize pumping in production wells at specified points:

N

J 2 = mQPn

(5)

n =1

where QPn is the pumpage from each well in a group of m production wells during

the time period n.

Subject to following constraints:

(a) Heads (h) at nodes along space and time should be greater than the specified value

hs. This constraint is imposed to limit the drawdown in the aquifer.

hin, j ,1 > hs

i, j, k and n

(6)

(b) The concentration (c) in production wells should be less than specified value cs.

cin, j ,k < c s

(7)

(c) Flow and transport equations should be satisfied. These are built into the

simulation model.

f (h, c, q) in, j ,k = 0

(8)

layers and time periods relevant to the hypothetical aquifer. The upper and lower limits

for heads and concentrations are specified within the simulation model. The pumping

from barrier wells is restricted to discrete values within a practical range and,

therefore, no upper or lower bounds are set for the decision variables.

SOLUTION METHODOLOGY

The methodology adapted in this study uses a coupled S/O approach. The SEAWAT

(Guo & Langevin, 2002) model is used for simulation. The responses of the SEAWAT

model over a range of pumping from the barrier and production wells are used for

training the ANN. The trained network behaves as the virtual simulator. The network

simulator is subsequently interfaced with the SA algorithm, which is used as the

optimizer. Pumping is treated as a discrete decision variable and, therefore, the model

is solved as a combinatorial nonlinear, non-convex problem. As two conflicting

objectives are involved, the second objective (maximizing pumpages from production

wells) is incorporated as a constraint, and a trade-off curve between the two objectives

is obtained. The simulator (SEAWAT model), the optimizer (SA algorithm) and the

artificial neural network (ANN) are briefly discussed below.

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S. V. N. Rao et al.

SEAWAT model

The SEAWAT model (Guo & Langevin, 2002) was recently developed by combining

the popular MODFLOW (McDonald & Harbough, 1988) and MT3D (Zheng & Wang,

1998) models, with modifications to account for density variations between seawater

and freshwater. The pressure head is converted to equivalent freshwater head for the

variable water density in space and time. During any computational time step, the flow

field is first solved by MODFLOW and this is followed by the solution for concentration using MT3D. The updated density field is then calculated from the new concentrations and is incorporated back into MODFLOW as relative density difference terms.

The flow and transport equations are solved several times for the same time step

until the difference in fluid density between consecutive iterations is less than a userspecified tolerance.

SA algorithm

This is a heuristic algorithm in which each decision variable can take a discrete value

from a specified set of possible values. Each combination of decision variables is called

a configuration. The set of all possible configurations constitutes the configuration

space. The method first generates a random configuration (trial point) within the configuration space. Then a function call is made to the simulator to determine the state

variables. Values of the state variables are used to verify the constraints and to evaluate

the objective function. Further action depends on the following three possible scenarios:

1. Constraints are violated. In this case, the current trial point is rejected and a new point

is generated.

2. Constraints are not violated and the objective function value is better than the previous

best record. The trial point is accepted, the record for the best point is updated, and

then a new point is generated.

3. The trial point results in feasibility but the objective function value is worse than the

previous best value. In this case, the trial point is either accepted or rejected based on

the Metropolis criterion (Metropolis et al., 1953). For this purpose, a random deviate,

which is uniformly distributed in the interval (0, 1), is generated. The worse or the

uphill move is accepted if the above random deviate is smaller than the acceptance

probability. A new trial point is then generated. The probability for the acceptance of

an uphill move is equal to exp(C/T), where C is the difference in the objective

function values corresponding to the present and previous best configurations, and T is

a parameter called temperature. In the initial stages, a large percentage of downhill/

uphill moves are accepted by specifying a large value of T. The value of T is

progressively reduced as the trials proceed in order to reduce the acceptance probability. The acceptance probability of uphill moves eventually decreases to zero.

