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Bulletin of the Asia Institute, a Non-Profit Corporation

Women's Robes: The Achaemenid Era


Author(s): BERNARD GOLDMAN
Source: Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Series, Vol. 5 (1991), pp. 83-103
Published by: Bulletin of the Asia Institute, a Non-Profit Corporation
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24048288
Accessed: 19-12-2015 13:37 UTC
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Women's

Robes:

The

BERNARD

Two

women

One

in

The

GOLDMAN

as

an

Persian

other

Era

Achaemenid

instructed

both

Doric,

came,

apparition

robes

in

well,
dressed.

splendor

Sisters they, who casting for their father's land,


She

Greece

The

robes

courtiers,

and

suits

of their

of Achaemenid
officer elite

she

received,
The

Aeschylus,

kings

and

Persians

and

their women

memorialize
or durable

to

lengths of cloth draped around the


scarves,
kilts, vests, etc., of neighboring
body,
Anatolia.
I have suggested
and
Mesopotamia
the pre-Achaemenid
source for the
elsewhere
nics

in the monuments

crafts.

No woman
among
appears
of figures on parade in the stone

the hundreds

the limitations

imposed:
from the Treasure

several

features

some bone and metal


and

origin;

a singular

ently Perso-Egyptian;

figurines

Various

cippus-like
and a bronze

slab,

suit doubt

have
the
emphasized
influence on the Achae
the "ample robes."2 Hinz
court
as well

dresscloak,
as weapons
and labeled
the
derived
from the Elamite,
The
as
Elamite-Persian.3
sleeveless
shirt
is clad in a
relief at Pasargadae
winged "genius"

of
portraits
era indicates
bits of scribed

caftan and long tunic of the type worn by Elam


reliefs. But the other
ite prisoners in Assyrian
of
the
display the Per
palace complex
carvings
to take the
is no reason
sian Robe.4 There

a
figureobviously
associa
with
conjuration
foreign
metaphysical
dress.5
Achaemenid
tionsas
regulation
costume

date

appar-

caryatid

authorities
of Elamite

significance
menid court, stressing
Achaemenid
suggested
and shoes,
under-robe,

may

of uncertain

(fig. 1 ) and the tailored


from northern lands.1

Robe

less came

of the Oxus; a number


and mortuary
of Greco-Persian
seals,
gems,
steles (most if not all from Asia Minor); a prefound at Pazyryk;
cious
fragment of gobelin

metal

with

Persian

Persepolis,
ornamenting
Pasargadae,
tapestries
nor in the
Rustam
and the tombs at Naqsh-i
of Susa. The meager evienameled
brickwork
robto use for women's
dence that is available
but
a
for
a
true
history,
ing is hardly sufficient

sketch of the major


preliminary
to some purpose.
be entertained
off of the available
A ticking
women
during the Achaemenid

types of for
Robe which

Persian
dress: the so-called
they belted and draped in three or four ways and
the tailored two-piece
trousered suit usually re
Both styles are distinctly
ferred to as Median.
tu
different from costumes
based on kimonos,

commentainclined

men wore two basic

mal

and Medes, as well as


robing of Persians
is lavishly
disthat of their tributary peoples,
in their monumental
and minor arts,
played
of by the Greek
spoken
the Persians
were little

b.c.)

none

Achaemenid

male

But

472

can be assigned
definitely to
and
dates
are
workshop;
safely ex
in
centuries
some
only,
perhaps in the
pressed
late sixth, but the locus is the fifth and fourth,

has been recognized


ladies-in-waiting
Shall
we
in
only
passing.
place the blame for
in
on male
this disparity
scholarly
exegesis
I think not. The simple
fact is,
chauvinism?

even

to dwell.

provenance;
an Iranian

tentive

tors.

where
(produced

porting an incense bowl on her head, recovered


in Jordan. A pitiful few of these have an assured

do-

palace
discussed
while
mestics, have been generously
the dress of the dames of the court and their at-

and

Asia

sup-

of the

"genius"

83

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flight.

upper

western

staircase,

northern
hall,

council

Persepolis,
1.
Fig.

84

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Goldman:

Fig. 2.

a. Tchoga-Zanbil

Women's

figurine;

Robes

b. suggested

costume

design.

Given that the Persian


Robe is styled quite
differently from that depicted as worn by Elamwomen
ites, and that the robing of Achaemenid
resembled
that of their spouses,
one would as-

the skirt is rather some sort of shirred under


in the sketched
skirt, as suggested
figure (fig.
2-b). The allover disk patterning may be woven
into the material or it may stand for applique
or

to the Elamite
much resemble

Achaemenid

sume

least
some

Persian

woman

owed little, if anything,


tailor also. Early Elamite
styles
those of Mesopotamia,
but at
of the second
millennium
by the close
individualized
features
In the
appear.

the

wore a
Queen
century,
Napir-Asu
tunic
with
a
edged
floor-length
deep fringe and
covered with a shawl draped over one shoulder.6
A thirteenth-century
faience
from
figurine
is
in a
costumed,
Tchoga-Zanbil
differently
period
design

Ghirshman

pronounced
typical for the
am
not
certain
of the precise
(fig. 2-a).71
of her costume:
I take the two vertical

pears

open in front. Thus,


to be an inset panel

favored

in

dicate
whether
the gown is of one piecea
kimonoor
a tailored caftan belted at the waist
with a cape-like
top that covers her arms.8 Her
braid
long, curling
escapes to her shoulder from

that which

between

(bracteates)

long robe opens in the front, its loose,


deep
sleeves
tossed back to the elbow as she raises
her hands (fig. 3). The carving is too tiny (about
twelve millimeters
on a chalcedony
bead) to in

strips of laddering on the front lower section as


the decorative
borders of a wrap-around
skirt
worn

roundels

times.

But any possible


wom
carry-over of Elamite
en's fashions into the Persian household
should
not be peremptorily
dismissed.
A twelfth
Elamite
wears
a
century
princess
completely
different gown from those described above. Her

thirteenth

manner

metallic

first apthe legs on

under
adorn

a type of cloche.
Two sets of bracelets
her wrists. Although
the exact design of

85

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goldman:

Women's

Robes

draping is without detail, either due to the art


ist's preference
illustrative
or, more probably,
of the simplicity
of the garment's
design.13 If
the Elamite,
as well as Persian, remains can be
at face value, the Achaemenid
dress
accepted
makers took note of the designs of their earlier
Elamite
but exercised
their creative
colleagues
skills to develop their own dress line!

Fig. 3.
courtesy

Photo:
bead
(BM
113886).
Reproduced
of the Trustees
of the British Museum.

Elamite

the
On the authority
of Herodotus
(1.135),
Persians
were most accepting
of foreign cus
toms. He notes that Persian men saw Median
dress as "more handsome
than their own," and
so they wore it. What then of the Persian wom
an's taste relative to her Median
sister's robes?
The
is hardly
moot;
question
speculation
rather than theory is all that can be hazarded
Me
on the style preferences
of the invisible

by

dian

woman.

As true in other regions and times of the an


cient world, the skirted robings of Achaemenid
men and women
are sufficiently
similar
to
have raised the question
as to the sex of the

the robe is in doubt, this miniature


portrait
documents
the Elamite
use of the full sleeve or
sleeve-like
that is one of the dis
arrangement
features of Achaemenid
tinguishing
robing for
both sexes. If the dress style were to be seen as
carried over into Achaemenid
times, then it is
to note another feature in the scene
interesting
that has an
with the little Elamite
princess
Beside the enthroned
Achaemenid
counterpart.
the princess
and her
lord, who acknowledges
burner similar in de
father, stands an incense
to the covered incense
burn
sign and position
ers scenting
the palace
ambiance
for Darius
Relief"
greeting his minister in the "Treasury
at Persepolis.9

wearer

Fig. 4.
Oxus,

in

one

Drawing
fig. 19.

Fig. 5. Carving
no. 103.
Oxus,

Later dames
of the Neo-Elamite
court, por
near Malamir,
trayed on the rock outcroppings
costumes.
Unfortunately,
appear in distinctive
erosion has erased most essential
details.10 Am
the wife of Hanni,
matena,
sports a short
sleeved
garment that falls to her hips where a
of fashionable
nineteenth
peplum, reminiscent
and America,
is
century a.d. wear in Europe
drawn over her floor-length
skirt.11 The neigh
shows a woman
boring relief, in poor condition,
in a long robe with tight sleeves.12
Neither
the typical
woman
wears
Achaemenid
deep
sleeve or has the robe draped in sweeping
folds.
relief carv
The often-illustrated
Neo-Elamite
ing of the spinner in the Louvre, seated on the
floor in Eastern fashion, appears
to be clothed
in an embroidered
loose shawl over a shift. The

or

on pyxis

plaque.

