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National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992
Approved: June 01 1992

Definition of Terms For purposes of this Act, the following terms shall be defined as

1. National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) is the classification and administration of all
designated protected areas to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve
genetic diversity, to ensure sustainable use of resources found therein, and to maintain their natural conditions
to the greatest extent possible;

10. Resource reserve is an extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited area normally with difficult
access designated as such to protect natural resources of the area for future use and prevent or contain
development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based
upon appropriate knowledge and planning;
11. Strict nature reserve is an area possessing some outstanding ecosystem, features and/or species of flora
and fauna of national scientific importance maintained to protect nature and maintain processes in an
undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of the natural environment available
for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a
dynamic and evolutionary state;
12. Tenured migrant communities are communities within protected areas which have actually and
continuously occupied such areas for five (5) years before the designation of the same as protected areas in
accordance with this Act and are solely dependent therein for subsistence; and

2. Protected Area refers to identified portions of land and water set aside by reason of their unique physical
and biological significance, managed to enhance biological diversity and protected against destructive human

13. Wildlife sanctuary comprises an area which assures the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally
significant species, groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where these
may require specific human manipulations for their perpetuation.

3. Buffer zones are identified areas outside the boundaries of and immediately adjacent to designated
protected areas pursuant to Section 8 that need special development control in order to avoid or minimize
harm to the protected area;


"Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000."
January 26, 2001

4. Indigenous cultural community refers to a group of people sharing common bonds of language, customs,
traditions and other distinctive cultural traits and who have since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and
utilized a territory;
5. National park refers to a forest reservation essentially of natural wilderness character which has been
withdrawn from settlement, occupancy or any form of exploitation except in conformity with approved
management plan and set aside as such exclusively to conserve the area or preserve the scenery, the natural
and historic objects, wild animals and plants therein and to provide enjoyment of these features in such areas;
6. Natural monuments is a relatively small area focused on protection of small features to protect or preserve
nationally significant natural features on account of their special interest or unique characteristics;
7. Natural biotic area is an area set aside to allow the way of life of societies living in harmony with the
environment to adapt to modern technology at their pace;
8. Natural park is a relatively large area not materially altered by human activity where extractive resource
uses are not allowed and maintained to protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or
international significance for scientific, educational and recreational use;
9. Protected landscapes/seascapes are areas of national significance which are characterized by the
harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through the
recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas;

Section 3. Definition of Terms - For the purposes of this Act:

(a) Agricultural waste shall refer to waste generated from planting or harvesting of crops, trimming or
pruning of plants and wastes or run-off materials from farms or fields;
(b) Bulky wastes shall refer to waste materials which cannot be appropriately placed in separate
containers because of either its bulky size, shape or other physical attributes. These include large
worn-out or broken household, commercial, and industrial items such as furniture, lamps, bookcases,
filing cabinets, and other similar items;
(c) Bureau shall refer to the Environmental Management Bureau;
(d) Buy-back center shall refer to a recycling center that purchases of otherwise accepts recyclable
materials from the public for the purpose of recycling such materials;
(e) Collection shall refer to the act of removing solid waste from the source or from a communal
storage point;

(f) Composting shall refer to the controlled decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms,
mainly bacteria and fungi, into a humus-like product;

(s) Municipal waste shall refer to wastes produced from activities within local government units which
include a combination of domestic, commercial, institutional and industrial wastes and street litters;

(g) Consumer electronics shall refer to special waste that includes worn-out, broken, and other
discarded items such as radios, stereos, and TV sets;

(t) Open dump shall refer to a disposal area wherein the solid wastes are indiscriminately thrown or
disposed of without due planning and consideration for environmental and Health standards;

(h) Controlled dump shall refer to a disposal site at which solid waste is deposited in accordance with
the minimum prescribed standards of site operation;

(u) Opportunity to recycle shall refer to the act of providing a place for collecting source-separated
recyclable material, located either at a disposal site or at another location more convenient to the
population being served, and collection at least once a month of source-separated recyclable material
from collection service customers and to providing a public education and promotion program that
gives notice to each person of the opportunity to recycle and encourage source separation of
recyclable material;

(i) Department shall refer to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources;
(j) Disposal shall refer to the discharge, deposit, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any solid
waste into or in an land;
(k) Disposal site shall refer to a site where solid waste is finally discharged and deposited;
(l) Ecological solid waste management shall refer to the systematic administration of activities which
provide for segregation at source, segregated transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment,
and disposal of solid waste and all other waste management activities which do not harm the
(m) Environmentally acceptable shall refer to the quality of being re-usable, biodegradable or
compostable, recyclable and not toxic or hazardous to the environment;
(n) Generation shall refer to the act or process of producing solid waste;
(o) Generator shall refer to a person, natural or juridical, who last uses a material and makes it
available for disposal or recycling;
(p) Hazardous waste shall refer to solid waste management or combination of solid waste which
because of its quantity, concentration or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may:

(v) Person(s) shall refer to any being, natural or judicial, susceptible of rights and obligations, or of
being the subject of legal relations;
(w) Post-consumer material shall refer only to those materials or products generated by a business or
consumer which have served their intended end use, and which have been separated or diverted
from solid waste for the purpose of being collected, processed and used as a raw material in the
manufacturing of recycled product, excluding materials and by-products generated from, and byproducts generated from, and commonly used within an original manufacturing process, such as mill
(x) Receptacles shall refer to individual containers used for the source separation and the collection
of recyclable materials;
(y) Recovered material shall refer to material and by products that have been recovered or diverted
from solid waste for the purpose of being collected, processed and used as a raw material in the
manufacture of a recycled product;

(1) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious

irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or

(z) Recyclable material shall refer to any waste material retrieved from the waste stream and free
from contamination that can still be converted into suitable beneficial use or for other purposes,
including, but not limited to, newspaper, ferrous scrap metal, non-ferrous scrap metal, used oil,
corrugated cardboard, aluminum, glass, office paper, tin cans and other materials as may be
determined by the Commission;

(2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when
improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed;

(aa) Recycled material shall refer to post-consumer material that has been recycled and returned to
the economy;

(q) Leachate shall refer to the liquid produced when waste undergo decomposition, and when water
percolate through solid waste undergoing decomposition. It is contaminated liquid that contains
dissolved and suspended materials;
(r) Materials recovery facility - includes a solid waste transfer station or sorting station, drop-off center,
a composting facility, and a recycling facility;

(bb) Recycling shall refer to the treating of used or waste materials through a process of making them
suitable for beneficial use and for other purposes, and includes any process by which solid waste
materials are transformed into new products in such a manner that the original product may lose their
identity, and which maybe used as raw materials for the production of other goods or
services: Provided, That the collection, segregation and re-use of previously used packaging material
shall be deemed recycling under this Act;

(cc) Resource conversation shall refer to the reduction of the amount of solid waste that are
generated or the reduction of overall resource consumption, and utilization of recovered resources;

disposable fomites that may harbor or transmit pathogenic organisms, and surgical
operating room pathologic materials from outpatient areas and emergency rooms; and

(dd) Resources recovery shall refer to the collection, extraction or recovery of recyclable materials
from the waste stream for the purpose of recycling, generating energy or producing a product suitable
for beneficial use: Provided, That such resource recovery facilities exclude incineration;

(3) Waste resulting from mining activities, including contaminated soil and debris.

