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Republic of the Philippines

City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
Equipping schools with technology is no longer a luxury, it is a necessity. It
is a central component of preparing students for the 21st century.
In the progression of computers in 1950s up to the present time,
technology had been continuously developing in the past decades, and had
played many roles in the lives of people. Computer knowledge has now evolved
from a fad to an absolute necessity in the real world. The former Department of
Education Secretary Armin Luistro stated that Its not enough that we merely
continue building classrooms and utilities. The real revolution in education which
has long-term effects can only be done through technology. On the 26 th Annual
Convention of the Philippine Association for Teachers Education, Representative
Egmidio S. Tanjuatco Jr. stated that the youth will most likely depend on the
educators for the knowledge, expertise, and skills that will constitute to globally
competitive Filipinos. In todays educational setting, teachers must be prepared to
facilitate and guide the use of these tools, and todays workplace demands
expertise in these various technologies in order to compete in a 21st century
workplace (MacArthur Foundation, 2008).

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
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The Philippines along with other developing countries in Asia, Africa, and
South America are generally interested in educational technology, particularly in
the use of computers, hoping that their educational systems reap the pedagogical
benefits associated with it. The 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section
1, provides that the State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to
quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such
education accessible to all. This study puts into implementation the basic law of
the land, thus that the State shall "establish, maintain, and support a complete,
adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the people and society."
(Sec. 2 [I], Art XIV, 1987 Constitution). Whereas, in this era of advanced science,
more and more countries rely on the usefulness of computer technology in their
respective developmental pursuits. Considering these changing times towards the
advancement of science and technology, there is an imperative need for us to
meet and adapt to these demands. With the Local Government Code of 1991, a
large portion of the functions of the national government such as education was
transferred to the local government; and local colleges and universities were
established and are being run by the local government units. They can develop
computer-based administrative systems for local governance operation in their
respective colleges and universities. It is therefore worth knowing how technology,

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
3

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

through the integration of educational technology helps in making the teachinglearning more self-reliant, empowered, and participatory in Taguig City University.
This study prompted the researchers to deeply analyze the extent of
integration of Educational Technology in Taguig City University that will bolster the
university in promoting quality education which the university offers through
instruction, utilization and mastery. The Researchers believed that the quality
education must be provided by the government to all citizens, and must likewise
put in place a system of education geared towards a path that leads to more
valuable and meaningful services through interoperability and maximization of
resources. There should be proper use of information and communication
technology in school administrations combined with an organizational change and
new skills in order to improve the teaching-learning process. Whereas, in this era
of 21st century, more and more countries rely on the usefulness of educational
technology in their respective developmental pursuit. Considering these changing
times, there is an imperative need for us to cope with the advancement in the 21 st
century learning, for a lifelong professional preparedness and development of
students, as well as the teachers.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Background of the Study


In terms of prior research of Educational Technology, most existing literatures
focus into the application and effectiveness of Educational Technology in the local
and foreign scenes, but only few research studies were found that take a holistic
viewpoint of the status in the educational institutions. Therefore, this study
focused on the Integration of Educational Technology as utilized by the studentteachers of the College of Education (CED) in Taguig City University.Specifically,
this study identified the Integration of Educational Technology by the studentteachers of CED in terms of instruction, utilization and mastery.
Educational technology in a way could be traced back to the emergence of
very early tools, e.g., paintings on cave walls. First large scale usage of new
technologies can be traced to US WWII training of soldiers through training films
and other mediated materials. Today, presentation-based technology, based on
the idea that people can learn contents trough aural and visual reception, exists in
many forms, e.g., streaming audio and video, PowerPoint presentations + voiceover. Another interesting invention of the 1940's was hypertext, i.e., V. Bush's
memex.
The 1980's and 1990's produced a variety of schools that can be put under
the umbrella of the label Computer-based learning (CBL). Frequently based on

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City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

constructivist and cognitivist learning theories, these environments focused on


teaching

both

abstract

and

domain-specific

problem

solving.

Preferred

technologies were micro-worlds (computer environments were learners could


explore and build), simulations (computer environments where learner can play
with parameters of dynamic systems) and hypertext.
With the eruption of the internet in the mid 90s, communication and
multimedia have dominated the role of technology in the classroom for the past
few years. The 2000's emergence of multiple mobile and ubiquitous technologies
gave

new

impulse

to

situated

learning

theories

favoring learning-in-

context scenarios. Some literature uses the concept of integrated learning to


describe blended learning scenarios that integrate both school and authentic (e.g.,
workplace) settings. The 2010's include MOOCs, a consolidation of rapid elearning in business, a return of a type of simulations through serious gaming and
a technical trend towards delivery with HTML5 (as opposed to proprietary
solutions).
The researchers thought of the concept on why educational technology
was commonly used by the teachers now a days, and how does it affects the
teaching and learning process in the 21st century. Researchers also found out

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
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how effective the schools in governing their faculties by means of strengthening


their instructional innovation through the use of technology.

Theoretical Framework
This study was founded on two theoretical anchors such as Instructional
Theory and Cognitive Learning Theory.
This study was based on the Instructional Theory of Bloom (1956) which
states that there are systems used in the process of improving human ability such
as software, hardware, and Internet applications. These systems will also offers
explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop.
The researchers also considered the Cognitive learning theory of Pitler, et
al. (2007) which describes how students can better understand new material
being presented by incorporating technology into their note-taking processes. For
instance, students using word-processing software such as Microsoft Word to
track changes made on a particular written passage to be better able to
summarize the material. This type of technological use, particularly if it is done in
large-group and then small-group or individual settings, can help students better
understand the more meaningful portions of a text and develop the skill to edit
down material for easier recall in the future.

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TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Conceptual Framework
The issues to be addressed were relative to modern and global
technological needs of the students and teachers that should include Integration
of Educational Technology, which was the core of this study.

INPUT
Profile of the group
respondents in terms
of:
Age
Gender
Course
Cooperating
School
Academic rank
Length of
service
Extent of Integration
of Educational
Technology in terms
of:
Instruction
Utilization
Mastery

PROCESS

Data gathering
through survey
questionnaire.

Described
analysis in the
instruction,
utilization and
mastery of
integration of
Educational
Technology by the
grouped
respondents.

Statistical data
using mean, oneway Anova and
paired sample Ttest.

OUTPUT

Proposed
Innovations
in instruction.

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City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

This study focused on the relationship between the grouped respondents in


terms of profile and extent of integration in instruction, utilization, and mastery,
based on the perceptions of the student-teachers and faculty of the respondent
school.
The aforementioned variables assumed to affect in the proposed
instructional innovation in Taguig City University.

Statement of the Problem


This study assessed the extent of Integration of Educational Technology as
utilized by the student- teacher in the CED at TCU as basis for instructional
innovation. Specifically, the researchers sought to answer the following:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Student-Teacher
1.1.1 gender;
1.1.2 course; and
1.1.3 cooperating school?
1.2 Faculty
1.2.1 age;
1.2.2 gender;

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1.2.3 academic rank; and


1.2.4 length of service?
2. What is the extent of integration of Educational Technology as assessed
by the grouped respondents classified as to:
2.1 instruction;
2.2 utilization; and
2.3 mastery?
3. Is there a significant difference between the assessments of the
respondents on the integration when grouped according to their profile?
4. Is there a significant difference on the extent of integration of Educational
Technology as utilized by the student-teacher and faculty?
5. Based on the findings of this study, what innovations in instructions can be
proposed?
Hypotheses
The researchers hypothesized that:
1. There is no significant difference between the assessment of the
respondents and their profile variables.
2. There is no significant difference on the extent of integration of Educational
Technology between the grouped respondents.

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City of Taguig
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Scope and Delimitations


The study assessed the extent of integration of Educational Technology in
Taguig City University as perceived by the faculty and student-teachers. The focus
of the study as far as the Educational Technology was concern includes the
instruction, utilization and mastery of the said respondents.
The study was limited to 200 student-teachers and 22 faculty in the College
of Education in Taguig City University.

Significance of the Study


The findings of this study were beneficial to the Philippine Government, ,
CHED, Higher Educational Institutions, DepEd, Curriculum planners, StudentTeachers, and future researchers considering that Educational Technology plays
an important role in academic institutions now a days. The great demand for
student-teachers graduated with Educational Technology background justify the
need for more effective life-changing teaching approaches. Thus, schools that
apply the recommended approach derived from the results of this study will be
able to train students better because of a better instructional innovations.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
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COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Philippine Government. This study was very significant, in fact in the


government has directed different agencies like the CHED and Deped in
promoting ICT in order to accelerate its contribution to the development of the
national economy. In fulfilment to this, the Commission on Higher Education had
set goals for 1998-2005, that is to secure the Philippines position as a knowledgecenter in the Asia-Pacific region and to promote the country in the international
academic landscape.
CHED. This study was very relevant with the agenda of CHED to institutionalize
the acceleration of an online web linking institutions of higher learning and other
knowledge based agencies in the Philippines and abroad. The result of this
research will give an appraisal for CHED to monitor and determine as to whether
the utilization of online web and educational technology in Higher Educational
Institutions in National Capital Regions has been implemented. This may motivate
the CHED as stated by Hulipaz (2002) in her study to urgently implement its
strategic plan for quality excellence in human resource development where
Internet and online web is an integral part.
Higher Educational Institutions. The result of the study gave an information to
Higher Educational Institutions in National Capital Region to identify their
strengths and weaknesses through the perceptions and scale given by web

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administrators, teachers and students in Educational Technology and utilization in


their school and to further improve and develop their strong points and make up
for their weaknesses.
DepEd. The department of education takes to heart the development of teaches
potential aimed towards their professional success, while also promoting the
integration of ICT in the public school system. Through this, Deped fully supports
the continuous improvement of its teaching personnel based on the principle of
lifelong learning and further advances the delivery of 21 st century skills to all
Filipino learners.
Curriculum Planners. Curriculum planners made also take this opportunity to
realize the importance of technology innovation and integration of technology
such as the integration of Educational Technology as a whole, and to enhance the
school curriculum that is match or fit to the need of the community and the
industry were the newly graduates may employ. This will also serve as a pattern in
the information of guidelines not only in National Capital Region but also in entire
Philippines in general.
Student-Teachers. Students benefited in using the Educational Technology in
their practice teaching and chosen profession. The improvement of Educational
Technology and utilization in their schools will generate instructional innovations

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13

brought about by the recommendations of this study.


Future Researchers. This would be helpful for the future researchers in making a
follow-up study with the same concept or variables.

Definition of Terms
Computer is an electronic device that accepts, processes, stores and
outputs data at high speeds according to programmed instruction. (Encyclopedia
Encarta, 2004)
Educational Technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating
learning and improving performance by cheating, using and managing appropriate
technological processes and resources. AECT, June 1, 2004

Faculty refers to the whole teaching personnel of the respondent schools.


Faculty are not limited to engineering faculty only but all the faculty in respondent
schools regardless of their specialization. (Paragas, 2009)
Higher Educational Institutions are the state universities and colleges in
National Capital Region under the supervision of Commission on Higher
Education that are connected or linked to the web or the net from which the
respondent schools were taken.