Fig. 7. Gold
no. 38.

bracteate.

10.

Plaque

syriennes,"

Fig.

11.

Calmeyer,

pl.

lid.

After

After Dalton,

After Dalton,

figurine.
19.1-3.

from

of the

Treasure

of the

Treasure

of the

Susa.

After

Oxus,

of the Oxus,

After Ghirshman,

from

figurine

men's

Treasure

Treasure

Dalton,

bronze
pl.

Fig. 9. Achaemenid
ivoires
achmnides,"

Fig.

The

examples.14

on finger ring. After Dalton,

Fig. 6. Gold
no. 89.

Fig. 8. Foroughi
sor de l'Oxus,"

two

"Le

Amiet,

tr

"Les

fig. 13.

Tell

Soukas.

After

Riis,

"Plaquettes

1, fig. 2.

Bronze

Brockelshen
Collection.
figurine,
no. 108.
Altiranische
Bronzen,

86

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After

r.

r*>.

S5.1

10
11

87

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Fig. 12. Limestone


relief of female.
Museum,
Wilson

half-round
The

Brooklyn
Charles
Edwin
63.37,
Fund.
Photo:
Courtesy

of the Brooklyn

Museum.

88

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v'
'

,4k
w s

<mwmm w

A-'-J
^iSl

*
1:

f?V^

,;

ii-, r;w

*t!g

j*yi

'

u- *%*%

It

'.J?%

Fig.

13.

Susa

brick

'

pF^1

&

relief.

of incense
burner.
Amman,
Archaeologi
Fig. 14. Caryatid
cal Museum
After Mittmann,
Dei Knigsweg,
no.
J. 14651.
188.

89

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goldman:

Women's

Robes

Hi
"WkTC

, , I M\

.O
*Ii

' Ao\ *>'

]k
J 4

Fig.

15.

a. Ivory

figurine

After Amiet,

"Les

ivoires

achmnides,"

finally, deno more than a retailed elsewhere,


requiring
minder here (fig. I).15 The ankle-length
robe
as a one-piece
tailored garment,
(reconstructed
or in two parts of top and skirt, or made of narrobe

has

been

from Susa.

adequately,

if not

At least that much is shown clearly in the


but other details, such as how the
monuments,
fabric was cut and sewn to achieve
these sev
eral

In any
effects, must be left to conjecture.
to work out the dress pattern,
one
attempt
that the Achaemenean
should remember
artist
was intent upon differentiating
among the folk
of the empire
their
distinctive
cos
through
tumes and not with providing a tailor's pattern

the loose
material
across butfront, drawing
tocks and legs in parallel curving folds that fall
down the legs. The fabric may be
diagonally
under the waist band to form a stack
bunched
of pleats between
the legs or in a double stack
actively

of robing.

the Persian
tucked
combat,
up
his robe under the waist band to free his legs
from the encumbering
drapery and tossed his
voluminous
for
sleeving up onto the shoulders
ease in handling bow or lance,

stitched
into folds
and
draped
panels
has a round neckline
and the
lengths) usually
or sleeve-like
distinctive
deep sleeves
draping.
However
cut and sewn, the ample skirt is worn
pulled up and secured under the waist band in

separated
ing. When

design

hand-to-hand

row

by a narrow

pl. 4; b. suggested

to serve future alien dressmakers,


art historians,
The
yet undreamed.
ist drew that which his eye saw

fall of horizontal
drapin the hunt or
engaged
90

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much

less

Persian

art

(sometimes

goldman:

Women's

Robes

of the Oxus, conveniently


illustrated
Treasure
Pictured
there are a few
in Dalton's
volume.
in the
of women
dressed
cursory renderings
on the lid of a small
Persian Robe.17 Scratched
and man ca
box (Dalton,
fig. 19) are a woman
and over
a
scene
over
repeated
sually engaged,
in the Greco-Persian
gems. The woman raises a
flower to her face, sniffing its fragrance, the fa
miliar Persian gesture, her other hand extended
who
toward
her companion
conversationally
the so
similarly
(fig. 4). He wears
responds
the bashlyk,
caftan
called
Median
costume,
a belted tunic (the
thrown over his shoulders,
end of the tie is just visible), and trousers. His
than an
reflex bow is less bellicose
toy-size
of knightly status. His lady wears
affectation
the floor-length
loose robe drawn up in front
under an invisible
belt, draped and gathered in

The full sleeves drop


folds across the buttocks.
level
with
her knees.
Her
hair is
almost
combed
out over her forehead and falls down
her back in a long queue. Shoes with a marked
ear
and heavy
bracelets,
pennanular
instep,
the costume.18 This is the typi
rings complete
Robe
that is found in
cal woman's
Persian
with expected
minor variations
other examples

in details.
A single woman
chased
on a gold rectangle
no. 89) displays a bit more clearly the
(Dalton,
abundant
draping of the long skirt with the
the legs, all
bunched
fall of folds between
as in the
pulled together under the waistband,
man's robing (fig. 6). Her hair is combed into a

Reproduced
figurine. Photos:
of the Trustees
of the British Museum.

16.

Fig.
tesy

Silver

loose chignon
rather than braided.
Crenelated
no. 38) also were
tiaras and neck rings (Dalton,
donned, and, as in the men's robing, the gowns
and woven patterns or brac
carried embroidery
teates. The scribed rings on the sleeves
(fig. 7)
of the patterning
on the
are reminiscent
Tchoga-Zanbil
figurine.19 It is difficult to say
between
the
whether
differences
any minor
and men's robing that may be noted
women's
in the art
were deliberate
or simply omitted

by cour

called perceptual
reality), but altered in obedi
are
conventions.
These
ence to the prevailing
art
of
Persian
the common
burden of analyses
the
to
underscore
and need not detain us except
to
were extended
fact that formal conventions
controlled
its presentation
costume,
drawing
of the culture that in
by the esthetic principles
for symmetry,
clude
a preference
repetition,
of com
of line, and abstraction
simplification
plex

the
ist's abbreviated
rendering.
(For example,
while
sleeves
are pleated
at Persepolis
men's
are shown
the women's
sleeves
on the plaques
the latter, as the British Mu
plain.) I suspect
seum male figurine indicates
(fig. 16). The pau
I cannot
can be misleading.
city of examples
and
the sleeve detail of the women's
compare
from
the
Treasure
men's robes on the plaques
suit with
because
the men wear the Median

volumes.16

women
and
The similar
dress for Persian
the designation
"Persian
men allows extending
the costume
of both sexes,
Robe"
to include
in the
some
well represented
objects
among
91

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goldman:

Louvre
sealing.
Cylinder
Museum.
of the Louvre

tesy

Robes

V*

17.

Fig.

Women's

Museum

AO

Photo:

22359.

Cour

Fig.

18.

Rudenko,

Fig.

19.

mitage

from tomb near


sealing
After Boardman,
Greek

Cylinder
Museum.

Anapa.
Gems,

State
no.

Her

878.

sleeve.20
least

two

of

the

women's

costumes

de

in the Treasure

nos. 103, 104)


(Dalton,
characteristic
of the Persian Robe,

picted
lack a major
the full sleeve (fig. 5). This, then, is an alter
nate dress style, apparently
a chiton-type
dress
somewhat
similar to the Greek, as mentioned
a
The Treasure
is not homogeneous,
by Dalton.
that
extends
over
a
considerable
gathering
number
of years. The pieces
mentioned
here
date
in
the
fifth
and
fourth
cen
very probably
turies

textile
Tombs,

design

and

detail.

After

fig. 139.

