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YOU SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-

IT IS.

IF

YOU DO NOT SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-IT

IS

HOW THE "FOOL-PROOF" PLANE WORKS

The Appariitus is air-driven in other words, a small rropellcr-driven uir-pump compresses liic iiir In ilie reservoir. This is
I'his valve is controlled hy a vane which is actuated by the windcarried by pipes attached to the struts throujiSh a check valve.
pressure and so works the valve that controls the compressed-air-engine, which in turn works the elevator. To halance the machine,
pendulum controls the valve which is attached to the pipes to tlie air-engine that supplies (he power to work ihi- aiUrmis.
;

NOT

SLOANE
FLYING BOATS
For Sporting and Naval Use
The most

perfectly designed and best constructed fljing boats in the world.

THE SAFEST
Built according to the best engineering practice in design and construction, this

Aeroplane

Sloane

product of the

Company

represents

the

greatest

new

advance

in

MARINE CRAFT
Solid Honduras Mahoganj" \ bottom hulls, comfortable and well
monoplane style wings, folding top extensions, strong construction
and double wiring throughout are some of the features of the new craft.
Investigate and compare our flying boats with others and you will realize what a
tremendous advance we have made.
so far attained.

sheltered seats,

OWL BOATS

SLOANE MONOPLANES

For Over Water and Land Flying

TRACTOR BIPLANES

For Sporting and Military Use

REAR PROPELLER GUN-PLANES

and

SLOANE AERO-SKIMMERS
For Sportsmen.

Ideal for high speed travel on the water

shallow streams.

We

and delivery use|[on

recently furnished Mr. Robert J. Collier with

one of these craft

GNOME

fitted

with a 220 H. P. Anzani Motor.

RENAULT

ANZANI
AT LOWEST PRICES

Aeroplanes

built to special design.

Parts supplied

in

fact,

Designs developed

everything aeronautical furnished

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


1731

BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

AIRCRAFT

March, 1914

273

The above picture is a reproduction of the Moisant Aeroplane Factory on Long Island.
constructed up to the present time. Harold Kantner is now in charge of this factory.

CONTENTS MARCH,
Around the World Air Race
Map Showing Route of the Proposed Air Race Around
The Xew Sloane Flying Boat
Scale Drawings of the New Sloane Flying Boats

In

tliese

works

News

World

W. Lawson

Walter H. Phipps
Arthur V. Prescott
Walter A. House

275

276
277
278
279
280
281

281

Lester L. Sargent
Nicholas S. Schloeder

M.

in

New

Monoplanes have been

..........
Alfred

the

Department

General
Photograph and Drawing of the

of the Moisant

1914

Foreign News
Some Facts Regarding a "Challenger"
Scale Drawings of a Suggested "Challenger"
The Thomas Flying Boat, 1914 Model
Review of Recent Aeronautic Inventions

Model

all

E.

Henry

Boland Flying Boat

282
283

284
285

AIRCRAFT
ALFRED W. LAWSON
President and Treasurer
ERNEST C. LANDGRAF

Published Monthly by The Law^son Publishing


37.39

WHEN YOUR

TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS
the United States. Mexico, Puerto Rico. Guam, Philippine islands,
awaiian Islands. Cuba (including Postage). $2.00 per year.
Twenty-five Cents the Copy, of All News Dealers.
Foreign Subscriptions. Three Dollars per year.
In changing order give old as well as new address.
Advertising copy must be in hand by the 1st of month previous to
.te

of publication.

Only

high-grade

advertisements

of

thoroughly

reliable

licited.

February

Entered as "second-class matter'


"Aircraft"

is

registere

Company

28th STREET, NEW YORK. U. S. A.


Telephone. 5017 Madison Square

EAST

18.

firms

are

SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRES

One month

on expirt
expires we enclose a renewal blank
before a subscription
will write your order for t
When first notified that your subscription will exp:
you should
mber.
send your renewal at once, in order not to miss
New
subscriptions which are received by us on or befor* the 15th of any
month will begin with the issue of that month. If
d after that
will
following
month's
iss
begin
the
We
date they
with
cannot
enter subscriptions to begin with back numbers.
On
)nth's notice
is necessary before a change of address can be made.

on which you

1910, at the Post Office, at

New

as a trade-mark by the U. S. Patent Office,

York, N. Y., under Act of March

under date of August

9th, 1910.

3.

1879.

AIRCRAFT

374

March. IQ14

BEACH

SEIDLER'S
NEW

JERSEY

the first bonafide flying boat station


in the world.

is

flying

the most ideal landing place for


boats within 50 miles of New

York

City.

It

THE WRIGHT

is

We

COMPANY

Cater to the Airmen

No owner
boat or

(THE WRIGHT PATENTS)

to

New

or pilot of either

a flying

hydro-aeroplane should come


York without visiting Seidler's

Beach.

We

Beach

Seidler's
are

now prepared

deliveries

of

to

make prompt

our various

adapted

types for

known

Hotel

flying

for

flyers as

is

men.

Robert

especially

Such

well

J. Collier,

Wal-

ter Brookins, Frank CofFyn, Grover C.


Loening, Alfred W. Lawson, Walter E.
Johnson, Earl Beers and Barton, have
made this beach their headquarters.

EXHIBITION FLYING

For Further Particulars

Communicate with

FRANK SEIDLER
NEW

CLIFFWOOD

WHEN

IN

JERSEY

NEW YORK

STOP AT
The United States Courts have upheld
Wright Patents, declaring the

the

Farman, Bleriot and similar


machines to be infringements, and
permanently enjoining the use of all
such infringing machines.
Curtiss,

The season of 1914


one

will

Hotel

St.

Andrew

Broadway and 72nd


Exclusive Family

Street

and Transient Hotel

be a prosperous

for

WRIGHT FLYERS
Prices and information upon request.

THE WRIGHT

CO.

DAYTON, OHIO
NEW YORK OFFICE:

11

PINE STREET

Hotel conducted on European Plan.

En

Suite.

Rooms

Single and

Remodeled and Modernized.

Newly Furnished Throughout.


modern conveniences, absolutely fireproof, a few
minutes' ride to Theatres and Shopping District by elevated
road, surface lines and Fifth Avenue stage.
Subway express
All

and

local station at door.

S. L.

ROOT, Manager

AIRCRAFT
No.

Vol. 5

New

York, March, 1914

i!i;!r;swsss!i;ssssss!i;ssixs!i;s!fiW!i;!i;ss;xwss!i;ssuiS!ii!iiss!fiss!i;!i;sss!i;s!f;s;ssx

AROUND THE WORLD


RNOLD KRUCKMAX,

Manager

of

the

Bureau of Aeronautics, of the PanamaPacific International Exposition, which


will be held in San Francisco, California,
during the year 1915, has written a letter
to the writer setting forth the offer and
conditions recently made by the PanamaPacific International Exposition for an
race round the world in 1915.

air

The

ofifer

and conditions are

The

Panama-Pacific

Panama-Pacific International Exposition Grounds sometime during the month of May, 1915. and proceeding in an
Eastern direction around the world and finishing on the
Panama-Pacific International Grounds.

the

conditions governing the race have not


In the application for sancyet.
tion to the Pacific Aero Club, it has been tentatively suggested, however, that the time limit be fixed as ninety days.

SECOND: The

Ijeen

determined upon as

Mr. Kruckman makes it clear, however, in his letter, that


no definite conclusion as to the time limit or exact rules will
be adopted until he has had an opportunity to discuss the
matter thoroughly with all persons in this country, who are
sufficiently interested in the matter, and having the knowledge necessary to give opinions of value.

He

states that

it

conditions as liberal as possible, as well as to conform to the opinions of the experts


Mr. Kruckman does not expect that
as much as possible.
the rules will be definitely fixed in detail for four or six
is

the intention to

make

the

In order to feel thoroughly the pulse of the


leaders, and obtain personally their
ideas as to the terms and conditions under which this colossal
undertaking will be developed, Mr. Kruckman will shortly

THIRD:

start

aeronautical

on a

trip East,

inaking various stops en route,

cities

This trip will be


for the purpose of familiarizing himself with local conditions,
as well as picking out the best towns and cities as stopping
Mr. Kruckman
places for the airmen who enter this race.
opinion that auxiliary prizes will be offered by
is of the
these different towns and cities, which are made stopping

where there are aeronautical

places

that

award

It

the present intention of the Exposition


initial prize in the following sums:

is

own

its

great

$100,000 to the winner; $30,000 to the second man to finish,


and $20,000 to the third man to finish. (As Mr. Kruckman's
letter reads there is no prize for a woman contestant, but it is

possible

when

that

the

final

conditions are arranged,

thrown open to any entrant of either


Assuming that Cheyenne, Wyo.,
is the first control point, according to Mr. Kruckman, the
first, second and third aviators into Cheyenne will receive
first, second and third money oflfered as the auxiliary prize
that the race will be

or

any

by that

city.

It is, of

of

sort,

that

sex,

this

nationality).

course, conceivable in a sporting event


seventh and eighth airmen to

the sixth,

reach Cheyenne, may be first, second and third to reach Chicago, and, of course, under these circumstances would receive first, second and third money offered as the auxiliary
prize at Chicago.
In this manner, it is intended that the
early part of the

contest will be

entered into by a large


not finish the race, but still
receive part of the auxiliary prize money as far as they have
flown. In order, however, to prevent contestants from winning prize money in America, and then withdrawing from
the race to cross the Atlantic Ocean, it is intended that some
restrictions will be adopted to make the auxiliarj' prize
money not receivable, until these airmen have qualified
properly, and give evidence of their intention to at least

number

try to

of airmen,

make

who may

the full trip.