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Instruction in this study refers to teachers used of the web as a tool


presenting their lessons in their major and minor subjects, posting problems,
assignments, and lessons through the school website and suggesting
supplemental materials available in the web. (Paragas, 2009)
Mastery is a knowledge and skill that allows you to do, use, or understand
something very well. (Merriam Webster Dictionary)
Student-Teacher is a college, university or graduate student who is
teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify for a
degree in education. (Wikipedia)
Technology Integration means using learning technologies to introduce,
reinforce, supplement and extend skills. (Williams, ed. 2000). Like instructional
technology, it is a part of educational technology. Technology integration is part
and parcel of instructional technology, which in turn is a part of educational
technology.
Utilization means the use of something. (Cambridge Academic Content
Dictionary)

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Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
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Acronyms
CBL- (Computer Based Learning) refers to the use of computers as a key
component of the educational environment. While this can refer to the use of
computers in a classroom, the term more broadly refers to a structured
environment in which computers are used for teaching purposes
CED- (College of Education) is an Institution were the student-teachers are
trained.
CHED- (Commission on Higher Education) is attached to the Office of the
President for administrative purposes. It covers both public and private higher
education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary
educational institutions in the country.
DepEd- (Department of Education) is the executive department of Philippine
government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and
improving the quality of basic education.
HTML- (Hyper Text Mark-up Language) is a mark-up language for describing web
documents (web pages). A mark-up language is a set of mark-up tags. HTML
documents are described by HTML tags. Each HTML tag describes different
document content.
ICT- (Information and Communications Technology) is an umbrella term that

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includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio,


television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite
systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated
with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.
MOOC-(Massive Open Online Course) a course of study made available over the
Internet without charge to a very large number of people.
US WWII- United Sates World War II, the war between the Axis and the Allies,
beginning on September 1, 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and ending
with the surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, and of Japan on August 14, 1945.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter was the presentation of literature and studies of foreign and
local which may directly or indirectly have bearing to study at hand. Relevance to
present study will give a big picture why these literature and studies from foreign
and local were used.

Educational Technology
As for White (2014), educational technology was defined as the use of
digital or electronic technologies and materials to support teaching and learning.
Recognizing that technology alone does not enhance learning, evaluations must
also consider how programs are designed and implemented, how teachers are
supported, how communities are developed and how outcomes are measured.
And while the Millennium Development Goals prompted improvements in
access to education, quality remains a challenge. This issue is also reflected in
educational technology programs. Reports of programs that move beyond access
to technology (both in program design and evaluation) are emerging, but as yet
relatively few program evaluations focus on adequately capturing improvements in

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18

the teaching and learning process or measuring improvements in learning


outcomes.
As claimed by Brawner, Educational Technology for teaching and learning
includes a wide range of enablers or facilitators of teaching and student learning.
Their purpose is to supplement learning material, to help in concretizing abstract
ideas for better student understanding. These enablers of learning take on certain
classifications. Print materials include those which are printed, drawn or
illustrated. These include print media like books, posters and charts. On the other
hand, the non-print materials include the likes of models, laboratory equipment,
vocational tools and media.
The past few years saw the onset of the use of computers in the
classroom. This development has radically changed the landscape of educational
technology which has been made available for use of teachers and students in
schools. In fact, knowledge of technology is one of the 21 st century skills identified
as important to be developed among learners, the main idea of which is look at
education technology as enhancing educational objectives. Thus, it behooves the
teacher not only to gather as many instructional materials as he can for his use,
but more importantly to develop the skill in making sure that the use of these
materials will optimize student learn.

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Educational Technology is concerned with Integrating Technology into

Teaching and Learning. Specifically this is focused on introducing, reinforcing,


supplementing and extending the knowledge and skills to learners so that they
can become exemplary users of educational technology. Mainly directed to
student teachers, also professional teachers who may wish to update their
knowledge of educational technology, it is our goal that this course can help our
target learners to weave technology in teaching with software (computer
programmed learning materials) becoming a natural extension of their learning
tools.
Educational technology is a fast-growing and increasingly developed
subject in education during the past 50 years. The focus of the development of its
theories and research is oriented into the methods and effectiveness of its
implementation. This presentation is reviewing various educational technology
related theories, exploring and discussing up-to-date theoretical research and
applications. The related theories not only cover those mainstream and influential
ones, such Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism, and Multiple Intelligence,
but also include those extended and popular theories: Anchored Instruction,
Cognitive Flexibility, Diffusion of Innovations, Elaboration Theory, Experiential
Learning Theory, Script Theory, Situated Cognition and Symbol Systems Theory.
The application is mainly to discuss the related theories and research in
educational technology and pedagogy of DL instruction through blackboard. The

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pedagogy of DL instruction includes the course designing, module delivery and


objective-oriented assessment strategies. (Ouyang, 2014)
In essence, the course aims to infuse technology in the student-teachers
training, helping them to adapt and meet rapid and continuing technological
changes, particularly in the thriving global information and communication
technology (ICT) environment. (Lucido, 2007)
According to LLagas, Bilbao, and et.al. Technologies as link to new
knowledge, resources and high order thinking skills have entered classroom and
schools worldwide. Personal computers, CD-ROMS, online services, the World
Wide Web and other innovative technologies have enriched curricula and altered
the types of teaching available in the classroom. Schools access to technology is
increasing steadily every day and most of these newer technologies are now even
used in traditional classrooms. The use of technology in the classroom has never
been underscored than now. However, survey data suggest that technology
remains poorly integrated into schools despite massive acquisition of hardware.
Some observations indicate that the most frequent use of computers is for
drill-and-skill practice that supplements existing curricula and instructional
practices. More than thirty years ago, the dominant model of teaching was
directed instruction or lecture in which students memorized facts. Because of its
limitations, educationist began exploring the use of technology that supports
model of teaching that emphasizes learning with understanding and more active
involvement. Thus, a decision to use technology to go beyond facts-based

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21

memorization-oriented

curricula

to

curricula

in

which

learning

with

understanding is emphasized was embraced when to use technology,


what technology to use, and for what purpose cannot be isolated from theories of
teaching and learning that support learning with understanding.
According to Rogat, et al., computer-supported collaborative learning
environments provide opportunities for students to collaborate in inquiry-based
practices to solve authentic problems, using technological tools as a resource.
However, the researchers have limited understanding of the quality of
engagement fostered in these contexts, in part due to the narrowness of
engagement measures. To help judge the quality of engagement, we extend
existing engagement frameworks, which have studied this construct as a stable
and decontextualized individual difference. The researchers conceptualize
engagement as multi-faceted (including behavioral, social, cognitive and
conceptual-to-consequential forms), dynamic, contextualized and collective.
Using the newly developed observational measure, the researchers
examine the variation of engagement quality for ten groups. Subsequently, the
researchers differentiate low and high quality collaborative engagement through a
close qualitative analysis of two groups. Here, the researchers explore the
interrelationships among engagement facets and how these relations unfolded
over the course of group activity during a lesson. The results suggest that the
quality of behavioral and social engagement differentiated groups demonstrating
low quality engagement, but cognitive and conceptual-to-consequential forms are

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required for explaining high quality engagement. Examinations of interrelations


indicate that behavioral and social engagement fostered high quality cognitive
engagement,

which

then

facilitated

consequential

engagement.

Here,

engagement is evidenced as highly interrelated and mutually influencing


interactions among all four engagement facets. These findings indicate the
benefits of studying engagement as a multi-faceted phenomenon and extending
existing conceptions to include consequential engagement, with implications for
designing technologies that scaffold high quality cognitive and conceptual-toconsequential engagement in a computer-supported collaborative learning
environment.

Information Communications Technology


According to Lumioan, breakthroughs in the field of ICT (Information
Communications Technology) have definitely changed the way we live. We can
communicate instantaneously with our loved ones who lived abroad, study or
work from the comforts of our home, do business with anyone from any part of the
world, shop or pay bills online, and connect anyone via social networking, among
others. But for some people, the impact of ICT in their lives is life-changing.
Technology will help end discrimination completely. Since we already have the
rears to bridge the gap, we can better asserts and exercise our right to education
and our right to equal opportunity.

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As stated by Vega, Prieto and Carreon, Today we live in an age of


lightning-fast information transfer, Technology has allowed individuals to obtain,
assemble, analyze and communicate information in more detail at a much faster
pace than on ever before. One consequence of this is the ever- increasing
demand on education to help all learners acquire higher-level skills that allow
them to more readily analyze, make decisions and solve complex real-world
problems.
According to Bruer (1993), learners must rise above the role, factual level
to begin to think critically and creatively. These increased demands dictate
changes in the way teachers interact with students. Moreover, these changes
must be grounded in an understanding of how a diverse population of individuals
learns. There are various techniques, methods and technologies for helping
learners acquire new knowledge. At times the teacher engages the students in
lower-level role learning using drill and practice techniques for basic level
learning. However, if the teacher wants to emphasize higher-order skills methods
as simulations, discovery, problem-solving and cooperative learning will be
employed for learners to experience and solve real-world problems. In these
cases, you will notice a shift in which the learning experience is carried out.
Instead of the teacher total control and manipulation, the importance of the
teachers role in planning, implementation and self-evaluation will be emphasized.
Learners engage in leaner-centered instruction proactively engage with various

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sources of potential information (e.g., the teacher, technology, parents, media) to


gain insights into a problem and its possible situations.
Bilbai, Dayagbil and Corpuz believed that the role of technology in the
curriculum springs from the very vision of the e-Philippine plan. Thus is stated: an
electronically enabled society where all citizens live in an environment that
provides quality education, efficient government services, greater sources of
livelihood and ultimately a better way of life through enhanced access to
appropriate technologies. This point to the need for an e-curriculum, or curriculum
which delivers learning consonant with the Information Technology and
Communication Technology (ICT) revolution. This framework purposes that
curriculum delivery adopts ICT as important tool in education while users
implement teaching-learning strategies that conform to the digital environment.
Following a proto-type outcomes-based syllabus, this same concept is brought
about through a vision for teachers to be providers of relevant, dynamic
andexcellent education programs in a post-industrial and technological Philippine
society. Thus among educational goals desired for achievement in the honing of
competencies and skills of a new breed of students, now better referred to as a
generation competent in literacies of the 3Rs (or reading, writing and arithmetic)
but influences more particularly problem-solving fluency, information access and
retrieval at texts/ images/ sound/ video in fluency, social networking fluency, media
fluency and digital creativity fluency.

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Digital technologies embrace

several terms, such

as computers,

information- and communication technology (ICT), learning management systems


(LMS) and digital media like, for example, wikis, blogs, social media and podcasts
(Davies & Merchant, 2009). Software is often connected to the use of digital
technologies too (e.g. Brown, Klein & Lapadat, 2009). The review includes studies
researching different digital technology tools and terms, such as filters for
analyzing the problem of uptake and use. Uptake and use are concepts that
are often used in relation to digital technologies in primary and secondary schools
and occur frequently in peer-review articles written in the empirical field. This often
seems to be the case regardless of the scientific discipline of the researchers and
is probably due to the fact that these two concepts capture a variety of practices,
dimensions and levels related to digital technologies in schools. However, in many
articles the meaning of uptake and use is rather vague in that they are not
always defined and are often taken for granted. This is also evident in the articles
related to the literature review reported here. In a sense, it may be possible to
conceptualize use as ongoing use, whilst uptake could highlight the
processes of implementation and integration of new aspects of digital
technologies and how they are made use of. However, these distinctions may only
be possible to uphold at a theoretical or analytical level. Consequently, we employ
uptake and use as a phrase that simultaneously addresses both aspects of
digital technologies: something in use and something about to be used in
perhaps new and changing contexts.