(ee) Re-use shall refer to the process of recovering materials intended for the same or different
purpose without the alteration of physical and chemical characteristics;

(ll) Solid waste management shall refer to the discipline associated with the control of generation,
storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that
is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation,
aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also responsive to public attitudes;

(ff) Sanitary landfill shall refer to a waste disposal site designed, constructed, operated and
maintained in a manner that exerts engineering control over significant potential environment impacts
arising from the development and operation of the facility;

(mm) Solid waste management facility shall refer to any resource recovery system or component
thereof; any system, program, or facility for resource conservation; any facility for the collection,
source separation, storage, transportation, transfer, processing, treatment, or disposal of solid waste;

(gg) Schedule of Compliance shall refer to an enforceable sequence of actions or operations to be

accomplished within a stipulated time frame leading to compliance with a limitation, prohibition or
standard set forth in this Act or any rule of regulation issued pursuant thereto;

(nn) Source reduction shall refer to the reduction of solid waste before it enters the solid waste stream
by methods such as product design, materials substitution, materials re-use and packaging

(hh) Secretary landfill shall refer to the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural

(oo) Source separation shall refer to the sorting of solid waste into some or all of its component parts
at the point of generation;

(ii) Segregation shall refer to a solid waste management practice of separating different materials
found in solid waste in order to promote recycling and re-use of resources and to reduce the volume
of waste for collection and disposal;

(pp) Special wastes shall refer to household hazardous wastes such as paints, thinners, household
batteries, lead-acid batteries, spray canisters and the like. These include wastes from residential and
commercial sources that comprise of bulky wastes, consumer electronics, white goods, yard wastes
that are collected separately, batteries, oil, and tires. These wastes are usually handled separately
from other residential and commercial wastes;

(jj) Segregation at source shall refer to a solid waste management practice of separating, at the point
of origin, different materials found in solid waste in order to promote recycling and re-use of resources
and to reduce the volume of waste for collection and disposal;
(kk) Solid waste shall refer to all discarded household, commercial waste, non-hazardous institutional
and industrial waste, street sweepings, construction debris, agricultural waste, and other nonhazardous/non-toxic solid waste.
Unless specifically noted otherwise, the term "solid waste" as used in this Act shall not include:
(1) Waste identified or listed as hazardous waste of a solid, liquid, contained gaseous or
semisolid form which may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or in serious or
incapacitating reversible illness, or acute/chronic effect on the health of persons and other
(2) Infectious waste from hospitals such as equipment, instruments, utensils, and fomites of
a disposable nature from patients who are suspected to have or have been diagnosed as
having communicable diseases and must therefore be isolated as required by public health
agencies, laboratory wastes such as pathological specimens (i.e. all tissues, specimens of
blood elements, excreta, and secretions obtained from patients or laboratory animals) and

(qq) Storage shall refer to the interim containment of solid wastes after generation and prior to
collection for ultimate recovery or disposal;
(rr) Transfer stations shall refer to those facilities utilized to receive solid wastes, temporarily store,
separate, convert, or otherwise process the materials in the solid wastes, or to transfer the solid
wastes directly from smaller to larger vehicles for transport. This term does not include any of the
(1) a facility whose principal function is to receive, store, separate, convert or otherwise
process in accordance with national minimum standards, manure;
(2) a facility, whose principal function is to receive, store, convert, or otherwise process
wastes which have already been separated for re-use and are intended for disposals, and
(3) the operations premises of a duly licensed solid waste handling operator who is receives,
stores, transfers, or otherwise processes wastes as an activity incidental to the conduct of a
refuse collection and disposal business.

(ss) Waste diversion shall refer to activities which reduce or eliminate the amount of solid waste from
waste disposal facilities;
(tt) White goods shall refer to large worn-out or broken household, commercial, and industrial
appliances such as stoves, refrigerators, dishwashers, and clothes washers and dryers collected
separately. White goods ate usually dismantled for the recovery of specific materials (e.g., copper,
aluminum, etc.);
(uu) Yard waste shall refer to wood, small or chipped branches, leaves, grass clippings, garden
debris, vegetable residue that is recognized as part of a plant or vegetable and other materials
identified by the Commission.

(d) Climate Change refers to a change in climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or
variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically decades or longer, whether due to
natural variability or as a result of human activity. ICacDE
(e) Climate Variability refers to the variations in the average state and in other statistics of the climate on all
temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events.
(f) Climate Risk refers to the product of climate and related hazards working over the vulnerability of human
and natural ecosystems.
(g) Disaster refers to a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread
human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts which exceed the ability of the affected
community or society to cope using its own resources.
(h) Disaster risk reduction refers to the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic
efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards,
lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved
preparedness for adverse events.


Climate Change Act of 2009.
October 23, 2009
SECTION 3. Definition of Terms.For purposes of this Act, the following shall have the corresponding
(a) Adaptation refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected
climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.
(b) Adaptive capacity refers to the ability of ecological, social or economic systems to adjust to climate
change including climate variability and extremes, to moderate or offset potential damages and to take
advantage of associated opportunities with changes in climate or to cope with the consequences thereof.
(c) Anthropogenic causes refer to causes resulting from human activities or produced by human beings.

(i) Gender mainstreaming refers to the strategy for making womens as well as mens concerns and
experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and
programs in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality
is not perpetuated. It is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action,
including legislation, policies, or programs in all areas and at all levels.
(j) Global Warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and
oceans that is associated with the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
(k) Greenhouse effect refers to the process by which the absorption of infrared radiation by the atmosphere
warms the Earth.
(l) Greenhouse gases (GHG) refers to constituents of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse
effect including, but not limited to, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.
(m) Mainstreaming refers to the integration of policies and measures that address climate change into
development planning and sectoral decision-making.
(n) Mitigation in the context of climate change, refers to human intervention to address anthropogenic
emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all GHG, including ozone-depleting substances and their
(o) Mitigation potential shall refer to the scale of GHG reductions that could be made, relative to emission
baselines, for a given level of carbon price (expressed in cost per unit of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions
avoided or reduced).

(p) Sea level rise refers to an increase in sea level which may be influenced by factors like global warming
through expansion of sea water as the oceans warm and melting of ice over land and local factors such as
land subsidence.
(q) Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse
effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character,
magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its
adaptive capacity.
"Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010".
Approved: May 27, 2010
Section 3. Definition of Terms. - For purposes of this Act, the following shall refer to:
(a) "Adaptation" - the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic
stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.
(b) "Capacity" - a combination of all strengths and resources available within a community, society or
organization that can reduce the level of risk, or effects of a disaster. Capacity may include infrastructure
and physical means, institutions, societal coping abilities, as well as human knowledge, skills and collective
attributes such as social relationships, leadership and management. Capacity may also be described as
(c) "Civil Society Organizations" Or "CSOs" - non-state actors whose aims are neither to generate profits nor
to seek governing power. CSOs unite people to advance shared goals and interests. They have a presence
in public life, expressing the interests and values of their members or others, and are based on ethical,
cultural, scientific, religious or philanthropic considerations. CSOs include nongovernment organizations
(NGOs), professional associations, foundations, independent research institutes, community-based
organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations, people's organizations, social movements, and labor
(d) "Climate Change" - a change in climate that can' be identified by changes in the mean and/or variability
of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically decades or longer, whether due to natural
variability or as a result of human activity.
(e) "Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" or "CBDRRM" - a process of disaster risk
reduction and management in which at risk communities are actively engaged in the identification, analysis,
treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance
their capacities, and where the people are at the heart of decision-making and implementation of disaster
risk reduction and management activities.
(f) "Complex Emergency" - a form of human-induced emergency in which the cause of the emergency as
well as the assistance to the afflicted IS complicated by intense level of political considerations.