We can trace the woman's


Persian
Robe in
several
other representations,
sufficient to la
bel it the formal dress of the upper stratum and
its servitors
era. The
during the Achaemenid
bronze
which
illustrate
may
Foroughi
(fig. 8),
one of the earliest representations
of the robe,
carries an elaborate
set of neckbands,
bracelets,
and heavy
Her hair is
penannular
earrings.
combed
to fall down her back, fastened with a
wide barrette.21 Her belted gown has the full
sleeves
and curved draping over the buttocks,
but lacks the diagonal
folds in front. William
Culican
out
the
of this
similarity
pointed
and
its
dress
with
the
bronze
in
"Syrian"
figure
the Ashmolean,22
the British Museum
in
the
jar
shape of a woman,23 the Louvre figurine that is
and one from
closest to the Foroughi
example,
to
a
Kish ("all examples
point
single tradition
with regional variations").24
These and related
are difficult
figurines of uncertain
provenance
others
to date. Some are summarily
modeled,
worked in fuller detail, perhaps indications
of
different hands or workshops
or different dates,
is not
but the equation
among these variables
to be easily determined.
On the evidence
avail
it
seems
that
of
the
able,
unlikely
any
figurines
clothed in the Persian Robe antedate
the sixth

and that perhaps a forg


only a single exception,
He
is
drawn
with
his arm incongruously
ery.
as
if
on
visible,
lying
top of, rather than in, the
At

Pazyryk
Frozen

century

That

b.c.

some of these
as from Syrian,

gested
Babylonian

B.C.

workshops

figurines have been sug


and possibly
Phoenician,
at
the least,
indicates,

92

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goldman:

-v
-;--x-:

Fig. 20.
sepolis

-sv.'
-.
r-

Textile

Women's

v.
..

patterns

from costume

of Skudra

(?) on Per

reliefs.

the international
currency of Persian robing in
Western
Asia.
One
is then tempted
to find
differences
in
the
of
the
Per
regional
adoption
sian Robe, but I do not believe
the evidence
is
or
to
war
sufficient,
satisfactorily
provenanced,
rant

Robes

that

excursion

as

yet.

Fig. 21. Scribed


drawing
lion from Toprak
kale.

on gold

Fig. 22.

relief.

The loose robing with deep sleeves, but with


few other identifiable
on sev
details,
appears
eral small figures holding the lotus-form flower
or touching their breasts. One comes from Susa
excavations
(fig. 9),25 another from the Danish
in Syria (fig. 10). The latter
at Tell
Soukas
figure shows traces of the center fall of drapery.
Riis places
her in his sixth- to fourth-century
classification
of this type.26 The small bronze
in
the
Brckelschen
collection
carries
figure
the flower in both hands (fig. 11), with the full
Persian sleeves well in evidence.27
But a unique
limestone
portrait of a Persian
woman
illustrates
Persian
in excep
robing
tional
detail:
the lateral
and
vertical
draping
fall of folds between
the legs, the full sleeves
and tasseled
cord knotted at the waist (fig. 12).
Because
it is unparalleled
in Persian and Egyp
tian art, it is impossible
to know what model
or models
were
(as suggested
by John Cooney)
behind this piece, appreciated
as the work of a
late fourth-century
b.c. Egyptian
carver.28 The
of
the
coiffure
and draping
general arrangement
from male figures,
could have been "adapted"
such as those at Persepolis,
or from an un
known original. If the very soft modeling
of the
is
not
and
is
also
garment
Egyptian (so Cooney)
alien to Persian
stone carving,
from whence
does it come?
The bronze caryatid
from Jordon wears the
skirt of her robe in the usual fashion, drawn up

Daskylion

grave

93

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medal

goldman:

under the tasseled waist cord, although the art


ist seems to have changed his mind at the hem
line where he reversed the fall of drapery. The
robe carries a decorative
edging and collar (fig.
down
the
broad
decorated
panel
14).29 The

Women's

Robes

lennium

b.c.35

Small

veils

or

seem

scarves

of

the use

indicating
lighter material, possibly
silk in Achaemenid
dressmaking?36

of

The dog-tooth
borders
and rectangular
de
signs in the Pazyryk fabric are often employed
in Achaemenid
art (fig. 20).37 Given the elabo
and ornamented
rately patterned
garb of the

length of the skirt on either side does not, I sus


an over-robe, but rather results
pect, indicate
from gathering
the skirt forward at the sides
into a deep fold held in place by the waist cord.
of the Louvre
I would
the garment
propose

guards in the Susa brick reliefs (fig. 13), as well


as the scratched
still visible
on the
drawings
can
robes at Persepolis,
we
surely
expect the
women's
at
to
have
been
least
as rich in
robing

this suggested
ar
(fig. 15-a, b) follows
The
be
Persian
Robe
could
draped
rangement.30
with the aid of the waist cord in different ways,
as is evident
at Persepolis
(fig. 1) or on the
ivory

stitchwork,
dyes, decorative
embroidery,
appli
or bracteates,
and trim of
qu borders, spangles
fabrics and furs.38 Later tradition
contrasting

often-illustrated
silver figurine in the British
Museum
(fig. 16); even so did Greek and Roman
women wear their chiton and peplos, himation

includes

gold embroidered
purple robes among
the booty collected
at Per
by the Macedonians
sepolis where Erich Schmidt found bits of cloth

and stola

in a variety of stylish drapings.


On occasion,
the Achaemenid
woman donned
a veil also, as pictured in the charming domestic
on the de Clerq
AO
scene
(Louvre,
sealing
The
with
her feet
22359, fig. 17).31
dame, seated
sniffs a blossom.
daintily raised on a footstool,

shot with gold.39 The early sixth-century


b.c.
from Toprak kale shows a fash
gold medallion
ionable
Urartaean
woman
in a fringed veil
worn over a tight-sleeved
long gown (fig. 21).
Her robing, like that of the Pazyryk women,
carries

rectangular
designs, probably the small
metal
ornaments
that lent additional
stamped
to
in
Western
Asia.40
sparkle
costuming

Before her, a handmaiden


offers a small bird and
is accompanied
by a lady of the court. Format,
but otherwise
chair, and oversized,
typical,
domed incense burner are pure Achaemenid,
as
is the women's
robing. The seated noblewoman

The
marble

drawn her large, bordered veil over a ser


rated tiara, while the standing
to
lady seems
have tied her smaller veil scarf-like around her
crenelated
tiara.32 The Persian women on scar

noblewoman
grave

on the couch

seated

relief

from

on the

Daskylion

(fig. 22)

has

scaraboid
Fig. 23. Chalcedony
Greek Gems,
no. 964.

aboids

and the flower-carrying


in ani
dames
mated conversation
over a perfuming
incense
stand accompanied
on the
by their handmaidens
Pazyryk fabric also wear the smaller veil (fig.
hemline
of the Pazyryk
18).33 The
sloping
women indicates
that the robes are draped and
drawn up in front. Although
they too wear
crenelated
tiaras, the two girls are only hand
maidens
to their ladies,
signaled
by their
smaller stature and the modest hand pose char
acteristic
of attendants
as they carry the towel.

Fig. 24.
graved

sealing.

After

After

Boardman,

Richter,

sealing.

After Boardman,

Greek

sealing.

After

Fig. 27. Sard


no. 508.

Richter,

Engraved

scaraboid.

Fig. 29.
scription.

En

6.

scaraboid
Fig. 26. Chalcedony
Greek Gems,
no. 879.

Fig. 28. Greco-Persian


p. 34, no. 3.

draping suggests
doubt variously
in the first mil

scaraboid

pi. 34, no.

Fig. 25. Chalcedony


no. 903.

They do not wear the veil, but its absence is not


a necessary
sign of subordinate
rank, for no less
a personage
than the goddess
astride
Anahita,
her lion in a star-burst of light, is robed and
coiffured as becomes
a Persian lady but shuns
the veil (fig. 19).34
The fullness of Achaemenid
a linen or a light wool,
no
dyed, as worn in Mesopotamia

Chalcedony
Gems,

sealing.

After

sealing.

After

Boardman,

Richter,

scaraboid
with added
Chalcedony
sealing
After Richter,
no. 510.
Engraved
Gems,

94

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Gems,

Gems,

Hesperia,

Kufic

in

29

27

95

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96

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goldman:

Women's

wears Persian-style
earrings and the crenelated
tiara over which she has drawn her long robe.41

of the former, the miniature


length sleeves
of dress are often difficult to iden
depictions
tify as Persian or Greek. Boardman
may well be
correct when he views the similar method
of
draping used in both types of robes as the result
of the Persians
the Greek example
following

Under the open robe is a full-length shift or, in


that she comes from East Greek Lydia, a short
sleeve chiton, for her arms are bare. Her robing

is basically
the same as the traveling costume
pictured on the relief from Erghili near Dasky
lion,42 and no doubt the type of dress in the East
mural

Greek

of the Painted

House

for representing
the robe most effectively.45
inno
(One must be on guard: this resolution,
cent on the surface, has partisan implications
for the hotly contested
matter of Greek or Per

at Gordion.