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Colleges invest significant amounts of time and money to acquire modern

information and communication technologies (ICT) to facilitate faculty use of ICT


to improve teaching, yet little research has been done to measure faculty
perceptions of its effectiveness and use. The purpose of this quantitative,
non-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between ICT
integration into teaching and faculty perceptions of ICT use to improve teaching.
The research questions sought to measure the frequency of ICT integration
in college teaching and the perceptions of faculty of its effectiveness. The study
also sought to determine if a correlation existed between faculty beliefs and
practices regarding ICT integration, and whether there were differences across
gender, disciplines, technology experience, and teaching experience in faculty
perceptions and use of ICT. Constructivism, Banathys systems design of
education, and Rogers theory of diffusion of innovation provided the theoretical
foundations for this study. A sample of 203 faculty members from 4 Canadian
colleges participated in this survey-based, research. Survey data were analyzed
using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and MANOVA. The results of the
correlation analysis identified a significant inverse relationship between beliefs
about ICT integrationand practice in the classroom. The result of the MANOVA
tests indicated significant differences across gender, discipline, technology
experience, and teaching experience with the use of ICT in the classroom to
improve teaching and learning. These findings may be used to promote positive
social change through the integration of ICT into curriculum, the encouragement

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of ICT training for college instructors, and the development of technology plans to
establish more effective ICT integration practices. (Chowdhury, 2009)

Benefits of Using ICT in Education


The merits of ICT in education have been extolled in the literature. The use
of ICT has been found to:
1.

Assist students in accessing digital information efficiently and

effectively
As Brush, Glazewski and Hew (2008) have stated, ICT is used as a tool for
students to discover learning topics, solve problems, and provide solutions to the
problems in the learning process. ICT makes knowledge acquisition more
accessible, and concepts in learning areas are understood while engaging
students in the application of ICT.
2. Support student-centered and self-directed learning
Students are now more frequently engaged in the meaningful use of
computers (Castro Snchez and Alemn 2011). They build new knowledge
through accessing, selecting, organizing, and interpreting information and data.
Based on learning through ICT, students are more capable of using
informationand data from various sources, and critically assessing the quality of
the learning materials.
3. Produce a creative learning environment

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ICT develops students new understanding in their areas of learning (Chai,


Koh and Tsai 2010). ICT provides more creative solutions to different types of
learning inquiries. For example, in a reading class, e-books are commonly used in
reading aloud activities. Learners can access all types of texts from beginning to
advanced levels with ease through computers, laptops, personal digital assistants
(PDAs), or iPads. More specifically, these e-books may come with some reading
applications, which offer a reading-aloud interface, relevant vocabulary-building
activities, games related to reading skills and vocabulary acquisition, and more.
Therefore, ICT involves purpose designed applications that provide innovative
ways to meet a variety of learning needs.
4. Promote collaborative learning in a distance-learning environment
Koc (2005) mentioned that using ICT enables students to communicate,
share, and

work collaboratively anywhere,

any time.

For instance,

teleconferencing classroom could invite students around the world to gather


together simultaneously for a topic discussion. They may have the opportunity to
analyze problems and explore ideas as well as to develop concepts. They may
further evaluate ICT learning solutions. Students not only acquire knowledge
together, but also share diverse learning experiences from one another in order to
express themselves and reflect on their learning.
5. Offer more opportunities to develop critical (higher-order) thinking
skills

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Based on a constructive learning approach, ICT helps students focus on


higher-level concepts rather than less meaningful tasks (Levin and Wadmany
2006). McMahons study (2009) showed that there were statistically significant
correlations between studying with ICT and the acquisition of critical thinking
skills. A longer exposure in the ICT environment can foster students higher critical
thinking skills. Thus, schools are strongly advised to integrate technology across
all of the learning areas and among all learning levels. Where this is done,
students are able to apply technology to the attainment of higher levels of
cognition within specific learning contexts.
6. Improve teaching and learning quality
As Lowther et al. (2008) have stated that there are three important
characteristics are needed to develop good quality teaching and learning with ICT:
autonomy, capability, and creativity. Autonomy means that students take control of
their learning through their use of ICT. In this way, they become more capable of
working by themselves and with others. Teachers can also authorize students to
complete certain tasks with peers or in groups. Through collaborative learning
with ICT, the students have more opportunity to build the new knowledge onto
their background knowledge, and become more confident to take risks and learn
from their mistakes.
Further, Serhan (2009) concluded that ICT fosters autonomy by allowing
educators to create their own material, thus providing more control over course

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content than is possible in a traditional classroom setting. With regard to


capability, once students are more confident in learning processes, they can
develop the capability to apply and transfer knowledge while using new
technology with efficiency and effectiveness. For example, in an ESL listening and
speaking class, students may be asked to practice their pronunciation using an
online audio dictionary. They are required not only to listen to the native
pronunciation from the dictionary, but also to learn the definitions and examples of
a new vocabulary item. They then have to make a recording of their own
pronunciation and provide examples of how this new word is used in context.
Before completing this task, they have to know which browser to use in order to
search a suitable online audio dictionary. They will have to browse several online
dictionaries, and select the one that best meets their learning needs. In addition,
finding good software to record their voice is another prerequisite for these
learners. Therefore, the whole learning process enriches students learning skills
and broadens their knowledge beyond what they already know. By using ICT,
students creativity can be optimized. They may discover new multimedia tools
and create materials in the styles readily available to them through games, CDs,
and television. With a combination of students autonomy, capability, and
creativity, the use of ICT can improve both teaching and learning quality.
7. Support teaching by facilitating access to course content

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Watts-Taffe et al. (2003) found that teachers can act as catalysts for the

integration of technology through ICT. If the encouragement, equipment, and


necessary technological support are available from institutes for the teachers,
developing an ICT class will be easier for them. The main responsibilities of these
teachers will be changing their course format, creating and explaining the new
assignments, and arranging for the computer lab through their technology learning
specialists or assistants.
In sum, as Reid (2002) has indicated, ICT offers students more time to
explore beyond the mechanics of course content allowing them to better
understand concepts. The use of ICT also changes the teaching and learning
relationship. Based on the findings of Reids study, teachers reported that the
relationship between teacher and learner is sometimes reversed with regards to
information technology. This relationship boosts students confidence when they
are able to help teachers with technical issues in the classroom. Therefore, ICT
changes the traditional teacher- centered approach, and requires teachers to be
more creative in customizing and adapting their own material. While ICT is
changing teaching and learning for the better in several ways, the existing
literature has also identified some barriers. In the following sections, these
barriers are classified into four categories based on the perspectives of students,
teachers, administrators, and ICT infrastructure.

Selection and Use of Instructional Materials

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According to Corpuz and Salandanan (2013), there is no drab lesson if

appropriate media is used in its presentation. Properly selected and used its
impact on the attention, sustained interest, and participation of students has long
been recognized to a point that this wide collection of teaching tools earned the
little sub-strategies. It is not surprising to see these materials, devices and
instruments accumulated in every teachers storehouse. Of late, more teaching
technologies such as recordings, projectors and computers, CD-ROMS, videos
have been available in some schools. There are two subjects in Educational
Technology of three units each, where the use and selection of instructional
materials will be exhaustively discussed. All instructional materials are aids to
instruction and using videos, computers, overheads and chalkboard not only
keeps students interest but also responds to the needs of those who receive
information in different ways.
The use of instructional technologies has an impact on students content
acquisition and adds to class performance. However, Beggs (2000) notes that
research has shown that it is not only the technology that is important, but also
how it is used that improves learning and increases pupils interest. In view of this,
since not much was known about the use of technologies in teacher training
colleges in Malawi, this study was designed to establish how instructional
technologies were used by tutors in those colleges. The technologies studied
were chalkboards, flip charts, overhead projectors, videos, computers, and local
resources from the environment. The research questions were (a) How often did

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tutors use instructional technologies in their teaching? (b)What reasons did tutors
have for using and not using instructional technologies in their teaching?
(c)Howdid college tutors perceive their competence levels in using instructional
technologies? (d)What attitudes did the college tutors have towards the use of
instructional technologies? (e)What did tutors consider important factors in
influencing their use of instructional technologies?
The sample consisted of tutors from Karonga, Lilongwe, St. Josephs,
Blantyre, and Montfort Teacher Training Colleges, who completed a survey
designed to address the research questions. In addition to the tutors, a snapshot
study was conducted with faculty at Domasi College of Education to establish how
use of computer technology was established and sustained and what lessons
could be learned that could assist the teacher training colleges as they encourage
computer use among their tutors.
The results of the survey that was conducted with the tutors revealed that
there was infrequent use of higher order instructional technologies i.e. overhead
projectors, videos, and computers, which was attributed to lack of training,
unavailability of the technologies, and lack of maintenance. The failure to use the
locally available resources by some of the tutors was attributed to lack of creative
thinking as well as lack of initiative to use the local environment in their teaching.
Constant training and peer support on how to use the instructional technologies
are some of the lessons to be learned from Domasi College of Education. The
study concludes with a suggested process for how government and the teacher

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training institutions can work collaboratively to maximize the use of instructional


technologies in the teaching and learning process for prospective teachers.
Several possibilities for further research on the use of instructional
technologies have been highlighted. (Littman, 2009)

Instruction
The immersion of technology in the educational environment not only
influences many facets of students academic learning, it also affects teaching.
For example, teachers who use technology in a dynamic way hold their students
attention. In addition, students who were engaged and participated through the
use of technology in classroom demonstrate greater content mastery (Gulek &
Demirtas, 2005).
Through the integration of technology and web facilitated instruction,
teachers can create greater learning and educational opportunities, and,
therefore, a stimulated and active learning environment. The influences related to
the use of online technology may work as a catalyst to improve learning. (Lowther
et al., 2003).
Hooper (2002) advocated educators must redesign their educational
system and teachers must be trained to use and design the use of technology.
Plafrey and Gasser (2008) suggest that by allowing technology to influence
student creativity, self-expression, communication, and innovation instead of

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stifling it, teachers will aid the digital have-nots and know-nots by increasing their
digitally related skills and experience.
According to a poll conducted at Pennsylvania State University the
following themes emerged regarding technology expectations among students:
What is considered technology by this generation is not confined to simply
computers or the Internet: Technology is viewed as any electronically based
application or piece of equipment that meets a need for access to information or
communication; It is something that adapts to their needs, not something that
requires them to change; and Technologies that are often considered to be novel
and very new by many adults are a basic part of this generation daily lives.
(Roberts, 2005)
One of the most common used software in teaching and learning is
PowerPoint. PowerPoint can also be a wonderful tool for students and teachers to
give out information, if used properly. A PowerPoint presentation used on an
interactive whiteboard can be especially interesting since students and teachers
can manipulate information with a simple touch to the screen. (Young, 2008).
The Bridge IT programme (India and Tanzania) provided evidence of
improved learning outcomes from teachers use of smartphones to play video
lessons for their classes via flat-screen TVs or data-projectors. Teachers also had
activity guides to support or extend the video lessons. In Tanzania, students
showed average gains of 1020% over control groups for maths and science.