The aforementioned steps are repeated with the new trial point, and the process is

continued until equilibrium is achieved for the current value of T. It is assumed that the

equilibrium is achieved if the objective function value does not improve for a sufficient

number of iterations (chains). The temperature is then gradually reduced, and the entire

process is repeated for the new temperature. The iterative process is continued until the

termination criterion is met. The termination criterion is assumed to have been met if

the objective function value does not improve for four successive temperature reduc-

161

tions. More details are available elsewhere (Aarts & Korst, 1989; Dougherty &

Marryott, 1991; Teegavarapu & Simonovic, 2002).

The code for the SA algorithm developed here incorporates a perturbation procedure

called excursion limiting (Dougherty & Marryott, 1991) for generating a new random

configuration. In this procedure, the integer index level of each decision variable is

allowed to change randomly within l levels of its current value for a particular

configuration. The entire search space is covered in the initial stages by taking a large

value of l. The value of l is gradually reduced as the temperature is lowered, to reduce

the search space. The value of l tends to zero as the optimal (or near optimal)

configuration is reached.

ANN as the simulator

In this study, a large number of randomly generated configurations of the decision vector,

and corresponding responses of the SEAWAT model, are fed as inputs and outputs to train

the ANN. The trained ANN is then used instead of the SEAWAT model as a virtual simulator. An ANN attempts to mimic, in a very simplified way, the human mental and neural

structure and functions (Hsieh, 1993). It can be characterized as massively parallel

interconnections of simple neurons that function as a collective system (ASCE, 2000). The

network topology consists of a set of nodes (neurons) connected by links and usually

organized in a number of layers. Each node in a layer receives and processes weighted

input from the previous layer and transmits its output to nodes in the following layer

through links. Each link is assigned a weight, which is a numerical estimate of the connection strength. The weighted summation of inputs to a node is converted to an output

according to a transfer function (typically a sigmoid function). Most ANNs have three

layers or more: an input layer, which is used to present data to the network; an output

layer, which is used to produce an appropriate response to the given input; and one or

more intermediate layers, which are used to act as a collection of feature detectors. The

goal of the ANN here is to establish a relation of the form:

(Ym) = f(Xn)

(9)

n

m

where X is an n-dimensional input vector consisting of x1, x2, ..., xn; and Y is an

m-dimensional output or target vector consisting of resulting variables of interest y1, y2,

..., yn; and f() is the commonly used sigmoidal transfer function given by:

f(t) = 1/(1 + exp(t))

(10)

The network is trained generally, using a back propagation algorithm that will adjust

the weights and biases so as to minimize the error function given by:

E = ( yi ti )

P

(11)

where yi is the ANN output; ti is the desired output; p is the number of output nodes;

and P is the number of training patterns or data sets.

ILLUSTRATIVE APPLICATION OF THE MODEL

To illustrate the methodology, a hypothetical study area (Fig. 1) similar to that reported

by Das & Datta (1999) is used with finer spatial discretization. A seven-layer, 12-row

162

S. V. N. Rao et al.

and 22-column finite difference grid is constructed to represent a simplified 3-D aquifer

system. Six control wells (c1c6), two production wells (x7 and x8, pumping equal

discharge) and one existing production well (p9, with a fixed rate of pumping) are

considered. The sea face and all other boundaries are assumed vertical. The northsouth

and bottom boundaries are considered as no-flow boundaries. The left boundary is

assumed to be a time invariant constant head (3 m elevation) river boundary with zero

concentration. The sea face is assumed as a time invariant constant head boundary with

zero elevation and constant salinity of 35 kg m-3 representing seawater. The upper

phreatic surface receives a specified amount of recharge on a seasonal (six-monthly)

basis. Aquifer parameters similar to those in Das & Datta (1999) are adopted and are

listed in Table 1. Initially the aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, initial conditions

(starting heads and concentrations) and well locations are made symmetrical about one

axis as shown in Fig. 1. A pre-processor is used to create the required input files for

SEAWAT. The model is run using a false transient approach with only average

recharge for a long time period until steady state conditions in terms of heads and

concentrations are achieved.

Table 1 Parameters used in the SEAWAT model.