Her heavy penannular


earrings are also carried
on the ivory head from Sardis.43 The extension
of Persian

and cultural

political
the East Greek sphere
ing the Achaemenid

identified

The

into

Anatolia

dur

in western

nationality

era

sianOrient

these

as of this genre.
of the gem cutters

has been

argued in an extensive
bibliography.
I gladly fol
the artisans' nationality,
low John Boardman who sees the majority of the
gems to be Greek in style but Persian in shape

gown in tight folds across the buttocks with the


fall of vertical draping between
the legs (figs.
The
women's
heeled,
24-31).48
shoes, possibly
arch (figs. 26, 28, 30).49 In the
have a noticeable
full
coiffure, the hair appears combed
popular

and subject matter.44 As the Greek esthetic con


in the modeling
of the
tribution
is obvious
is
so
relaxed
and
so
also
the
intimate,
women,
of the Greeks

orientation

above

the brow and then drawn down over the


to be gathered into a long queue, braided
(fig. 29), clipped with a barrette or tied at the
end, falling to the small of the back (fig. 24).
scaraboids
show the
Some of the Greco-Persian

that brought the


out of the conceal

ears

image of the Persian woman


of the seraglio into the arts.
ing shadows
Some of the women on the gems and sealings

in a slightly different
in the previous
examples,
and others pose in a version of the Greek chi
ton. Indeed,
deep, full
except for the telltale
drape their Persian
manner
than done

Fig. 30.

Impressions

ter, Engraved

Gems,

Robe

from pear-shaped
no. 503.

pendant.

queue in a series of knobs along its length (figs.


the result of spiral
28, 32), perhaps
depicting
binding with a gold ribbon weighted at the end
carefully
by the two or three metal baubles
as the
Korres suggested
shown.
So Georgios
spiral gold ribbon that
purpose of a recovered
would fit the purpose admirably.50
clothes are designed
Today and historically,

After Rich

to
from

Fig. 31.

Impression
Greek
Boardman,

Gems,

facet
no.

from
Fig. 32. Impression
Greek Gems,
no. 990.

of a red

Fig. 34.

Detail

Khodzhash,

from

horse

et al., Erebuni,

gem.

silver

ring.

After

of Leningrad

rhyton
fig. 126.

from

Boardman,

seal.

Erebuni.

reveal,

even

to

enhance,

the

current

fash

in the Achae
ions in body type. Conversely,
menid era the preferred female figure was an
The
influential
factor in styling the robes.
the
ruben
for
Persian
voluptuous
preference
in the clothed
women
figure, apparent
esque
is confirmed
in
on the Greco-Persian
seals,

After

876.

from facets
Impressions
no. 861.
Greek Gems,
Boardman,
Fig. 33.

jasper

at work on the

Greek robes (figs. 23, 30).46 But many of the


items clearly illustrate
Greco-Persian
the full
Persian robe: high necked and floor length with
The long, perhaps gold-threaded,
deep sleeves.
tasseled
chord47 girdles the waist to draw the

variously
Whatever

cial

oder Romartists

Persepolis
reliefs!)
The seated harpist with a long veil cascading
down her back and the woman with a veil hold
clad in
ing a bird out to a child are doubtless

ex
produced
of Greco-Persian
art that is richly docu
in the gems and seal stones that have

amples
mented
been

influence

Robes

the unfettered figure on a quadruple


stamp seal
a
stretches
nude
in Leningrad
(fig. 33). Here,
her
arched
on
tiny feet,
luxuriously,
tiptoe
the full bosom, strong shoul
back emphasizing

After

in bashlyk
ders, and slender waist. A bowman
of the
of
the
facets
one
dress on
and Median
and
a Greek-clad
posed
seal, and on another

After

97

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goldman:

Women's

bearded
man playing with a puppy, assure us
the
seal
in the Greco-Persian
that
belongs
drew a
world.51 (Archaic
Greek vase painters
short, thick Mediterranean
physique.)

Robes

on the diagonally
figurines show a variation
mantle with
draped skirt and the ankle-length
borders
drawn
over the heads
of
patterned
women
manner
posed in the familiar Persian
with hand-held
flowers and vases.54

the uncommon
of Persian
Certainly
qualities
women
were not lost on the Romans
who ad
ventured

in the East. "But as to maidens


who
were taken prisoner (and they were beautiful,
as is usual in Persia where the women excel in
that respect), he (the emperor] refused to touch
a single one or even to look upon her, following
the example
of Alexander
and Africanus,
who
avoided
such conduct,
in order not to be un

Notes
1. . Goldman, "Origin of the Persian Robe,"
IrAn 4 (1964), 133-52. W. Reimpell, Geschichte der
und assyrischen
babylonischen
Kleidung, ed. E.
Meyer (Berlin, 1916). On the Median contribution,

nerved by passion,"
linus 24.4.27.
Well
retrojection,

Marcel
reports Ammianus
aware of the fallibility
of
in
matters
of
taste, I
particularly

see

2.

Terrasses

assimilation

noting

of

Persian

robes,

the

G.

Lukonin,

The

of

Ancient

Iran

sacres

Elamite

des

Bard-

be

of Elam

used

after

the

between

that
for

the

the

W.

Hinz,

Briant,

Elamite

name

of the

in population,

change

Architecture

and

Altiranische

Funde

E.
and

"Elamite"

inhabitants

und

old

"Classic

Sculpture,"

vol. 2, p. 823.
3.

P.

culture,

IrAn 19 (1984), 92-96.

distinction

suggests

to

Achaemenian

CHIr,

Forschungen,

pp. 74, 92, fig. 27; p. 72, Elamite kuktu (ku-uk-tu4) =


OP

*kantus;

an

kandys,

"Iranian

son,

Dress

outer

in the

G.

cloak/robe.

Achaemenian

Thomp
Iran

Period,"

3 (1965), 121-26, identifies the kandys as the Median


mantle.

R. D.

Barnett,

Representation
P.

Achaemenid
A.

eds.,

in

in H.

Achaemenid

to Strabo

According
long

the

Persians."
4.

the
Sasa

robe

today

For

later

E.

R.

tunic,

history

Trachtgeschichtliche

tel und rmeljacke,"


V.

578-741;

An Archaic
1973), 5-9.

silver

horse rhyton with its


rider (fig. 34).53 Some lingering,
fashions
admittedly
fragile, traces of Persian
in the one-time
Achaemenid
may be visible
eastern regions. Fourth-century
a.d. terra-cotta
Median-garbed

5.

R.

D.

Barnett,

gadae

Pasargadae

(1967),
and
and

The

is from
was

sleeved

"Ex

Greek

Media

passed

that
on

and

coat/caftan

Oriente

to

Vestimenta:
zu

Beobachtungen

rmelman

in ANRW 2.12.3 (Berlin, 1985),


The

of Eurasian
"Anath,

MUSf 45 (1969), 407-22;


for the

"It

Gervers-Molnar,

Mantle

II:

History

Persian

of the

Knauer,

Earliest

14

Historiography

11.13.9,
called

The

vol.

Sancisi-Weerdenburg

Sources (Leiden, 1987), 11-12.


the

Iran.

SPA,

"Greek

Calmeyer,

Reliefs,"

Kuhrt,

and

"Assyria

of Persians,"

2997-3007;

and
lighter,
nian designers.
The
of the
early popularity
Greek chiton in a Persian context is illustrated
in the thoroughly Classical
of figures
procession
Erebuni

V.

1989), 82-89.

Porada,

land

The fully draped Persian Robe seems not to


have remained
wardrobes after
long in women's
the fall of the Achaemenid
empire, replaced by

the

and

Institutions

Ghirshman,

continued

and calves full above trim ankles.


She
stands on small,
delicate
feet with long toes
and a well-defined
instep. Her nails must be
snow-white.
Her broad head supported
on a
slender neck is framed in luxurious
reddish
and luminous
black
hair;
gold
large
eyes,
like
those
of
a
are
gazelle,
almond-shaped
veiled by soft long lashes under brows fine as
wool above an aquiline
nose and teeth
sheeps'
brilliant as the moon, all set in an unblemished
the color of pomegranates.52
complexion

on

Dandamaev
Social

"La Perse avant l'empire,"

formed

and

R.