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However, while some groups of students excelled, others showed modest


gains if any (Enge, 2011). In India, there were average gains of 10% over control
groups for science, but no gains for English (Wennerstan & Qureshy, 2012).
BridgeIT also carried out systematic classroom observations pre- and postintervention in India. These showed a 31% increase in the proportion of lessons
identified as high quality, with a corresponding 24% drop in the proportion of
(traditional) direct instruction lessons ((Oblinger&Oblinger, 2005).

Utilization
Technology can be used for individualized instruction in order to bridge the
gaps between the teaching styles and the learning styles. The use of technology
can be made to address the visual learners, auditory learners and kinesthetic
learners. In an ordinary classroom with one teacher, it is difficult for the teacher to
respond and provide feedback to each student. The programmed instruction
models as suggested by Skinner can be used to provide learners learn at their
own pace and give immediate feedback. Multimedia tools provide a wide range of
sensory stimuli. It is said I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I
understand. The animations, simulations, software packages to teach various
subjects, speech, music, multimedia networks, image enhancements, etc. create
virtual realities and experience for the learners, which in turn, help in making

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learning a more direct, useful and joyful experience and retain knowledge for a
longer time (Shamsha Emanuel, 2010).
According to the UNDP statistics in the year 2001, almost 80% of the
teachers in developing countries feel that they are not prepared to use the
technology. However, efforts are been made to make the teachers aware of the
use of technology through pre-service and in service courses. In addition, Edu.
Tech. programs also aim towards making the teachers techno savvy and teach
using the computers. Hence, the use of Information Technology in teaching
requires competencies on the part of the teacher and has indeed made the
profession more challenging. It is rightly said, an able teacher need to find ways
and means to improve their teaching techniques using IT is one of them.
Educational Innovations certainly do not come about automatically. They
have to be invented, planned, initiated and implemented in a way that will make
educational practices more adequately geared to the changing objectives of
instruction and make them more consistent with changing standards of instruction.
(Shamsha Emanuel, 2010) e-Learning provides a way for teachers to gain new
knowledge and skills. ICT also facilitate the new paradigm in teacher training that
is emerging. Teacher training now involves a continuum of learning, from preservice training, to in-service workshops and short courses; and to ongoing
lifelong professional development.

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As for Azlim, Amram and Rusli, the study was conducted to explore the

barriers in utilizing educational technology among lecturers in their teaching


practices in a community college in Malaysia. Moreover, this study also aims to
identify lecturer's perception towards the usage of the educational technology.
Barriers that have been identified can be categorized into lecturers computer selfefficacy; accessibility of the educational technology; technical support in utilizing
the educational technology; and support from administration. A structured
questionnaire was distributed to all lecturers in the institution and 72% from the
lecturers agreed to participate as respondents. The result from this study found
that the lecturers in the community college have positive perceptions that
educational technology enhances their teaching practices and students
performance. Ranks of the barriers from the higher mean score that have been
identified are technical support, administrator support, computer self-efficacy and
accessibility. Analysis found that lecturers of the community college are ready to
utilize the educational technology in their teaching practice. However, the
technical supports need to be enhancing Internet and computer facilities.
Institution also recommended to provide more training for lecturers to sharpen
their teaching skills by utilizing the educational technology.
The study examined the barriers to integrating computer technology in
middle school curriculum and formulated possible strategies to help educators
overcome identified barriers for the benefit of students and the educational
program. Three hundred and ninety-seven survey instruments were personally

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delivered to middle schools in the state of Ohio. The respondents were


representative of teachers in Mahoning and Trumbull Counties. The data from this
survey was sufficient to identify barriers and offer possible strategies. The survey
data identified five factors as possible barriers to the utilization computer
technology in the classroom. These barriers are (a) technology equipment that did
not function properly or did not function at all, (b) the lack of training, (c) the lack
of time to successfully integrate computer technology into the classroom, (d) the
students familiarity with computer technology and/or lack of computer technology
in students homes, and (e) the cost associated with computer technology classes
at a university or college. The study also identified possible strategies for future
use that would encourage teachers to utilize computer technology in the
classroom. These strategies are (a) provide in-services at the end of a workday,
(b) have a technology support staff person available to middle school teachers on
a daily basis, (c) staff meetings with computer technology experts to present new
and innovative ideas to the middle school teachers, and (d) technology equipment
in properly working order that would allow middle school teachers to utilize
computer technology when they desired to do so. (Cavucci, 2009)

Teaching Strategies
As for Salandan (2009), teaching strategy is as an educational endeavour
that engages students in activities that will enable them to acquire knowledge and

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skills, at the same time develop worthwhile values and attitudes. It consists of
organized activities aimed at inducing learning. Learning is the ultimate goal. This
is achieved by stimulating positive interactions as a teacher and her students go
through a well-planned step-by-step procedure thin is directed towards a desired
learning outcome. The systematized actions end with the development of
competence in applying the knowledge and skills acquired and practicing the
mural standards gained.

Faculty
According to Gallavan, et al (2005), teachers, especially at the novice level,
are not aware of the vastly different worlds their students live in. Instead, they
assume that their students are just like them. This assumption allows for many
teachers to utilize educational approaches that they witnessed growing up. As a
result, when their own students struggle to succeed, they blame the child because
the methodology had been effective in their own schooling. A teachers skill,
expertise and willingness can help student to learn. In the art of teaching,
anythinga teacher does is going to be scrutinized by the students. If the teacher
serves as an ideal role model, demonstrates competence, as well as confidence,
in the subject he or she is teaching, the students will respond positively.
This rule applies to administrators as well. In the contrary, the favoritism of
the teacher can also affect the learning process of the students. The way their

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teachers deal with them is one thing. Though teachers have different strategy on
imparting knowledge, students do not understand it easily. They will be confused
on things regarding on how and why the teacher has their favorite students
(Gaudencio V. Aquino 1975)
The identified theme concerns research on teachers, teachers professional
development and teacher education in relation to the uptake and use of digital
technologies in schools. Teachers are seen as key players for the uptake and use
of digital technology, and aspects like teachers motives, beliefs, confidence and
competence are highlighted. Teachers professional development is also in focus
and is often related to the use of digital technologies in specific school subjects,
as well as in relation to the initial teacher education for developing the
pedagogical skills, ideas, visions and attitudes that favour the uptake and use of
digital technologies in schools. Most of the research identified in this theme seems
to be coherent. An agreement seems to exist that teachers are playing a crucial
role in the process of uptake and use of digital technologies and in the
development of new practices pervaded by digital technologies.
For example, in his research review, Ferdig (2006) concludes that from a teacher
perspective the most valuable aspect is that the uptake and use of digital
technologies can motivate increased quality in teaching, rather than the
digitaltechnology in itself embodies certain qualities that guarantee good teaching
and learning outcomes.

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Sipil (2010), on the other hand, claims that the uptake of digital
technologies in school is a process that is mediated by teacher characteristics,
technological framework and the conditions within the school. According to Sipils
findings, based on quantitative data collected by the use of an online
questionnaire, providing teachers with laptops can be a way of enhancing the
teachers use of digital technologies both at work and in their spare time. He
argues that when the use of modern digital technology is not tied to a specific time
or place, teachers will have more time to evaluate the possibilities provided by the
technology, which in turn will probably increase the use of digital technologies in
the classroom. In relation to their empirical study, Ward & Parr (2010) discuss the
possibility of reframing the question of digital technology. They argue that
teachers who understand the use of digital technologies and the subsequent
benefits to teaching and learning are probably more willing to learn, try new things
and move away from more traditional classroom practices conclude in a
qualitative study that teachers learning experiences with digital technologies are
facilitated and empowered through long-term collaboration with colleagues and
students over time. They also argue that becoming familiar with digital
technologies cannot be perceived as a linear process. These researchers
emphasize the importance of teachers being assisted in their uptake and use of
digital technologies.

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Education encounters, in modern times, challenges in all aspects of social,

economic & cultural life; the most important of which are over-population, overknowledge, education philosophy development & the change of teachers role, the
spread of illiteracy, lack of the staff & the technological development & mass
media (Aloraini, 2005, p. 3032). This drove the teaching staff to use the modern
teaching technologies to face some of the main problems, which education & its
productivity encounter, by increasing the learning level which may be achieved
through providing equivalent opportunities for all people whenever & wherever
they are, while taking into account the individual differences between learners. To
improve the educational productivity, some of the teaching staff sought to
mainstream technology within education, developing traditional techniques &
using new educational methods. Mainstreaming the technological media within
what is called Multimedia is the pattern which led to infinite applications of
computer technologies. The concept of this technology came into being with the
appearance of sound cards, then compact disks, then came the use of digital
camera, then the video which made computer an essential educational tool.
Nowadays, multimedia expanded to become a field on its own. The concept of
multimedia technology is broad & it has infinite usage fields; it is a profound
element as an educational technology in addition to its use in medical & statistical
domains & in establishing databases. Moreover, the entertainment sector is one of
the sectors that had the lions share in using this technology. Interaction is the
main element in multimedia technology as most of its applications are

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characterized by interaction. Consequently, multimedia programs may provide a


more effective & more influential experiment than using each technology
separately. The researcher thinks that multimedia is one of the best educational
techniques because it addresses more than one sense simultaneously, as it
addresses the senses ofsight & hearing. Multimedia programs provide different
stimuli in their presentations which include a number of elements some of which
are (Aloraini, 2005, p. 5575): Texts, spoken words, sound & music, graphics,
animations and still pictures.
These elements were mainstreamed in a comprehensive presentation so as to
provide effective education, which in turn will support the participation of the
different senses of the learners in diverse syllabi.
Mary Chamberlain (2002) said that that great teacher make a difference.
They have passion that seeps through the skin- a love of learning. Great progress
(a revolution) was made but a working hum and engagement is now not enough.
What are now needed are quality learning conversations between teachers and
learners. It is about extending rather than supervising, about linking to the childs
world, about creating lines of desires, about not seeing the curriculum as a
straightjacket. The curriculum it seems is more a direction.

Practicum
According to Bodiongan (2015), Technology, mans continuous effort to
simplify task for the benefit of life, flutters very fast like time. Its an ongoing trend

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that allows a lot of innovations that makes life even more satisfactory to live.
Relating technology to education, we might ask, how has technology changed the
classroom, and how has it integrated into the classrooms? Then we might also
wonder how much does technology influences students learning ability and
teacher's ability to include technology in the academic curriculum. In today's world
technology is a very important part of our lives. Technology and education both
has a relationship with teaching. In recent years technology in the schools has
change drastically. Thats why teacher-education students are molded with the
intervention with these trends, thats why professional education subjects with
relation to technology are included in the curriculum, thats why Educational
Technology exists.
Educational Technology is concerned with Integrating Technology into
Teaching and Learning, is offered penultimate before PSTs are employed to
schools for practicum here in St. Marys College of Tagum. An excellent strategic
plan that allows practicumers to be freshly updated with the innovations in
education before being sent outside the schools premise to practice their chosen
profession. Obviously, the main concern here is technology, but not the classical
usage of the internet. However, the real thing here that teacher-education
students are expected to have, is on how teachers can integrate technology inside
the teaching-learning process yielding successful learning. I grew up with the
traditional set-up of classroom, which, I suppose that everything the teacher used
(compared today) is almost out-dated and obsolete. Those strategies before, for

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me, are now inappropriate. So, this subject served as an eye opener to future
mentors, the proper teaching protocols appropriate to the needs and interests of
the modern students.
E- Learning
E-learning networks are used by academic institutions such as Regis
University to support synchronous and asynchronous delivery of online courses
and programs. An e-learning network supports a wide range of applications and
services and facilitates access to diverse e-learning implementations including
virtual laboratory (V-lab) environments, knowledge repositories, storage area
networks (SANs), and content delivery networks (CDNs), as well as metropolitan,
regional,

and

international

research

and

education

configurations.