(g) "Contingency Planning" - a management process that analyzes specific potential events or emerging
situations that might threaten society or the environment and establishes arrangements in advance to
enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to such events and situations.
(h) "Disaster" - a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread
human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected
community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters are often described as a result of the
combination of: the exposure to a hazard; the conditions of vulnerability that are present; and insufficient
capacity or measures to reduce or cope with the potential negative consequences, Disaster impacts may
include loss of life, injury, disease and other negative effects on human, physical, mental and social wellbeing, together with damage to property, destruction of assets, loss of services, Social and economic
disruption and environmental degradation.1avvphi1
(i) "Disaster Mitigation" - the lessening or limitation of the adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters.
Mitigation measures encompass engineering techniques and hazard-resistant construction as well as
improved environmental policies and public awareness.
(j) "Disaster Preparedness" - the knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional
response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and
recover from, the Impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions. Preparedness action is
carried out within the context of disaster risk reduction and management and aims to build the capacities
needed to efficiently manage all types of emergencies and achieve orderly transitions from response to
sustained recovery. Preparedness is based on a sound analysis of disaster risk and good linkages with early
warning systems, and includes such activities as contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and
supplies, the development of arrangements for coordination, evacuation and public information, and
associated training and field exercises. These must be supported by formal institutional, legal and budgetary
(k) "Disaster Prevention" - the outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters. It
expresses the concept and intention to completely avoid potential adverse impacts through action taken in
advance such as construction of dams or embankments that eliminate flood risks, land-use regulations that
do not permit any settlement in high-risk zones, and seismic engineering designs that ensure the survival
and function of a critical building in any likely earthquake.
(l) "Disaster Response" - the provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately
after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic
subsistence needs of the people affected. Disaster response is predominantly focused on immediate and
short-term needs and is sometimes called "disaster relief".
(m) "Disaster Risk" - the potential disaster losses in lives, health status, livelihood, assets and services,
which could occur to a particular community or a Society over some specified future time period.
(n) "Disaster Risk Reduction" - the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts
to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposures to hazards,
lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved
preparedness for adverse events.
(o) "Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" - the systematic process of using administrative directives,
organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping
capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster. Prospective
disaster risk reduction and management refers to risk reduction and management activities that address and

seek to avoid the development of new or increased disaster risks, especially if risk reduction policies are not
put m place.
(p) "Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Information System" - a specialized database which
contains, among others, information on disasters and their human material, economic and environmental
impact, risk assessment and mapping and vulnerable groups.
(q) "Early Warning System" - the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and
meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a
hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. A
people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four (4) key elements: knowledge of the risks;
monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings;
and local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is
also used to emphasize that warning systems need to span all steps from hazard detection to community
(r) "Emergency" - unforeseen or sudden occurrence, especially danger, demanding immediate action.
(s) "Emergency Management" - the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for
addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and initial recovery steps.
(t) "Exposure" - the degree to which the elements at risk are likely to experience hazard events of different
(u) "Geographic Information System" - a database which contains, among others, geo-hazard assessments,
information on climate change, and climate risk reduction and management.
(v) "Hazard" - a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life,
injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic
disruption, or environmental damage.
(w) "Land-Use Planning" - the process undertaken by public authorities to identify, evaluate and decide on
different options for the use of land, including consideration of long-term economic, social and environmental
objectives and the implications for different communities and interest groups, and the subsequent
formulation and promulgation of plans that describe the permitted or acceptable uses.
(x) "Mitigation" - structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural
hazards, environmental degradation, and technological hazards and to ensure the ability of at-risk
communities to address vulnerabilities aimed at minimizing the impact of disasters. Such measures include,
but are not limited to, hazard-resistant construction and engineering works, the formulation and
implementation of plans, programs, projects and activities, awareness raising, knowledge management,
policies on land-use and resource management, as well as the enforcement of comprehensive land-use
planning, building and safety standards, and legislation.
(y) "National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework" or "NDRRMF" - provides for
comprehensive, all hazards, multi-sectoral, inter-agency and community-based approach to disaster risk
reduction and management.

(z) "National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan" or "NDRRMP" - the document to be
formulated and implemented by the Office of Civil Defense (OCD) that sets out goals and specific objectives
for reducing disaster risks together with related actions to accomplish these objectives.
The NDRRMP shall provide for the identification of hazards, vulnerabilities and risks to 'be managed at the
national level; disaster risk reduction and management approaches and strategies to be applied m
managing said hazards and risks; agency roles, responsibilities and lines of authority at all government
levels; and vertical and horizontal coordination of disaster risk reduction and management in the pre-disaster
and post-disaster phases. It shall be in conformity with the NDRRMF.
(aa) "Post-Disaster Recovery" - the restoration and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihood
and living conditions. of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors, in
accordance with the principles of "build back better".
(bb) "Preparedness" - pre-disaster actions and measures being undertaken within the context of disaster risk
reduction and management and are based on sound risk analysis as well as pre-disaster activities to avert
or minimize loss of life and property such as, but not limited to, community organizing, training, planning,
equipping, stockpiling, hazard mapping, insuring of assets, and public information and education initiatives.
This also includes the development/enhancement of an overall preparedness strategy, policy, institutional
structure, warning and forecasting capabilities, and plans that define measures geared to help at-risk
communities safeguard their lives and assets by being alert to hazards and taking appropriate action in the
face of an Imminent threat or an actual disaster.
(cc) "Private Sector" - the key actor in the realm of the economy where the central social concern and
process are the mutually beneficial production and distribution of goods and services to meet the physical
needs of human beings. The private sector comprises private corporations, households and nonprofit
institutions serving households.
(dd) "Public Sector Employees" - all persons in the civil service.
(ee) "Rehabilitation" - measures that ensure the ability of affected communities/areas to restore their normal
level of functioning by rebuilding livelihood and damaged infrastructures and increasing the communities'
organizational capacity.
(ff) "Resilience" - the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb,
accommodate and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through
the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.
(gg) "Response" - any concerted effort by two (2) or more agencies, public or private, to provide assistance
or intervention during or immediately after a disaster to meet the life preservation and basic subsistence
needs of those people affected and in the restoration of essential public activities and facilities.
(hh) "Risk" - the combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.
(ii) "Risk Assessment" - a methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by analyzing potential
hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that together could potentially harm exposed
people, property, services, livelihood and the environment on which they depend. Risk assessments with
associated risk mapping include: a review of the technical characteristics of hazards such as their location,
intensity, frequency and probability; the analysis of exposure and vulnerability including the physical, social,
health, economic and environmental dimensions; and the evaluation of the effectiveness of prevailing and
alternative coping capacities in respect to likely risk scenarios.