PTFTH: The

contest will be held under the rules of the


Federation Aeronautique Internationale. The application for
been recommended to the Aero club
of .America, by the Pacific Aero Club, and the former club
has already entered into the spirit of the race, and it will
require some little time before the actual sanction of the
Federation .\eronautique Internationale will be officially
granted, but such sanction will no douI)t be given at the

will

swell

the

proper time.

activities.

sum

total

of

the

prizes

to

be

over $300,000. In fact, he states in his letter, that


Panama-Pacific International Exposition has already

oflfered to

the

FOURTH:
to

a sanction has already

months.

nation's

been practically assured of receiving $100,000, in auxiliary


Furthermore, these auxiliary prizes will
be secured by the Exposition, so that the contestants in the
race will not have to worry about that end whatsoever.
prizes at this time.

just

set forth briefly as follows:

International Exposition
has appropriated the sum of $150,000 to be divided in three
who, under the conairmen,
prizes as a reward to the three
ditions, finish first, second and third in the race, starting from

FIRST:

AIR RACE

LAWSON

By ALFRED W.

SIXTH:

The

phase will be under the supercommission, to be appointed by


the heads of the various nations traversed by the airmen.
President Wilson will be asked to appoint a national commission for this country. This commission is to be composed of scientists, military men, naval men, aviators, hydrographers. geographers and others. The duty of this commission will be to offer suggestions to the participants in
vision

of an

scientific

international

AIRCRAFT

376

how

they can avoid obstacles marine, terto suggest means by which the airmen can supply scientific data, which will be of help to
further aeronautical development.
SEVENTH: The different governments over whose territory the route will extend, will be asked to provide naval
and military patrols to safeguard the airmen during the
For instance, the United States Government will be
flight.
the race, as to
restrial

or aerial

also

asked to send scout cruisers to patrol the gap between Belle

March, ipi4

aviator will not have to look after the establishing of such


They are to be able to obtain a high
stations personally.

standard of gas and oil at reasonable prices all round the


world.
It is possible that other supplies can be furnished
in

the

make

same communal fashion.

Mr. Kruckman, who

will

the entire trip round the world, will see to the establishment of these stations, and see to it that the arrangements are properly made in that direction. He expects to
start on this globe trotting trip sometime in May.

AIRCRAFT

March, IQ14

will be offered.
It is the intention of the Exposition to
secure as complete an exhibit of aeroplanes, dirigible balloons, spherical balloons and aeronautical accessories as it
is possible to get together in the Transportation Exhibit.
The round the world scheme, as outlined by Mr. Kruckman, appears to the Editor of this magazine as not onlypossible, but quite probable of execution.
In response to
Mr. Kruckman's request for advice, however, the Editor
telegraphed him to use his best influence to increase the
grand prize offered by the Panama-Pacific International Exposition from $150,000 to half a million dollars, and also to
endeavor to raise the auxiliary prizes another half million

dollars, which would make a grand total of $1,000,000, to be


raced for by the airmen. This advice is not unreasonable at
first, because the tremendous sum of half a million dollars offered by the Exposition for such a race will attract
greater attention throughout the whole world than anything
that has ever been attempted in the history of the world,
which means that they are to receive in return more free
advertising the world over by making this offer, than if they
spent several millions of dollars in advertising along other
Furthermore, the Board of Trade in each progressive
lines.
city which is put upon the map by being a stopping place
make liberal offers as each city will in return receive the
world-wide advertising during this race, that would be impossible to receive in any other way, no matter how much
money was spent for it.
Then again, with a million dollars in view, the world's
greatest Aeroplane manufacturers, as well as the world's
greatest Airship manufacturers will feel more like spending
all;

the

277

tremendous sums

vehicles

of

the

size

of

money necessary

to

construct air

and the strength necessary to insure

making

the complete circuit of the globe.


With a million
dollars in view no doubt a big company would be organized
for the purpose of purchasing and operating a Zeppelin airship in this race, or in fact any other well

known make

of

dirigibles.

The writer suggested to Mr. Kruckman, that the time limit


be extended from 90 days to ISO days, in order to give the
airmen an opportunity

to win the prize.


For, after all, these
prizes should not be offered unless the contestants are given
the fullest opportunities to win them.
The managers so

impress the facts upon the public, and upon the airmen, who
are concerned in this race, that there can be no question in
the minds of scoffers that the Exposition people are offering these prizes with the feeling that they cannot, or will
not be won. The prizes should be offered to be won, and
the conditions should be such, that it is possible to win

them.
Aircraft is of the opinion that the race can be made a
success under certain conditions, and if these conditions are
arranged in the broadest and fairest manner, and for the
purpose of demonstrating to the world the great possibilities of air navigation, this magazine will back up the undertaking, but if we should discover any insincerity on the part
of the Exposition people in which it appears to us that they
are using the Aeronautical

Movement

izement,

we

opinion

concerning the matter.

will

not

hesitate

to

give

own aggrandAircraft readers our

for their

THE NEW SLOANE FLYING BOATS


By
In accordance with its expansive pojicy for 1914
the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York in
addition to producing several new types of military monoplanes and biplanes, is bringing out improved types of flying boats.
These are built in three types, i. e., (1) "Sea
Scout," a large surfaced boat capable of carrying
considerable weight and having a flight range of 6
or 7 hours at a speed of from 55 to 60 miles; (2)
"Navy Speed Scout," a medium surfaced machine
of unusually small head resistance and with a
speed range of from 45 to SO miles per hour and a
duration of five hours when fitted with a 130 11. P.
Samson Motor; (3) "Sporting Type,'
and
surfaced boat of extremely strong construct
light weight, which, coupled with its low
sistance and light powerful motor, makes
efficient, economical and speedy craft.
\

General Dimensions.
'Speed Scout aud 'Sporting- Types
Si>an (top), 35 feet; span (lower), 23 feet.
feet
feet;
r),
Chord (top),
inches.
(jap, 6 feet.
Over-all length, 26 feet.

Surface, 310 square feet on "Speed Scout" and


"Sporting" types; 405 square feet on "Sea Scout"
type.

r-ength of hull, 23 feet.


of hull. 36 inches.
Seating capacity, 2 or 3 persons.
Power plant, 80 or 100 H. P. Gnome. 130 li. P.
Samson on "Navy Speed Scout." or good domestic
motor of 100 H. P.
Tank capacity. 5 hours.
The hull is of the single step type, built up of
two-ply mahogany and canvas, copper riveted, over
ework of ash and spruce ribs. The planing
V-shaped to give
surf ac
is 36 inches wide and
greate strength and permit of starting and landing
Eight water-tight bulkheads are
gh seas.
vith inspection covers to each compartment.
fitted
The nose of the boat has been rounded off and
stream-lined in such a way that it offers the least
possible head resitance, and at the same time affords the maximum of protection from wind and
waves. Ample space has been provided for wireless
and marine equipment, as well as all navigating in-

Width

struments.
In the

"Navy Sea Scout" and "Speed Scout'


types, the rounded front is swept back to just in
front of the operators' seats and is given a slight
curl up at this point to form a wind and spray
olutelv
shield, which, at the same time, gives a
perfect vision over the front and sides.
In the "Sporting" type where the no i-obstr
vision is now of such absolute importance, or on a
"Navy Dispatch" type of boat with which Ion?
cruises have to be made, a permanent cabin is fitted.
This cabin which is constructed of a light frame*

"

'

WALTER

H.

