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COURSE: Thermodynamics I

Class: Second 2016 - 2017

Submitted by:
Experiment No: 1
Date of experiment: 25 /10/2016
Date of submission: 2 /11/2016

Activity During Experiment & Procedure
Data & Results
Discussion, Conclusion & Answer to the Questions

Neat and tidy report writing

Overall Mark

Name of evaluator:

Several properties simple Newtonian fluids have. They are basic
properties which cannot be calculated for every fluid, and therefore they
must be measured. These properties are important in making calculations
regarding fluid systems. Measuring fluid properties, density, is the object of
this experiment, which is defined as its mass per unit volume (eqn. 1.1). It can obtain
through various means, but in this course we mention two methods only.
(Eqn. 1.1)
Where , density kg/m
, mass kg
V , volume m3
Method 1;One method to determine a fluids density is to weigh a known volume and
divide its mass by the volume, using eqns. (1.2) & (1.1).
M m laden beaker m unladed beaker = m fluid

(Eqn. 1.2)

Method 2;The last method for measuring density to be considered in this report
involves the use of a hydrometer cylinder. A hydrometer is an instrument
used to measure the specific gravity of a fluid, usually with a reference to
pure water at room temperature.
S.G = sub. / water
(Eqn. 1.3)
Method One:
1) Weigh the empty graduated beaker on a scale and record the mass.
2) Remove the beaker from the scale and measure an arbitrary volume of
selected fluid into the beaker.
3) Weigh the laden beaker on the scale again and record the mass.
4) determine the difference in the masses as per Equation 1.2 and record this
mass. This value is the mass of the fluid.
5) Divide the mass of the fluid by the volume measured into the beaker as
per Equation 1.1 and records this value. This will yield the density of the

Method Two:
1) Select a hydrometer cylinder via an educated guess of the supposed
density of the fluid.
2) Fill a graduated cylinder with an arbitrary amount of selected fluid. The
particular volume for this part of the experiment is in consequential as long
as there is enough to submerge the hydrometer to obtain an accurate reading.
3) Insert the hydrometer into the fluid filled cylinder as close to the center as
possible. If the hydrometer sticks to the walls of the cylinder, it will yield an
in accurate specific gravity for the fluid.
4) Once the hydrometer has stabilized and is no longer bobbing in the fluid,
take a reading of the specific gravity on the neck of the hydrometer at the
meniscus of the fluid as seen in Figure 1 and record this value.
5) Multiply the specific gravity of the fluid obtained in Step 4 by the density
of water (1000 kg/m3 for SI and 62.4 lbm/ft3 for BG) as per equation
1.3. This calculation yields the density of the fluid.

Figure 1: Demonstration of proper hydrometer reading.