As

demonstrated in this dissertation, an e-learning network eliminates campus


boundaries by providing infrastructure for information flows regionally, nationally,
and internationally.
A systems development life cycle (SDLC) methodology enables academic
institutions to design and develop e-learning networks that meet educational goals
and objectives and provide access to current and next-generation research
initiatives. The goal of the research was to assess the capabilities of the SDLC in
enabling academic institutions to design and develop new e-learning networks
and/or upgrade and enhance in-place e-learning networks.
In this dissertation, the author applied the SDLC methodology for design
and development of an e-learning network based on findings of a chronological

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case study of the e-learning Academic Research Network (ARN) at Regis


University between 2001 and 2005. The outcomes of this investigation
demonstrate the role of the SDLC methodology as an enabler of design,
development, and deployment of an e-learning network capable of meeting
current and projected institutional goals and objectives. (Conn, 2009)
According to Rosaria, Dizon and Altarres (2014) E-Learning Portals made a
great contribution in the lives of students and professors as of terms of information
about the school or university. Professors and students want to have an easy but
convenient website application that helps them record and track grades of
students and give them information about their class. Because of this, the
researchers decided to develop UMAK E-Learning Portal, a web application that
provides information about the section of student. This system allows them to
create online groups/ section for the student to pass assignments online and take
quizzes online. The web application also allows the professors to post
announcement to their sections and make the students interact with this. This
system was made successfully through the use of PHP as programming
language. My SQL for the database and Photoshop for the graphical user
interface.
The Web App was evaluated by I.T and Non-I.T respondents. I.T
respondents result with a composite mean of 4-1 and composite mean of 4.4 from
Non-I.T respondents. This proves that it was a highly acceptable in terms of

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functionality, reliability, efficiency and usability. The composite mean of 4.4 from
web app gives satisfaction to the users.

Program Thrust of CHED for Quality Education and Excellence


According to the Commission on Higher Education (1997), it is the declared
policy of the State to establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate and
integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people society. This
department also seeks to develop the Higher Education Information System and
to establish communication superhighway through networking or Internet linkages.
The action plan of this department for 2011-2016 includes the modernization of
facilities of SUCs and LUCs providing ICT equipment and upgrading facilities in
order to enhance their instruction and extension.
In accordance with the goals of the higher education that are cited in the
preceding, CHED come up with development programs that are implementable
with specific activity thrusts.
Quality and excellence can be achieved via the development of Center of
excellence in different disciplines; Policies, institutional and academic standard;
Higher education information system, communication highway, networking and
internet linkages; Regional capabilities in science and technology education;
Academic exchanges between and among local and international HEIs,
scholarship grants and international convention, etc.

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This program thrust delves on strengthening the human resources

capabilities of HEIs and CHED and optimize foreign assistance in critical areas
like agricultural technology education, environmental and maritime education.
The goals of higher education is ensuring the attainment of empowered
and globally competitive Filipinos via: Quality and excellence; Relevance and
responsiveness; Access and equity; and Efficiency and effectiveness.
In terms of quality and excellence, this goal calls for provision of
undergraduate and graduate education which meet international standards of
quality and excellence; relevance and responsiveness require generation and
diffusion of knowledge in the broad range of disciplines relevant and responsive
todynamically changing domestic and international environment; access and
equity or broadening the access of deserving and qualified Filipinos to higher
education opportunities; and efficiency and effectiveness will optimize social,
institutional and individual returns and benefits derived from the utilization of
higher education resources.

Level of Prioritization of Teaching and Learning


The study of Marcial (2012) reveals that the level of prioritization of
teaching and learning with technology in HEIs in the Philippines is high. It has an
aggregate mean of 4.03, implying that teaching and learning with technology is
highly prioritized in the HEIs and needs to be done in the next 3 years. The
degree of implementation of the teaching and learning with technology is

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moderate. It has an aggregate mean of 3.21, showing that teaching and learning
with technology is already in the strategic plan of the HEIs; however, action has
yet to be done.

Government Support
In his education proposal, President George W. Bush (2003) stated, the
quality of our public schools directly affects us all as parents, as students, and as
citizens. Yet too many children in America are segregated by low expectations,
illiteracy, and self-doubt. In a constantly changing world that is demanding
increasingly complex skills for its workforce, children are literally being left behind.
This Administration believes schools should use technology as a tool to improve
academic achievement, and that using the latest technology in the classroom
should not be an end unto itself.

Schools which excelled by the implementation of Educational Technology


Innovative technologies not only have the potential to evolve pedagogical
practice, but also completely transform entire learning environments. When
technology is leveraged with a very strategic vision and change management
plan, the results can be revolutionary.
Intermediate School 339 (USA) is one learning environment that has
demonstrated this potential, transforming itself from some of the lowest
performing schools in the region, to one of the most successful.

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The Shady Hill School in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) used a twoyear technology-infusion project injecting laptops, projectors and various other
digitaltechnologies into the classroom to also infuse the practice of innovating
into the campus. These practices not only make places like Intermediate School
339 and Shady Hill Innovative Learning Environments, but also continually
Innovating Learning Environments. (Groff, 2013).
Research studies reviewed in the article by Honey (2005) found many examples
of improvements in student learning with regular use of technology in the
classroom.
Specifically, these studies examined improvements made by fourth grade
English/Language Arts students who took the Massachusetts Comprehensive
Assessment System test and improvements in the reading proficiency scores of
students who took the Michigan Education AssessmentProgram test. In addition,
Honey cites Schater who, in 1999, found that students with access to any 23
number of technologies showed positive gains in achievement on researcher
constructed tests, standardized tests, and national tests. (Young, 2008)
Objectives of NHERA-2
The following objectives for 2009-2018 shall be pursued under NHERA-2
are as follows: 1. Improve research capability of HEIs, particularly the Philippine
universities whose main business is to generate knowledge towards international
competitiveness; 2. Enhance research productivity of HEIs in distinctive areas of

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competence; 3. Generate knowledge/ technologies needed for a. International,


national and regional higher education development, b. policy/ plan formulation,
particularly for higher education c. developing innovative programs in cutting edge
higher education fields (e.g. nanotechnology, biotechnology, information and
communications technology, and materials science); and d. advancing the
frontiers of knowledge in the disciplines 4. Promote and facilitate dissemination
and utilization of research outputs. (NHER-2, 2013)

Policies on the Use of Technology in Education in the Philippines


Technology must be studied first as a separate subject, then applied in
other learning areas as a tool for learning how to learn.
The application of computer skills to the other learning areas is a
curriculum policy that stems from the principle that teaching-learning must not be
textbook- driven, and educational processes should take advantage of
technological developments, including the application of ICT in teaching and
learning, where appropriate.
An education modernization program will equip schools with facilities,
equipment, materials and skills and introduce new learning and delivery systems
necessary to capitalize on recent technological developments. (Park et al, 2002)

Memorandum issued by DBM and CHED

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The Department of Budget and Management and Commission on Higher

Education issued joint circulars numbers 1-A on October 24, 2003 and 1-B on
June 27, 2007 that provide the Colleges and Universities leveling instrument and
guidelines for the implementation thereof.
Based on these two departments, many of the universities and colleges
have outgrown their levels quantitatively and qualitatively, hence, theirs stages of
development need to be reevaluated. The leveling instrument needs updating to
make it more sensitive to the state of development of universities and colleges to
take into account the level of performance of an institution in the areas of
instruction, research and extension, as well as management of resources.
Under NCC 12, universities and colleges were categorized into nine levels
which were determined through a quantitative evaluation of enrollment size,
number of programs, faculty size and profile, resources devoted to research,
extension and non-formal training activities, number of dormitories and residents,
appropriations for current operating expenditures and other related factors.
However, upon implementation of RA 6758 also known as the Salary
Standardization Law in 1989, the nine levels were compressed into four levels
such as Quality and Relevance of Instructions, Research Capability and Outputs
within the last three year, relations with and services to the community and
management resources.

Philippine Laws that Support the Usage of Technology in Education

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The Constitution, Article II, Section 17, provides:


The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts,
culture and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress,
and promote total human liberation and development.
The Constitution, Article XIV, Sections 1 and 2, para. 1 provides:
SEC. 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to
quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such
education accessible to all.
The State shall: (l) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate,
and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and
society.
The Constitution, Article XIV, Section 10 provides:
Science and Technology are essential for national development and
progress. The State shall give priority to research and development, invention,
innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training,
and services, It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific
and
technological capabilities, and their application to the country's productive
systems and national life.
The Education Act of 1982 declares that Higher Education will be geared
towards the provision of quality education. The main thrust of higher education is
to achieve equity, efficiency and high quality in the institutions of higher learning in

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both public and private so that together they will provide a complete set of
program offerings that meet national and regional development needs.
Commission on Higher Education which is to establish, maintain, and
support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the
needs of the people society. (Republic Act no. 8292).

Synthesis
Teachers who learn to integrate educational technology may go on to
conceptualize their roles in the classroom. Guided by research findings from
cognitive psychology and other related areas, teachers can create environments
in which students actively engage in cognitive partnerships with educational
technology. (David, 2000)
As stated by Celeste (2010), there is no doubt that modern technology has
an effect on the study habits of students today. The positive side of modern
technology is that it makes things easier for students to research for their
homework and projects. However, it is also right to mention that technologies can
also distract students. Ma. Shiela Escuro (2009) says that, Usage of this gadget
can be controllable. Its up to the parents to teach their child to be responsible on
their mobile phones, to ask them to pay-up when their mobile runs out of money.
Or to get some agreement from the mobile companies that automatically cut- off
usage when the child overuses their allowance for the month.

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According to Fabian (2007), the world is changing fast. Technology


continues to advance at lightning speed and anyone who doesnt keep up is in
danger of being left behind. As a result, the way students study has changed
significantly. While books still remain a valuable tool, the need to spend hours and
hours sitting in the library has reduced dramatically. Students now have numerous
options available to them when it comes to learning techniques.
Furthermore discussed by Fabian, We cannot deny the fact that technology
can be a distraction in studying. Using the internet itself can be distracting
because of all the social networking sites and the games that are available with
just one click. Of course there is the usual cellphone, iPod and iPad which can
really distract the students. This will all boil down to the age and the self-discipline
of the student.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discussed the research design and the respondents used in
the study, the techniques implied, the procedures done, and statistical treatment
for answering the proposed topic of investigation.

Research Method
This study used the descriptive research design of McNabb (2009) for it
reveals the summary statistics by showing responses to all possible questionnaire
items.