PHIPPS

work and entirely covered with transparent pyraline

the open with greater safety than the average


sheeting has its after-part hinged so that it can be machine, owing to the fact that with the extipped forward for- entrance or exit to the boat. tensions folded the wing surface presented to the
It is so designed that either occupant by leaning wind is greatly cut down.
In addition, since the
slightly sideways will have an absolutely unob- extensions present a downward angle when folded
structed view in front and by rising slightly can in they prevent the wind from getting under the
see entirely over the top of the cabin.
The chief planes and blowing over the craft.
advantage of this cabin is that it aff^ords protecFor extended sea work these extensions, modition from heavy spray when rising out of rough fied somewhat, will be folded from the operator's
water, and in consequence prevents shipping wa- seat so that in case of emergency the wing area
ter.
can be cut down while the craft is riding on the
The two front seats, which are placed side by water.
side in a position affording the utmost comfort
All stress and strain have been carefully worked
and security, are arranged with double control of out and a factor of safety of six to one allowed
Behind the for. The main guy wires, which are of 1/8 and
the well-known Deperdussin type.
operators' seats and immediately between the two 3/32 steel cable, are doubled throughout fitted
planes is the passenger's seat, which, w^hile af- with extra strong turnbuckles and this in confording the maximum of protection from wind junction with the deep monoplane main beams
and spray, gives a good view in all directions.
makes the main cellule unusually strong.
All
In the design of the hull itself special attention control wires are doubled and extra strong. There
has been given to making it both very strong and are no single elevator and rudder wires as on
seaworthy, and at the same time a quick riser. most machines.
For this reason the planing bottom has been set
Controlling Surface.
at a predetermined planing angle and so shaped
The ailerons each measure 9 feet by 2 feet,
that the V-bottom, while affording the maximum of
The and owing to the cut away shape of the tips of
strength does not rob it of its efficiency.
the wings and their position at the extreme end
rear of the hull is shorter than on most flying
of the planes they give the maximum of control
In other words,
boats so as to eliminate tail drag.
with the least amount of drag.
They operate in
the hull design of the Sloane Flying Boat comthe usual manner; one up and the other down.
bines the best features of the bat boat and flying
The rear stabilizing fin which measures 7 feet
boat types of machines without any of their disX
feet
is
flat
and
set
at
a
slight
lifting angle so
8
advantages.
The planes are of single piece construction, that in flying it carries its own weight. The demonoplane style. The top one has a span of 35 sign of the machine has been so worked out that
feet with a chord of 6 feet, the bottom one hav- its tail varies its angle for the different speeds in
ing a span of 23 feet and a chord of five feet six flight, and in conjunction with the low head resistance of the craft permits of a considerable
inches.
The wings are constructed on two deep and range in speed. It is built in two parts and
very strong main beams and in accordance with hinged to the vertical fin so that it can be folded
the usual efllicient monoplane construction have down out of the way.
the beams set quite a distance from the front and
The two elevating flaps which measure 3 feet
trailii _
deep are spread out so that they operate in a
The ribs which are of a highly efficient mono- position to give the utmost leverage and control,
plane curvature, very light and strong, are placed with the least possible drag and resistance.
close together with light false ribs between every
The combination braces and control levers of
one.
This gives a very smooth and efficient the elevating flaps are made of steel tubing and
plane form without any sagging between the ribs are so fitted that by merely unfastening one turnor loss of wing curvature as is found on most buckle all the bracing can be taken off intact and
biplanes.
the steel braces folded down flat against the eleStrong diagonal bracing is used to truss the vators and ailerons. The combination air and waplanes internally so that there is no bending or ter rudder is hinged to the rear of the boat and
fin swings between the two elevator
its vertical
straining when in flight.
This is also fitted with collapsible braces.
flaps.
Special attention is called to the use of only
Controls.
two uprights on each side of the engine section.
The controls consist of the well-known DeperThis arrangement, aside from cutting down head
Pushresistance and in consequence affording additional dussin wheel and foot lever arrangement.
speed and efficiency, also presents an advantage ing the wheel backwards and forwards operates
while turning the wheel to the right
in permitting the top extensions to be folded down the elevators;
Steering to the
when the machine is not in use. Therefore, the and left works the ailerons.
machine can be stored in small places or left in right and left is accomplished by the foot bar.

AIRCRAFT

278

n size
in all cases
carried in the hull under the rear seats in a
position approximately under the center of pres-

The main

gasoline

tank,

which

according to the type of machine,

varies

is

In all machines the tank capacity has been


figured out to allow for flights of at least five
These tanks are of the pressure
hours' duration.
type and the air pressure is supplied to them by
means of a small air-d

sure

rates through the speed of flight.


The gasoline is forced to a small gravity tank
ituated in front and shghtly above the carbureor.
The air pressure gauge is fitted in front of
he operator, so that he is informed of the prcsgasoline hand
ure in the tank at all times.
.ump is fitted to supply pressure in cases of

ergency.
Eithe

March, 1914
This can be varied, howas standard equipment.
ever, and domestic motors of 100 H. V. or more
In the "Speed Scout" type of
used if desired.
machine a 130 H. P. Salmson Motor will be
In all cases the Motor
between the two planes so as

used.

is

mounted midway

to

bring the center

^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ j^ ,.^^ ^^^j^,^ ^^^ centers of resistance and weight; thereby relieving the drawhacks and dangers of the high thrust.

ocs,c

AIRCRAFT

March, 1914

Algeria

and iipside-dowu flying


was given by ilanouille on Ins liltiiiot at Oran
in Algeria,, recently, tlie spectators numbering
more than 10,000.
fine display of looping

Belgium
The organization of an International Hydroaeroplane Competition to be held on June 15-25,
1S14, over a course of about 870 miles on the
rivers Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine, is now proceeding in the hands of the Aero Clubs of Belgium,
Cermany, and Holland.
Bulgaria
pilot recently
It is pointed out by a French
returned from the i>.ear East that Bulgaria is very
well worth cultivating by aeroplane manulacturers.
mountainous,
chieHy
being
the
country
1.1 spite of
there are large plains which are favourable for
flying, especially along the Roumanian frontier,
and that, further, as Bulgaria has a coast-line ol
120 miles on the Black Sea, she is certain to em-

ploy seaplanes.

Chili

For some time past the proposition of the Chilian


aviator Seiior Figueroa to attempt to fly across
the Andes into .\rgentina has been a topic of
interest in South America, but hitherto nothing
has been done owing to the low power of the
Recently,
machine in possession of the aviator.
however, the Chilian people, who are very enthusiastic about the proposed flight, have opened
very
is
hoped
it
and
subscription,
national
a
shortly to purchase a machine of sufficient power
to attempt the daring feat.

England
Prime Minister Asquith's youngest son, Anthony, has become a most enthusiastic devotee of
He plans aeroplanes after the latest
aviation.
successful models and is capable of discoursing
at length on the virtues of each type the objects
of the improvements made, and the idosyncrasies
of the famous pilots.
The new 160 h.p. Short tractor seaplane has
reached a speed with full load of 76 '4 m.p.h., this
including pilot, passenger, wireless outfit and 4'i
Recently one of the 100 h.p. seahours' fuel.
planes carrying pilot, passenger, wireless equipment, and fuel for 5 hours, climbed to 3,000 feet
in 14 minutes, which is probably about as good
as has ever been done with a fully loaded seaplane, if not better.
Various paragraphs have appeared in the papers

same time. A prize of 25,000 francs l$4,!i75;


will go VMtli the trophy.
Jacques Schneider, who gives the prize, was in
.\nienca as a representative ot France at the international aviation race in Chicago in 1912.
ReEast Africa
cently he made a balloon altitude record of 38,A hydroaeroplane is lo be beat to Darles UOO feet. The race will cover 150 nautical miles
Salaam in Cerman tast Alrica, lor the agricul over a circuit ot live nautical miles. Charles T.
ihe Oer- weymann represented America in last year's race,
iiirai show held theie in tiie summer.
man Colonial Uepaitment and i\ational Aviation but lost through running out of lubricating oil.
fund are both intertied in the project.
The Budget Commission has passed a vote of
si,\ million irancs to
be expended lor naval aviation
purposes.
Three Mieuports (.100 h. p.
Egypt
successfully passed the olficial reception
On January JSth, Jules. Vediines had an inter- onomej
tests tor the F'rench aimy at ViUacoublay on Feb.
Commanderstwhile
-\/-ig,
me
view with rnnce
4th.
Two Maurice and two Henri Farmans passed
ant ot the Ku-K-l-Lilisse cavalry, and some ot his
their tests on the same day at Buc.
Biatl.
Ihere were no uiiier Europeans present;
The military aviation center at Crotoy is being
and, contrary to custom, tiie presentation was not
broken up. Captain Gerard and Lieut. VuiUemin
niaue by a French otticial.
taken their machine to Reims, and Lieuts.
M. Mare 1-ourpe reached Luxor on the 26th of nave
Biban and 1 henault have taken theirs to Douay.
January, and lelt a lew days later lor MagOn the day of disbandment, F"ebruary 1st, the
passed
He
v.airo.
to
iiamadi, on his way bacK
oflicers and men erected a tablet in memory of
height
ot
JOO
the lombs ot the Kings at tne
Lieut. Poutien, who died on 5rvice on October
On the 30th January, Oliver smashed his Far- Jlst, 1912.
man up at Cairo. Fortunately without injuring
Germany
M. Bonnier has reached
trusting passenger.
l.is
He is
Ismailia alter a good voyage from Cairo.
On Saturday, February 7th, the German air man,
to take part in a tete organized in honour ot
Ingold,
broke
the
duration
record by remaining
Suez
ol
the
M. de Lesseps, son of the Jingineer
the air sixteen hours and twenty minutes.
He
He nas since made several flights across in
Canal.
covered a distance estimated at l,OoO miles during
the "desert," landing on one occasion on an oasis. which time
flew
from
Mulhausen,
in Alsace,
he
.\inoiig other passengers he has taken up Prince
and finished his flight near Munich. Ingold used
d'Arenuerg and Sir m. Castin.
a Pfeil Biplane htted with a 100 horse power
Mercedes engine and carried 126 gallons of gasoFrance
lene and 12 gallons of oil.
The previous record
The firm of Clement Bayard are more than of 14 hours and 7 minutes was made by Bruno
be
airships
Langer at Johannisthal on F'ebruary 3rd.
dirigibles,
two
building
usually busj
French
ing in course ol construction lor the
On February 12th, Aviator Bruno Langer made
Coveinment, one for Russia, and one tor an un- an endurance flight of 16 hours and 1 minute
The ships are each to be fitted in an effort to stay aloft 18 hours. He was comspecified purpose.
with four 230-h.p. motors, the nacelles are to be pelled to descend, however, on account of the
specially dismountable, and a gun platform is to shortage of fuel.
Starting from the Johannisthal
The most Aerodome on the outskirts of Berlin he flew to
bi erected on the top of the envelopes.
eHicient torra of wireless apparatus will also be Kreuzer, thence to Posen, and continued in the
make
installed and every efiort will be made to
air until the petrol was entirely exhausted.
most powerful aerial cruisers
ships
the
the
While Gerard Sedelmayer was piloting his biThe capacity of the envelopes is said to plane with Lieut. Leon Hardy of the German
"afloat."
be 20,000 cubic metres.
army as a passenger, and while at a height of
The Breguet signalling device as an aid to ar- about 100 feet, their machine was struck by a
was tested recently at the aerodrome of monoplane in which Degner, a pupil at the flying
tillery
\elizy, in connection with artillery operations, school, was making his first independent flight.
100-h.p. Breguet, making the Both machines fell to the ground and when the
.\L Derome, on a
Ihe results are said to have men were extricated from the wreckage it was
demonstration.
been decidedly encouraging.
found that Degner was dead and the two others
seriously but not fatally hurt.
TO CAIRO PRIZE.

