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GIAO AN T CHON LP 11

BAI TAP

Tiet 1:
I/ MUC TIEU:
1/ Ve kien thc: Cung co cac kien thc ve phng phap giai bai
tap hoa hoc dang hon hp va xac nh ten chat
2/ Ve k nang: ren luyen kha nang viet PTHH, he thong d lieu e
bai va tm hng giai phu hp theo yeu cau cua bai
II/ PHNG PHAP:thao luan theo nhom
III/ HOAT ONG TREN LP:
1/ Hoat ong 1:GV hng dan cac bc giai bai tap dang hon hp:
- Goi x,y,z.lan lt la so mol cua cac chat co trong hon hp
- Lap phng trnh theo khoi lng ( he phng trnh th 1)
- Viet cac PTHH cua cac phan ng xay ra
- Lap t le so mol theo x,y,z cua chat e cho (t o lap he
phng trnh th 2)
- Giai tm x,y,z
- Tm khoi lng Tnh % theo khoi lng
2/ Hoat ong 2:GV cho v du , lam mau
VD: Cho 3,38g hon hp gom KHCO3 va K2CO3 tac dung va u
vi 40ml dung dch HCl 1M.
a)Tnh % theo khoi lng cua moi muoi trong hon hp ban
au?
b)Dan kh CO2 sinh ra vao dung dch nc voi trong d. Tnh
khoi lng ket tua thu c?
Giai: a/ Goi x la so mol cua KHCO3 va y la so mol cua K2CO3
Ta co : 100 x + 138 y = 3,38 (1)
PTP : KHCO3 + HCl KCl + CO2 + H2O
x mol
x mol
x mol
K2CO3 + 2 HCl 2 KCl + CO2 + H2O
y mol
2y mol
y mol
T 2 phng trnh ta co : x + 2y = 0,04x 1 (2)
T (10 va (2) ta co : x= 0,02 mol va y= 0,01 mol
Khoi lng muoi KHCO3 la : 0,02 x 100 = 2 gam
Khoi lng muoi K2CO3 la : 0,01 x 138 = 1,38 gam
% theo khoi lng cua muoi KHCO3 la : 2 x100/3,38 = 59,17 %
% cua K2CO3 la 100 % - 59,17 % = 40,83 %
b/ Tong so mol CO2 sinh ra ca 2 phan ng la : 0,02 + 0,01 = 0,03
mol
PTHH : CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O
Ta co so mol CO2 bang so mol CaCO3 = 0,03 mol
Khoi lng ket tua tao thanh la : 0,03 x 100 = 3 gam
3/ Hoat ong 3:HS ap dung giai cac bai tap sau( nha)
Bai 1: Cho 9,44g hon hp gom Na2CO3 va K2CO3 tac dung va u
vi dung dch HCl , thu c 1,792 lt kh bay ra (ktc).
a) Tm % cua moi chat trong hon hp theo khoi lng?
b) Tnh khoi lng dung dch HCl 0,5M can dung (D=1,2g/ml) ?
Bai 2: Cho 6,86g hon hp gom Na2CO3 va Na2SO3 Tac dung vi
dung dch HCl 0,4M (d) th thu c 1,344 lt kh bay ra (ktc)

a)Tm % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong hon hp


b)Tnh Khoi lng dung dch HCl can dung ? Biet dung d 10g
Bai 3: Cho 7,03g hon hp gom CaO va BaCO 3 tac dung va u
vi 50g dung dch HCl th thu c 672cm3 kh bay ra ktc.
a) Tm % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong hon hp?
b) Tnh nong o % cua dung dch HCl
Bai 4: Cho 2,74g hon hp gomNaHCO3 va Na2CO3 tac dung va
u vi 40ml dung dch HCl 1M.
a)Tnh % theo khoi lng cua moi muoi trong hon hp ban
au?
b)Tnh the tch kh bay ra ktc? Tnh khoi lng muoi thu c?
Bai 5: Cho 18,88g hon hp gom Na2CO3 va K2CO3 tac dung va
u vi 160ml dung dch HCl 2M .
a)Tm % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong hon hp?
b)Tnh the tch kh bay ra ktc? Tnh khoi lng muoi thu c?
Bai 6: Cho 27,4g hon hp gom Cu(OH)2 va Al(OH)3 tac dung va
u vi 350ml dung dch HCl 2M
a)Tnh % theo khoi lng cua moi hiroxit trong hon hp au?
b)Neu cho hon hp tren tac dung vi dung dch NaOH 0,2M.
Tnh Vdd NaOH can dung?
Bai 7: Cho 13,1g hon hp gom CaO va CaCO3 tac dung va u
vi 50g dung dch HCl th thu c 1,68 lt kh bay ra ktc.
a/ Tm % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong hon hp?
b/ Tnh nong o % cua dung dch HCl
4/ Hoat ong 4: GV hng dan HS giai bai tap xac nh ten kim loai
VD: Hoa tan 15,07 gam mot kim loai R hoa tr II vao dung dch HCl va
u th thu c 2,464 lt kh (ktc). Xac nh ten kim loai R va tnh the tch
dung dch HCl 0,5M can dung ?
Giai : So mol kh sinh ra la : 2,464 / 22,4 = 0,11 mol
PTHH: R + 2 HCl RCl2 + H2
So mol R bang so mol H2 = 0,11 mol
m 15, 07
137 . Vay kim loai R la bari
MR
n
0,11
So mol HCl = 2 lan so mol H2 = 0,22 mol
The tch dung dch HCl la: 0,22 / 0,5 = 0,44 lt
5/ Hoat ong 5: HS van dung giai bai tap tng t
Bai 1: Hoa tan 4,05 gam mot kim loai R hoa tr III vao dung dch HCl th
thu c 0,45 gam kh. Xac nh ten kim loai R va tnh the tch dung dch
HCl 0,5 M can dung?
Bai 2: Cho 2,2 gam mot kim loai R hoa tr II tac dung vi 200ml dung
dch H2SO4 th thu c 1,232 lt Hydro KTC. Xac nh ten kim loai R va
tnh nong o mol/lt cua dung dch H2SO4 ?
Bai 3: Cho mot kim loai R hoa tr III tac dung va u vi 1,344 lt kh Clo
( KTC) th thu c 5,34 gam muoi .Xac nh ten kim loai R ?
Tiet 2 +3 :
CUA DUNG DCH
I/ Muc tieu:

LUYEN TAP VE PHNG TRNH IEN LI pH

1/ Ve kien thc: Cung co cac kien thc ve s ien li, viet c


phng trnh ien li, ve axt, baz, hidroxit lng tnh , phan ng trao oi
ion trong dung dch cac chat ien li. T o biet xac nh pH cua dung
dch sau phan ng
2/ Ve k nang:
- Ren luyen k nang van dung ieu kien xay ra phan ng gia
cac ion trong dung dch chat ien li.
- Ren luyen k nang viet phng trnh ion ay u va phng trnh ion
rut gon
- Ren luyen k nang giai bai tap co lien quan en pH va moi
trng axit, trung tnh hay kiem.
II/ Chuan b: HS on lai cac kien thc chuan a hoc
III/ Hoat ong tren lp:
Hoat ong cua thay
Hoat ong cua tro
Hoat ong 1: GV yeu cau HS
HS van dung viet phng trnh ien
nhac lai cac nh ngha ve axit,
li cua cac chat sau:
baz, hidroxit lng tnh, muoi theo
a/ Cac axt yeu : H2S , H2CO3
A-re -ni-ut ?
b/ Cac baz manh: KOH , LiOH
c/ Cac muoi: K2CO3, NaClO, NaHS
d/ Hidroxit lng tnh : Sn(OH)2
Hoat ong 2: GV yeu cau HS
nhac lai ieu kien e phan ng
trao oi ion trong dung dch cac
chat ien li xay ra ?
Fe2(SO4)3+3Ba(OH)2--> 3BaSO4 +
2Fe(OH)3
BaCO3 + H2SO4 --> BaSO4 + H2O + CO2

Hoat ong 3: GV hng dan cach


tnh pH cua dung dch:
a/ Dang 1: Tnh pH cua dung dch axit
manh

ptdl n [ H ] pH
S o : naxit
H
b/ Dang 2: Tnh pH cua dung dch
baz manh :
S o:

ptdl n [OH ] pOH pH
nbazo
OH

HS van dung giai cac bai tap sau:


1/ Viet phng trnh phan ng gia
dung dch cac chat ien li tao ra:
a/ Hai chat ket tua
b/ Mot chat ket tua va mot chat
kh
2/ Trong mot dung dch cha a mol
Ca2+, b mol Mg2+, c mol Cl-, va d mol
HCO3-.
a/ Hay viet bieu thc lien he
gia a,b,c,d.
b/ e c dung dch o ta phai
hoa tan nhng muoi nao vao
nc ?
HS van dung giai cac bai tap sau:
1/ a/ Tnh pH cua dung dch H2SO4
0,01M
b/ Tnh the tch dung dch NaOH
0,01M can dung e trung hoa
200ml dung dch H2SO4 co pH=3
2/ a/ Tnh pH cua dung dch thu c
khi hoa tan 0,4 gam NaOH vao 100ml
dung dch Ba(OH)2 0,05M ?
b/ Tnh the tch dung dch HCl 0,1 M
can dung e trung hoa 200ml dung
dch Ba(OH)2 co pH=13 ?

Hoat ong 4: bai tap ve nha chuan b cho tiet sau


Bai 1: Tron 500ml dung dch KOH 0,005M vi 250ml dung dch KOH 0,02M.
Tnh pH cua dung dch thu c ?
HD: + Tm tong so mol KOH trong dung dch sau phan ng
+ Viet PTL --> xac nh so mol OH- --> xac nh [OH-] -->
+
[H ]
Bai 2: Cho 50ml dung dch NaOH 0,52M tac dung vi 50ml dung dch HCl
0,5M. Xac nh pH cua dung dch thu c ?
HD: + Xac nh so mol NaOH va so mol HCl
+ Da vao PTHH xac nh so mol lng chat d ( NaOH )
+ Xac nh nong o NaOH --> [OH-] --> pOH- --> pH ?
Bai 3: Tnh the tch dung dch NaOH 0,5M can dung e trung hoa hoan
toan 500ml dung dch A cha HCl 0,1M va H2SO4 0,05M .
HD: PTL:
HCl --> H+ + Cl(1)
+
2H2SO4 --. 2H + SO4
(2)
(1,2) : nH nHCl 2nH 2 SO4 0,5 x 0,1 2 x0, 05 x0,5 0,1mol
Phan ng trung hoa: H+ +
OH- -->
H 2O
0,1mol
0,1mol
NaOH --> Na+ + OH0,1mol
0,1mol
0,1
V
0, 2 lt
0,5
Bai 4: Tron 250ml dung dch HNO3 0,08M va H2SO4 0,01M vi 250ml dung
dch KOH xM, sau phan ng thu c 500ml dung dch A co pH=12. Tm x ?
HD: HNO3 --> H+ + NO3(1)
+
2H2SO4 --> 2H + SO4
(2)
KOH --> K+ + OH(3)
(1,2) : nH nHNO3 2nH 2 SO4
= 0,25 ( 0,08 + 2 x 0,01) = 0,025 mol
Phan ng trung hoa : H+ + OH- --> H2O
(4)
pH = 12 --> moi trng kiem : KOH d
pOH = 14 pH = 2 --> [OH-] = 10-2 = 0,01 M
nKOH du = nOH = (0,25 + 0,25).0,01 = 0,005 mol
so mol KOH a trung hoa : nOH = nH = 0,025 mol
so mol KOH ban au : 0,025 + 0,005 = 0,03 mol
0, 03
x
0,12 M
0, 25