Parameters

Hydraulic conductivity in X, Y and Z directions

Porosity

Specific yield (unconfined aquifer)

Specific storage of confined aquifer

Molecular diffusion

Longitudinal and vertical dispersivity

Uniform rainfall recharge

Grid in X and Y directions

Grid in Z direction

Density difference ratio

Concentration of freshwater

Concentration of seawater

Density of seawater

Density of freshwater

Values

20, 20 and 0.2 m day-1

0.26

0.225

0.00044

7.7 10-5 m day-1

66.66 and 13.11 m

0.02 m per monsoon season

100 m

22.5 m

0.025

0

35 kg m-3

1025 kg m-3

1000 kg m-3

For any given set of pumpages, the SEAWAT model takes on average 4 s to execute

one stress period (180 days) involving solution of the flow and transport steps (the

MT3D model further divides each stress period into transport steps) on a desktop PC.

Since the optimization process by SA involves several thousands of function calls to the

simulator, a virtual ANN simulator model is developed as discussed before. For training,

two data sets are generated: one for the symmetrical aquifer system with only one stress

period and the second for the near-real aquifer system with three stress periods, both

beginning with the monsoon season.

To generate training sets for the ANN, pumpages are assigned randomly to all eight

locations (input variables: six control wells and two production wells as in Fig. 1). Each

decision variable is restricted to 10 possible discrete values (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000,

1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 m3 day-1). In the first training set, the pumpage for the third

production well is set to zero, while a fixed value (1200 m3 day-1) is assigned to represent a

partially developed near-real aquifer system in the second training set. Under typical

163

Indian conditions, recharge occurs mostly during the monsoon season. Therefore, a

uniform recharge of 0.02 m per season was applied during the monsoon season (180 days).

No recharge is assumed during the non-monsoon season. No constraints are imposed for

generating data sets for the ANN training. The SEAWAT responses at points of interest for

the two cases are obtained by repeated execution of the model. The training sets included 8,

16 and 24 inputs (decision variables) corresponding to the first, second and third stress

periods. The output responses are heads at all nine pumping locations (first layer) and

concentrations at three production well locations (third layer) for each stress period.

For the two cases discussed previously, 4900 inputoutput data sets are generated.

The number of training sets (patterns) is generally a matter of concern when dealing with

observed data. In the present case this is not a problem as any number of data sets could

be generated through repeated execution of the SEAWAT model. The statistics of data

sets used for ANN training for the second case (near-real aquifer) are listed in Table 2.

The data sets cover the full range over which each input variable varied. This is because

ANNs are known to be good as interpolators rather than as extrapolators.

Table 2 Statistics of data sets from SEAWAT responses used for training ANN for the near-real aquifer system.

Well location

(see Fig. 1)

Head (m)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

Max.

0.658

0.654

0.664

0.682

0.703

0.72

1.054

1.073

0.851

2.463

Max.

0.647

0.636

0.631

0.633

0.642

0.66

0.992

0.994

0.821

3.697

Max.

0.646

0.636

0.632

0.641

0.656

0.675

1.015

1.022

0.832

3.981

Min.

0.204

0.162

0.141

0.146

0.176

0.22

0.298

0.305

0.214

0.646

Mean

0.442

0.420

0.413

0.422

0.444

0.473

0.689

0.700

0.547

1.245

R2

0.995

0.992

0.999

0.991

0.992

0.992

0.996

0.989

0.988

0.978

Min.

0.171

0.137

0.126

0.139

0.167

0.21

0.278

0.292

0.187

0.537

Mean

0.404

0.382

0.374

0.384

0.407

0.437

0.637

0.648

0.501

1.396

R2

0.995

0.991

0.996

0.997

0.997

0.996

0.993

0.991

0.993

0.984

8

2.637 0.778

1.337

0.975

3.594 0.69

1.504

0.968

4.198

9

8.036 2.196

4.128

0.997

12.015 2.685 5.460

0.991

12.812

Max.: maximum value, Min.: minimum value, Mean: mean value in the data set (4900 patterns).

R2 refers to calibration of the ANN/ SEAWAT data set.

Min.