Tans and

Lional

back, for prizes offered by the Inter


shall taKe place
May y, 1914.

THE

It

CHALLENGE

the

corresponaence bcnoois,

Saturday,

ANOTHER PARIS

Baron Empain, having offered a j.rize of 15,000


francs to the Ligue National .\erienne, the Ligue
has decided to use il in connection with events
it is proposed to organize this year over the Paris
The other prizes the Ligue proto Cairo route.
pose to use in a similar way are the 10,000 francs
offered by the Pans Municipal Council, 10,000
francs from Prince Bibesco, and 5,000 francs from
the Seine tieneral Council.
It is the present intention of M. Pegoud the
noted upside down man to pay a visit to the
rigids of the largest size.
United States sometime in May in which he will
TROPHY.
BRITANNIA
show the Americans what is known as the Pegoud
The Britannia Challenge Trophy, which was air waltz, jumping the waves, somersaults in the
presented to the Royal Aero Club by Mr. H. Bar- air, looping the loop, and flying in spirals head
ber in order that they should award it to the downward.
British aviator who. in the opinion of the ComA flight over Mount Blanc in a dense fog at
mittee, had accomplished the most meritorious per- a height of over three miles was recently made by
formance in the air during 191,1. was awarded to Parmclin. He started from Geneva in the mornRoyal
Flying
of
the
Longcroft,
Capt. C. A. H.
ing in fine weather but his aeroplane plunged into
Corps, for his non-stop flight on November 22, a thick fog on the French side of the Alps just
1913, from Montrose to Farnborough, ina Ports- before he landed at Aoste, France.
Though the distance measured in a
mouth.
The international contest for the Jacques
straight line is 445 miles, the actual distance cov- Schneider water flying trophy will be held under
ered was considerably more.
the direction of the aero club of France on April
Aeroplane race from seven
20th at Monaco.
LONDON-PARIS-LONDON RACE.
will take place at
has been decided that the race from London capitals of Europe to Monaco

stating that Sir Wm. Armstrong. Whitworth and


Ltd., are building an aeroplane factory at
Selby, Yorkshire, and have recently purchased several hundred acres of land at Barlow near that
town.
It is understood, however, that the buildings to be erected there are for the purpose of
constructing airships on a large scale together
with a shed which will house one, or possibly two,

279

Germany will send three balloons to the United


States to take part in the Coupe Internationale des
.Aeronautes which will be held in Kansas City
Four out of the eight of these innext October.
ternational contests have been won by American
aeronauts.
Germany has twice been the victor
and the eagerness of her sportsmen for another
race is shown in the fact that Germany is the first
country to send in its challenge for the coming
balloon race.
Another world's flying record was established
by a German airman, February 4th, when Herr
Robert Thelen, with four army officers as passengers, ascended to a height of 9,348 feet.
His
machine is the Albatross, a military biplane with
a 100 horse power Mercedes engine.

On February
Z.

VII

flew

7th

from

the

German

military

Friedrichshafen

War

to

airship

Potsdam,

At Potsdam
over by the army, and the
she was
Z V, formerly stationed at Potsdam, was moved
The journey which from Frieto Tohannisthal.

carrying

officials of the
officially taken

Office.

drichschafen is about 360 miles in length, occupied


hours with a following wind, so evidently the
was not doing full speed.
The Z. VII is reported to be 132 metres (430
ft.) long, 14 metres (45 ft.) diameter, and to be

81/2

airship

AIRCRAFT

280
The
with four motors of ISO h. p. each.
theoretical speed is 21 metres per second, or about
45 m. p. h.
The stabilizing planes and rudders
Proare much larger than on preceding types.
The
vision is made for several machine guns.
vessel can climb to 6,500 feet with full load.
Special arrangements are made for dumping all
the petrol, oil and water tanks overboard, in the
event of sudden leakage in the balloon. The ship
is expected to keep the air for 50 hours at a time.
The second Schiitte-Lanz airship ordered by the
fitted

German War

Office,

is

about to

begin

its

trial

which will be made in the surrouni^ings of


Mannheim. The vessel is 2S metres longer than
was the first, 150 metres (500 ft.) from end to
Its
end, and has three nacelles instead of two.
B.
ultimate home will be Liegnitz.
trips,

It is stated that the Zeppelin Co. has decided to


set aside 10,000 for the erection alongside the
airship works at Friedrichshafen of a works for
making hydrogen gas, and the new Zeppelin works
at Potsdam, the construction of which has been
begun, will also include a plant for making hydro-

gen

gas.

Italy
G. F. Campbell Wood fotmerly associate editor
of Aircraft, who is now touring Italy, is most
optimistic over the future possibilities of the flying
boat for war purposes, as well as for use by
Mr. Wood states that Italy is
private sportsmen.
making remarkable headway in acquiring a highly
efficient corp of aeroplanes, both of the overland
Italy is also gradually
and over water variety.
building up a strong aerial fleet of dirigibles most
of which are built by_ Italian works.
Good weather during the past month has resulted in a number of notable flights being made
Specially interesting was a
by military pilots.
high flight at Turin by Non-Com. Officer Petazzi,
who took up a passenger about 10,000 feet on a De
Don-engined AI. Farman ; and as a first effort
the short escadrille flight from Tripoli to Aziziah

and back when five


did a successful trip

machines

(I

opine Farmans)

of SO miles at 5,000 feet.


The dirigibles also have beaten all records for
activity, especially the P. 4, which made a long
trip to
the eastern frontier and return after
making 300 miles in about 7 hours including
stops.
M. 2, M. 3, and the "City of Milan"
which recently made an altitude flight of 7,500
feet.

A monument

memory of M. Chavez, who was


when landing after making his

in

fatally injured
historic flight across the Alps, is to be

March, 1^14

quotations which wQjald be given in this


country by anything between 2S and 50 per cent,
as this amount will be needed as "baksheesh"
among various officials, high and low. If it is only
Morocco
a matter of selling a sample machine or so, only
The military escadrille Morocco of the centre minor officials need be bought; but when it comes
The to orders for large quantities, it is a recognized
at
Casablanca is showing much activity.
escadrille, which is composed of Bleriots, has made tiling that the highest official with whom one has
a voyage of 750 kilometres under command of dealings draws the highest percentage.
The Romanoff prize of 10,000 roubles for a
Capt. Herve, traveling via Casablanca-Marrakecl>
Mogador-Mazagran-Casablanca.
The whole jour- flight from St. Petersburg to Moscow and back
within 48 hours, not having been won, Prince
ney was performed without incident.
Abaraalek-Lazarieff has announced his intention of
Zealand
adding the amount to the prize he has off^ered for a
The Hamilton hydro-aeroplane recently im- flight from St. Petersburg to Sebastopool in 24
In the meantime the Imperial Russian
ported from America by Hector McKenzie has hours.
This Aero Club has asked the Prince to receive a
been making successful flights at Martin.
machine is capable of making about 50 miles an deputation of aviators, who will suggest that the
maximum period for this flight should be raised to
hour with a 50 horse power engine.
Italian Government.
There are also facilities for
the sale from these works of aeroplanes generally
in the Orient and South America.

New

48 hours.

Roumania

Siam

chief designer of the Bristol Company, has been awarded the Cross of Merit by
the Government of Roumania for his participation
in the construction of the Bristol biplanes.

Captain Nai Thip, the Siamese pilot, has taken


delivery of two Nieuport monoplanes of 50 and 28
at Bangkok.
He expresses himself very
h.
p.
pleased after flying them.

M. Coanda,

Russia

Switzerland

The Russian government is quietly arid as secretively as possible gradually accumulating great
numbers of flying machines for service in both

The

Luguin and Montalvan, are applying


from the Swiss Federal Railway
Department for permission to start an aerial servits army and navy.
While France, Germany, Eng ice over Lake Leman. The service is to run reguland,
Italy and other European countries are larly between April 1st and November 30th.
openly letting out the news concerning the growth
Flights will only take place in winter when the
of their aerial feats, Russia is saying nothing bui number of passengers and the weather warrant tl.
"sawing plenty of wood."
A Henry and a Maurice Farman waterplane are to
by
estimate
made
From the most conservative
be used, both of the.m three-seaters.
The proposal
the correspondent of Aircraft in Russia over to carry mails is also under discussion.
1,000 flying machines and abcut 30 dirigibles are
now either owned or ordered for future delivery
Spain
Moreover, the Rusby the Russian government.
sian government without doubt owns more aeroboats than any other government in the world or
probably all of the other governments put together.
These flying boats they are ordering in large
quantities from the different manufacturers in
In fact Russia
America, England, and France.
stands ready to purchase as many of the over
water variety of the aeroplane as can be manufactured at the present time, and several new
concerns are now being started in Russia for the
purpose of manufacturing flying boats and competing for the tremendous trade which is now in
sight.

erected at
The great interest manifested by the Russian
Representatives of all authorities in aviation can be understood when it
is known that the government sends commissions
every year to different countries, but principally
On January 29, Emilio Pensuti, in spite of the to France, to study and report" upon the progress
A large amount of technical research work
intense cold, climbed up to 4,080 metres (13,300 made.
ft.)
above sea-level at Malpensa on an 80 h. p. is also carried on by Russia especially in the
His laboratory at Kutchino.
Since the year of 1912
Caproni, beating the Italian height record.
fingers got so cold that he had to plane down with- effective aeroplanes for war purposes have been
out the motor, as he could no longer manage his increased six times over.
throttle-lever.
Pensuti will be remembered as havIt is understood that M. Sikorsky has been taken
ing flown the fast Friuli mono, at Pordenone some up by the military authorities and so has been
years back, making a cross-country speed record, enabled to carry out studies in aviation whicli
and seems likely to become an unusually fine pilot. have permitted hira to produce the enormous
Although no details are available, it is reported machines which bear his name.
that the Italian military authorities have decided
At the present time the Nieuport type of monoupon the construction of four rigid diribles, each plane is most in favor in Russian military circles
with the Deperdussin a close second.
of 30,000 cubic metres capacity.
There is a
Mr. D. Lawrence Santoni has now opened and great market in Russia for highly efficient aeroorganized a large factory in Milan, principally foi planes of types such as produced in America, but
the construction of the Farman machines, for American constructors wishing to do business in
that it is necessary to inwhich large contracts have been placed by the

Domodossola next April.