(jj) "Risk Management" - the systematic approach and practice of managing uncertainty to minimize potential
harm and loss. It comprises risk assessment and analysis, and the implementation of strategies and specific
actions to control, reduce and transfer risks. It is widely practiced by organizations to minimize risk in
investment decisions and to address operational risks such as those of business disruption, production
failure, environmental damage, social impacts and damage from fire and natural hazards.
(kk) "Risk Transfer" - the process of formally or informally shifting the financial consequences of particular
risks from one party to another whereby a household, community, enterprise or state authority will obtain
resources from the other party after a disaster occurs, in exchange for ongoing or compensatory social or
financial benefits provided to that other party.
(ll) "State of Calamity" - a condition involving mass casualty and/or major damages to property, disruption of
means of livelihoods, roads and normal way of life of people in the affected areas as a result of the
occurrence of natural or human-induced hazard.
(mm) "Sustainable Development" - development that meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two (2) key concepts: (1) the
concept of "needs", in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should
be given; and (2) the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organizations on the
environment's ability to meet present and future needs. It is the harmonious integration of a sound and
viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion and harmony, and ecological integrity to ensure
that human development now and through future generations is a life-enhancing process.
(nn) "Vulnerability" - the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it
susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. Vulnerability may arise from various physical, social,
economic, and environmental factors such as poor design and construction of buildings, inadequate
protection of assets, lack of public information and awareness, limited official recognition of risks and
preparedness measures, and disregard for wise environmental management.
(oo) "Vulnerable and Marginalized Groups" - those that face higher exposure to disaster risk and poverty
including, but not limited to, women, children, elderly, differently-abled people, and ethnic minorities.


"Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999."

health or the environment, which includes but not limited to smoke, dust, soot, cinders, fly ash, solid
particles of any kind, gases, fumes, chemical mists, steam and radio-active substances;
b) "Air pollution" means any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the
atmospheric air, or any discharge thereto of any liquid, gaseous or solid substances that will or is
likely to create or to render the air resources of the country harmful, detrimental, or injurious to public
health, safety or welfare or which will adversely affect their utilization for domestic, commercial,
industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate purposes;
c) "Ambient air quality guideline values" mean the concentration of air over specified periods
classified as short-term and long-term which are intended to serve as goals or objectives for the
protection of health and/or public welfare. These values shall be used for air quality management
purposes such as determining time trends, evaluating stages of deterioration or enhancement of the
air quality, and in general, used as basis for taking positive action in preventing, controlling, or abating
air pollution;
d) "Ambient air quality" means the general amount of pollution present in a broad area; and refers to
the atmosphere's average purity as distinguished from discharge measurements taken at the source
of pollution;
e) "Certificate of Conformity" means a certificate issued by the Department of Environment and
Natural Resources to a vehicle manufacturer/assembler or importer certifying that a particular new
vehicle or vehicle type meets the requirements provided under this Act and its rules and regulations;
f) "Department" means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources;
g) "Eco-profile" means the geographic-based instrument for planners and decision-makers which
present an evaluation of the environmental quality and carrying capacity of an area. It is the result of
the integration of primary and secondary data and information on natural resources and
anthropogenic activities on the land which are evaluated by various environmental risk assessment
and forecasting methodologies that enable the Department to anticipate the type of development
control necessary in the planning area;
h) "Emission" means any air contaminant, pollutant, gas stream or unwanted sound from a known
source which is passed into the atmosphere;

June 23, 1999

Section 5. Definitions. - As used in this Act:
a) "Air pollutant" means any matter found in the atmosphere other than oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor,
carbon dioxide, and the inert gases in their natural or normal concentrations, that is detrimental to

i) "Greenhouse gases" mean those gases that can potentially or can reasonably be expected to
induce global warming, which include carbon dioxide, methane, oxides of nitrogen,
chlorofluorocarbons, and the like;
j) "Hazardous substances" mean those substances which present either: (1) short-term acute hazards
such as acute toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption, corrosivity or other skin or eye
contact hazard or the risk of fire explosion; or (2) longterm toxicity upon repeated exposure,
carcinogenicity (which in some cases result in acute exposure but with a long latent period),
resistance to detoxification process such as biodegradation, the potential to pollute underground or
surface waters;

k) "Infectious waste" means that portion of medical waste that could transmit an infectious disease;
l) "Medical waste" means the materials generated as a result of patient diagnosis, treatment, or
immunization of human beings or animals;
m) "Mobile source" means any vehicle propelled by or through combustion of carbon-based or other
fuel, constructed and operated principally for the conveyance of persons or the transportation of
property goods;

u) "Pollution control device" means any device or apparatus used to prevent, control or abate the
pollution of air caused by emissions from identified pollution sources at levels within the air pollution
control standards established by the Department;
v) "Pollution control technology" means the pollution control devices, production process, fuel
combustion processes or other means that effectively prevent or reduce emissions or effluent;

n) "Motor vehicle" means any vehicle propelled by a gasoline or diesel engine or by any means other
than human or animal power, constructed and operated principally for the conveyance of persons or
the transportation of property or goods in a public highway or street open to public use;

w) "Standard of performance" means a standard for emissions of air pollutant which reflects the
degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission
reduction, taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any non-air quality health and
environmental impact and energy requirement which the Department determines, and adequately
demonstrates; and

o) "Municipal waste" means the waste materials generated from communities within a specific

x) "Stationary source" means any building or immobile structure, facility or installation which emits or
may emit any air pollutant.

p) "New vehicle" means a vehicle constructed entirely from new parts that has never been sold or
registered with the DOTC or with the appropriate agency or authority, and operated on the highways
of the Philippines, any foreign state or country;
q) "Octane Rating or the Anti-Knock Index(AKI)" means the rating of the anti-knock characteristics of
a grade or type of automotive gasoline as determined by dividing by two (2) the sum of the Research
Octane Number (RON), plus the Motor Octane Number (MON); the octane requirement, with respect
to automotive gasoline for use in a motor vehicle or a class thereof, whether imported, manufactured,
or assembled by a manufacturer, shall refer to the minimum octane rating of such automotive
gasoline which such manufacturer recommends for the efficient operation of such motor vehicle, or a
substantial portion of such class, without knocking;
r) "Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)" means those substances that significantly deplete or
otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner that is likely to result in adverse effects of human
health and the environment such as, but not limited to, chloroflourocarbons, halons and the like;
s) "Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)" means the organic compounds that persist in the
environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to
human health and the environment. These compounds resist photolytic, chemical and biological
degradation, which shall include but not be limited to dioxin, furan, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs),
organochlorine pesticides, such as aldrin, dieldrin, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, toxaphere and
t) "Poisonous and toxic fumes" means any emissions and fumes which are beyond internationally accepted standards, including but not limited to the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline


"Philippine Mining Act of 1995."
March 3, 1995
As used in and for purposes of this Act, the following terms, whether in singular or plural, shall mean:
a. Ancestral lands refers to all lands exclusively and actually possessed, occupied, or utilized by
indigenous cultural communities by themselves or through their ancestors in accordance with their
customs and traditions since time immemorial, and as may be defined and delineated by law.
b. Block or meridional block means an area bounded by one-half (1/2) minute of latitude and one-half
(1/2) minute of longitude, containing approximately eighty-one hectares (81 has.).
c. Bureau means the Mines and Geosciences Bureau under the Department of Environment and
Natural Resources.
d. Carrying capacity refers to the capacity of natural and human environments to accommodate and
absorb change without experiencing conditions of instability and attendant degradation.
e. Contiguous zone refers to water, sea bottom and substratum measured twenty-four nautical miles
(24 n.m.) seaward from the base line of the Philippine archipelago.
f. Contract area means land or body of water delineated for purposes of exploration, development, or
utilization of the minerals found therein.
g. Contractor means a qualified person acting alone or in consortium who is a party to a mineral
agreement or to a financial or technical assistance agreement.

h. Co-production agreement (CA) means an agreement entered into between the Government and
one or more contractors in accordance with Section 26(b) hereof.

t. Foreign-owned corporation means any corporation, partnership, association, or cooperative duly

registered in accordance with law in which less than fifty per centum (50%) of the capital is owned by
Filipino citizens.

i. Department means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

u. Government means the government of the Republic of the Philippines.
j. Development means the work undertaken to explore and prepare an ore body or a mineral deposit
for mining, including the construction of necessary infrastructure and related facilities.

v. Gross output means the actual market value of minerals or mineral products from its mining area
as defined in the National Internal Revenue Code.

k. Director means the Director of the Mines and Geosciences Bureau.

l. Ecological profile or eco-profile refers to geographic-based instruments for planners and decisionmakers which presents an evaluation of the environmental quality and carrying capacity of an area.

w. Indigenous cultural community means a group or tribe of indigenous Filipinos who have
continuously lived as communities on communally-bounded and defined land since time immemorial
and have succeeded in preserving, maintaining, and sharing common bonds of languages, customs,
traditions, and other distinctive cultural traits, and as may be defined and delineated by law.

m. Environmental compliance certificate (ECC) refers to the document issued by the government
agency concerned certifying that the project under consideration will not bring about an unacceptable
environmental impact and that the proponent has complied with the requirements of the
environmental impact statement system.

x. Joint venture agreement (JVA) means an agreement entered into between the Government and
one or more contractors in accordance with Section 26(c) hereof.

n. Environmental impact statement (EIS) is the document which aims to identify, predict, interpret,
and communicate information regarding changes in environmental quality associated with a proposed
project and which examines the range of alternatives for the objectives of the proposal and their
impact on the environment.
o. Exclusive economic zone means the water, sea bottom and subsurface measured from the
baseline of the Philippine archipelago up to two hundred nautical miles (200 n.m.) offshore.
p. Existing mining/quarrying right means a valid and subsisting mining claim or permit or quarry
permit or any mining lease contract or agreement covering a mineralized area granted/issued under
pertinent mining laws.
q. Exploration means the searching or prospecting for mineral resources by geological, geochemical
or geophysical surveys, remote sensing, test pitting, trenching, drilling, shaft sinking, tunneling or any
other means for the purpose of determining the existence, extent, quantity and quality thereof and the
feasibility of mining them for profit.
r. Financial or technical assistance agreement means a contract involving financial or technical
assistance for large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of mineral resources.
s. Force majeure means acts or circumstances beyond the reasonable control of contractor including,
but not limited to, war, rebellion, insurrection, riots, civil disturbance, blockade, sabotage, embargo,
strike, lockout, any dispute with surface owners and other labor disputes, epidemic, earthquake,
storm, flood or other adverse weather conditions, explosion, fire, adverse action by government or by
any instrumentality or subdivision thereof, act of God or any public enemy and any cause that herein
describe over which the affected party has no reasonable control.

y. Mineral processing means the milling, beneficiation or upgrading of ores or minerals and rocks or
by similar means to convert the same into marketable products.
z. Mine wastes and tailings shall mean soil and rock materials from surface or underground mining
and milling operations with no economic value to the generator of the same.
aa. Minerals refers to all naturally occurring inorganic substance in solid, gas, liquid, or any
intermediate state excluding energy materials such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, radioactive
materials, and geothermal energy.
ab. Mineral agreement means a contract between the government and a contractor, involving mineral
production-sharing agreement, co-production agreement, or joint-venture agreement.
ac. Mineral land means any area where mineral resources are found.
ad. Mineral resource means any concentration of minerals/rocks with potential economic value.
ae. Mining area means a portion of the contract area identified by the contractor for purposes of
development, mining, utilization, and sites for support facilities or in the immediate vicinity of the
mining operations.
af. Mining operation means mining activities involving exploration, feasibility, development, utilization,
and processing.
ag. Non-governmental organization (NGO) includes nonstock, nonprofit organizations involved in
activities dealing with resource and environmental conservation, management and protection.

ah. Net assets refers to the property, plant and equipment as reflected in the audited financial
statement of the contractor net of depreciation, as computed for tax purposes, excluding appraisal
increase and construction in progress.
ai. Offshore means the water, sea bottom and subsurface from the shore or coastline reckoned from
the mean low tide level up to the two hundred nautical miles (200 n.m.) exclusive economic zone
including the archipelagic sea and contiguous zone.
aj. Onshore means the landward side from the mean tide elevation, including submerged lands in
lakes, rivers and creeks.
ak. Ore means a naturally occurring substance or material from which a mineral or element can be
mined and/or processed for profit.
al. Permittee means the holder of an exploration permit.
am. Pollution control and infrastructure devices refers to infrastructure, machinery, equipment and/or
improvements used for impounding, treating or neutralizing, precipitating, filtering, conveying and
cleansing mine industrial waste and tailings as well as eliminating or reducing hazardous effects of
solid particles, chemicals, liquids or other harmful byproducts and gases emitted from any facility
utilized in mining operations for their disposal.
an. President means the President of the Republic of the Philippines.
ao. Private land refers to any land belonging to any private person which includes alienable and
disposable land being claimed by a holder, claimant, or occupant who has already acquired a vested
right thereto under the law, although the corresponding certificate or evidence of title or patent has not
been actually issued.

at. Quarry resources refers to any common rock or other mineral substances as the Director of Mines
and Geosciences Bureau may declare to be quarry resources such as, but not limited to, andesite,
basalt, conglomerate, coral sand, diatomaceous earth, diorite, decorative stones, gabbro, granite,
limestone, marble, marl, red burning clays for potteries and bricks, rhyolite, rock phosphate,
sandstone, serpentine, shale, tuff, volcanic cinders, and volcanic glass: Provided, That such quarry
resources do not contain metals or metallic constituents and/or other valuable minerals in
economically workable quantities: Provided, further, That non-metallic minerals such as kaolin,
feldspar, bull quartz, quartz or silica, sand and pebbles, bentonite, talc, asbestos, barite, gypsum,
bauxite, magnesite, dolomite, mica, precious and semi-precious stones, and other non-metallic
minerals that may later be discovered and which the: Director declares the same to be of
economically workable quantities, shall not be classified under the category of quarry resources.
au. Regional director means the regional director of any mines regional office under the Department
of Environment and Natural Resources.
av. Regional office means any of the mines regional offices of the Department of Environment and
Natural Resources.
aw. Secretary means the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
ax. Special allowance refers to payment to the claim-owners or surface right-owners particularly
during the transition period from Presidential Decree No. 463 and Executive Order No. 279, series of
ay. State means the Republic of the Philippines.
az. Utilization means the extraction or disposition of minerals.

ap. Public land refers to lands of the public domain which have been classified as agricultural lands
and subject to management and disposition or concession under existing laws.