0.155

0.113

0.09

0.095

0.125

0.171

0.24

0.248

0.158

0.575

Mean

0.396

0.379

0.365

0.375

0.399

0.430

0.634

0.645

0.495

1.570

R2

0.995

0.991

0.986

0.991

0.993

0.992

0.995

0.981

0.991

0.984

0.722

3.224

1.699

6.390

0.976

0.991

The above data sets are standardized before ANN training is implemented. For this

purpose, the inputoutput data series (pattern) are scaled (xscaled) to values between zero

(0.0) and one (1.0) using the equation xscaled = (x xmin)/(xmax xmin), where x is the actual

value of the variable, and xmin and xmax are the minimum and the maximum values of the

variables respectively. This scaling is necessary because the sigmoid transfer function is

used in the network. A three-layer feed-forward network is trained using the ANN

toolbox of MATLAB (2000) to obtain the weights and biases of each network. The

network uses a sigmoidal transfer function (for six hidden neurons) and a linear function

(for one output neuron). The supervised training is accomplished with the help of a backpropagation algorithm (Marquardt-Levenberg) as implemented in MATLAB. Thus

several networks are trained. The training takes a few minutes to several hours depending on the number of inputs and outputs, i.e. the inputoutput vector size. For example,

for the third stress period, the training of heads with 24 inputs and six outputs takes

164

S. V. N. Rao et al.

R = 0.9800

R = 0.9834

0

3

4

3

simulated concentration at the end of the third stress period.

output variables. Calibration (400 data sets) and validation (200 data sets) of two

arbitrarily selected data sets for concentration at a production well using SEAWAT/

ANN is shown in Fig. 2.

In the SEAWAT simulations for the training sets, the spatial (Fig. 1) and temporal

discretizations are kept sufficiently small. The coupling parameter between flow and

transport is set at 0.01 kg m-3 for convergence. The model is run with shorter time

steps to verify the numerical accuracy of heads and concentrations. The Courant

number is set to 1 in the MT3D input file and the grid Peclet number was verified near

well locations to be less than 2. The only option of implicit finite difference available

in the current SEAWAT model for solving the transport equation is not very accurate,

as evident from R2 (0.960.98) values for different training sets in respect of

concentrations for calibration/validation. However, the R2 values for heads in all cases

are found high (0.980.99).

Hypothetical symmetrical aquifer system: proof of concept test

The hypothetical symmetrical aquifer system considered here provides a basis to test the

management model developed using ANN/SA. The trained network is interfaced with the

SA code as discussed in the previous section. Only one stress period is considered and the

discharges from the production wells are set arbitrarily at 1800 m3 day-1 (within the range

of ANN training, i.e. 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 m3 day-1). The

constraint in respect of head at all the pumping locations is set at 0.2 m, and concentrations

in the two production wells are limited to 4 kg m-3. The annealing parameters are set by

trial as discussed in the next section. The management model ANN/SA is run to determine

the optimal configuration of pumpages in salinity control wells. Intuitively, since the

aquifer system is completely symmetrical about one axis in the middle in terms of

165

Table 3 Optimal pumpages, heads and concentrations in control wells for the symmetrical system with

constraint on all heads >0.2 m and salinity <4 kg m-3 in production wells.

Control wells (Fig. 1)

Pumpage (in m3 day-1)

Head (m)

Concentration (kg m-3)

0.573

13.217

2

200

0.550

15.811

3

600

0.534

19.328

4

600

0.534

19.328

5

200

0.550

15.811

0.573

13.217

boundary conditions, stresses, initial conditions and aquifer properties, the optimal solution

for any given equal pumpages in two production wells must also be symmetrical. The

results from the ANN/SA model, presented in Table 3, are consistent with this hypothesis.

Thus, the symmetrical aquifer system provides a basis to verify the conceptual model and

code although the solution is trivial. The optimal configuration is also verified for

constraints using the original SEAWAT model.