Europe

the aero clubs of


auguration.

crease

will be present at the in-

for

pilots,

permission

On Monday,

January

Maxime Ramon, son


mon, was

26th,

of the

at

11:30,

Lieut.

Spanish General Ra

aerodrome at Quatro-VienHe was flying an SO h. p.


tos, near Madrid.
Bristol tractor biplane, and had descended from a
considerable
altitude
when,
on touching the
ground, he turned the machine over and was killed
on the spot.
killed at the

Turkey
Baron Ladislas d'Orcy, Aircraft's famous correspondent, is now in Constantinople in the interest
of bringing to the attention of the Turkish authorities the desirability of establishing a great aerial
fleet for both its army and navy.
Baron d'Orcy
reports that the high officials of both the army
and navy are now in favor of increasing in a large
measure the number of aeroplanes they now have
in stock.
He also states that the flying boat is
looked upon with much favor by the admiral of
navy and that it is just possible the
Turkish navy will shortly give out orders to the
various manufacturers of flying boats in large
the Turkish

quantities.

An Active Military Aviation School is in course


of formation at San Stefano, where Captain Fessah
Bey, one of the most skilful Ottoman pilots, will
Captain Fessah distinguished himtake command.
self as a pilot in the late war.
In view of the success of the French pilots in
flying from Constantinople to Cai ro, the Ottoman
Government is organizing a competition from Constantinople to Jerusalem.
prize of 1,200 will
be given to the winner, while there will be several

SOME FACTS REGARDING A "CHALLENGER"


By

WALTER

A.

HOUSE

Ever since aeroplanes were able to fly success- monoplane constructors that turn out anything
fully, constructors have been designing and build- niore_ than a "copy" of some well-known foreign
ing for speed; and, to stimulate interest in this machine; that is, established companies.
direction, James Gordon-Bennett created his InWere we to devise something original in the
ternational Aviation Cup which has been com- way of a racer, it would be a freak and a failure;
peted for ever since 1909
and America has won and if we merely substitute a new landing-gear on
it but twice.
a stock American monoplane
and where would
The first time, nothing but stock machines were wf" get that stock American monoplane? we would
used; the second time, Charles Terres Weymann, not even be placed n the elimination trials, dean American doing all his flying in France, cap- spite excess power.
M. Bechereau, chief designer of the Deperdustured the trophy with a foreign machine, a "Nieuport."
Sad to relate, had Weymann not come to sin firm, gave the world an idea of what a real
America got
the rescue, America would not have been repre- speed machine ought to look like.
the
idea, but failed to employ it.
Again, last
sented at all.
year, with but very few changes and an extra
Two other attempts have been made since, the twenty horsepower
in the motor, the same mafirst, a farce; the second, a tragedy
and America chine created new records and captured the G-B
is still wishing.
Mistakes were made and pointed race.
And America.
This article is to suggest a few
out afterwards.
NOT?What are we going to do this
things for 1914; this year; right now; the pres- year?
Since nobody has upset any ink so far
ent; and, if action is taken NOW, America need in
giving
America
something
original,
why
no longer be a standing joke in the aviation shouldn't we construct a racer along "Dep"

WHY

world.

ORIGINALITYIn
signs,

an

is

originality

in

lines, if a racer is going to be constructed? The


discussing the writer's de- "monocoque" is the last word in high speed condesigning and engineering struction and all racers will be along the same

absolute necessity ?
I,
for one, think not.
American constructors, to-day, show a weak display of originality.
They work on "copies," procure good ones, and let it go at that.
Many
profess frankly that they make no pretense of
Of course Wright,
turning out anything original.
Curtiss, Burgess, etc., are exempt from this criticism on account of having evolved their present
products sometime ago ; but we have no really

Although, after studying the drawings opposite, the monocoque designed herewith may appear somewhat original, the principles are based
on those of the Deperdussin.
This policy seems
the most conservative; so why not?
REGARDING CONSTRUCTION In 1912 we
had a "Defender," if you want to call it that,
lines.

and America warped the wrong wing in getting it.


The first mistake was made when one of oui

foremost BIPLANE constructors was urgently requested to turn out a MONOPLANE.


This firm
was extremely busy at the time and made a sacrifice
in complying only after persuasion.
The
second mistake was too much free advice.
Had
the constructor been left to his own ideas, the
machine would have been a success.
And last,
but not least, we had no pilot trained for the
lacer.

THE PILOT The

the

in

best

man in
By that

the
I

first pilot selected is one ot


our country, but he was th^e wrong
sense that he was n.o "speed-pilot."
that he piloted one of the slowest,

mean

not the slowest biplanes in America; and to


him for a 160 horsepower monoplane was
worse than suicide.
The second pilot proved no
Although using a much faster biplane, he
was incompetent for the same reason.
Both of
these aviators are admirable men when it comes
to ability; and were either a speed-oilot, America
would not need to sigh.
Our aviators argue that they se_e no reasons

if

train

better.

why

they should desert exhibitions to train for a


give
a good thing for an uncertainty
not to be blamed.
For that reaalone, a pilot should be developed ON A
and, literally, brought up to the
rc'cer.
Get a man who has no interest in exhibi
tions because be has no machine and does not
know how to fly and he will welcome the opportunity to get free training and pilot the one
machine that will do something.
He will stay
with this machine all the while he is practicing
and devote all his flying time to master it.

and they upare


race
son,

MONOPLANE

AIRCRAFT

March, ipi4

CUMSTRUCTUKS In

DRAW^INGS OF A SUGGESTED "CHALLENGER'

selecting the construcadvisable to procure tlie serviccb


niunupluiic builder, rather tlian tliose oi a
biplane lirm.
JN o discredit can
be placed on llie
iheir aUUily raiucs
builders ot the iyl2 racer.
among the best to-day, and the lailure ol tne
"Ueleiider"' was, by no means, no lault of tbeus.
In lact, 1 daresay, were they to build this year s
racer it would be a success and a winner.
But the monoplane constructor knows what he
has to meet, he has had experience with that
\Vhen
type, where the biplane producer has not.
such biplane constructors as Henry i^armaii essay
tcrs,
ol a

281

U appears

develop a monoplane and does not meet witii


encouraging success, then it seems convincing
enough that a monoplane shoulu oe made by a
constructor ot the single suriaced type and not
one ot the double decked.
Much abuse was heaped on the
l-'irsAISCt-b
Syndicate that raised the money to make a racer
And the most obvious lault lay with
available.
the conspicuous one who knew nothing about
aviation and had no concern in the industry.
Foi my part, 1 think they should be given great
credit.
VVith no view ol recompense, they lurnished the tunds for a speed machine and, in
the end, if we are represented this year, it will
be this same body of sportsman that will make it
to

possible.
As usual,

the Aero Club of America, made up,


mostly, of money power, was quite willing to
advise others to spend their money and promise
the seeking of "co-operation" ol affiliated Clubb
of A.
throughout the United States.
The A.
has proved a joke in everything it undertook.
While its memuers set brilliant examples with
"private meets" and "aeroplane squadrons," tlie
industry, as a whole, stays on the ground for
And yet we wonder "What's
"lack ot power."

V\iong With Aviation?"


This Club should aid in the tinancing of a racer
it abroad
at their own expense.
But

and send

When they read this article, some


of literary ability should
write up a reply why other people should
do the above, or the "t-lub" will lay the magazine
aside and start a new game of "penny-ante."
Constructors are to blame, too.
Instead ol
evolving a design of their own and entering it as
their own product, they would rather "bid" for
In fact, last year, one well-known conthe job.
cern advised the writer that "we have designed
a machine that will surpass any yet constructed
for speed and, if you can spare us your time,
we will go over these plans with you and build
this machine for you at a reasonable figure. Yours
truly."
What they meant was "if you can spare
they will not.

member with a sprinklng


either

money."

the

The

prestige to be gained from the winning


Cordon-Bennett Cup Kace should encourage
constructors to get busy.
Because there are
niany chances of losing, they decline.
Vet thes^
chances are contingent on themselves for, if they
design something good, they will get good results.
of the

A DIFFERENT RACE One

improvement

that

could be made, and a big one, lies in the race.