Tiet 4:
I/ Muc tieu:

NIT VA HP CHAT CUA NIT

1/ Kien thc: cung co kien thc c ban cua nit va hp chat cua nit
ve tnh chat va ieu che, biet da vao t le mol e xac nh % ve
khoi lng
2/ K nang: ren luyen k nang viet PTHH, xac nh % ve khoi lng
cua cac chat sau phan ng
II/ Chuan b: HS on lai cac kien thc chuan a hoc
III/ Hoat ong len lp:

HOAT ONG CUA THAY


Hoat ong 1: cac kien thc
c ban
-GV yeu cau HS nhac lai tnh
chat hoa hoc, ieu che cua
nit,amoniac,axit nitric, muoi
nitrat
GV nhan xet sa sai, nhan
manh ieu kien phan ng
va can bang PTHH
-GV yeu cau HS viet PTHH
ieu che nit, amoniac va
HNO3 trong PTN va trong cong
nghiep ?
GV nhan xet sa sai
Hoat ong 2: thc hien chuoi
phan ng:
1/ NH4NO2 N2 NO2HNO3
Cu(NO3)2 NO2 .
2/ N2 NH3 NONO2HNO3
NH4NO3 N2O
3/
N2Ca3N2NH3N2NO2HNO3
Fe(NO3)3Fe2O3
Hoat ong 3: Bai tap
1/ Hoa tan hoan toan 3g hon
hp gom Cu va Ag bang dd
HNO3 ac, sau o em co can
dd th thu c 7,34 g hon hp
muoi khan. Tnh the tch kh bay
ra (kc)?

HOAT ONG CUA TRO


4 HS viet PTHH minh hoa tnh
chat hoa hoc cua nit,
amoniac,axit nitric va muoi
amoni ?

Goi 3 HS len bang viet PTHH


ieu che N2 , NH3 , HNO3 ?

Goi 3 HS thc hien

PTHH:
Al+ 4HNO3Al(NO3)3+ NO+ 2H2O
x
x
Fe + 4HNO3 Fe(NO3)3+ NO
+2H2O
y
y
Ta co: 27x + 56y =11
x + y = 0,3
giai ra ta c: x= 0,2 ; y = 0,1
khoi lng Al: 0,2 . 27 = 5,4 g
khoi lng Fe: 0,1 . 56 = 5,6 g
phan 1:
Cu+4HNO3
Cu(NO3)2+2NO2+2H2O

0,05mol
0,1 mol
Khoi lng Cu la: 0,05.64=3,2
g
Khoi lng Cu trong hon hp
2/ Chia 14,7 g hon hp gom
la 6,4 g
Al,Fe,Cu thanh hai phan bang
Phan 2:khoi lng Al va Fe
nhau. Mot phan cho vao dd
trong phan la:
HNO3 ac nguoi d th co 4,6 g 17,4/2 3,2 = 5,5 g
kh mau nau o bay ra. Mot
2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2
phan cho vao dd HCl th co
x
1,5x
4,48 lit kh (kc). Tnh khoi lng Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2
moi kim loai trong hon hp
y
y
au ?
27x + 56 y = 5,5
1,5x + y
= 0,2
Giai ra ta co : x= 0,1 va y=
0,05
Khoi lng Al:0,1 . 27 = 2,7g
Khoi lng Fe: 0,05 . 56 = 2,8 g
Vay lng Al trong hon hp
la: 5,4 g
Va lng Fe la 5,6 g
HS t giai bai 3
3/ Mot hon hp gom Ag, Cu
co khoi lng la 6,24 g. Cho
hon hp o phan ng va
uvi 250 ml dd HNO3 ac th
thu c 2,24 lit kh NO2 bay
ra(kc)
a/ Tnh % theo khoi lng cua
moi kim loai trong hon hp
au ?
b/ tnh nong o mol / lt cua dd
HNO3 ?

Bai tap ve nha:

1/ Cho 11 g hon hp gom Al va Fe vao dung dch HNO 3 loang


d, thu c 6,72 lit kh NO (kc). Tnh khoi lng moi kim loai
trong hon hp ?
2/ Cho 60 g hon hp Cu va CuO tan het trong 3 lt dung dch HNO 3
, th thu c 13,44lit NO (kc)
a/ Tnh % moi chat trong hon hp ?
b/ Tnh nong o mol/ lt cua dung dch axit ?
Tiet 5:
PHOT PHO VA HP CHAT CUA PHOT PHO
I/ Muc tieu:
1/ kien thc: cung co kien thc c ban cua phot pho va hp chat
cua phot pho ve tnh chat va ieu che, biet da vao t le mol e
xac nh % ve khoi lng
2/ k nang: ren luyen k nang viet phng trnh phan ng, da vao t
le so mol e xac nh chat tao thanh sau phan ng
II/ Chuan b: hoc sinh on lai kien thc a hoc, van dung giai bai
tap

III/ Hoat ong len lp:


HOAT ONG CUA THAY
Hoat ong 1: cac kien thc
c ban
-GV yeu cau HS nhac lai tnh
chat hoa hoc, ieu che cua
P va H3PO4
- GV nhan xet sa sai, nhan
manh ieu kien phan ng
va can bang PTHH
Lu y HS phan ng cua H3PO4
tac dung vi NaOH tuy theo
t le ma san pham khac
nhau
-GV yeu cau HS viet PTHH
ieu che P va H3PO4 trong PTN
va trong cong nghiep
-GV nhan xet , sa sai
Hoat ong 2:Thc hien chuoi
phan ng:
a/
PP2O3P2O5H3PO4Na3PO4
Ag3PO4.
b/ PH3PO4
Ca3(PO4)2Ca(H2PO4)2

HOAT ONG CUA TRO


Goi 2 HS len bang viet PTHH
the hien tnh chat hoa hoc
cua P va H3PO4

Goi 2 HS viet PTHH ieu che P


va H3PO4

Goi 2 HS len bang thc hien

nH3PO4 0,5.0,2 0,1mol


nKOH 1,5.0,3 0,45 mol
Dung dch thu c gom K3PO4
va lng KOH d

CaHPO4 Ca3(PO4)2
GV nhan set sa sai
Hoat ong 3: bai tap
1/ Tron lan 200ml dd H3PO4
0,5M vi 300ml dd KOH 1,5M.
Dung dch thu c gom
nhng chat nao, tnh nong
o mol/lt cua cac chat o ?