The Water Code of the Philippines.

aq. Qualified person means any citizen of the Philippines with capacity to contract, or a corporation,
partnership, association, or cooperative organized or authorized for the purpose of engaging in
miring, with technical and financial capability to undertake mineral resources development and duly
registered in accordance with law at least sixty per centum (60%) of the capital of which is owned by
citizens of the Philippines: Provided, That a legally organized foreign-owned corporation shall be
deemed a qualified person for purposes of granting an exploration permit, financial or technical
assistance agreement or mineral processing permit.


ar. Quarrying means the process of extracting, removing and disposing quarry resources found on or
underneath the surface of private or public land.


as. Quarry permit means a document granted to a qualified person for the extraction and utilization of
quarry resources on public or private lands.

December 31, 1976

"Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004."

March 22, 2004


conservation and aesthetic purposes; and (4) vulnerability of surface and groundwater to
contamination from pollutive and hazardous wastes, agricultural chemicals and underground storage
tanks of petroleum products.

SECTION 4. Definition of Terms. - As used in this Act:

e) Civil Society - means non-government organizations (NGOs) and people's organizations (POs).
a) Aquifer - means a layer of water-bearing rock located underground that transmits water in sufficient
quantity to supply pumping wells or natural springs.

f) Cleaner Production - means the application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy to

processes, products, services to increase efficiency and reduce risk to humans and the environment;

b) Aquatic life - means all organisms living in freshwater, brackish and marine environment.
c) Beneficial use - means the use of the environment or any element or segment thereof conducive to
public or private welfare, safety and health; and shall include, but not be limited to, the use of water
for domestic, municipal, irrigation, power generation, fisheries, livestock raising, industrial,
recreational and other purposes.
1. Use of water for domestic purposes - means the utilization of water for drinking, washing,
bathing, cooking or other household needs, home gardens and watering of lawns or
domestic animals;

g) Clean-up operations - means activities involving the removal of pollutants discharged or spilled into
a water body and its surrounding areas, and the restoration of the affected areas to their former
physical, chemical and biological state or conditions.
h) Contamination - means the production of substances not found in the natural composition of water
that make the water less desirable or unfit desirable or unfit for intended use.
i) Department - means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

2. Use of water for municipal purposes - means the utilization of water for supplying water
requirements of the community;

j) Discharge includes, but is not limited to, the act of spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting,
emptying, releasing or dumping of any material into a water body or onto land from which it might flow
or drain into said water.

3. Use of water for irrigation - means the utilization of water for producing agricultural crops;

k) Drinking water- means water intended for human consumption or for use in food preparation.

4. Use of water for power generation - means the utilization of water for producing electrical
or mechanical power;

l) Dumping - means any unauthorized or illegal disposal into any body of water or land of wastes or
toxic or hazardous material: Provided, That it does not mean a release of effluent coming from
commercial, industrial, and domestic sources which are within the effluent standards.

5. Use of water for fisheries - means the utilization of water for the propagation of culture of
fish as a commercial enterprise;
6. Use of water for livestock raising - means the utilization of water for large herds or flocks
of animals raised as a commercial enterprise;
7. Use of water for industrial purposes - means the utilization of water in factories, industrial
plants and mines, including the use of water as an ingredient of a finished product; and
8. Use of water for recreational purposes - means the utilization of water for swimming
pools, bath houses, boating, water skiing, golf courses and other similar facilities in resorts
and other places of recreation.
d) Classification/Reclassification of Philippine Waters - means the categorization of all water bodies
taking into account, among others, the following: (1) existing quality of the body of water; (2) size,
depth, surface area covered, volume, direction, rate of flow and gradient of stream; (3) most
beneficial existing and future use of said bodies of water and lands bordering them, such as for
residential, agricultural, aquacultural, commercial, industrial, navigational, recreational, wildlife

m) Effluent - means discharge from known sources which is passed into a body of water or land, or
wastewater flowing out of a manufacturing plant, industrial plant including domestic, commercial and
recreational facilities.
n) Effluent standard - means any legal restriction or limitation on quantities, rates, and/or
concentrations or any combination thereof, of physical, chemical or biological parameters of effluent
which a person or point source is allowed to discharge into a body of water or land.
o) Environmental management - means the entire system which includes, but is not limited to,
conservation, regulation and minimization of pollution, clean production, waste management,
environmental law and policy, environmental education and information, study and mitigation of the
environmental impacts of human activity, and environmental research.
p) Environmental management system - means the part of the overall management system that
includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures,
processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the
environment policy.

q) Freshwater - means water containing less than 500 ppm dissolved common salt, sodium chloride,
such as that in groundwater, rivers, ponds and lakes.

bb) Pollutant- shall refer to any substance, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive, which directly
or indirectly:

r) Groundwater - means a subsurface water that occurs beneath a water table in soils and rocks, or in
geological formations.

(i) alters the quality of any segment of the receiving water body to affect or tend to affect
adversely any beneficial use thereof;

s) Groundwater vulnerability - means relative ease with which a contaminant located at or near the
land surface can migrate to the aquifer or deep well.

(ii) is hazardous or potential hazardous to health;

t) Groundwater vulnerability map - means the identified areas of the land surface where groundwater
quality is most at risk from human activities and shall reflect the different degrees of groundwater
vulnerability based on a range of soil properties and hydro geological criteria to serve as guide in the
protection of the groundwater from contamination.
u) Hazardous waste - means any waste or combination of wastes of solid liquid, contained gaseous,
or semi-solid form which cause, of contribute to, an increase in mortality or an increase in serious
irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness, taking into account toxicity of such waste, its
persistence and degradability in nature, its potential for accumulation or concentration in tissue, and
other factors that may otherwise cause or contribute to adverse acute or chronic effects on the health
of persons or organism.
v) Industrial waste - means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste material with no commercial value
released by a manufacturing or processing plant other than excluded material.
w) Integrated Water Quality Management Framework - means the policy guideline integrating all the
existing frameworks prepared by all government agencies contain the following; water quality goals
and targets; (b) period of compliance; (c) water pollution control strategies and techniques; (d) water
quality information and education program; (e) human resources development program.
x) Margin - means a landward and outer limiting edge adjacent to the border of any water bodies or a
limit beyond where beyond where saturation zone ceases to exist.
y) National Water Quality Status Report - means a report to be prepared by the Department
indicating: a) the location of water bodies, their quality, taking into account seasonal, tidal and others
variations, existing and potential uses and sources of pollution per specific pollutant and pollution load
assessment; b) water quality management areas pursuant to Section 5 of this Act; c) and water
z) Non-point source - means any source of pollution not identifiable as point source to include, but not
be limited to, runoff from irrigation or rainwater, which picks up pollutants from farms and urban areas.
aa) Point source - means any identifiable source of pollution with specific point of discharge into a
particular water body.