Persian

raised and
ample breasts, shaped like quinces,
pressed together. Below her slender waist are a
firm belly and stout hips with high, full but
her thighs are large, the knees
well
tocks;

of the Seleucids
gowning
airier fabrics of the Parthian

A.

and

Nchandeh
et de Masjid-i Solaiman, vol. 1, MDAI
45 (Paris, 1976), 274. See . F. Schmidt, Persepolis,
vol. 1, OIP 68 (Chicago, 1953), pp. 117, 163, n. 38;
R. Barnett, "Persepolis,"
Iraq 19 (1957), 76. On the

The literature would have her neither too old


nor too young. She is to be of medium
height
and, if godlike, tall; her body supple and firm,
with
endowed
well-formed
and
shoulders
white arms sturdy as a horse's
shoulder, her

looser

M.

(Cambridge,

our unabashed
suggest
measuring
Leningrad
nude against the Persian ideal woman
that can
be drawn from post-Achaemenid
descriptions.

the

now

Culture

genius

Ba'al

and

the various
figure,

(Oxford, 1978), 53-55;

98

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D.

Szur:

Hungarian

Origin

(Toronto,

Pasargadae,"

held

opinions

Stronach,

Pasar

further discussion

on

goldman:

sources

possible

in C.

dae, Boreas 1 (Uppsala,


6.

G.

in

Pasarga

de

la

reine

in

the

Ashmolean

17.

Napir-Asou,"

P.

Museum,

R.

S.

G.

"Some

Azarpay,

Classical

and

V.

Textes

Scheil,
L.

11.

Vanden

MDP

"Les

reliefs

18.

de

rupestres

l'Iran

ancien

(Brussels,

1984),

12.

Vanden

in

Hanne,"

of S. H.
"Les

Berghe,

Locust's

reliefs

lamites,"

14.
and

Such

as

on

a door

jar

sepolis.

the

M.

ed. (London,

beardless

youth

of the

jamb

The

Dalton,

palace

Treasure

O.

38
the

of

absence

the
well

as

pieces,

in

Persian

proud
as

leaves

gold

the

full

on

beard
body

G.

"Greeks

Starr,

and

Persians

tory

references

cites

16,

of

the

Persian

the

Persian

wearing

on
Robe.
Robe,

the
For

the

various

P. Calmeyer,

"Zur

sign
16.

See

topsleeve,
the

instructive

poncho,
essay

or pelerine,
by

P.

"AufreihungDuplikKopieUmbildung"

3d

amines

parallel

design

reliefs and inscriptions,

conventions

Punic

of the

Bulletin

Third
De

The

in A.

p. 5, fig. 2;

Norbert

Schim

extended

Clerq,

group,

Parrot,

M.

(Paris,

1973), 255, Na

and

Chhab,
A.

Madrid;

Museum,

De

J.

Valley,"

1974), no. 56. That the Per

of a geographically

example

W.

Susa;

Pactolus

70 (1972),
Art:

Les Phniciens

vol.

Catalogue,

de
7,

Rid
1:

pt.

1911), p. 135, no. 788, perhaps

(Paris,

W.

Etruscan

b.c.

tury

in

Vulci

the

R.

BM,

Higgins,

"Syro-Achaemenian

Ampullae,"

head

from

the

"in

the

of"

manner

S. Necropolis

the

at Sardis,

C.

7th

cen

D.

Cur

tis, Sardis, vol. 13.1, Jewelry and Gold Work (Rome,


1925), p. 35, no. 87.

and
the

There

19.
roundels,

is

of Israel"

apparel");
Une

Dangin,

extensive
sewn

etc.,

("daughters

the

among
relation

literature

on

fabrics,

e.g.

onto
with

"ornaments

Sargon's
de

la

gold
plaques,
II Sam.
1.24
of gold

huitime

"embroidery

of

gold,"

Ancient

upon

F. Thureau

plunder,

de

campagne

S argon (Paris, 1912), but D. D. Luckenbill

his

ways

Culican,

female

ivory

Per

in

Records

preferred
of

Assyria

and Babylonia, vol. 2 (Chicago, 1927), 97; Curtis,


"The
Jewelry and Goldwork, A. L. Oppenheim,
Golden Garments of the Gods," JNES 8 (1949), 172

of

Genese

93;

M.

Russia

44-47.

Calmeyer

and

Asiatic

of the

from

possibly

(Mainz,

Cyprus;

seum,

Tra
altiranischer Motive 10: Die elamisch-persische
de
on
the
of
the
AMI
2
cht,"
(1989), 35-36;
question
of the

Western

It An 11 (1975), fig. 6; the earring worn by the small

argues

and

construction

la

elabo

men

Bulletin

Gold

Archaeological

your
C.

of the

Persian

by

at Pasargadae:

Ancient

Collection

from

Fourth Century B.C., pt. 3," IrAn 12 (1977), p. 56,


n.

the

Les bijoux

female.
15.

as

Fabulous

is part

type

der,

two

contours,

de

Lands (London, 1965), pi.


Jewellery from Classical
13-a; Late Babylonian from Kish in the Field Mu

me,

these

Oxus

of the Oxus," JRAS

Acquisitions,"

Muscarella,

S. Moscati,

34,

Oxus,

(nos.

scribed

figures

the

Archologique

preserved

"Excavations

Museum

W.

e.g.

at Per

because
for male,
perhaps
89), finally
opting
sians
so rarely
mortal
women.
For
pictured

two

the

of the

dieu

Maxwell-Hyslop,

mel Collection

to identify the sex of

1964), hesitated

earrings

collection
"The

Boston

towel

carrying
of Darius

are
worn

Recent

shman

2,

p.

du
Revue

examples

Stronach,

"Selected

Leg:

pi. 23.
13. Amiet, Elam, no. 413.

the

For

troit Institute of Arts 64 (1989), 55, from the Ghir

(London,

Taqizadeh

34-38.

Preliminary Report," Iran 3 (1965), pp. 31-33, pi. 11;

tional

des

sanctuaire

R.

e.g.

D.

chen

in Honour
1962), 105-16.

un

wrought

559;

sian

Inschriften

Trea

and

Jewellery (London, 1971), pp. 268-69, figs. 256-59;


R. Ghirshman, Persia (London, 1964), figs. 322-24,

pl. 1; bibliography, idem, Bibliographie


analytique
de l'archologie de l'Iran ancien (Leiden, 1979), nos.
1069-80. Hanni inscription, W. Hinz, "Die elamis
Studies

of Bactria

8 (1968),

Septentrionale,"

women:

de

no.

Method

of the

history
Art

It An

Oxus,"

Splendid

rately

IrAn 3 (1963), p. 35, pi. 24; idem, Reliefs

Malamir,"

"The

(1981), 196; idem., "The Temple


(1981), 134-35.

lamites

modern

Barnett,

dans

Bactriane

Young,

Berghe,

of the

D.

of the

vertes

Eastern

lamites-Anzanites,

(Paris, 1901), 135-41.

R.

III:

History

possible identification of the find spot of the trea


sure, B. A. Litvinskij and I. R. Pitchikjan, "Dcou

Motifs in the Art of Pazyryk," ArtAs 22 (1959), 329.


10. G. Jquier, "Description du site de Malamir,"
in

review

in

Treasure

Moorey,

Near

sure

Ancient Iiaq (Oxford, 1976), pi. 21.


7. R. Ghirshman, "Tchoga-Zanbil:
Rapport pr
liminaire de la viie campagne (1958-1959),
AAs 6
(1959), p. 266, fig. 7; P. Amiet, Elam (Anvers-sur
Oise, 1966), no. 268.
8. BM 113886, inscribed by the Elamite ruler
Shilhak-Inshushinak
(c. 1150-1120 b.c.) to one of his
four daughters, his "beloved Bar-Uli." E. Sollberger,
"A New Inscription of Silhak-Inusinak, " Journal of
Cuneiform Studies 19 (1965), 31-32.
9.

Achaemenid

eds.,

and Theory (Leiden, 1988).

in MDP 8 (Paris, 1905), pp. 245-50, pis. 15, 16. In


similar Old Babylonian robing are the ivory figurine,
MDP 7 (1905), pi. 4, and the headless limestone figu
rine

Robes

Weerdenburg,

1979), p. 126 and n. 322.