H3PO4 + 3KOH
0,1
0,3

So mol KOH d : 0,45-0,3 =0,15


0,1
0,2M
0,5
0,15

0,3M
0,5
2 x 0,25 0,5mol

CMK PO
3

CMKOH
nNaOH

nH3PO4 1,5 x 0,2 0,3mol


T

2/ Them 200ml dd NaOH 2M


vao 200ml dd H3PO4 1,5M.
a/ tnh khoi lng muoi tao
thanh ?
b/ Tnh nong o mol / lit cua
dung dch tao thanh ?

K3PO4 + 3H2O
0,1

nNaOH 0,5

1,66
nH3PO4 0,3

Vay 1< T < 2


NaOH + H3PO4 NaH2PO4 + H2O
x
x
x
2NaOH + H3PO4 Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
y
y
y
Ta co : x + y = 0,3
x + 2y = 0,5
giai he tren ta co:
x = 0,1 mol va y = 0,2 mol
mNaH2PO4 0,1x120 12g
mNa2HPO4 0,2 x142 28,4g
0,1
0,22M
0,45
0,2

0,44M
0,45

CMNa HPO
2

CNa2HPO4

Bai tap ve nha:


1/ Cho 50ml dung dch H3PO4 2M vao 50ml dung dch NaOH 3M.
Tnh nong o mol/lit cua cac chat thu c sau phan ng ?
2/ Them 100ml dung dch H3PO4 2M vao 400ml dung dch NaOH
1,25M. Tnh nong o mol/lit cua cac chat thu c sau phan
ng ?
3/ Them 100ml dung dch H3PO4 2M vao 100ml dung dch NaOH
3M. Tnh nong o mol/lit cua cac chat thu c sau phan
ng ?
4/ Them 200ml dung dch H3PO4 2M vao 400ml dung dch NaOH
2,5M. Tnh nong o mol/lit cua cac chat thu c sau phan
ng ?

Tiet 6:
BAI TAP
I/ Muc tieu:
1/ Ve kien thc: cung co cac dang bai tap hon hp va t
le mol e xac nh ten san pham. HS van dung tnh chat
hoa hoc cung nh ieu che e viet PTHH. Cung co kien
thc ve can bang phan ng oxi hoa kh
2/ Ve k nang: ren luyen k nang t duy va phan tch
II/ chuan b: HS chuan b cac bai tap cho lam nha
III/ Hoat ong len lp:
HOAT ONG CUA THAY
HOAT ONG CUA TRO
Hoat ong 1:Hoan thanh cac Goi 3 HS len bang giai
PTHH sau:
GV sa sai va lu y ieu
a/
kien phan ng
N2NH3NONO2HNO3N2O5
NaNO3--> NaNO2
b/ NH3
(NH4)2SO4NH3N2Ca3N2
c/ (NH4)2CO3NH3 Fe(OH)3
Goi 4 HS len bang thc hien
Fe(NO3)3Fe2O3FeCl3
GV sa sai
Hoat ong 2:Can bang cac
phan ng oxi hoa kh sau:
a/ Cu+HNO3Cu(NO3)2+NO2+H2O
b/ Cu+HNO3Cu(NO3)2+NO2+H2O
a/ PTP:
c/P+HNO3+H2OH3PO4+NO
Na2CO3+ 2HCl 2NaCl+ CO2+H2O
d/ Zn+HNO3Zn(NO3)2+N2O+H2O
x
2x
x
e/
K2CO3+ 2HCl2KCl + CO2 + H2O
Zn+HNO3Zn(NO3)2+NH4NO3+H2
y
2y
y
O
Ta co: 106x + 138y = 9,44
Hoat ong 3:Bai tap
x + y = 0,08
1/ Cho 9,44 gam hon hp gom giai ra ta c
Na2CO3 va K2CO3 tac dung va x= 0,05 va y = 0,03
u vi dd HCl thu c 1,792 lt m
Na CO 0,05 x106 5,3g
kh bay ra (kc)
mK CO 0,03 x138 4,14g
a/ Tnh % ve khoi lng cua
moi chat trong hon hp?
2

b/ Tnh khoi lng dd HCl 0,5M


can dung ( D=1,2 g/ml)

5,3 x100
56,14%
9,44
%K2CO3=100% - 56,14% = 43,86%
%Na2CO3

b/ tong so mol HCl can dung


la
2x+2y= 2x0,05 + 2 x 0,03 = 0,16
mol
The tch dd HCl: V=0,16 /
0,5=0,32lit
Khoi lng dd HCl: 1,2x320 ml =
384 g
2/ Cho 2,74 gam hon hp gom
NaHCO3 va Na2CO3 tac dung
va u vi 40 ml dd HCl 1M
a/ tnh % theo khoi lng cua
moi muoi trong hon hp ?
b/ Tnh the tch kh bay ra kc
va khoi lng muoi thu c
sau phan ng?