(iii) imparts objectionable odor, temperature change, or physical, chemical or biological

change to any segment of the water body; or
(iv) is in excess of the allowable limits, concentrations, or quality standards specified, or in
contravention of the condition, limitation or restriction prescribed in this Act.
cc) Pollution control technology- means pollution control devices or apparatus, processes, or other
means that effectively prevent control or reduce pollution of water caused by effluents and other
discharges, from any point source at levels within the water pollution standards.
dd) Potentially infectious medical waste- include isolation wastes, infectious agents, human blood and
blood products, pathological wastes, sharps, body parts, contaminated bedding, surgical wastes, and
other disposable medical equipment and material that may pose a risk to the public health, welfare or
the marine environment.
ee) Secretary - means the Secretary of the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources
ff) Septage - means the sludge produced on individual onsite wastewater disposal systems,
principally septic tanks and cesspools.
gg) Sewage - means water-borne human or animal wastes, excluding oil or oil wastes, removed from
residences, building, institutions, industrial and commercial establishments together with such
groundwater, surface water and storm water as maybe present including such waste from vessels,
offshore structures, other receptacles intended to receive or retain waste or other places or the
combination thereof.
hh) Sewerage - includes, but is not limited to, any system or network of pipelines, ditches, channels,
or conduits including pumping stations, lift stations and force mains, service connections including
other constructions, devices, and appliances appurtenant thereto, which includes the collection,
transport, pumping and treatment of sewage to a point of disposal.
ii) Sludge - means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste or residue generated from a wastewater
treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or water control pollution facility, or any other such
waste having similar characteristics and effects.
jj) Surface water - means all water, which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff.

kk) Treatment - means any method, technique, or process designed to alter the physical, chemical or
biological and radiological character or composition of any waste or wastewater to reduce or prevent
ll) Toxic amount - means the lowest amount of concentration of toxic pollutants, which may cause
chronic or long-term acute or lethal conditions or effects to the aquatic life, or health of persons or
which may adversely affect designated water uses.
mm) Waste - means any material either solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gas or other forms resulting
industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations, or from community and household activities
that is devoid of usage and discarded.
nn) Wastewater - means waste in liquid state containing pollutants.
oo) Water body - means both natural and man-made bodies of fresh, brackish, and saline waters, and
includes, but is not limited to, aquifers, groundwater, springs, creeks, streams, rivers, ponds, lagoons,
water reservoirs, lakes, bays, estuarine, coastal and marine waters. Water bodies do not refer to
those constructed, developed and used purposely as water treatment facilities and / or water storage
for recycling and re-use which are integral to process industry or manufacturing.
pp) Water Pollution - means any alteration of the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological
properties of a water body resulting in the impairment of its purity or quality.
qq) Water Quality - means the characteristics of water, which define its use in characteristics by terms
of physical, chemical, biological, bacteriological or radiological characteristics by which the
acceptability of water is evaluated.
rr) Water quality guidelines - means the level for a water constituent or numerical values of physical,
chemical, biological and bacteriological or radiological parameters which are used to classify water
resources and their use, which does not result in significant health risk and which are not intended for
direct enforcement but only for water quality management purposes, such as determining time trends,
evaluating stages of deterioration or enhancement of the water quality, and as basis for taking
positive action in preventing, controlling or abating water pollution.
ss) Water Quality Management Area Action Plan - includes, but not be limited to, the following: (a)
goals and targets including sewerage or septage program, (b) schedule of compliance to meet the
applicable requirements of this Act; (c) water pollution control strategies or techniques; (d) water
quality information and education program; e) resource requirement and possible sources; f)
enforcement procedures of the plan and (g) rewards and incentives under Chapter 4 of this Act.



MAY 25, 1973
Section 3. Definitions. - As used in this Decree, the following words and terms shall have the meanings herein
set forth, unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context. The definition of a word or term applies
to any of its variants.
(a) Act. This Provincial Water Utilities Act of 1973.
(b) Appointing authority. The person empowered to appoint the members of the board of Directors of
a local water district, depending upon the geographic coverage and population make-up of the
particular district. In the event that more than seventy-five percent of the total active water service
connections of a local water district are within the boundary of any city or municipality, the appointing
authority shall be the mayor of that city or municipality, as the case may be; otherwise, the appointing
authority shall be the governor of the province within which the district is located. If portions of more
than one province are included within the boundary of the district, and the appointing authority is to be
the governors then the power to appoint shall rotate between the governors involved with the initial
appointments made by the governor in whose province the greatest number of service connections
(c) Administration. The Local Waters Utilities Administration chartered in Title III of this Decree.
(d) NEDA. The National Economic and Development Authority.
(e) Board or Board of Directors. The Board of directors of a district.
(f) Contracts. All agreements, including leases, conveyances and obligations.
(g) District. A local water district formed pursuant to Title II of this Act.
(h) Local Water Utility. Any district, city, municipality, province, investor-owned public utility or
cooperative corporation which owns or operates a water system serving an urban center in the
Philippines, except that said term shall not included the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage
System (MWSS) or any system operated by the Bureau of Public Work as successor to the Wells and
Springs Department of the National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority.

(i) Person. A natural person, corporation, cooperative, partnership, association, city, municipality or
other juridical entity.


May 19, 1975

(j) Property. All real and personal property, including but not limited to: water, water rights, works,
easements, rights of way.


(k) Street. Includes road, valley, avenue, highway or other public way.
Section 3. Definitions.
(l) Trustee or Board of Trustees. The Board of trustees of the Administration.
(a) Public forest is the mass of lands of the public domain which has not been the subject of the
present system of classification for the determination of which lands are needed for forest purposes
and which are not.
July 18, 1966

(b) Permanent forest or forest reserves refer to those lands of the public domain which have been the
subject of the present system of classification and determined to be needed for forest purposes.
(c) Alienable and disposable lands refer to those lands of the public domain which have been the
subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes.
(d) Forest lands include the public forest, the permanent forest or forest reserves, and forest


"Chain Saw Act of 2002".
November 7, 2002
Section 3. Definition of Terms. - As used in this Act, the term:
(a) "Chain saw" shall refer to any portable power saw or similar cutting implement, rendered operative
by an electric or internal combustion engine or similar means, that may be used for, but is not limited
to, the felling of trees or the cutting of timber;
(b) "Chain saw dealer" shall refer to a person, natural or juridical, engaged in the manufacture,
importation, distribution, purchase and/or sale of chain saws;
(c) "Department" shall refer to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; and
(d) "Secretary" shall refer to the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

(e) Grazing land refers to that portion of the public domain which has been set aside, in view of the
suitability of its topography and vegetation, for the raising of livestock.
(f) Mineral lands refer to those lands of the public domain which have been classified as such by the
Secretary of Natural Resources in accordance with prescribed and approved criteria, guidelines and
(g) Forest reservations refer to forest lands which have been reserved by the President of the
Philippines for any specific purpose or purposes.
(h) National park refers to a forest land reservation essentially of primitive or wilderness character
which has been withdrawn from settlement or occupancy and set aside as such exclusively to
preserve the scenery, the natural and historic objects and the wild animals or plants therein, and to
provide enjoyment of these features in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future
(i) Game refuge or bird sanctuary refers to a forest land designated for the protection of game
animals, birds and fish and closed to hunting and fishing in order that the excess population may flow
and restock surrounding areas.
(j) Marine parks refers to any off-shore area inhabited by rare and unique species of marine flora and

(k) Seashore park refers to any public shore area delimited for outdoor recreation, sports fishing,
water skiing and related healthful activities.