Near-real aquifer systems

Real aquifer systems are generally partially developed and are not symmetrical in terms

of boundary conditions, aquifer properties, layer type (confined/unconfined/semiconfined), stresses, and initial conditions in terms of heads and concentrations. In short,

they are complex. While some, if not all, of these can be incorporated into the

hypothetical aquifer system under consideration, only asymmetry in terms of stresses

(pumpages) is considered here to retain the simplicity in the analysis of the results. This

is achieved by assigning a fixed pumpage (1200 m3 day-1) to a third production well

located eccentrically but nearer to coast so as to induce seawater intrusion. The third

well is assumed to represent an existing well in a partially developed aquifer system, as

discussed previously. The ANN network from the second training set is interfaced with

SA to obtain the ANN/SA model for the near-real aquifer system. The constraints

pertaining to heads and concentrations for the near-real system are set moderately tight

at 0.2 m and 3.75 kg m-3 respectively at all locations, except at one location in terms of

concentration for the existing production well. The concentration level in the existing

production well (p9) is ignored in the present study. Nevertheless the salinity levels here

could also be constrained, as the same is included in the ANN training.

From the point of view of obtaining a trade-off curve for the multi-objective management model, the second objective of maximizing the pumpages from two production

wells (pumping at the same rate) is actually a constraint. Therefore, these pumpages

become known input values within the specified range for each individual run of the

single objective minimization problem. A typical optimal solution for a given pair of

pumpages in the two production wells (1600 m3 day-1) is shown in Table 4. For each

incremental value of the pumpages in production wells, an optimal configuration of

pumpages in the control wells for the three time periods is obtained. Thus a trade-off

curve limiting salinity levels to 3.75 kg m-3 is generated (Fig. 3). The first point on the

trade-off curve determines the maximum pumpage from the two production wells with

minimum pumpage from the barrier wells. Since the minimum possible pumpage from

the barrier wells can be zero, the solution is actually a global minimum. The remaining

points on the trade-off curve could be considered as near optimal solutions as the solutions cannot be verified. The trade-off curves could be used to prioritize groundwater

166

S. V. N. Rao et al.

Table 4 Optimal pumpages for near-real aquifer system in control wells, for production wells pumping

at 1400 m3 day-1 (constraint: heads >0.2 m and salinity <3.75kg m-3).

At the end of first stress

At the end of second stress

At the end of third stress

period (180 days)

period (360 days)

period (540 days)

Salinity

Pumping

Salinity

Pumping

Salinity

Pumping

(kg m3)

(m3 day-1)

(kg m3)

(m3 day-1)

(kg m3)

(m3 day-1)

c1

0.00

200.00

0.00

c2

0.00

0.00

0.00

c3

200.00

0.00

200.00

c4

200.00

0.00

0.00

c5

0.00

200.00

0.00

c6

200.00

0.00

0.00

x7*

1400.00

2.27

1400.00

3.22

1400.00

3.67

x8*

1400.00

2.19

1400.00

2.91

1400.00

3.44

p9 #

1200.00

7.73

1200.00

9.90

1200.00

11.49

Note: Barrier wells c1c6 indicate optimal pumpages.

* Production well pumpages (1400 m3 day-1) are fixed for each optimization run.

#

Existing well pumpages fixed throughout for all runs.

(volum e in m )

Location of

well

6.0x10

4.0x10

2.0x10

0.0

1.2x10

1.4x10

1.6x10

1.8x10

2.0x10

Fig. 3 Trade-off curve between total pumpages in production and control wells (in m3)

with concentration limited to 3.75 kg m-3.

development to meet demand in terms of quality and quantity. It is important to note that

the proposed model was formulated with equal pumpages from production wells to

ensure that a unique trade-off curve is evolved. Otherwise the solution would be a family

of trade-off curves. The effectiveness of barrier wells in controlling the salinity in production wells is demonstrated in Fig. 4, which shows the salinity level as a function of

the pumpage from the production wells for: (a) the case of no barrier wells, and (b) the

case of optimal pumping from the barrier wells. Typical isochlors (contours of equal

salinity) of 3.75 kg m-3 near the production well in the third layer at the end of 180, 360

and 540 days are shown in Fig. 5.