"Statue

Lampre,

Ionians

Nylander,

Women's

fig. 17;
Russia

on

that ex

denko,
101-3;

in Achaemenian

in A. Kuhrt and H. Sancisi

I. Rostovtzeff,

Iranians

and

Greeks

in

South

(Oxford, 1922), pp. 130, 234, pis. 18, 23,


. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks in South
(Cambridge, 1913), p. 58, fig. 84; S. I. Ru
Frozen Tombs of Siberia (Berkeley, 1970), 76,
P. Amandry, "Orfvrerie achmnide," AntK

99

This content downloaded from 129.82.28.144 on Sat, 19 Dec 2015 13:37:01 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

goldman:

(1958),

C.

9-23;

"Problems

Kardara,

64 (1960),

Cult-Images,"

A]A

"Achaemenid

Jewelry

in

Women's

of

343-58;
Oriental

the

Hera's

H.

ane

21.

VIIIe

du

iranien

conqute

"Les

Kuz'mina,

l'Iran

et

teau

et

l'Asie

Kantor,

du

atische

des

Le

et

Hrouda,

and

la

Archologie:

de

trsor

l'art

Mde,"

in

Nagel,

eds.,

Festschrift

K.

Vorderasi
(Berlin,

Moortgat

1964), p. 91, pl. 19, figs. 1-3.


22. . Schefold, Die Griechen und ihre Nachbarn
(Berlin, 1967), pp. 203-4, fig. 360-b.
BM

23.

P.

24.

1976),

and Islamic
P.

Wolfe,

and

Antiquities

Works of Art (March, 1984), no. 200.


"Les

Amiet,

achmnide

ivoires

de

26.

P.

dans

J.

Riis,

robe:

prliminaire

sur

H.
la

de

(1971) Ras Shamra,"


27.

P. Calmeyer,

Phoenician
belted
D.

Harden

Phoenicians
tarte

fold,

the
their

leaving

inedita

placchetta

8th-7th
nude

clothed

wear

in

with

deep
century

females

b.c.,

arms

the

chiton

bare,

dall'Alta

their

Western

viz.

Siria

Connections,"

69-90.
28.

A.
con

M.
la

the

the

Father

For

family

Art,"

"Persian

Cooney,
Journal

Influence

in

the

of the

American

singular
(63.37),
late

nature

this

Brooklyn

of

it is worth
John

the

summarizing

Cooney.

C.

15

Museum

33.
Pazyryk

de

cm,

of

soft

for
mon

von

Bissing,

"Totenstele

and

ZDMG

Memphis,"

an

83

fashion

incongruous

in

participating

S. Bianchi,

eds.,

Dei

"Sur

le

4, no.

robes

on

Parrot

b.c.),

typ

"Perser in

vol.
in

century

Vaux,

turreted

6,
the

et

al.,

9000

Knigsweg:

voile
d'un

propos

later

des

femmes

bas-relief

I.

robing.
incense

tiaras

de

in

dcouverte
IiAn

the

13

to have

appears

(1978),

the

and

gods

Ira

d'une

of

property
by

period

royal
tyches,

devolved

well.
Frozen
Iron

of

Tombs

of Siberia:

Horsemen

Age

The

(Berkeley,

fig. 139. Rudenko noted as Assyr

carried

by the

these

However,
stand,

tiara,

carried

Rudenko,

towels

"La

Darabgird,"
or

as

Burials

the

crenelated

Berghe,

also

nobility

S.

and

Vanden

1970), pp. 296-97,


ian

etc.,

smaller

features

are

as

Persian.

figures
as

well

The

date

and

the

the

tiaras,

of Kurgan

in which the fabric was found, c. 350 b.c., J. Haskins,


"China and the Altai," AI 2 (1988), 1.
rows

Center

the

of the

women,
from

struction),"
of

of

of crenelated

cloth

holding

observations

un-Egyp

Greek,

gyptologie,

et al.,

Achaemenid

upon

premen

Research

are

Memphite

Persian

(4th

rupestre
The
crown

the

over

Egyp

on

dress

ancien,

the

and

pose,

in Late

R.

L.

art,

The

(1949),

of

of the drap

Persian,

in

der

S. Mittmann

paint

examination

p. 56, fig. 41.

l'Orient

138-41.

Berytus

adaptation

of

aus

male

stele

Byblos

sculpture

"Una

Bisi,
dea

in Egypt 4 (1965), pp. 44-46, figs. 7, 8. Because

the

Lexikon

For

947.

Reconstruction
J. D.

tian

in

col.

that

tesi i seni," Annali, Istituto Orientale de Napoli 17


(1967), pp. 154-56, pis. 1, 2. The dating sequence es
tablished by P. J. Riis, "The Syrian Astarte Plaques
and

in Achaemenid

32.

their

same

with

or

produced for the Persians at

often

combine

nian

robe,

holding

in

figures

Greek-style

Grossen

characters

Samm

long
sleeves

W.

"Stelae,

gypten,"

Iranian

black

Palmyre," RB (1935), 397-412.

1962), p. 310, fig. 63. The "As

usually

include

they

the

(London,

plaques,"

breasts,
but

in

places

woman

and

F.

elements,

31.

(Berlin, 1964), no. 108. Cf. a Syro


a

have

origin.

blending

persischen

dans

fouilles

der

Bronzen

close

of Persians

the

lion-head

and

earrings

Per

possibly

feet

copy

barrel

of its

Memphis,

"Rapport

de

Syria 49 (1972), p. 12, fig. 15.

jar of
ivory
a waist
cord,

with

al.,

campagne

Altiranische

lung Brckelschen

et

Contenson

XXXIIe

blue,

form

Jahie Kunst und Kultur in Jordanien (Mainz, 1987),


pp. 172-73, no. 188.
30. P. Amiet, "Les ivoires," pp. 173-74, fig. 4-a, b, c.

milieux grecs," MUSJ 37 (1960-1961),


pp. 194-95, pl. 1-2. Also, a ceramic figurine in
Achaemenid

tell

and

Louvre

d'Astart

syriennes

and

representation

29.

"Plaquettes

des

it may

Les Phniciens,

Suse,"

Syria 49 (1972), fig. 13.

red,

ically Egyptian rituals."R.

in

Catalogue,

Eastern

what

eines

(Paris,
type

tiny

Egyptian

and

diadem,

and

deserves

carving

(1929), 226-38.

vessel

Sotheby

Near

The

Egyptian

"Ampullae,"

of the

bronze

heavy

tian.
For

Asiatic

Luristan

W. Culican,

Lester

Classical

Egyptian,

du

antiquits

small
of

"Western

Barnett,

no. 241;

Another

collection

25.

Les

Amiet,

D.

an

breasts,

ery,

uments

27 (1964), p. 80, pl. 31-d.

BMQ

p. 908,

100-112.
the

R.

132620,

Antiquities,"

of

Traces

hair

but

rosette

robing,

Perhaps

of the

of the

Egyptian,

hands,

clasped

base.

style"

the Persian original, the full modeling

E.

Bittel,

The

antecedents.

les

l'Oxus,

suggest

detail.

survive.

"Le
W.

in

figure

a curved

Neo-Memphite
treatment

making
the

on

slab

half

Tura,

certain,"

unmarked

the

b.c.;

necklace

bracelet,

pla

origines

century

sian

an

"so-called

site
thus

Cairo,

reasonably

from

the

of the

Bactri

in

B.C.,"

in

and

Memphis

out

is

4th

(Paris, 1977), 204.

Luristan

B.

Henrich,

le

stands

at the

limestone

origin

Memphite
It

the

between

way

Institute,"

entre

sicle

Centrale

Ghirshman,

bronzes

IVe

au

islamique

R.

relations

with

"identical

JNES 16 (1957), 1-23; Muse Rath, Trsors de l'an


cien Iran (Geneva, 1966), no. 649; E. O. Negahban,
A Preliminary Report on Marlik Excavations
(Teh
ran, 1964), nos. 82, 83.
20.

Robes

Nissen

A.
the

the

walls
Gavrilova,
5th

burial

(in Russian)

suggests

the

cloth
in

with

"The

walking
and

squares,

pattern

mound

at

blocks
of an

Pazyryk

SGE 45 (1980), 52-55.

hanging

as

from

lions,
with
Iranian
(recon

Zick

Achaemenid

Asia Minor, "Kniipfteppich von Pazyrik und die Frage

limestone

100

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goldman:

seiner Datierung,"
of a western

that

suggestion
rics

have

city

walls

nal

AA (1966), 580-81.