In fact, this research design interpreted a what it is approach and

described the nature of the situation as it existed in the study. This design is also
applicable for the study because it explored and determined the extent of
integration of Educational Technology as utilized by the student-teachers at
Taguig City University.

Research Locale
Taguig

City

University or TCU,

a Philippine

Local

University,

was

established through Ordinance No. 29, Series of 2004 of the Sangguniang Bayan

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ng Taguig on the 6th day of September 2004 at the Municipal Government of


Taguig. It was located at Gen. Santos Ave. Upper Bicutan, Taguig City.
Pamantasan ng Taguig (PnT), later renamed Taguig City University (TCU) upon
conversion of the Municipality of Taguig to "cityhood" on 8 December 2004, was
established through Ordinance No. 29, Series of 2004 (enacted 6 September
2004, Municipal Government of Taguig, authored by Councilor Aurelio Paulo R.
Bartolome with Councilor Marisse Balina-Eron and Councilor Allan Paul C. Cruz
as co-sponsors).

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Population and Sampling Techniques


In order to get the target respondents of the researchers, the Slovins
formula was used to get the sample out of the population of the fourth year
students in the College Of Education at Taguig City University.
The population of all the fourth year students is 371 (N), and the researcher
used 5% (e) as margin of errors to assumed that out of 100% there is a 5% errors
on the possible result of this study. Computation results to 192 respondents (n), to
be distributed in all majors to get their aimed percentages.
Slovins Formula:

n = sample
N = population
e = margin of errors

Percentage:
P=
n

x 100

P = percentage
f = frequency
n = sample

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The researchers used Simple Random Sampling Technique to disseminate


the survey questionnaires to the target respondents of this study. This was used to
have fairness in choosing the desire number of respondents. They had the equal
probability of being chosen.

Demographic Description of the Respondents


The respondents used in the study were 200 student- teachers out of 371
total population of fourth year, and 22 faculty of the College of Education in Taguig
City University.
It involved 70 student- teachers in Bachelor of Elementary Education and
130 student-teachers in Bachelor in Secondary Education: 40 student- teachers
inScience major; 50 student-teachers in English major; both 20 student-teachers
in Physical Education and Mathematics majors.

Research and Evaluation


The researchers adapted the questions mostly in the Field Study
Handbook 3 which is Technology in the Learning Environment. Other questions
came from the survey questionnaire in the internet. The researchers
questionnaire was composed of the extent of integration of Educational
Technology in terms of instructions, utilizations and mastery as utilized by the
student-teachers in Taguig City University.

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The questionnaire was composed of two parts: (1) Personal Information of


the Respondents name, age, gender, course, cooperating school, academic
rank and length of service; (2) the Checklist for Utilization of Educational
Technology which can be answered by:
4 Strongly Agree

2 Disagree

3 Agree

1 Strongly Disagree

To interpret the mean score of the respondents, a likert scale was


established by the researcher. (Basilio, 2009)
Likert Scale
Range

Interpretation

3.26-4.00

Attained to the Fullest Extent

2.56-3.25
1.76-2.55
1.00-1.75

Attained to the Full Extent


Attained to the Less Extent
Not Attained

Validation of Instruments Used


The questionnaire was presented to the research adviser for some
corrections and suggestions. After all the comments and suggestions were
considered, the first draft of questionnaire was prepared. The draft of the
questionnaire was submitted again to the research adviser to finalize the
questionnaire. The questionnaires together with the validation instruments were
submitted to the chosen validators with masters and doctorate degree to establish

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content authentication. All the suggestions and comments were taken and
incorporated in the final draft and was checked again by the research adviser. The
researchers got the mean of the instruments that were validated by five experts to
determine whether the instrument was valid or not.

Data Gathering Procedures


The researchers wrote a letter of request to the Registrar Office and
Human Resource Department of the respondent school to allow them to gather
data pertinent to this study.
The researchers assessed the enrollment report for the fourth year
students in College of Education first semester, school year 2016-2017, from the
Registrar Office in determining the total number of students per major in Taguig
City University. The researchers also got the total number of faculty in the College
of Education. Upon the assessment of the total number of respondents to be
used, the researchers disseminated and completed the required number of
questionnaires to be used in the study.
Lastly, the researchers worked on tallying the respondents answers to get
the needed data in the study.
Data Analysis
The following statistical treatment had been used by the researchers to have
valid and adequate findings to the study:

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1. Percent:

P=
n

x 100

P = percentage
f = frequency
n = sample

Percent was used to answer statement of the problem no. 1 in order to


determine the demographic profile of the grouped respondents.
2. Weighted Mean
It is an average mean that takes into account the importance of each value to the
overall total. It used to determine the extent of integration of Educational
Technology in TCU. To calculate the weighted mean simply add up a set of
scoresand divide by the number of scores. Thus we have our first and perhaps
the most basic statistical formula:

Where:
(sometimes call the X-bar) is the symbol for the mean.
(the Greek letter sigma) is the symbol for summation.
X is the symbol for the scores.
N is the symbol for the number of scores.

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Mean was used to answer the statement of the problem no.2 which is:

What is the extent of integration of Educational Technology in TCU in terms of the


following areas: instructions, utilization; and mastery.

Where
S= the standard deviation of a sample
= means sum of
X= each value of the sum
= mean of all values in the data set
N= number of all values in the data set
Standard deviation was also used to answer the statement of the problem
no. 2which is: What is the extent of integration of Educational Technology in TCU
in terms of the following areas: instructions, utilization and mastery.

3. One- way Anova

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One way anova was used to answer the statement of the problem no.3
which is: Is there a significant difference between the assessments of the
respondents on the extent of integration when grouped according to their profile?

4. Paired Sample T-test

Where:
=is the mean difference between two samples,
s =is the sample variance,
n = is the sample size and
t = is a paired sample t-test

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Paired sample T- Test was used to answer the statement of the problem
n0.4 which is: Is there a significant difference between the assessments of the
two groups of respondents on the extent of integration of Educational
Technology?

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Table 1 Student-Teacher (Gender)

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Category
Male
Female
Total

Frequency
53
147
200

Percent
26.5
73.5
100

Table 1 illustrates the gathered data result for the gender of studentteachers. It shows that out of 200 respondents 147 or 73 percent are females and
53 or 26.5 percent are males. It means that the Teaching Profession is dominated
by females.
Kristen Schilts research titled, Just one of the guys? How Transmen Make
Gender Visible at Work introduces the gender socialization theory highlighting
womens gravitation towards careers that reinforce feminine traits such as caring
and nurturing. According to Schilt, women are taught to put family first and have a
flexible schedule even if that means being paid less, which results in their
domination of fields such as teaching and nursing (Schilt, 2006, p. 467).

Table 2 Student-Teacher (Course)


Category
BEED
BSE-SCI
BSE-PE
BSE-ENG
BSE-MATH
Total

Frequency
70
40
20
50
20
200

Percent
35
20
10
25
10
100

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Table 2 shows the number of students (frequency) from each course that

has been used in the study and its' percent. BEED got the highest number of
respondents with 70 respondents or 35 percent, followed by BSE-ENG with 50
respondents or 25 percent and BSE-SCI with 40 respondents or 20 percent and
the lowest are BSE-PE and BSE-MATH with 20 respondents or 10 percent each.

Table 3 Student-Teacher (School)


Category
DISTRICT 1
DISTRICT 2
Total

Frequency
104
96
200

Percent
52
48
100

Table 3 illustrates the gathered data result for the cooperating schools of
the 200 respondents and it shows that most of the schools are from the 1st
District of Taguig with the result of 104 or 52.0 percent and 96 or 48.0 percent
came from the 2nd District of Taguig.

Table 4 Faculty (Age)


Category
20-25 years old
26-30 years old
31-35 years old
36-40 years old
41-50 years old
51-55 years old
Total

Frequency
10
1
2
5
1
3
22

Percent
45.5
4.5
9.1
22.7
4.5
13.6
100

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Table 4 shows that most of the faculty are from 20-25 years of age with 10

respondents or 45.5 percent, followed by 31-35 years of age with 5 respondents


or 22.7 percent, next is 51-55 years of age with 3 respondents or 13.6 percent,
followed by 31-35 years of age with 2 respondents or 9.1 percent and 1
respondent or 4.5 percent each for 26-30 and 41-50 years of age.
Table 5 Faculty (Gender)
Category
Male
Female
Total

Frequency
9
13
22

Percent
40.9
59.1
100

Table 5 illustrates the gathered data result for the gender of 22 respondents
and it shows that out of 22 respondents 13 or 59.1 percent are females and 9 or
40.9 percent are males. It also denotes that women represent a significant
majority of the teaching workforce.
According to Kelleher (2011), the impacts of a feminized teaching force is
likely to be a continuation of perceptions surrounding teaching as womens work,
which might have resulting impacts on the way children perceive authority roles.
Table 6 Faculty (Academic Rank)
Category
Instructor
Assistant Professor
Associate Professor
Total

Frequency
15
4
3
22

Percent
68.2
18.2
13.6
100

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Table 6 illustrates the academic rank of the faculty and it shows that 15 or

68.2 percent are instructor, followed by assistant professor which has 4 or 18.2
percent and the associate professor which has 3 or 13.6 percent. This table
clearly shows that most of the respondents are instructors and said to be the most
common faculty member in the institution.

Table 7 Faculty (Length of Service)


Category
1-3 years
4-6 years
10-12 years
16-18 years
22 years above
Total

Frequency
14
4
1
2
1
22

Percent
63.6
18.2
4.5
9.1
4.5
100

Table 7 illustrates the length of service of the respondents in the institution


where they work. It shows that 14 respondents which constitute 63.6 percent or
majority are 1-3 years in service. However 4 respondents under the percentage of
18.2 have worked for 4-6 years. While 2 respondents under the percentage of 9.1
with the length of service of 16-18 years. Lastly, one respondent under the
percentage of 4.5 are teaching for 10-12 years and 22 years and above.

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Most of the faculty has worked for 1-3 years; therefore, majority of the
faculty in the said institution are newly hired.