(x) Seed tree system is partial clearcutting with seed trees left to regenerate the area.
(y) Healthy residual is a sound or slightly injured tree of the commercial species left after logging.

(l) Watershed reservation is a forest land reservation established to protect or improve the conditions
of the water yield thereof or reduce sedimentation.
(m) Watershed is a land area drained by a stream or fixed body of water and its tributaries having a
common outlet for surface run-off.
(n) Critical watershed is a drainage area of a river system supporting existing and proposed hydroelectric power and irrigation works needing immediate rehabilitation as it is being subjected to a fast
denudation causing accelerated erosion and destructive floods. It is closed from logging until it is fully
(o) Mangrove is a term applied to the type of forest occurring on tidal flat along the sea coast,
extending along streams where the water is brackish.
(p) Kaingin is a portion of the forest land, whether occupied or not, which is subjected to shifting
and/or permanent slash-and-burn cultivation having little or no provision to prevent soil erosion.
(q) Forest product means timber, pulpwood, firewood, bark, tree top, resin, gum, wood, oil, honey,
beeswax, nipa, rattan, or other forest growth such as grass, shrub, and flowering plant, the
associated water, fish, game, scenic, historical, recreational and geologic resources in forest lands.
(r) Dipterocarp forest is a forest dominated by trees of the dipterocarp species, such as red lauan,
tengile, tiaong, white lauan, almon, bagtikan and mayapis of the Philippine mahogany group, apitong
and the yakals.
(s) Pine forest is a forest composed of the Benguet Pine in the Mountain Provinces or the Mindoro
pine in Mindoro and Zambales provinces.
(t) Industrial tree plantation is any tract of forest land purposely and extensively planted to timber
crops primarily to supply the raw material requirements of existing or proposed processing plants and
related industries.
(u) Tree farm refers to any tract of forest land purposely and extensively planted to trees of economic
value for their fruits, flowers, leaves, barks, or extractives, but not for the wood thereof.
(v) Multiple-use is the harmonized utilization of the numerous beneficial uses of the land, soil, water,
wildlife, recreation value, grass and timber of forest lands.

(z) Sustained-yield management implies continuous or periodic production of forest products in a

working unit with the aid of achieving at the earliest practicable time an approximate balance between
growth and harvest or use. This is generally applied to the commercial timber resources and is also
applicable to the water, grass, wildlife, and other renewable resources of the forest.
(aa) Processing plant is any mechanical set-up, machine or combination of machine used for the
processing of logs and other forest raw materials into lumber, veneer, plywood, wallboard, blockboard, paper board, pulp, paper or other finished wood products.
(bb) Lease is a privilege granted by the State to a person to occupy and possess, in consideration of
a specified rental, any forest land of the public domain in order to undertake any authorized activity
(cc) License is a privilege granted by the State to a person to utilize forest resources as in any forest
land, without any right of occupation and possession over the same, to the exclusion of others, or
establish and operate a wood-processing plant, or conduct any activity involving the utilization of any
forest resources.
(dd) License agreement is a privilege granted by the State to a person to utilize forest resources
within any forest land with the right of possession and occupation thereof to the exclusion of others,
except the government, but with the corresponding obligation to develop, protect and rehabilitate the
same in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in said agreement.
(ee) Permit is a short-term privilege or authority granted by the State to a person to utilize any limited
forest resources or undertake a limited activity with any forest land without any right of occupation
and possession therein.
(ff) Annual allowable cut is the volume of materials, whether of wood or other forest products, that is
authorized to be cut regularly from the forest.
(gg) Cutting cycle is the number of years between major harvests in the same working unit and/or
region, within a rotation.
(hh) Ecosystem means the ecological community considered together with non-living factors and its
environment as a unit.
(ii) Silviculture is the establishment, development reproduction and care of forest trees.

(w) Selective logging means the systematic removal of the mature, over-mature and defective trees in
such manner as to leave adequate number and volume of healthy residual trees of the desired
species necessary to assure a future crop of timber, and forest cover for the protection and
conservation of soil and water.

(jj) Rationalization is the organization of a business or industry using scientific business management
principles and simplified procedures to obtain greater efficiency of operation.

(kk) Forest officer means any official or employee of the Bureau who, by the nature of his
appointment or the function of the position to which he is appointed, is delegated by law or by
competent authority to execute, implement or enforce the provisions of this Code, other related laws,
as well as their implementing regulations.
(ll) Primitive tribe is a group of endemic tribe living primitively as a distinct portion of a people from a
common ancestor.
(mm) Private right means or refers to titled rights of ownership under existing laws, and in the case of
primitive tribes, to rights of possession existing at the time a license is granted under this Code, which
possession may include places of abode and worship, burial grounds, and old clearings, but excludes
production forest inclusive of logged-over areas, commercial forests and established plantations of
forest trees and trees of economic value.

i) Any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of chemical

reaction or occurring in nature; and
ii) Any element or uncombined chemical.
b) Chemical mixture means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination
does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction, if none of the
chemical substances comprising the combination is a new chemical substance and if the combination
could have been manufactured for commercial purposes without a chemical reaction at the time the
chemical substances comprising the combination were combined. This shall include
nonbiodegradable mixtures.
c) Process means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture after its manufacture for
commercial distribution:

(nn) Person includes natural as well as juridical person

i) In the same form or physical state or in a different form or physical state from that which it
was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture; or
ii) As part of an article containing a chemical substance or mixture.
d) Importation means the entry of a products or substances into the Philippines (through the seaports
or airports of entry) after having been properly cleared through or still remaining under customs
control, the product or substance of which is intended for direct consumption, merchandising,
warehousing, or for further processing.
e) Manufacture means the mechanical or chemical transformation of substances into new products
whether work is performed by power-driven machines or by hand, whether it is done in a factory or in
the worker's home, and whether the products are sold at wholesale or retail.
"Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990."
October 26, 1990
Section 5. Definition. As used in this Act:
a) Chemical substance means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity,

f) Unreasonable risk means expected frequency of undesirable effects or adverse responses arising
from a given exposure to a substance.
g) Hazardous substances are substances which present either:
1) short-term acute hazards, such as acute toxicity by ingestion, inhalation or skin
absorption, corrosivity or other skin or eye contact hazards or the risk of fire or explosion; or
2) long-term environmental hazards, including chronic toxicity upon repeated exposure,
carcinogenicity (which may in some cases result from acute exposure but with a long latent
period), resistance to detoxification process such as biodegradation, the potential to pollute
underground or surface waters, or aesthetically objectionable properties such as offensive

h) Hazardous wastes are hereby defined as substances that are without any safe commercial,
industrial, agricultural or economic usage and are shipped, transported or brought from the country of
origin for dumping or disposal into or in transit through any part of the territory of the Philippines.
Hazardous wastes shall also refer to by-products, side-products, process residues, spent reaction
media, contaminated plant or equipment or other substances from manufacturing operations, and as
consumer discards of manufacture products.

i) Nuclear wastes are hazardous wastes made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incidental to
the production or utilization of nuclear fuels but does not include nuclear fuel, or radioisotopes which
have reached the final stage of fabrication so as to be usable for any scientific, medical, agricultural,
commercial, or industrial purpose.