a/ PTP:
NaHCO3+ HCl NaCl+ CO2+H2O
x
x
x
x
Na2CO3+ 2HCl 2NaCl+ CO2 +
H2O
y
2y
2y
y
Ta co: 84x + 106y = 2,74
x + 2y = 0,04
Giai ra ta c : x= 0,02 va y=
0,01
mNaHCO3 0,02 x 84 1,68g

mNa2CO3 0,01x106 1,06g


1,68 x100
61,31%
2,74
%Na2CO3 = 100% - 61,31% =
38,69%
b/ So mol CO2 sinh ra la : x+y =
0,03 mol
The tch CO2 sinh ra:
0,03x22,4=0,672 lit
So mol NaCl tao thanh: x+2y =
0,04 mol
Khoi lng muoi thu c:
0,04 x 58,5 = 2,34 gam
%NaHCO3

IV/ Bai tap ve nha:


Bai 1: Cho 27,4 gam hon hp gom Cu(OH)2 va Al(OH)3 tac
dung va u vi 350 ml dung dch HCl 2M
a/ tnh % theo khoi lng cua moi hydroxit trong hon hp ?
b/ neu cho hon hp tren tac dung vi dung dch NaOH 0,2M.
tnh the tch dung dch NaOH can dung ?

Bai 2: Cho 13,1 gam hon hp gom CaO va caCO3 tac dung
va u vi dung dch HCl ,thu c 1,68 lt kh bay ra (kc)
a/ Tnh % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong hon hp ?
b/ Tnh nong o % cua dung dch HCl ?

Tiet 7:
CACBON VA HP CHAT CUA CACBON
I/ Muc tieu:
1/ Ve kien thc:cung co kien thc tnh chat vat l, tnh chat
hoa hoc, ieu che va ng dung cua : C , Si , CO, CO 2 , H2CO3 ,
muoi cacbonat, axit silixic, muoi silicat
2/ Ve k nang: ren luyen k nang van dung kien thc e
giai bai tap
II/ Chuan b: HS on tap cac kien thc a hoc va bai tap
nha
III/ Hoat ong len lp:
HOAT ONG CUA THAY
HOAT ONG CUA TRO
Hoat ong 1: GV to chc cho
HS ien vao bang so sanh
HS thao luan e khac sau
kien thc can nh di
ay:
- tnh chat vat l va hoa
hoc
- ieu che
Goi 2 HS len bang thc hien
- ng dung
GV sa sai
Hoat ong 2:Hoan thanh cac a/ CO2 +2KOHK2CO3 + H2O
s o phan ng sau;
K2CO3 + Ca(OH)2CaCO3+ 2KOH
a/CO2K2CO3KOHK2SiO3H2Si 2KOH+SiO2 K2SiO3 + H2O
O3
K2SiO3 + CO2 + H2O
b/ SiO2SiNa2SiO3H2SiO3SiO2 H2SiO3+K2CO3
b/ SiO2 + 2Mg Si + 2MgO
Si+ 2NaOH +H2O Na2SiO3+ 2H2
Na2SiO3+CO2+H2O H2SiO3+
Na2CO3
H2SiO3SiO2 + H2O
Hoat ong 3: Bai tap

0,672
1/ Dan 672 ml kh CO2 ( kc)
nCO
0,03
22,4
vao 37,5 ml dd NaOH 2M, c
1/
dung dch A. Dung dch thu c
nNaOH 2 x 0,0375 0,075
sau phan ng gom nhng
n
0,075
T NaOH
2,5
chat nao, khoi lng la bao
nCO
0,03
nhieu?
Vay sau phan ng lng NaOH
2

d va muoi thu c la Na2CO3


CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O
nCO2 nNa2CO3 0,03
nNaOH 2nCO2 0,06
Khoi lng muoi Na2CO3 thu
c la:
0,03 x 106 = 3,18 gam
So mol NaOH d : 0,075 0,06 =
0,015 mol
Khoi lng NaOH d : 0,015 x 40=
0,6 gam

2/ e kh hoan toan 40,0


gam hon hp gom CuO va
Fe2O3, ngi ta dung 15,68 lt
CO (kc). Xac nh % moi oxit
trong hon hp ?

2/ PTHH:
CuO + CO Cu + CO2
x
x
Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2
y
3y
Ta co :
80x + 160y = 40
x + 3y = 0,7
giai ra ta c: x= 0,1 va y=
0,2
mCuO 0,1x 80 8 gam
mFe2O3 0,2 x160 32 gam
8
.100 20%
40
%F2O3: 100% - 20% = 80%
%CuO

IV/ Bai tap ve nha:


Bai 1: Dan 4,48 lt kh CO2 ( kc) vao 120 ml dung dch NaOH 2M ,
c dung dch A. tnh khoi lng cac chat co trong dung dch
A?
Bai 2: Kh hoan toan 4,0 gam CuO va PbO bang kh CO
nhiet o cao. Kh sinh ra sau phan ng dan vao bnh ng

dung dch Ca(OH)2 d thu c 10,0 gam ket tua. Xac nh khoi
lng hon hp Cu va Pb thu c ?
Bai 3: Hon hp gom 20,0 gam Si va Fe cho tac dung vi dung
dch NaOH, giai phong 4,48 lt H2 (kc), xac nh % cua moi
kim loai trong hon hp ?
Bai 4: hoa tan hoan toan 2,76 gam muoi cacbonat cua kim loai
kiem R trong dung dch HCl, thu c 448 ml kh CO2 (kc). Xac
nh cong thc hoa hoc cua muoi cacbonat tren ?