Table 8 MEAN
INSTRUCTION
Indicators

STs
Mean
3.20

2. plans and integrates


technology-based learning
activities that promote
student engagement in
higher-order thinking skills
3. uses projector which can
be used as chalk/overhead
replacement such as lecture
notes and slides

1. furnishes weekly or
monthly computer-related
task such as creating
multimedia presentations
that showcase students
understanding of important
content

VI
AFE

Facultys
Mean
3.32

VI
AFUE

3.22

AFE

3.41

AFUE

3.07

AFE

3.14

AFE

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4. exploits IT tools in
pedagogical situations (e.g.
large lecture classes using
power point )

3.01

AFE

3.27

AFUE

5. merges the most current


research on teaching and
learning when using the
computers

3.07

AFE

3.18

AFE

6. integrates educational
technology in teaching that
influence human
performance

3.19

AFE

3.32

AFUE

TOTAL

3.13

AFE

3.27

AFE

LEGEND:
3.26 - 4.00 = Attained to the fullest extent (AFUE)
2.51 - 3.25 = Attained to the full extent (AFE)
1.76 - 2.50 = Attained to the less extent (ALE)
1.00 - 1.75 = Not Attained (NA)

ST- Student-Teachers
VI- Verbal Interpretation

Table 8 illustrates the perceptions of the respondents of TCU in terms of


instruction.
In furnishing weekly or monthly computer related tasks such as creating
multimedia presentation this question, it gained a mean of 3.20 for studentteachers which has attained to the full extent; and for the faculty it gained 3.32
which has attained to the fullest extent.
In planning and integrating technology based learning activities that
promote student engagement in higher- order thinking skills it gained a mean of
3.22 for student- teachers which has attained to the full extent; and for the faculty
it gained a mean of 3.41 it which has attained to the fullest extent.
In using projector which can be used as chalk/overhead replacement such
as lecture notes and slides, it gained a mean of 3.07 for student- teachers which

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has attained to the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.14 which
has attained to the full extent.
In exploiting IT tools in pedagogical situations, it gained a mean for 3.01 for
student- teachers which has attained to the full extent; and for the faculty it gained
a mean of 3.27 which has attained to the fullest extent.
In merging the most current research on teaching and learning, it gained a
mean of 3.07 for student- teacher which has attained to the full extent; and for the
faculty, it gained a mean of 3.18 which has attained to the full extent.
In integrating educational technology in teaching that influence human
performance, it gained a mean of 3.29 for student- teacher which has attained to
the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.32 which has attained to
the fullest extent.
This category gained a total mean of 3.13 for student- teacher has attained
to the full extent; and for the faculty it gained a mean of 3.27 which has attained to
the fullest extent.
It is compatible to the mandate of the Commission on Higher Education
which is to establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate and integrated
system of education relevant to the needs of the people society.(Republic Act no.
8292).
Table 9
UTILIZATION

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

74

Indicators

STs
Mean

VI

Faculty
s Mean

VI

1. incorporates educational technology


to improve the presentation of work
2. applies current research on teaching
and learning with technology when
planning the learning environment
3. uses technology in support of the
development and delivery of instruction
4. provides experience for actual use of
educational technology in teaching
5. utilizes the appropriate computerdriven technologies to enhance
teaching-learning process
6. employs the effectiveness of realia
and model displays as enables of
teaching-learning process

2.75

AFE

3.23

AFE

2.67

AFE

3.36

AFUE

2.67

AFE

3.23

AFE

2.55

AFE

3.32

AFUE

2.59

AFE

3.23

AFE

2.65

AFE

3.09

AFE

TOTAL

2.66

AFE

3.24

AFE

LEGEND:
3.26 - 4.00 = Attained to the fullest extent (AFUE)
2.51 - 3.25 = Attained to the full extent (AFE)
1.76 - 2.50 = Attained to the less extent (ALE)
1.00 - 1.75 = Not Attained (NA)

ST- Student-Teachers
VI- Verbal Interpretation

Table 9 illustrates the perception of the respondents of TCU in terms of


utilization.
In incorporating educational technology to improve the presentation of
work, it gained a mean of 2.75 for student- teacher which has attained to the full
extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.23 which has attained to the full
extent.
In applying current research on teaching and learning with technology
when planning the learning environment, it gained a mean of 2.67 for studentteacher which has attained to the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean
of 3.36 which has attained to the fullest extent.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

75

In using technology in support of the development and delivery of


instruction, it gained a mean of 2.67 for the student- teacher which has attained to
the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.23 which has attained to
the full extent.
In providing experience for actual use of educational technology in
teaching, it gained a mean of 2.55 for student- teacher attained to the full extent;
and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.32 which has attained to the fullest
extent.
In utilizing the appropriate computer-driven technologies to enhance
teaching-learning process, it gained a mean of 2.59 for student- teacher attained
to the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.23 which has attained
to the full extent.
In employing the effectiveness of realia and model displays as enables of
teaching-learning process, it gained a mean of 2.65 for student- teacher attained
to the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.09 which has attained
to the full extent.
The total mean for student- teacher is 2.66; and for the faculty it gained a
mean of 3.24 which has the same verbal interpretation of attained to the full
extent.
Table 10
MASTERY

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

76

Indicators

STs
Mean

VI

Facultys
Mean

VI

1. participates in seminar related


to educational technology to
sharpen knowledge
2.demonstrates skill in selecting
and using websites as source of
teaching-learning process
3. administers video/power point
presentation on the appropriate
use of relevant instructional
materials
4. establishes introductory
knowledge, skills and
understanding of concept related
to technology
5. identifies the different types of
educational technology for the
integration of learning
6. provides the best opportunity
on appropriate use of
instructional materials

2.70

AFE

3.32

AFUE

2.67

AFE

3.27

AFUE

2.77

AFE

3.23

AFE

2.65

AFE

3.36

AFUE

2.81

AFE

3.18

AFE

2.80

AFE

3.27

AFUE

TOTAL

2.73

AFE

3.27

AFUE

LEGEND:
3.26 - 4.00 = Attained to the fullest extent (AFUE)
2.51 - 3.25 = Attained to the full extent (AFE)
1.76 - 2.50 = Attained to the less extent (ALE)
1.00 - 1.75 = Not Attained (NA)

ST- Student-Teachers
VI- Verbal Interpretation

Table 10 illustrates the perception of the respondents in TCU in terms of


mastery.
In participating in seminar related to educational technology to sharpen
knowledge, it gained a mean of 2.70 for student- teacher which has attained to the
full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.32 which has attained to the
fullest extent.
In demonstrating skill in selecting and using websites as source of
teaching-learning process, it gained a mean of 2.67 for student- teacher which

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

77

has attained to the full extent; and for the faculty, it gained a mean of 3.27 which
has attained to the fullest extent.
In administering video/power point presentation on the appropriate use of
relevant instructional materials, it gained a mean of 2.77 for the student- teacher
attained to the full extent; and a mean of 3.23 for the faculty which has attained to
the full extent.
In establishing introductory knowledge, skills and understanding of concept
related to technology, it gained a mean of 2.65 for the student teacher which has
attained to the full extent; and 3.36 for the faculty which has attained to the fullest
extent.
In identifying the different types of educational technology for the
integration of learning, it gained a mean of 2.81 for the student- teacherwhich has
attained to the full extent; and a mean of 3.18 for the faculty which has attained to
the full extent.
In providing the best opportunity on appropriate use of instructional
materials, it gained a mean of 2.80 for the student- teacher which hasattained to
the full extent; and 3.27 for the faculty which has attained to the fullest extent.
The total mean for the category is 2.73 for student teacher which has
attained to the full extent; and for the faculty, the mean is 3.27 which has attained
to the fullest extent.
Table 11

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

78

Extent of
Integration
Educational
Technology

Student-Teacher

Faculty

WM

SD

VI

WM

SD

VI

1. Instruction

3.13

0.48

AFE

3.27

0.44

AFUE

2. Utilization

2.66

0.38

AFE

3.24

0.48

AFE

3. Mastery

2.73

0.35

AFE

3.27

0.45

AFUE

Overall
Mean

2.84

0.40

AFE

3.26

0.46

AFUE

LEGEND:
3.26 - 4.00 = Attained to the fullest extent (AFUE)
2.51 - 3.25 = Attained to the full extent (AFE)
1.76 - 2.50 = Attained to the less extent (ALE)
1.00 - 1.75 = Not Attained (NA)

WM- Weighted Mean


VI- Verbal Interpretation
SD- Standard Deviation

Table 11 illustrates the integration of educational technology in terms of


instruction, utilization and mastery.
In instruction, the student- teachers has a weighted mean of 3.13, a
standard deviation of 0.48 which has attained to the full extent; and the faculty has
a weighted mean of 3.27, a standard deviation of 0.44 which has attained to the
fullest extent.
In utilization, the student- teachers has a weighted mean of 2.66, a
standard deviation of 0.38 which has attained to the full extent; and the faculty has

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

79

a weighted mean of 3.24, a standard deviation of 0.48 which has attained to the
full extent.
In mastery, the student- teachers has a weighted mean of 2.73, a standard
deviation of 0.35 which has attained to the full extent; and the faculty has a
weighted mean of 3.27, a standard deviation of 0. 45 which has a attained to the
fullest extent.
The student-teachers has a total weighted mean of 2.84, a standard
deviation of 0.40 which has attained to the full extent; and the faculty has a
weighted mean of 3.26, a standard deviation of 0.46 which has attained to the
fullest extent.

Table 12

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Student-Teachers Profile in terms of Gender
Indicators

F-value

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

0.124

0.725

Accept

Utilization

0.424

0.516

Accept

Mastery

0.518

0.472

Accept

No significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant
difference

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

80

Table 12 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational technology of student- teachers profile in terms of gender.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.725 which has no significant
difference. In utilization, the significant value is 0.516 which has no significant
difference. In the last indicator which is the mastery, the significant value is 0. 472
which has no significant difference.
Table 13

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Student-Teachers Profile in terms of Course
Indicators

F-Value

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

2.566

0.040

Reject

Utilization

1.928

0.107

Accept

Mastery

0.890

0.471

Accept

With significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant
difference

Table 13 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational Technology of student- teachers profile in terms of course.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.040 which has significant
difference because according to the decision rule less than 0.05 is said to be
reject meaning there is a significant difference. In utilization, the significant value
is 0.107which has no significant difference. In the last indicator which is the
mastery, the significant value is 0. 471 which has is no significant difference.
Table 14

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

81

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Student-Teachers Profile in terms of School
Indicators

F-Value

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

2.864

0.092

Accept

Utilization

3.437

0.065

Accept

Mastery

0.200

0.665

Accept

No significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant
difference

Table 14 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational Technology of student- teachers profile in terms of school.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.092 which has no significant
difference. In utilization, the significant value is 0.065 which has no significant
difference. In the last indicator which is the mastery, the significant value is 0.665
which has no significant difference.

Table 15

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Teachers Profile in terms of Age
Indicators

F-Value

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

0.663

0.657

Accept

Utilization

0.249

0.934

Accept

Mastery

0.948

0.477

Accept

No significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

82

difference

Table 15 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational Technology of teachers profile in terms of age.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.657 which has no significant
difference. In utilization, the significant value is 0.934 which has no significant
difference. In the last indicator which is the mastery, the significant value is 0. 477
which has no significant difference.
Table 16

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Teachers Profile in terms of Gender
Indicators

F-Value

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

0.99

0.756

Accept

Utilization

0.666

0.424

Accept

Mastery

0.220

0.644

Accept

No significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant
difference

Table 16 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational Technology of teachers profile in terms of gender.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.756 which has no significant
difference. In utilization, the significant value is 0.424 which has no significant
difference. In the last indicator which is the mastery, the significant value is 0.644
which has no significant difference.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

83

Table 17

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Teachers Profile in terms of Academic Rank
Indicators

F-Value

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

0.234

0.793

Accept

Utilization

0.176

0.840

Accept

Mastery

0.483

0.624

Accept

No significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant
difference

Table 17 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational Technology of teachers profile in terms of academic rank.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.793 which has no significant
difference. In utilization, the significant value is 0.840 which has no significant
difference. In the last indicator which is the mastery, the significant value is 0.624
which has no significant difference.