Instead of a speed contest of 125 miles, the race
should be one of 500 miles and stock machines
used, the power not to exceed 100 horsepower.
This brings the fact home that the winning would
be a matter of quality and not one of power.
Just as the present automobile races are run,

and the grand prize donated

to the winner of the


500 mile event, so ought the aeroplane be put to
same test. This, I sincerely believe, would
impiove conditions for constructors would enter
n.ore willingly than they do now.
No extra expense would be contracted in building a special
high powered machine and the winning of such
a race would naturally reflect credit not only on
the pilot, but on the make of machine.
For just
such a race, where could we select a better place
to
hold it than over the Indianapolis Motor

the

Speedway;

Of course, the

prize should necessarily be largsay $15,000.00, but constructors would apprethe fact that they are not required to lose
time and money in turning out a twenty foot
racer with an expensive motor and a couple
months practicing on the machine.
"Stripping"
a stock machine would mean the substituting of a
simplilied landing-gear and smaller wing-spread,

er,

ciate

hen such a
vogue.

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT,


The 1914 Thomas Flying Boat has many new
features, both in design and construction.
During the past year sevcal methods of construction were experimented with.
First, the all-wood hull was tried and discarded,
because of the great amount of water absorbed by
the planking.
It was found that the all-wood hull
would increase in weight over a hundred pounds
after being in use a couple of weeks.
Next, a wooden hull was tried, with metal bot-

tom.
This was found to have advantages over
the all-wood hull, but still the sides absorbed a
great deal of water.
Finally, a third type was tried, in which the
hull was built of wood and then entirely covered
with metal.
This boat was put through a number
of tests during the summer and fall, and, in
efficiency both in the water and air, more than
filled
its
designer's expectations.
It has
been

1914

MODEL

10 le
the
Length of hull, 23 ft.
the engine was started, and to have a speed
Top beam, 40 in.
iver 65 miles an hour in the air.
Bottom beam, 34>i> in.
he 1914 model contains all the good features of
Maximum depth, 36 in.
new
addition,
Jias
last year's model and, in
Total area of main planes, 310 sq. ft.
in both design and constructio
Power plane, Austro-Daimler 90 II. P.
boat with the
xeU be
del
Total weight of tlying boat, empty, 1,275 lbs.
ry to the usual practice in
hack
tlying boat constructi n of building over frames
HULL:
and fitting in braces and centerboard last, the
The first thing notable in the hull is its perfect
new model is built fi jm the keel up just as all stream line, which adds much both to its appearboats are built, from the smallest motor boat to ance and its aero-dvnamic efficiency.
Steel and
an ocean liner.
_
wood in combination make a boat with a great
1914
GENF-RAL SPECIFICATIONS OF
deal of flexibility, which is not obtained in the
FLYING BOAT.
all wood or the all metal boat.
Length over all, 25 ft. 5 in.
The hull proper is 23 ft. in length, with a
Span of top plane, 36 ft. 4 in.
beam of 34% in. at the bottom and 40 in. at the
Span of lower plane, 28 ft. 4 in.

fd

THE

Chord,

ft.

top.

AIRCRAFT

282

March, igi4

divided into water-tight compart


one of which is of sufficient capamachine.
The keel is of spruce and runs the entire
length of the boat; from this the body of the
hull is built up on ribs of spruce, spaced 4 in.
apart and double planked with cedar.
The bottom of the boat has two layers of Vi in.
planking.
The new boat has a decided V bottom,
from the step to a point forward of the seats,
The V bottom makes a much stronger construe
tion than the flat bottom design and does not
add to the weigh
After the boat has been planked, it is entirely
covered with a special grade of galvanized sheet
steel.
This method of construction has sever;
advantages over the all-wood boat, in view of tli
fact that it will not absorb water, is easy

The

hull

is

ments, every

city to float the

'

repair

in

case

of

puncture,

and

will

last

in-

derinitely.

The spray

mahogany,
paneled with the same material.
shield

is

of

built

cockpit is
Seats are upholstered in dark grey.
The center panel of the spray shield is operated
by a small lever in the cockpit, making an easy
entrance to the boat.
The bottom of the boat is protected by
center skid of ash, running the entire length of
Thi
boat, and two smaller ones on the side.
center skid is fastened to the inside keel by ai
improved method, which prevents leakage.
Tin
skid is shod with steel and at the step has
heavy heel which is capable of supporting thi
entire weight of the machine.
The boat is iinished in battleship grey color,
and all metal work is highly polished.
The hull has been designed for use with th'
engine mounted either midway between the planes,
or on the hull itself.
With the motors mounted
between the planes, the boat has extra seating
capacity in the after cockpit.
;

PLANES:
The wings

are built in panels, tor convenishipping, the upper plane containing


and the lower five.
All guy wires are of 3-32 galvanized steel cabl
fitted with a special type of Bleriot turnbuckle.
All life wires are doubled for safety.
The standard Thomas strut socket is used, an
struts can be taken out and planes packed witl
out loosening any wires.
The wing spars in each panel are heavil
sparred, making a very strong plane.
The

ence

in
sections,

standard Th(
Deen used for the past four years.
efiicient

for

all

CONTROLS:

And

is

has
very

round work,

The stabilizer is 10 ft. in length and has an


average breadth of 2 ft. with an area of 20 sq. ft.
The two elevator flaps contain 22 1-^ sq. ft.,
and the balanced rudder, 9 sq. ft.
The ailerons have a length of 11 ft. and an
average width of 18 in. and contain about ZZ
S(\

ft.

The boat is fitted witl


The elevator is worked

system of control.
usual way by forand back
of the steering
column, and the rudder by rotating
but the aileron control is worked by foot pedal;
The whole control is very neatly worked out and
undoubtedly will be adapted as standard, witl
view to meeting the United States Navy requ

ward

raents.

REVIEW OF RECENT AERONAUTIC INVENTIONS


By LESTER
Here are some

the more interesting of recent aircraft for which patents have been granted:
Controlling Mechanism for Flying-Machines and
the like, patented to Glenn H. Curtiss, of Hammondsport, N. Y., January 27, 1914, 1,085,575.
A controlling mechanism for flying machines,
comprising a pair of seats for seating two operators, a body-moved frame mounted adjacent to
the seats, the seats comprising side arms arranged to be in active or inactive condition for
rendering the frame operable by the bodily movement of each operator, and hand-act actuated
means for placing either of the seat arms in active
condition.
of

Speed and Direction Indicator for Airships,


patented by Melvin Vaniman of Atlantic City,
N. J., January 20. 1914.
Patent rights assigned
to
International Aeronautical Construction Co.,
1,0S4,831.
An instrument for balloonists, by
which, so long as some point on 1'
face of

the earth is visible, tell his direct


of motion
as accurately as can a mariner a
;a
and by
which, so long as the height abovi_
known he can tell his velocity with somewhat
similar accuracy.
It comprises a gimbal
joint
structure mounted to rotate in a horizontal pi

ounted on

its

inner

member having

d,

direction mark and spaced distance marks, a projector below the screen to throw the image of
some stationary object thereupon, a compass having its axis mounted in fixed relation with the
screen, and means for rotating the screen in a
horizontal plane to bring the path of the image
into appropriate relation with the direction or distance marks as the case may be.
By means of

L.

SARGENT

with the reading of plane, and the safety features of a parachute.


direction and speed Gas is employed in the airship to counterbalance
There is no apparent its weight, and planes are combined with tlie
why the device would not be as useful to airship for steering. A gas bag is provided, formed
lirmen as to balloonists.
othe
with an upper and a lower portion co-operating
Flying Boat or like Craft, patented by John when deflated to form a plane and parachute,
ComD. Cooper of Bridgeport, Conn., January 1.3, 1914, and operating when inflated as a balloon.
bined
with this are means for holding the upper
1,084,401.
The primary object of the invention
and lower portions of the bag in an extended
is to provide a body or hull construction which
tables in connection
Lie
of t lie instrument,
readily determined.
;

minimum of resistance to travel in position, comprising a vertical standard extendand which adapts the vehicle to ing through the lower portion of the gas bag
and connected to tlie upper portion, and means
run along and rise from the
the gas bag to
a body of water with ease and facility, for engaging the lower porti
g an open passage
reduction of the shock of impact when the the standard, means for fort
through the upper and \o\\
portions at their
craft alights on water,
and an avoidance
centers,
consisting
of
a
nori
ally closed
suctional resistance when the craft rises are ;
the upper jjortion of the gas bag surrounding the
ends aimed at by the inventor.
The bottom
the boat body is transversely flat at all points, standard and adapted to be closed when the gas
but is longitudinally curved, having an upward bag is inflated.
slope both forwardly and rearwardly of the cenAn .Veroplane-Controlling Device, invented by
ter of pressure, at which point the body is of the John P. Nissen of New York City and patented
greatest depth.
The hull comprises a body hav February 3, 1914, 1,085,932. Automatic control
ing a transversely flat bottom provided with a of the aeroplane is the inventor's object.
In
longitudinally curved,
rearwardly tapering pro combination witli warpable aeroplanes, the invenjection, of less width than the bottom of the tor provides a trough and means for supporting
boat and of varying depth throughout, the pro the trough, a weight therein, a frame shifted by
jection being of maximum depth approximately the moving of the weight, shafts and means foi
in line with the mean center of lifting pressure. causing the frame to drive the shafts, and spiral
An Aerial Machine of novel character lias been sheaves on the shafts for the support of wires
invented by Amos A. Wyckoff, of Santa Cruz, warping the planes of the aeroplane.
The invenCal., and
the patent rights transferred to the tor employs movable hollow weights mounted for
Wyckoff Safety Aerial Machine Co.. of Santa independent movement in planes at an angle to
Cruz.
Patented January 20, 1914, No. 1,084,777. each other, the weights being partially filled with
The invention combines the buoyant features of a movable substance.
The apparatus is always
a balloon, the navigable features of an aero- controlled by the levers which the aviator grasps
will oppose a
air or water,

alight

face

upon,

of

AIRCRAFT

March, 1914
by which the aviator manages the machine
except that when he wishes to fly on a level
without turning either to the right or left he
starts the machine true or nearly true and releases the levers and then the weights will shift
sufficiently to make the apparatus take a true
course and maintain it.
An Aeroplane invented by Oreste Brunicardi,
of Reading,
Pa.,
patented February 3,
1914,

and

1,085,968.
An emergency appliance, the main object being to provide means for insuring a safe
descent of the operator in case of accident to
the motor or other essential part of the aeroThe
plane.
Brunicardi
attachments
consist
mainly of additional air contacting extensions
which may be spread by the operator, in con-

nection
with
other
features co-operating with
these parachute extensions, including bars, arms,
and springs for extending the parachute extensions from a retracted to an operative position.