Tit 8:
LUYN TP :CONG THC PHAN T HP CHT HU C
I/ Muc tieu:
1/ Ve kien thc:HS hieu ro y ngha cua cong thc n gian
nhat, cong thc phan t hp chat hu c
2/ Ve k nang: HS biet :
- Cach thiet lap cong thc n gian nhat t ket qua
phan tch nguyen to
- Cach tnh phan t khoi va cach thiet lap cong thc
phan t
II/ Chuan b: HS on lai cac cach xac lap cong thc phan
t
III/ Hoat ong tren lp:
HOAT ONG CUA THAY
HOAT ONG CUA TRO
Hoat ong 1: GV on lai cach
HS ap dung giai bai tap
thiet lap CTPT hp chat hu
cac bai tap sau:
c ( 3 cach)
1/ ot chay hoan toan 0,3
a/ Da vao % khoi lng cac
gam chat (A) cha cac
nguyen to:
nguyen to C,H,O ta thu c
C x H y Oz xC yH zO
0,224 lt CO2(kc) va 0,18 gam
H2O. t khoi hi cua (A) oi
M
12x y
16z
100% %C %H %O
vi hydro la 30. Xac nh
T t le:
CTPT cua A ?
M 12 x
y
16 z

100 %C % H %O
M .%C
M .% H
M .%O
x
;y
;z
12.100
1.100
16.100
M
12 x
y 16 z

Hoac :
mhchc mC mH mO
x = M.mc / 12. mhchc

2/ ot chay hoan toan 3,0


gam chat hu c A, ngi ta
thu c 6,6 gam CO2 va 3,6
gam H2O. Xac nh CTPT cua
A, biet rang t khoi hi cua
A so vi nit la 2,15

y = M.mH / mhchc
z = M.mO / 16.mhchc
b/ Thong qua cong thc n
gian nhat:
(CxHyOz)n =Mhchc
Tm n ?
c/ Tnh trc tiep theo san pham
chay:
CxHyOz+(x+y/4-z/2)O2 xCO2+y/2H2O
1
x
y/2
nhchc
nCO2
nH2O
GV goi 3 HS len thc hien bai
1,2,3 roi nhan xet sa sai

GV hng dan bai 7:


y z
y
t
C x H y Oz N t ( x )O2 xCO2 H 2O N 2
4 2
2
2
1 mol
x
y/2
t/2
0, 44
nCO2
0, 01
44
0, 225
nH 2O
0, 0125
18
0, 0558
nN 2
0, 0025
22, 4
MA= 2,04 x 29 = 59,16
0, 295
nA
0, 005
59,16
x = 0,01 / 0,005 = 2
y = 0,0125 . 2 / 0,005 = 5
t = 0.0025 . 2 / 0,005 = 1
Ta co: 12x + y + 16z +14t = 59,16
24 + 5 + 16z + 14 = 59,16
z=1

3/ ot chay hoan toan 2,20


gam chat hu c A, ngi ta
thu c 4,40 gam CO2 va 1,80
gam H2O. Xac nh CTPT cua
A, biet rang t khoi hi cua
A so vi CO2 la 2
4/ ot chay hoan toan 10,0
gam chat hu c A, ngi ta
thu c 33,85 gam CO2 va
6,94 gam H2O. Xac nh CTPT
cua A, biet rang t khoi hi
cua A so vi khong kh la
2,69

5/ ot chay hoan toan 3,0


gam chat hu c A, ngi ta
thu c 2,24 lit CO2 (kc)va
1,80 gam H2O. Xac nh CTPT
cua A, biet rang t khoi hi
cua A so vi etan (C2H6) la 2
6/ ot chay hoan toan 0,88
gam chat hu c A, ngi ta
thu c 1,76 gam CO2 va 0,72
gam H2O. Xac nh CTPT cua
A, biet rang t khoi hi cua
A so khong kh la 3,04
7/ ot chay hoan toan 0,295
gam chat hu c A, ngi ta
thu c 0,44 gam CO2 va
0,225 gam H2O.Mat khac
phan tch lng chat A tren
cho 0,0558 lt N2 (kc). Xac
nh CTPT cua A, biet rang
t khoi hi cua A so vi
khong kh la 2,04

Vay CTPT cua A la C2H5ON

IV/ Dan do : HS ve nha lam cac bai tap con lai

Tiet 9: LUYEN TAP CHNG HYDROCACBON NO


I/ Muc ch yeu cau:
-HS biet s giong nhau va khac nhau ve tnh chat vat l , tnh
chat hoa hoc va ng dung cua ankan vi xicloankan
-HS hieu cau truc, danh phap cua ankan va xicloankan
- HS van dung e so sanh 2 loai ankan va xicloankan, ren
luyen l nang viet phng trnh phan ng minh hoa tnh chat
hoa hoc cua ankan va xicloankan
II/ Phng phap: am thoai
III/ Chuan b: cau hoi trac nghiem
IV/ Hoat ong tren lp:
Cau 1: Tm cau sai trong cac menh e sau:
a/ Hidrocacbon no la hidrocacbon trong phan t ch co lien ket
n
b/ ankan la hidrocacbon no mach cacbon khong vong
c/. Hidrocacbon no la hp chat trong phan t ch co 2 nguyen
to la cacbon va hidro
d/ Ankan ch co ong phan mach cacbon
CH3chat
-CH-CH-CH
Cau 2: Ten goi theo danh phap IUPAC cua hp
sau3 la:
a/ 2-etyl-3-metylpentan
b/. 3,4-dimetylhexanCH
CH2 2
c/ 2,3-dimetylbutan
d/ 3-metyl-4-etylpentan
CH3 thc:
CH3
Cau 3: Hp chat co cong
co
la:
CHten
CH
2
2