Anatolian
the

their

crenelated
in

carpet

their

horses

been

attributed,

on

pattern

schemes

weavers

with

in

"A

58

use

Median-type

the

blanket

by the

the

centuries

weakens

lack

to Turkic
"New

A.

L.

dery,

V.

in 7th-century

tablets:

Textes

"Elamite

VDI

Al-Jadir,

on

Note

des

Some

Susan

par

How

the

faithful
the

but

question,

is

representations
richness

general

and

on

from

obtained

true

holds

doubt
Persian

clothing
de

inventaire

assyriens
cludes

in

terms

general
Cf.

goods.

RAAO

et autres,"

Achaemenid;

Greenewalt,

"Lydian Textiles,"

E.

From

eds.,

at a Memorial
(Philadelphia,
Cotton

plant
ance

appears
b.c.;

century
a

late

in Iran

Athens

Symposium
1980), 135.

it was
import

exotic

into

or Mesopotamia

The

to Gordion:

by

fabric

Africa;

its

the

earliest

is uncertain.

M.

not

seems

Richter

ed.,

fabrics

and

had

the

the

prohibi

and

textile

reli

linen;
viz.

colors,

of BAM

Study

highly

likely

Persia.

Over

for

argued

silk

was

that silk
sixty

in

AnatSt

years

ago,
b.c.

5th-century

despite the lack of direct evidence,

and she

doubt

"Silk

that

the

Persians

AJA 33 (1929),
silk

weaving

the

First

as

used

as

early

it also,
middle

the

in

the Chinese

That

27-33.

Centuries

Seven

Europe
(1985),

325;

P.

of

the

A.

B.

L.

also

in Ancient
and

Studies

Sites

the

rather

than

cian,

and

38.

P.

4th

Fars

JESHO

at Perse

(Rome,
de

groupe

Dacia

1972),
trsors

27 (1983), 57-58,

this

wearing

Silk
B.C.:

century

India,"

"La

"Indices

OLP

de

5 (1974),

Sketch

Achaemenian

between

robe

as

a Thra

a Skudra.

Naster,

Persepolis,"

Papers

figure

in
89

AJA

B.C.,"

Restorations

of

Alexandrescu,

accepts

500

by the

thrace du nord des Balkans,"

in

Era,"

AJA 92 (1988), 277-78.

at least

Other

Christian

"Conversations

Drooker,

B. Tilia,

284ff.

pp.

to

Mediterranean

in India

and

of the

E. Barker, "Textiles

166-79;

and Lei Zu,"

China

polis
"Un

and

of

and

of Harold

woolen

mixing

Achaemenid

A.

37.

Slab

peinture

47-48;

and

the

des

reliefs

P. Roos,

Ornaments

"An
of the

EW 20 (1970), 53-55;
Royal Dress at Persepolis,"
and
Studies
Restorations,
pp. 284-86, figs.
Tilia,
139, 140, 147. A Jewish bride of Elephantine brings

mid-18th

in China

Rise

2.81,

goods,

J.

Near

Gervers,

different

aspect

L. Gopal, "Textiles
(1961), 66.

S. Young

for Rodney

in

the

no

Jr.,

V.

Herodotus

woolen

State:

and

in K. de Vries and

at Mohenjo-Daro
an

of

51-92,

of

in Memory

Asia,

against

the

"The

in

C.

world,

234,"

from

dcors

71 (1977),

H.

C.

ancient
Textiles

viz.

magical

Anxiety

Arachne

evidence

Textiles

Tar-Tukulti-Ninurta:

Western

JRAS (1970-1971),

literature

Barrelet,

of

"Prescription

in

to

peoples

the

Cotton,"

on

(mar

Papyri

(Oxford, 1923). For a sum

R. M. Watson,

22:11

ketubah

Aramaic

2d millennium b.c., and their silk thread appeared


in the West by the 8th century, V. Sylwan, "Silk
from the Yin Dynasty," BMFEA 9 (1937), 119-26;
M. Loewe, "Spices and Silk: Aspects of World Trade

for contemporary

M.-Th.

L. J. Majewski,
Kohler,

and

lands

neighboring

in her

Cowley,
in

World

the

Greece,"

12

variety

The
can be trusted.
patterning
textiles
is scant;
Achaemenid
however,
and

colors

A.

for an

were

J. V.

open

and finely

. K. Ritter and V. J. Kinnier Wilson,

did

(1979), 316-18; R. Koldewey, Die Knigsburgen von


Babylon, WVDOG 54 (Osnabriick, 1969 d.), p. 122,
pl. 39, fig. 7; . Haerinck, "Le palais achmnide de
Babylone, IrAn 10 (1973), 120, 122, for the colors
used in Achaemenid costuming in the glazed brick
work.

clothing

coarse

Mediaeval

restrictions

Greece

les

AMI

Bricks,"

women's

attachments,

in Deut.

G.

(in

129-47.

as

period
in indus

in

cotton

1937);

Old

ancient

known

Susa:

toffs

Sumer 30 (1979),

of

30 (1980), 26.
36. It now

dyes, W.

Assyrian

well

Persian
cotton

using

recorded

in

(Paris,

similarly

commentary"

et entretien

"Preparatien
"A

240-53.

(1963),

artisants Assyriens,"
Canby,

and

translation,

Russian),

from

documents

Cotton

the

to a bride's

15),

of

review

tion

blue,
MDP

lamites-Anzanites,

economic

Transcription,

no.

gious

(Paris, 1907); W. Hinz, "Zu den Zeughaustfelchen


in G. Wiessner, ed., Festschrift fur
aus Susa,"
Wilhelm Eilers (Wiesbaden, 1969), 89-96; I. B. Iussi
fov,

garments

In

motley dyed stuff, chiefly of wool, and with embroi


Scheil,

wool
contract,

symbolic

Trade

purple,

as

15)

in

were

Studies in Textile History


Burnham (Toronto, 1977).

in the First Millennium b.c.," Journal of Cuneiform


Studies 21 (1967), 236-38, 244-45; J. de Morgan,
MDP 8 (Paris, 1905), 57.
Recherches archologiques,
mentioned

(no.

riage

Spread

intervening

Overland

for example,

woven

East

and Finger Rings


on

"Essay

Oppenheim,

Dyes

goods

argument.

34. J. Boardman, Greek Gems


(London, 1970), no. 878.
35.

the

trial

Lamm,

(1978), 216-21;

in

(5th

mary

of

etc.,

of continuity
the

has

saddles

of Elephantine

Jews

the Fifth Century B.C.

and

Diyarbekirli,

Light on the Pazyryk Carpet," HALI1


however,

The

continuation

Seljuks,
N.

Turkestan,

Jour

205-16.

the
c. b.c.),

(no. 20), in addition

of

equestrians

of the

basis

fab

Himation,"

Robes

army;

Jacobsthal's
of pictures

(1938),

Achaemenid

East

P.

on Persian

Greek
Sybarite

Studies

carrying

Another hint

in

squares

the

on garments,

Pazyryk

woven

origin

origin

of Hellenic

lies

Women's

the

in

appear

Herodotus

her
shawl,

dowry
P.

new

Grelot,

robe

(Paris, 1972), document

3.106, 7.65 reports it worn by the Indians in Xerxes'

dyed

Documents

38.

101

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

motley
arameens

to

go

with

d'Egypte

Women's

goldman:

Diodorus

39.

Siculus

F.

17.70.3;

Greco-Persian

Per

Schmidt,

sepolis, vol. 2, pp. 77-78.


40.

The
R.

ture,

"La

Ghirshman,
in

1'Urartu,"

W.

B.

civilisation

cul

Locust's

with

or less

holes
are

tening
in

of various

well

with

frequently
in

attested
art.

Achaemenid

In

and

shapes

sizes

back

Asia

Western
A.

general,

L.

as

P.

Orfvrerie

Amandry,

over

4,000

bracteates

gold

(R.

und

skythischer

well

'grco-perse',"

as

dead

illustrate

how

Aus

bracteates

travagant

such

as

the

of booty

list

Sargon's

from

were

his

nary

indoor

wear

men's
the

tions
as

the

from

Greek

Boardman,
In

the

3.3.17
If in
made

campagne de Saigon (Paris, 1912); D. D.


Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylo
nia, vol. 2 (Chicago, 1927), 97. 2 Sam. 1:24 probably

man

times,

the

Northern

de

huitime

refers

to bracteates

on

describe

gold

otus

9.80

ing

Persian
41.