Flying Machine invented by Ralph M.

Met-

of Driscoll, N. D., patented February 3,


1,086,199.
particularly interesting fea1914,
ture of the invention is tiie boat attachment and
calf,

paddle wheels with which it is provided. Auxiliary


planes connected to the supporting frame, and
adapted to nest one within the other, and means
for collapsing these frames is another feature ot
The machine has automatic balthe invention.
ancing mechanism.
Flying machine, patented by Charles Francis
Jenkins, of Washington, D. C, January 27, 1914,

The inventor's object


1,085,263.
or minimize the tendency of the

is

obviate

to

machine

to

go

course when it is desired to bring the


machine back to an even keel.
This is accomplished by increasing the supporting surface ot
one wing and at the same time decreasing the
supporting surface of the other wing, as the
means of maintaining lateral stability in flight.
The aeroplane comprises a body portion, a propeller, stationary entering planes, auxiliary planes
longitudinally
within
telescoping
the
entering
planes from the rear of the entering planes, and
means for simultaneously telescoping or expanding,
off

its

fulcrum for the other, thus preventing the


machine from rotating with one of the liftina
elements as would otherwise be liable to occur.
Anotlier patent, No. 1,084,806 of the same date,
granted to this inventor lor an Aerial Motor
the

Vehicle

covers a

pair of oppositely pitched conpropellers,


one over the other,
rotate the propellers in opposite directo simultaneously vary the pitch of
both of the propellers, means to drive the machine forward (consisting of a screw propeller
having adjustable blades), and a rudder for
steering the "aerial motor-vehicle."

centric

screw

means

to

means

tions,

Flying-Machine, patented Jan. 20, 1914, to


C.
H. Greaves, South Manchester,
1,085,034.
It has wings pivoted for up

Benjamin
Conn.,

ward

vertical
axes,
trolling these

tudinal

movement upon horizontal longiand means for actuating and conwings and limiting their movement

beyond a predetermined degree.


Control

Mechanism

this

country

for

Rene

by

descend upon an "even keel."


Aviation Apparatus, invented by John F. Coo
ley of New York City and patented January 13,
1914, 1,084,198.
A supporting unit is provided
having on either side of its center line an outspread supporting surface, a keel member therebelow, and means extending from or connected
the keel for at will deflecting the rear portions of the supporting surfaces in upward and
directions for changing the fore-andaft concavity of the supporting surfaces.
to

downward

Aeroplane,

Aeroplanes, patented
Tampier, ot Paris,
France, January 2,
1914,
1,084,829.
It
comprises a wing shaft mounted to swing about two
perpendicularly disposed axes, gearing associated
with the shaft to change the incidence of the
wing, and gearing to swing the shaft with respect to both of the axes and to simultaneously
actuate the aforesaid incidence changing gearing.
in

serve to normally maintain each of the planes


at a predetermined angle of incidence, and special means for enabling the operator to arbitrarily
vary or reverse the angle without materially
shifting the position of the longitudinal axis of
the frame from substantial parallelism with the
plane of the horizon, so that the machine may
be caused to ascend, make any desired fliglit and

An Aeroplane-Landing Device, invented by


James T. Amiss, of Baton Rouge, la., and patented January 20, 1914, 1,085,000.
The inven
claims the combination of a landing platform
a grate structure with a flying machine
on the platform, having members forming supports
for the flying machine on the platform, said supports having such a structure as to facilitate the
landing and starting of the flying machine; and
tor

having

rigid anchoring means adapted to engage the platform and means controllable from the aviator's
seat whereby said anchoring means are made to
engage or disengage the platform.

Flying-Machine, invented by Harry O. Lawand expanding the planes.


rence, of Chicago, 111., and patented January 13,
Automatic stability is the inMachine, patented by Henry B. Lister, 1914, 1,084,552.
He employs an elongated fuselage
of San Francisco, Cal., January 20, 1914, 1,084,- ventor's object.
807.
A Helicopter type of machine having two of frame having fore and aft lateral sustaining
pi vo tally
mounted upon transverse horilifting members which will revolve at such speeds planes
as to each give a substantially uniform lifting zontal axes, a suspended or swinging basket for
The rotary lifting elements revolve in the operator so connected to the sustaining planes
effect.
opposite directions, so that one element becomes that the gravity of the basket and its load may
or telescoping

Aerial

patented by Joe L. Rugg, Kansas


January 13, 1914. 1,084,168. Primarily
Adapted for volplaning.
With it, acthe inventor "an aeroplane may soar
and even rise with the employment of the wind
alone as a motive power."
The aeroplane supCity, Mo.,
a glider.
cording to

porting plane has a plurality of transversely explane sections disposed one in advance
of and adjacent to the other, each section having
reverse curved under surface, the forward
a
portion of which is concave and the rear portion
convex, the rear of the plane sections lying in

tending

rved

line.

Aeroplane, patented by Connell M. McMinneapolis, Minn., January 13, 1914.


Has a novel rudder construction.
1,084,099.
Lifting-Surface for Flying-Machines, patented
by Charles H. Burleigh, of South Berwick, Me.,
A surface for flyJanuary 13, 1914, 1,084,068.
ing machines having a flat undersurface and
vacuum forming depressions in the upper survacuum forming depression being
face,
said
formed by stretching cloth over parallel bars.
.-\n

Mahon,

Automatic Balancing Device for Flying-Mapatented by Archibald G. Mateson, of


Ventura, Cal.
A lateral stability mechanism including a pair of propellers arranged adjacent
each side of the machines, and means moving
the propellers in opposition to each other and
chines,

opposition to the lateral inclination


aeroplane structure with regard to the
in

power of

the

of

driving

propellers.

its

MODEL DEPARTMENT
By NICHOLAS

S.

SCHLOEDER

PAST PERFORMANCES.
Anyone who has watched the progress of model
aeronautics since its inception must have been
impressed with its remarkable similarity to the
progress of its big brother, the full-sized aeroplane.
It has experienced the same wonderful
development in its own line, and the period
this development was fastest, was
contemporaneous with the period during which
the full sized machine developed most rapidly.
In the field of large machines last year has been

during which

characterized by a steady, consistent progress,


and a retinement in details, rather than by any
records or radical changes in construction.
The same has been true of aero-

Tlie

CONTESTS.
The contest for the F. A. Collins silver cup,
offered for models rising off the ground, was won
by Rudolph Funk of the Long Island M. A. C.
lie established a new world's record for models
of this type, 1625 ft. displacing the old record
of 1542 ft. made last spring by Louis Bamburger
of the Bayridge club.

sensational

past year has witnessed no development in


the ordinary double propeller machine for launching from the hand, though the average performance was higher.
But there has been a
rounding out in various directions.
Tractors,
single propellers, and other new types of machines
have been introduced.
Last March a steering
contest was held by the New York Model Aero
Club in the 22nd Regiment Armory, an entirely
new form of competition. The following month
saw the introduction of the inter club contest,
the four leading clubs in this vicinity taking
part.
All this has tended to put the sport on a
more scientific basis, inasmuch as it offered a
much wider field for observation. Especially encouraging is the increased interest taken in models
that rise off the ground, for conditions similar
to those which arise in aviation are more closely

approximated.
The tendency to increase the size of the models
which began at the end of 1911, was repeated
during the year 1913, as they jumped from an average of about 4 oz. to about 6 oz.
This tendency has no doubt been augmented by the remarkable records established during the past year
by English models weighing close to 8 oz.
The
average diameter of the propellers has been about
12 inches for hand launched machines and about
2
or 3 inches less for rising off the ground
models.
The size for the last type of machine is
always smaller as a lower pitch gives a greater
standing thrust, necessary to get the model off
the ground, for they do not have tlie benefit of
Furthe initial thrust given to it by the hand.
thermore, a propeller of smaller diameter does
The use
not require as large a landing chassis.
of gold-beaters skin, covered with Ambroid varnish, has been one of the most important innovations of the vear in construction details.
The outlook for the coming year is promising.
Aeroplanettes have become more or less standard-

Points.

Sees.

Hodgeman, 56

Obst, 1,264

Heil, 49

Ness, 983
Ileil, 963

On
Van

Bamburger,

Heil, 8
10

Cavanaugh,
31

Ness,

11
11

Dec. 30, 1913, Rudolph Funk journeyed to


Courtlandt Park, to enter the competition
1913.

Worlds Model Flying Records.

Hand

Distance
Duration
Distance

Armour Selley
W. L. Butler
R. Funk

Duration
Duration

D.

Driver

Distance
Duration

W.
W.

E.
E.

.Distance

C.

launched

ground

Off

Single propeller hand launched


Single propeller off ground

hand

Tractor,
tractor,

off

launched,

Duration
Distance
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration

ground

Ilvdroaeroplane
Single propeller, hydro
Single tractor, hydro

Double tractor,

hydro

AMERICAN MODEL FLYING RECORDS.


launched

iland
(

Ki

^.