Table 18

Significant difference on the Extent of Integration of Educational


Technology of Teachers Profile in terms of Length of Service
Indicators

Frequency

Significant
Value

Decision

Remarks

Instruction

1.370

0.286

Accept

Utilization

1.370

0.286

Accept

Mastery

1.735

0.189

Accept

No significant
difference
No significant
difference
No significant
difference

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

84

Table 18 illustrates the significant difference on the extent of integration of


Educational Technology of teachers profile in terms of length of service.
In instruction, it has a significant value of 0.286 which has no significant
difference. In utilization, the significant value is 0.286 which has no significant
difference. In the last indicator which is the mastery, the significant value is 0.189
which has no significant difference.

Table 19

Perception of Student- Teachers and Faculty on the extent of


Integration of Educational Technology
Extent of
Integration of
Educational
Technology

Student-Teacher & Faculty


T-test

Instruction

1.509

Significan
t Value
0.146

Utilization
Mastery

3.909
3.410

0.001
0.003

Decision

Remarks

Accept
Reject
Reject

Not
Significant
Significant
Significant

Table 19 illustrates the result of findings on the perception of student-teachers and


faculty on the extent of integration of Educational Technology
Paired Sample T-test is used to find the result of this study and it shown in
the table that in the first indicator which was the Instruction, the T-test value was
1.509 which has a significant value of 0.146, meaning the first indicator was not

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
85

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

significant because the significant value is greater than 0.05 and the decision was
accept. In the second indicator which was the Utilization, the T-test value is 3.909
with significant value of 0.001 which has significant difference because the value
of significance was less than 0.05, therefore the decision was reject. It only
proved that there was a difference between the assessments of respondents
when it comes to utilization of educational technologies in the classroom. In last
indicator which was the Mastery, the T-test value was 3.410 and the significant
value is 0.003 which has a significant difference. This result only proved that there
was a difference between the mastery of teachers and student-teachers in the
used of educational technologies in the classroom.

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Preceding chapters presented the problem of the study, reviewed

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

86

the related literature, out lined the methodology, and set off the
findings. This chapter summarized the findings of the study, draws
conclusions and made recommendations.

Summary
This study assessed the extent of Integration of Educational Technology as
utilized by the student- teacher in the CED at TCU as basis for instructional
innovation. Specifically, the researchers sought to answer the following:
The profile of the respondents in terms of student-teachers: their gender,
course and cooperating school while in terms of faculty: their age, gender,
academic rank, and length of service.
The extent of integration of educational technology as assessed by the
group of respondents classified as to: instruction, utilization and mastery.
The significant difference between the assessments of the respondents on
the integration when grouped according to their profile.

The significant difference on the extent of integration of educational


technology as utilized by the student-teachers and faculty.
The respondents used in the study were 200 student- teachers out of 371
total population of fourth year, and 22 faculty of the College of Education in Taguig

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

87

City University. It involved 70 student- teachers in Bachelor of Elementary


Education and 130 student-teachers in Bachelor in Secondary Education: 40
student- teachers in Science major; 50 student-teachers in English major; both 20
student-teachers in Physical Education and Mathematics majors.
This study used the descriptive research design of McNabb (2009) for it
reveals the summary statistics by showing responses to all possible questionnaire
items.

In fact, this research design interpreted a what it is approach and

described the nature of the situation as it existed in the study. This design is also
applicable for the study because it explored and determined the extent of
integration of Educational Technology as utilized by the student-teachers at
Taguig City University. In order to get the target respondents of the researchers,
the Slovins formula was used to get the sample out of the population of the fourth
year students in the College Of Education at Taguig City University. The
population of all the fourth year students is 371 (N), and the researcher used 5%
(e) as margin of errors to assumed that out of 100% there is a 5% errors on the
possible result of this study. Computation results to 192 respondents (n), to be
distributed in all majors to get their aimed percentages.
Findings
Subsequent to the computation of each variable used in the study, the
Researchers found out the following findings:
The profile of the respondents:
1. Student-Teacher

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

88

Most of the respondents were female with the frequency of 147 and a
corresponding percent of 73.5.
Most of the respondents came from the Bachelor in Elementary Education
with the frequency of 70 and a corresponding percent of 35.
Most of the respondents were assigned to the different schools of the first
district of Taguig with the frequency of 104 and a corresponding percent of 52.
2. Faculty
Most of the respondents range from the age bracket of 20-25 years of age
with a frequency of 10 and a corresponding percent of 45.5.
Most of the respondents were female with a frequency of 14 and a
corresponding percent of 63.6.
Most of the respondents were rank as Instructor with a frequency of 15 with
a corresponding percent of 68.2.
Most of the respondents were range from 1-3 years of teaching experience
with a frequency of 14 and a corresponding percent of 63.6.

The extent of integration of educational technology as assessed by the


grouped respondents.
Instruction
Most of the respondents have the highest weighted mean in the second
indicator of instruction (plans and integrates technology-based learning activities
that promote student engagement in higher-order thinking skills) with weighted

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

89

mean of 3.22 for the student-teachers response and a verbal interpretation of


attained to the full extent while 3.41 weighted mean for faculty and a verbal
interpretation of attained to the fullest extent.
Utilization
Most of the student-teachers respondents have the highest weighted mean
in the first indicator of utilization (incorporates educational technology to improve
the presentation of work) with weighted mean of 2.75 and a verbal interpretation
of attained to the full extent while 3.36 weighted mean for faculty in the second
indicator of utilization (applies current research on teaching and learning with
technology when planning the learning environment)
and a verbal interpretation of attained to the fullest extent.
Mastery
Most of the student-teachers respondents have the highest weighted mean in
the fifth indicator of mastery (identifies the different types of educational
technology for the integration of learning)
with weighted mean of 2.81 and a verbal interpretation of attained to the full
extent while 3.36 weighted mean for faculty in the fourth indicator of mastery
(establishes introductory knowledge, skills and understanding of concept related
to technology) and a verbal interpretation of attained to the fullest extent.
The difference between the assessments of the respondents on the
integration when grouped according to their profile.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

90

Most of the student-teachers when grouped according to their gender have


the highest significant value in the first indicator which is the instruction the value
of significance 0.725, the decision is accept and the remarks is no significant
difference.
Most of the student-teachers when grouped according to their course have
the highest significant value in the third indicator which is the mastery the
value of significance 0.471, the decision is accept and the remarks is no
significant difference.
Most of the student-teachers when grouped according to their school have
the highest significant value in the third indicator which is the mastery the
value of significance 0.665, the decision is accept and the remarks is no
significant difference.
Most of the faculty when grouped according to their age have the highest
significant value in the second indicator which is the utilization the value of
significance 0.934, the decision is accept and the remarks is no significant
difference

Most of the faculty when grouped according to their gender have the
highest significant value in the first indicator which is the instruction the value
of significance 0.756, the decision is accept and the remarks is no significant
difference.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
91

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Most of the faculty when grouped according to their academic rank have

the highest significant value in the second indicator which is the utilization the
value of significance 0.840, the decision is accept and the remarks is no
significant difference
Most of the faculty when grouped according to their length of service have
the highest significant value in the first and second indicator which is the
instruction and utilization the value of significance 0.286, the decision is accept
and the remarks is no significant difference
The difference on the extent of integration of educational technology as
utilized by the student-teacher and faculty.
The findings of researchers in the first indicator which is the instruction
there is no significant difference on the extent of integration of educational
technology between student-teachers and faculty because the significant value is
0.146.

The decision is to accept the null hypothesis. In the second and third
indicators which are the utilization and mastery there is a significant difference on
the extent of integration of educational technology between student-teachers and
faculty because the value of significance is 0.001 in utilization and 0.003 in
mastery. The decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

92

Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study the following conclusions were drawn:
Most of the respondents from student- teachers were female with almost seventyfive percent in number and in terms of course the Bachelor in Elementary
Education got the highest percentage with almost thirty-five percent of the
respondents. Most of the schools assigned have a big percentage in the first
district of Taguig with almost fifty-two percent. When it comes to the faculty most
of the respondents range from age bracket of twenty to twenty-five years of age
and still in terms of gender female respondents were dominated in the study. In
terms of academic rank Instructors were dominated the study and for the length of
service one to three years of teaching experience were mostly observed. Most of
the respondents when grouped according to their profile have no significant
difference on the extent of integration of educational technology. There is a
significant difference on the extent of integration of educational technology as
utilized by the student-teachers and faculty.

Recommendations
Based from the findings and conclusions formulated in this research study,
the following recommendations are hereby proposed:
1. Philippine Government.

They should pass the bill proposed by

Senator Cynthia Villiar, (Senate Bill 297) which mandates the


government sufficient funding for providing web facilities in public

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

93

schools, as the same shall be included in the General Appropriation


Acts. With this, it is expected that our public schools will produce quality
and computer-literate graduates.
Moreover, due to low numbers of students who have access to
computers, they should also pass the bill proposed by Senator Santiago
(Senate

Bill

No.

1922)

which

establish

educational

technology

clearinghouses to facilitate the donation of surplus equipment and


technology to schools and libraries from governmental, business, and other
private institutions.
Since the State cannot provide for all of them alone, it must,
therefore, also pass the bill proposed by Senator Estrada (Senate Bill No.
1468) which encourage private participation by granting a tax incentive for
every donation of information technology equipment to our educational
institutions, both public and private.
Taguig City University. It should establish web facilities that are crucial in
instruction, research, and extension. City government of Taguig may ask
for donation of equipment and technologies from Department of Science
and Technology if the said city is currently travailing monetary deficiency.
.
Other Higher Educational Institutions. They should strengthen and
develop partnerships among the stakeholders in teacher preparation to

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

94

transform

education

and

ensure

technology

rich

learning

environments.This will happen if CHED will be obliged to work with different


private institutions to accelerate the development of technology to assist
and improve the methods of teaching and our education system in general.
By providing grants to eligible consortia, the government can not only
promote the development of this technology but also encourage private
sector participation.
DepEd. They should promote the integration of ICT in the Philippine
Educational System to improve the skills of students in Educational
Technology.Through this, DepEd should fully supports the continuous
improvement of its teaching personnel based on the principle of lifelong
learning and further advances in delivery of 21st century skills to all Filipino
learners.

Teachers.

They

should

immerse

technology

in

the

educational

environment not only to influences many facets of students academic


learning, but also to improve teaching. For example, teachers who use
technology in a dynamic way hold their students attention. In addition,
students who were engaged and participated through the use of technology
in classroom demonstrates greater content mastery.
Student-Teachers. Students Teacher should maximize the use of
Educational technology because in teaching with technology it can deepen

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity
95

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
student learning by supporting instructional objectives. However, it can
be challenging to select the best tech tools while not losing sight of your
goals for student learning. Once identified, integrating those tools can itself
be a challenge albeit an eye-opening experience. The CTL is here to help
you (novice, expert and everyone in between) find creative and
constructive ways to integrate technology into your class

DEDICATION

This research is dedicated to the Almighty God, the giver of all


knowledge and wisdom and the source of strength, courage and guidance to
successfully finish this research study.

Republic of the Philippines


City of Taguig
TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY
Gen. Santos Avenue, Central Bicutan, TaguigCity

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

96

To the researchers beloved Parents, who continue to extend their loving


support in all aspects of academic studies especially in helping this research
possible.
To all the Teachers/Professors, who guide this research in Science
Education.
To the City Government of Taguig, may this research become beneficial
towards societal advancement.
And To all Students, may this research serve as a guide to help them
finish their research in the near future.