CH-CH2-CH
CH3

CH3

a/ 2,2,3,3-tetrametylpropan
b/. 2,4-dimetylpentan
c/ 2,4-dimetylbutan
d/ 1,1,3-trimetylbutan
Cau 4:ten cua hp chat :(CH3)3C-CH2-C2H5 la:
a/ Trimetylpropan
b/ 2,2-dimetyl-1-etylpropan
c/. 2,2-dimetylpentan
d/ Tat ca eu sai
Cau 5:imetyl xiclopropan co bao nhieu ong phan mach vong
a/ 3
b/ 4
c/. 5
d/ 6
Cau 6: Khi un muoi RCOONa vi NaOH thu c hidro cacbon co
ten goi la propan. Ten cua R la :
a/ Metyl
b/ Etyl
c/. Propyl
d/ Butyl
Cau 7:Trong PTN co the ieu che metan bang cach nao trong
nhng cach sau:
a/ Nhiet phan natri axetat vi voi toi xut
b/ Cracking butan
c/ Thuy phan nhom cacbua trong moi trng axit
d/. Ca a va c eu ung
Cau 8:Trong phng phap ieu che etan (CH3-CH3) ghi di ay
phng phap nao sai
a/ un natri propionat vi voi toi xut
b/ Cong H2 vao etylen
c/. Tach nc khoi ru etylic
d/ Cracking butan
Cau 9:ot chay hoan toan mot hidrocacbon A thu c so
mol H2O gap oi so mol CO2. vay A la :
a/ ankan
b/ Ankin
c/. CH4
d/ C2H6
Cau 10: Xac nh CTPT cua ankan co t khoi hi oi vi
khong kh bang 2. ankan nay co bao nhieu ong phan ?
a/ C2H6 co 1 ong phan
b/ C3H8 co 2 ong
phan
c/ C4H10 co 2 ong phan
d/ C4H10 co 3 ong
phan
Cau 11: ot chay m gam hon hp hidrocacbon thu c 4,4 gam
CO2 va 0,15 mol H2O. tm m ?
a/. 1,5 gam
b/ 7,1 gam
c/ 5,55gam
d/
4,55gam
Cau 12: Brom hoa mot ankan c mot dan xuat cha brom
co t khoi hi so vi khong kh la 5,207. Ankan nay la:
a/ CH4
b/ C2H6
c/ C3H8
d/. C5H12
Cau 13:X,Y,Z la 3 ankan ke tiep nhau co tong khoi lng
phan t la 174 U.Ten cua chung la :
a/ Metan, etan, propan
b/ Etan, propan, butan

c/. Propan, butan, pentan


d/ Pentan, hexan, heptan
Cau 14: Ankan A co t khoi hi oi vi hidro bang 29 va
mach cacbon phan nhanh. Ten cua A la:
a/. Isobutan
b/ Isopentan
c/ Hexan
d/ Neopentan
Cau 15: Khi ot chay x mol ankan a thu c 10,8 gam H 2O va
11,2 lt CO2(kc). Gia tr cua x la :
a/ 1
b/. 0,1
c/ 2
d/ 0,5
Cau 16: T khoi cua hon hp X gom metan va etan so vi
khong kh la 0,6. e ot het 1 mol X phai can bao nhieu mol
oxi :
a/ 3,7
b/. 2,15
c/ 6,3
d/ 4,25
Cau 17: ot chay 1 mol ankan A can 6,5 mol O 2 . So nguyen
t hido trong phan t A la :
a/ 4
b/ 6
c/. 10
d/ 14
Cau 18: T khoi hi cua hon hp X gom metan va etan oi
vi khong kh la 0,6. khi ot chay het 1 mol X, the tch kh CO 2
(kc) thu c la:
a/ 8,72 lt
b/. 24,64 lt
c/ 22,4 lt
d/ 44,8
lt
Cau 19:ot chay hon hp hai hidrocacbon ong ang lien
tiep ta thu c 11,7 gam H2O va 17,6 gam CO2. vay cong thc
phan t cua 2 hidrocacbon la:
a/ C2H6 va C3H8
b/ C2H4 va c3H6
c/ C3H6 va C4H10
d/. CH4 va C2H6
Cau 20: Khoi lng rieng cua mot ankan ieu kien chuan
la 3,839 g/ lit.Trong phan t ankan co mot nguyen t cacbon
bac IV. Hidrocacbon o la:
a/ 2,2-dimetyl pentan
b/ 2,2- dimetyl hexan
c/. 2,2- dimetyl butan
d/ 3,3- dimetyl pentan

Tiet 10 + 11
LUYEN TAP ANKEN VA ANKADIEN
I/ I/ Muc ch yeu cau:
-HS biet s giong nhau va khac nhau ve tnh chat vat l , tnh
chat hoa hoc va ng dung cua anken vi ankadien
-HS hieu cau truc, danh phap cua anken va ankadien
- HS van dung e so sanh 2 loai anken va ankadien, ren luyen
l nang viet phng trnh phan ng minh hoa tnh chat hoa
hoc cua anken va ankadien
II/ Phng phap: am thoai, nu vn
III/ Hot ng trn lp:
Hot ng ca thy v tr
Ni dung
Hot ng 1: h thng li cc kin thc v 1/ gi tn cc cht sau:
anken v ankadien
a/
*GV gi 1HS ln bng vit tn cc cht
Nhn xt sa sai
a/ 4,4-dimetylpent-1-en
b/ 2-etylbut-1-en
c/ 2,4-dimetylhex-1-en

CH3
CH3

b/

C CH2 CH=CH2
CH3

CH3 CH2 C

CH2

CH3

CH2
c/
CH3 CH CH2 C CH3
CH2 CH3 CH2

*Hs ln bng vit CTCT

2/ Vit cng thc cu to ca cc cht sau:


a/ 2,3-dimetylbuta-1,3-dien

GV sa sai
*Hs da vo tnh cht phn bit
HD: etilen lm mt mu dd brom, cacbon
dioxit lm c nc vi trong.
Hot ng 2: bi tp
1/ 0,7 gam mt anken A c th lm mt
mu 16,0gam dung dch brom(trong CCl4)
c nng 12,5%.
a/ Xc nh cng thc phn t cht A
b/ Vit CTCT ca tt c cc ng phn cu
to ng vi CTPT tm c ?

b/ 3-metylpenta-1,4-dien
c/ 3,4-dimetylhex-1-en
3/ Trnh by phng php ho hc phn bit
ba kh : etan, etilen v cacbon dioxit
1/ a/ CnH2n +Br2 C2H2nBr2
16, 0 x12,5
nCn H 2 n nBr2
0, 0125 mol
100 x160, 0
14n = 56 n = 4 C4H8
b/
CH2 =CH-CH2-CH3
CH3 CH= CH-CH3 ;
CH3 C CH2
CH3