The annealing parameters are chosen based on the guidelines defined by

Dougherty & Marryott (1991), Press et al. (1996) and Cunha (1999). The initial

4.4

4.2

167

without control wells

4.0

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.2

3.0

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

3

1700

1800

-1

Fig. 5 Isochlors (3.75 kg m-3) at the end of 180, 360 and 540 days in the third layer

(plan view).

temperature (15 000) is set such that more than 80% of the configurations are accepted

in the beginning. Since the simulator is replaced with the ANN, longer chain lengths

are possible. The chain length (for equilibrium criterion) is set at 8090 times the

number of decision variables and the cooling factor (rate of reducing temperature)

equal to 0.4. The SA procedure is terminated when four successive temperature

reductions did not yield improvement in the solution. The evolution of the model

solution using the SA procedure is shown in Fig. 6.

168

2.0x10

1.5x10

1.0x10

5.0x10

S. V. N. Rao et al.

0.0

100

1000

10000

Number of evaluations

100

Percentage of acceptance

80

60

40

20

10000

1000

100

10

Temperature

COMPUTATIONAL TIME

The CPU (central processing unit) time depends on a number of factors. These include

the time consumed by the simulator, the number of decision variables, the tightness of

constraints, the speed of the processor, the efficiency of the perturbation procedure

(genetic rearrangement) and the annealing parameters (initial temperature, cooling

factor, number of configurations tested for each temperature, i.e. the chain length and

termination criterion) used. The SA procedure in the present methodology introduces a

computational time burden that has two distinct components.

The first component is due to the time consumed by the function calls to the

simulator and is associated with every trial configuration. This is virtually reduced to

near zero with the ANN as the simulator. Johnson & Rogers (2000) concluded that the

ANN replaces the full model. However, this is unlikely to be a rigorous statement.

This approach leads to a slightly altered feasible domain with the ANN as the

simulator, which may or may not contain the true global optimal solution.

169

The second component is the average time consumed for generating feasible configurations after satisfying all constraints until equilibrium and termination criteria are met.

It is kept to a minimum through efficient algorithmic guidance and through the perturbation procedure discussed above. The algorithmic guidance ensures that infeasible configurations are terminated at the earliest stage through efficient program coding.

The total CPU time is determined by the sum of the two components multiplied by

the total number of iterations or chains. The total number of iterations is problem

specific and, therefore, can be determined only after actual model execution.

In the present study, with the ANN as the simulator, the computational burden is

nominal. In all runs the CPU time did not exceed 10 min for moderately tight constraints

in respect of heads and concentrations for the trade-off curve shown in Fig. 3.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

This study addresses the basic issue of seawater intrusion inherent to groundwater

development in coastal aquifers. The methodology involves control of seawater

intrusion through a series of barrier wells along the coast. An operational management

problem is formulated with two objectives involving maximization of groundwater

development through production wells, while minimizing the pumpage from the

barrier wells. Unlike many earlier models, the proposed model is based on a recently

developed 3-D density-dependent seawater intrusion model, SEAWAT. The SEAWAT

model is versatile and combines the existing codes of MODFLOW and MT3D that are

popular, well documented and easily accessible. It is demonstrated that ANN as a

universal approximator works very well as a substitute for numerical models to

manage computational burdens within practical time frames. Since ANNs are

essentially data driven models, their efficiency generally increases with the number of

data training sets. In the present study, as these are generated by repeated execution of

the SEAWAT model, any number of sets could be generated.

In the present study, the management model is cast as a combinatorial problem,

and the SA algorithm is used for solving it. Pumpages are considered as discrete

variables as pump capacities are discrete. The SA procedure presented herein can also

handle pumping as a continuous variable, with minor changes in the program.

However, the genetic rearrangement procedure adopted for perturbation is only

designed for discrete variables.

The utility of the study is demonstrated through the trade-off curve for prioritizing

groundwater development. Several trade-off curves for desired salinity levels in the

production well can be obtained. The trade-off curve is not linear. It is more expensive

to draw water at higher pumpages. In other words, some sacrifice has to be made

through barrier or cleanup wells to obtain cleaner water from production wells.

Acknowledgements The first two authors are grateful to Dr K. S. Ramasastri,

Director, National Institute of Hydrology (NIH), Roorkee, India, for the permission

and support to publish this work. All the authors are thankful to Sri P. R. Rao and Sri

D. M. Rangan of NIH, Kakinada for the neat figures and tables in the manuscript.

170

S. V. N. Rao et al.

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