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UNIT 2

THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS.


MICROORGANISMS.
1. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS.

Artificial criteria: not valid in Sciences.


Natural criteria: based on details as anatomy, behaviour
-Objective criteria: dont depend of the investigator.
-Discriminatory criteria: characteristics serve to separate
different groups (birds # bats).

DICOTOMOUS KEY: a series of instructions with two possibilities to


classify and identify living things.

1.1. How are living things classified?


Scientists classify L.Ths. with natural criteria in groups with common
features, these groups are taxons. The basic taxon is the species.
SPECIES: group of individuals with common characteristics that can
reproduce having fertile offspring.
Some species form a GENUS. Similar genus form a FAMILY, some
families an ORDER, some orders a CLASS, some classes a PHYLLUM
(=Type), and some phyla form a KINGDOM.
TAXONOMIC CATHEGORIES (taxons)

KINGDOM
PHYLLUM or TYPE // in plants DIVISION
CLASS
ORDER
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
Linnaeus created in 1753 the BINOMIAL NAME to call all the living things.
BINOMIAL NAME: the SCIENTIFIC NAME of each species has two Latin
words.
First one (Genus), with capital letters.
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Second one (species), indicates a detail of the species itself.


PLANTS

ANIMALS

Common name

Scientific name

Common name

Scientific name

Dog

Canis familiaris

Quercus ilex

Wolf

Canis lupus

Holm oak (encina)


Cork oak

Coyote

Canis latrans

Quercus suber
(alcornoque)
Common oak (roble) Quercus pyrenaica

2. KINGDOMS AND BIODIVERSITY.


2.1.Kingdoms.

Aristotle (4th century B.C.) classified LThs in ANIMALS and PLANTS.


Whittaker (1969) and Margulys (1985) proposed 5 KINGDOMS.

KINGDO

MONERAN

PROTIST

FUNGUS

PLANTS

ANIMAL

Prok

Euk

Euk

Euk

Euk

Unicell

Unicell/mult

Unicell/mult

Unicell/mult

Unicell/multi

NO

YES

YES

Auto

Hetero

M
Type of
cell
Cell
structure
Tissues

NO

NO

Nutrition

Auto/heter

Auto/hetero Hetero

o
Protozoa,
Examples

Bacteria

algae

Yeasts,
moulds

Mosses,

and Vertebrates
invertebrate
the rest.
s

and ferns

mushrooms

Woese (1990) proposed the DOMAINS (=dominios).

- Domain BACTERIA
- Domain ARCHAEA**

PROKARYOTE CELLS

- Domain EUKARIA EUKARYOTE


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- animals, plants
- fungi

CELLS

- protists

2.2. The concept of biodiversity.

Is the totality of LThs we find in the Earth in all its ecosystems. Its

the result of the evolution from the first existing cell.


We can say express too the number of different species found in an

area (Earth, Europe, Spain, river Bernesga borders, a park.).


Protected areas usually have a high biodiversity.

3. MICROORGANISMS (m.o)
A big group of different LThs, usually formed by one cell, invisible to naked
eye, so we need microscope to observe them. They can be:
- MONERAN: all Bacteria.
-PROTIST: Unicellular algae and unicellular protozoa.
- FUNGUS: Unicellular fungi.

3.1.Types of microorganisms (depending on their effects on


LTh):

Beneficial microorganisms.
o
o
o
o
o

Photosynthetic ones.
Decomposer of organic matter.
Provide us antibiotics (to destroy other m.o.).
Food producers (bread, yogurt, cheese, wine, beer).
Help plants to obtain nutrients.

Harmful microorganisms PATHOGENSILLNESES


3.2.Viruses
4. MONERAN KINGDOM.
4.1. ORGANISATION.
4.2. NUTRITION.
4.3. REPRODUCTION.
4.4. BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA.
5. PROTIST KINGDOM.
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5.1. PROTOZOA.
5.2. ALGAE.
6. FUNGUS KINGDOM.
6.1. UNICELLULAR FUNGI: YEASTS.
6.2. MULTICELLULAR: MOULDS & MUSHROOMS.
6.2.2. MOULDS.
6.2.3. MUSHROOMS.

TAXONES O CATEGORAS USADOS EN LA


TAXONOMA
Adems de los REINOS, desde hace unos aos se ha clasificado a los
seres vivos en
I DOMINIOS
- BACTERIA
- ARCHAEA
- EUKARIA

CLULAS
PROCARIOTAS

CLULAS EUCARIOTAS

I I REINOS
-

ANIMALIA
PLANTAE
FUNGI
PROTISTA (o PROTOCTISTA)
MONERA

En cada uno de estos Reinos se establecen las siguientes categoras cada


vez ms pequeas:
REINO
FILO (= PHYLLUM) o TIPO // En Plantas DIVISIN
CLASE
ORDEN
4

FAMILIA
GNERO
ESPECIE
A partir de REINO, en cualquier categora podemos hallar categoras
intermedias con las partculas SUPER- (por encima de) o SUB- (por
debajo de).
Ejemplos de clasificacin taxonmica
En negrita aparecen las categoras taxonmicas principales.
En cursiva aparecen las categoras taxonmicas secundarias.
SER HUMANO
REINO
FILO
SUBFILO
SUPERCLASE
CLASE
ORDEN
FAMILIA
GNERO
ESPECIE

METAZOOS (= ANIMALIA)
CORDADOS
VERTEBRADOS
TETRPODOS
MAMFEROS
PRIMATES
HOMNIDOS
Homo
sapiens
TRBOL COMN

REINO
DIVISIN
SUBDIVISIN
SUPERCLASE
CLASE
ORDEN
FAMILIA
GNERO
ESPECIE

METAFITAS (= PLANTAE)
ESPERMAFITA
ANGIOSPERMAS
DICOTILEDNEAS
FABALES
FABCEAS
Trifolium
pratense

NOTA: en estos esquemas los nombres de las categoras estn escritos en


castellano o latn castellanizado. Normalmente en los textos o exmenes
aparecern en ingls ms o menos latinizado.