CH3
o

2/ Vit PTHH theo s chuyn ho sau:


CH4C2H2C2H4C2H6C2H5Cl

2CH4
1500 C C2H2 + 3H2
3
Pd / PbCO
C2H2 + H2
C2H4
t0
C2H4 + H2 Ni ,t
C2H6 + Cl2 as

C2H6
C2H5Cl + HCl

3/ Vit PTHH ca cc phn ng iu ch:


1,2-dicloetan v 1,1-dicloetan t etan v
cc cht v c cn thit ?
4/ Dn t t 3,36 lt hn hp gm etilen v
propilen(ktc)vo dung dch brom thy
dung dch b nht mu v khng cn kh
thot ra. khi lng dung dch sau phn
ng tng 4,90 gam.
a/ Vit cc PTHH v gii thch cc hin
tng th nghim trn ?
b/ Tnh thnh phn % v th tch ca mi
kh trong hn hp ban u ?

CH3-CH3 Ni ,t CH2 =CH2 + H2


CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 CH2Cl- CH2Cl
CH3-CH3 + 2Cl2 as
CH3 CHCl2 +
2HCl
a/ Cc PTHH ca phn ng
CH2 = CH2 + Br2 CH2Br CH2Br
CH2 = CH CH3 + Br2 CH2Br-CHBrCH3
b/ Gi x, y ln lt l s mol ca C2H4 v
C3H6
nhh = x+y =0,150
mhh = 28x + 42y = 4,90
x = 0,100
y = 0,050
%VC2 H 4 66, 7%
%VC3 H8 33,3%

5/ Oxi ho hon ton 0,680 gam ankadien


X thu c 1,120 lt CO2(ktc)
a/ Tm CTPT ca X ?
b/ vit CTCT c th c ca X ?

a/ Cn H 2 n 2 (

3n 1
)O2
2

t0

nCO
2 (n 1) H 2O

14n -2
0,680
0,050
n = 5 CTPT ca X l C5H8

b/ Cng thc cu to c th c ca ankadien c


CTPT C5H8 l:
CH2=CH-CH2-CH=CH2
CH3-CH=C=CH-CH3
CH2=C=CH-CH2-CH3
CH2=CH-CH=CH-CH3
CH2=C CH=CH2
CH3
CH3

6/ t chy hon ton 5,40 gam ankadien


lin hp X thu c 8,96 lt CO2(ktc).
Xc nh cng thc phn t ca X ?

C=C=CH2
CH3

0
3n 1
O2 t nCO
2 (n 1) H 2O
2
5, 40 xn 8,96

Ta c:
14n 2 22, 4
n= 4 CTPT ca X l C4H6

Cn H 2 n 2

Tit 12:
LUYN TP ANKIN
I/ Mc tiu: HS bit s ging nhau v khc nhau v tnh cht gia anken, ankin v
ankadien. Hiu c mi quan h gia cu to v tnh cht cc loi hidrocacbon hc.
HS vn dng so snh 3 loi hidrocacbon trong chng vi nhau v vi cc hidrocacbon
khc
II/ Phng php : nu vn v gii quyt vn
III/ Chun b: HS n tp tnh cht ca ankin, ankadien, anken v tm mi quan h
IV/ Hot ng trn lp:
Hot ng ca thy v tr
Ni dung
Hot ng 1:
Anken
Ankin
HS nu nhng tnh cht ho hc
c bn ca anken v ankin vo
bng v ly v d minh ho bng
PTP
CH 3 C C CH 2 CH 3
Hot ng 2:GV ghi bi tp
CH C CH CH 2 CH 3
ln bng

CH3
1/ Vit cng thc cu to ca cc
ankin c tn sau: pent-2-in; 3metylpent-1-in; 2,5-dimetylhex-

3-in

CH 3 CH C C CH CH 3

CH3

2/ Vit PTHH ca phn ng gia


propin v cc cht sau:
a/ hidro c xc tc Pd/PbCO3.
b/ Dung dch brom( d)
c/ Dung dch bc nitrat trong
amoniac
d/ Hidro clorua c xc tc HgCl2
3/ Trnh by phng php ho
hc phn bit 3 kh khng mu
sau: metan, etilen, axetilen ?

CH3

CH C CH 3 H 2
Pd / PbCO
3 CH
2 CH CH 3
CH C CH 3 Br2 CHBr2 CBr2 CH 3
CH C CH 3 AgNO3 NH 3 CAg C CH 3 NH 4 NO3
CH C CH 3 HCl

HgCl2

CH 2 CCl CH 3

Dng dd AgNO3 trong NH3, kh no cho kt ta vng nht l


kh axetilen
CH CH 2 AgNO3 2 NH 3 AgC CAg 2 NH 4 NO3
Nhn ra kh etilen bng nc brom, kh etilen lm mt mu
nc brom, cn li l kh metan
CH2=CH2 + Br2 CH2Br-CH2Br

4/ Dn 3,36 lit hn hp A gm
a/
propin v etilen i vo mt lng
3,36
nhh
0,15mol
d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3
22, 4
thy c 0,840 lit kh thot ra v
0,840
0, 0375mol
c m gam kt ta. cc th tch o nC H
22, 4
ktc.
nCH C CH 0,15 0, 0375 0,1125mol
a/ tnh % th tch etilen trong A?
0, 0375
b/ Tnh m ?
%C2 H 4
100 25%
2

0,15
b/ m= 0,1125 x 147,0 = 16,54 gam

Bi tp v nh:
1/ vit PTHH ca phn ng thc hin cc bin ho du71i y v ghi r iu kin phn ng ( nu c).
1
3
4
5
CaCO
CaO
C2H
C2H
C2H6
2 CaC
3
2
2
4
2/ T axetilen vit cc phng trnh phn ng iu ch PVC ?