E.

and

Pfuhl

H.

from

late

6th

b.c.,

the

latter

der

Datierung
d.,

Armagan,

1974), 967-69.
42.

The

39,

Herod

bracteates

style

Achaemenid

of the

last

relief

aus

and

E.

"Wall
Vth

Paintings
International

from

the

Congress

vol.

J. Boardman,

(London,

Greek

the

Period
of Iranian

Gems

Persian

tunic

the
iden

women"
Journal

5.88 men

without

as

not

pins,

964.
Curtius

Ru

fashion"

"womanly

the

II (from which hung his dag


dames

of

wore

Provinces

much

Textile

girdle,

rather

fabricated

Wild,

Roman

a golden

but

metal,

thread

J. P.

see

no.

Quintus

a.d.,

century

of gold

M.

A.

"The

Richter,
Gems,"

dress
Die

from
Kunst

flexible
in

as

Ro
in

Manufacture
(Cambridge,

1970),

Late

'Achaemenian'

Hesperia,

or

8 (Athens,

suppl.

the
des

and

and

Finger

Etruscans

Greeks,

and

vol.

Romans,

876,

879,

Antike

903;
vol.

Sammlungen,
Kulturbesitz

2,

in

Gemmen
Staatliche

deut

Museen
Berlin

Antikenabteilung.

(Munich, 1969), no. 191; idem, vol. 2, Staatliche


Munzsammlung
Munich, pt. 1 (Munich, 1968), no.
249-b.
49.

On

Achaemenid
and

scription
statue

de

known
Documents,

as

shoes,
in M.

Comment,"

Darius

(1972), 242-43.
the

le

D.

dcouverte

grand

A type of women's
"Persian

document

et al.,

"Une

Suse,"

JA

leather shoe was


viz.

slipper,"

"De

Stronach,

Kervan,

P.

Grelot,

48.

50. The Ashmolean


figurine, Culican,
"Ampul
lae," fig. 3, illustrates the braided queue worn with
the Persian Robe. Gold ribbon, G. S. Korres,

at Gordion,"
Art

nos.

Preussischer

2 (Ankara,

Ar

chaeology (Tehran, 1972), 357-59. H. C. Butler, Sar


dis, vol. 1, pt. 1 (Leyden, 1922), p. 140, fig. 156.
44.

if not

of Aeschylus,"

Gems,

Persian

was

of the

Gems,

in

Daskyleion,"

F. Sarre,

Persian

G.

schen

Akurgal,

alten Persien (Berlin, 1922), 18-19; Persian elements


in the Harpy relief, A. Moortgat, Hellas und die Kunst
der Achaemeniden,
MAG 2.1 (Leipzig, 1926), 16.
43. R. S. Young, "Gordion, Preliminary Report
1953," AJA 59 (1955), pp. 9-10, fig. 17; M. Mellink,
in

and

(137)

by

ordi

(London, 1968), nos. 503, 508, 510; Boardman, Greek

of the

quarter
by

Mansel,

sphere,

and

the

for techniques.

Gems

ostgriechischen

favored

Grabstelen

Mlanges

cultural

the

"volumi

differently

women"

a linen

Greek
1st

'Graeco-Persian'

1977), no. 4, pi. 2. Vari

to

it

48.

decorat

the

1949), p. 34. nos. 3, 6; G. M. A. Richter, Engraved

Die

Mbius,

dated

"Zur

clothes,

silver

vol. 1 (Mainz,

century

ously

M.

and

does

tents?

Grabreliefs,
5th

women's

as

in

essentially

worn

chiton,

fact

cord

embroidery

relation

. ..

describes

suspect

Une

Thureau-Dangin,

et

Ionia-Caria.

47.

ger).

robing

resembling,

'Persae'

golden girdle of Darius

campaign

Seals

48 (1928). Herodotus

Studies

46.
fus

Greek

the

Stamp

rather

are

"closely

dress

on

set
but

of

robe

"Notes

la

garments
F.

or

grotesque,

with,

(1969),

orientale'

31. A. S. F. Gow

women's
which

a little

decorated

Urartu

bracteates

Persian

chitons

of

gold,

with

pri

Greek'

VDI

'grecque

"Pyramidal

look

(143);

skull cap from Sinjavka (. H. Minns, Scythians and


Greeks [New York, 1971 reprint], p. 58, fig. 84).
contains

the

of Hellenic

(V. Sarianidi, The Golden Hoard of Bactria


[New York, 1985]), as earlier guessed from less ex
clothes,

a mag

artists

of 'East

question

Iran 8 (1970),

Ionic

tical

used

nomad

when

AntK 14 (1971), 90-106.

nous

Persian

Grabanlagen,"

extensively

"The

glyptique

Empire,"

identified

Praehistorische
Zeitschrift 47 [1972], 76-77; V. N.
Nomads
Basilov,
of Eurasia [Los Angeles, 1989], 24
26) and the Russo-Afghan excavations of the Tillya
tepe

are

pieces

results

Per

of Greek

question

art" (in Russian),

f. Boardman,

Persian

An

"Neue

idem,

45.

Oppenheim,

Rolle,

sakischer

"La

120;

tike Kunst 1 (1958), 9-23. The recent find of the


"Gold Man" buried at Issyk, his robing covered with
grabungen

the
tiny

the

b.c.,

century

and 'Greco-Persian'

for fas

achmnide,"

of

revelation

4th

the

"The Golden Garments of the Gods," JNES 8 (1949),


172-93;

to

answer

and

"Greeks

Starr,

cit

involved,

problems

G.

marily of Anatolian origin were influenced by both


sides"is
basically that of . M. Nikulina, who
places the majority of the gems in the first half of

supplied

loops

the

C.

authorship"these

nificent

in Honour of S. H. Taqizadeh
(London,
85-88.
1962),
Thin bits of gold and silver (bracteates, L. brat
teae, bracteis) usually mold-pressed, solid or with
designs,

his

67-75;

or Persian

Leg.

and

gems
sources,

major

sians,"

et

achmnide

d.,

Henning,

Persian

Studies

cutout

the

ing
to

contributions

Urartaean

Robes

"Chrysoys

'desmos'

tes

komes

ek

poteidaias,"

Ar

chailogike ephemeris 99. 1960 (Athens, 1965), 119


21. A spiral gold binding possibly for a queue, found

Rings

1970), 309. A good summary review of the


102

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Goldman:

at

pre-Achaemenid

liminary

Report

E.

Marlik,
on

Marlik

O.

Boardman,

52.

This

Greek

Gems,

conflation

no.

is drawn

Negahban,

Excavations

Pre

(Tehran,

1964), p. 21, fig. 87.


51.

Women's

861.

from

the

versions
Arzu),

of the
and

from

of the

responses
the

page

Vaspuhr

(Xos

laid

down

attributes

requisite

by Chosroe (J. M. Unvala, "King Husrav and His


Boy" [Paris, n.d.], par. 96; T. Nldeke, Geschichte
der

Perser

arabischen

und

Araber

Chronik

zur

des

Zeit

Sasaniden

al-Tabari

[Leiden,

aus

der

H.

326-27;

Histoire

Zotenberg,

rois

des

des

Perses

par al-Thacalibi
[Paris, 1900], 710-11). See also F.
Vahman, "A Beautiful Girl," in Papers in Honour of
Professor Mary Boyce, Actlr 25, ser. 2, vol. 11 (Lei
den,

description

of Ardvi Suna, Anahita/Anaitis


given in the Zend
Aban
the
Yasht
5
French and English
Avesta,
(using
translations of A. H. Anquetil-Duperron
[1771] and
J. Darmesteter [1882]), from the Pahlavi and Arabic

Robes

1985),

beautiful

for the

665-73,
woman

53. S. I. Khodzhash,
Erebuni:

Oganesian,
VIII-VI

v.

do

n..

attributes

physical

in pre-Islamic

N. S. Trukhtanva,

Pamiatnik

urart.

54.

G.

A.

Koshelenko,

ed.,

i Srednei

1979],

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

and K. L.
zodchestva

Monument

(Erebuni:

building, 8th-6th c. B.C.) (Moscow,


43, fig. 126.
darstva Kavakaza
394, 429.

of the

Persia.

of

Drevneishie

Azii

Urartu

1969), pp. 142

(Moscow,

gosu

1985),