Distance
Duration

.'.

I>istance

ground

Sinele

Duration
Duration

tractor

Hydroaeroplane
Pouble tractor,

Distance
Duration
Duration

hydro

BRITISH MODELS RECORDS.


Off

ground

Single
Single

propeller,
propeller

Single

tractor,

hand launched
off
ground

.Distance

Duration

hand

launched

Single tractor, off ground

.Distance

hydro
tractor, hydro
oropeUer

(AM

J.

C.
J.

E.

C
E.
C.
E.

L.
C.

H.

Evans
Evans
Dutton

Louch
Dutton

29 sec.
28 sec.

W. Bamburger
Cruver
Cruver
Cavanaugh
Harry Herzog
^^

Haydcn

G.
R.

Lucas

Louch

E.

L.

H.

D.

Driver

W.
W.
C.
T-

C.

Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration

J.

L.

L
C.

91 sec.

H. Slatter
C. Dutton
Herzog

A.
A.
G.

T.

870 feet
64
798 feet
570 sec.
94 sec.
60 sec.

Armour Sellcy
W. L. Butler
R. Funk

Distance

British records are quoted

Louch

2,653 feet
170
1,625 feet
169
85

Louch
Cavanaugh

G.

Duration
.

iercplane

^
Duration
Distance
Duration
Distance
Duration

Hand launched

Obst. 7

W. Bamburger,

Obst, 41
Ness, 36

Cavanaugh, 812

Funk, 4

Hodgeman.

W. Bamburger, 1,182 Funk, 48


Hodgeman, 1,080 Cavanaugh, 47

OFFICIAL RECORDS FOR VEAR

pianettes.

The

complete results follow:

Feet.

Funk, 1,625

Slatter

E. Evans
E.
C.
E.
C.
E.

feet
sec.
feet
sec.
54 sec.
873 feet

2.653
170
1,625
81

28
137
1,770

169
1,095:
85
870

Evans.

Dutton
Louch
Dutton
Louch

K. Slatter
H. Slatter
C. Dutton

from

35 sec.

Flight.)

798
91

570
94
60
35
29

sec.

AIRCRAFT

284
which had

though

of

been run for a few weeks past for


medal offered by Mr. F. L. Herreshoff and
captured the prize with a flght of 1,535 ft. outdistancing his nearest competitor by more than
300 ft.; Frederic Watkins was second, with the
mark of 1,224 ft. accomplished a few weeks before.

THE SCHULTZ R. O. G. MODEL.


This model, built by Harry Schultz, is a repreIts best
sentative type of an r. o. g. machine.
performances have been flights of 1,285 ft. and
62 sees, in distance and duration respectively,
made in 1912. Mr. Schultz has probably done
more than any other flyer to popularize this
During 1912 he was the most
kind of model.
consistent performer in the competition for the
Stevens trophy for models rising off the ground,

the

he finally lost to
last

contests
plane,

of

main

shape.

in

one

3-16

E.

Prizes aggreare invited to participate.


tries
gating to $300,000, or more, are to be distributed oftered.
The harbor hydro-aeroplane designed and being
the winners who cireumfly the world over the
prescribed course within the limit of time per- constructed for J. H. Struble by the Christoffermitted.
The route proposed by the officials is as son Aviation Co. is well under way and
future aerial commuter will soon no longer
the
follows:
Miles. have to rely upon the transbay water-cralt to
The half dozen
1,000 reach his place of business.
Exposition grounds to Cheyenne
1,000 impils at the above company's school are proTo Chicago
1,000 gressing very nicely and will soon be capable
To New York city
1,000 tliers.
A very large number of neophytes ot the
To Belle Isle, Canada
air were given their aerial initiation during the
To Cape Farewell, Greenland, over Atlantic
610 past month, by Silas Christoft'erson, and were
ocean
To Reykjavik, Iceland, over Atlantic ocean 670 all without exception, delighted of tiieir experiAero-\tlantic
over
Hebrides,
ence which they promised to repeat soon.
To Stornoway,
570 plane-rides are becoming very popular with the
ocean
550 society folk of San Francisco who find in them
To London via Edinburgh
300 something more thrilling than in any other sport.
To Paris
500
flying-boat, of the type designed for Roald
To Berlin
350 Amundsen, was sold by the Christoft'erson Co., to
To Warsaw
675 Henry Umo, a Japanese representing his counTo St. Petersburg
450 try's government.
Prior to the purchase he had
To Moscow
1,200 taken lessons for about six months and now
To Tomsk, Siberia, over Steppes
900 being a proficient flyer will leave with the maTo Irkutsk
1,300 chine for his native land.
To Harbin
500
successful practical demonstration of a new
To Vladivostok
800 parachute for descent from an aeroplane, and
To Kobe via Korea and Japan sea
350 invented by the well-known aviator and conTo Tokyo
750 structor, Glenn Martin, was recently made at
To Broughton cape
1. 100
The perilous
To Kamchatka
Griffith Park, near Los Angeles.
800 test was made by Miss Tiny Broadw^ick, a SouthTo East Cape over Vering Straits
30 ern California aviatrice, from a Martin biplane
To Cape Prince of Wales
1,250 piloted by its builder.
From the height ot 850
To Sitka, Alaska
600 feet she jumped into space and for the first 75
To Vancouver, B. C
150 feet she dropped at a terrific speed but the imTo Seattle
To Panama-Pacific grounds, San Francisco 1,300 petus of the descent was gradually checked when
the parachute attachment, which was fitted snugly
22,760 about her shoulders, finally opened and permitTotal
An alternative route, 1,680 miles shorter, runs ted her to touch ground in safety. Miss 'Bonfrom Kamchatka east to the Commander islands, nie" Glessner, a Los Angeles newspaper woman,
200 miles:
witnessed the test as a passenger in the machine.
Miles.
During the month of January Lincoln Beachey
To Kudiakof island via Aleutian chain... 1.290 held the public's attention pretty well to himself.
500
To Cape Elizabeth, Alaska
He flew at the Emeryville track, Oakland, and
670
To Sitka
During his first
at Ascot Park, Los Angeles.
600
To Vancouver, B. C
Oakland meet he had a narrow escape while
1=0
To Seattle
alighting, with engine shut-off, when Barney OldExposition
International
Panama-Pacific
To
field's racing car got in his way to land and in
1,300
grounds, San Francisco
a desperate effort to save the famous driver's
life and that of his companion, a photographer,
21.080
Total
he dove nose first to the ground risking greatly
Communal stations supplied with complete line his own life but fortunately escaped unhurt, alof repair tools, spare parts, mechanics, fuel, oil, though his machine suffered a little damage.
In
etc, are to be maintained throughout the course. each of his exhibitions Beachey goes through his
On the two oceans the different governments regular stock of flying ndiich consists of three flights.
havby
participants
assisting
in
will land a hand
The first one is entirely devoted to his curtaining torpedo-destroyers and other naval craft pa- raising stunts such as flying "no-hands," banking
In Siberia it is extrol along the watery way.
sharply, executing spirals perfect enough to make
pected that the Russian government will assign a cork-screw green with envy, etc., and ends
Repairs and rebuilding
troops along the route.
In
the first number with a vertical volplane.
will be allowed, with the condition that the orig- his second flight he loops the loop to his heart s
inal machine remain in use, and to he checked content and in his finale flies upside down for
much
exciting
is
idea
The
point.
at each control
When Barney Oldfield is
about one-half mile.
interest in this country and abroad and already in the program the two race together in their
their
a score of well-known pilots have expressed
Beachey came once more
respective machines.
willingness to enter, thinking the journey around to grief at Los .\ngeles when, just after having
the world in an aeroplane feasible.
left the ground to race Oldfield in his 300 h. p.
An important, as well as interesting cross- Christie racer, the crank-case of his motor excountry race from San Francisco to San Diego, ploded and he was forced to land on a walnut
the
on
place
take
miles
is
to
520
of
a distance
tree demolishing his biplane beyond repair but
morrow of our first President's birthday and. escaped again unhurt. He intends to have a new
from the enthusiasm shown in its coming, prom- Curtiss machine built immediately and it is rethis country.
ises to rival any previously held in
his new plane with a Gnome
cross- ported that he will fit
Its main object is to foster and encourage
rotary engine.
country flying and to render it as popular here
According to Wilhelm Pickens, manager of
is to take place
departure
The
abroad.
is
it
as
offered to fly the
Francisco, following a Lincoln Beachey, Beachey has
at the Fair Grounds, San
Sandern monoplane invented in 1897 by Prof.
program of exhibition flying by all of the en- Langley, which now rests at the Smithsonian InBrief halts will be made, along the
trants.
prove
to the world
and
Washington,
at
stitute
Bakerscourse, at Stockton, Modes to Fresno,

MODEL AERO CLUB RECORD.

records

of

the

Illinois

M.

A.

C,

for

18 inch class, double prowere as follows:


ft.
and 41 sec, both held by E.

24 inch class double propeller: 980 ft. and


38 sec, by George Weaver.
Unlimited class double propeller: The record
in this class is held by Arthur Nealy with a 34
His distance mark is 2,470 ft. and
inch machine.
his duration mark equals 72 seconds.

For hydroaeroplanes, the record is held by


Don. Cornell, 18 sees.
The single tractor model records are held by
.\.
Cruver, 54 sees, and 873 ft.

HENRY

Los Angeles, San Bernardino and finally


at San Diego, where a meet will be held on the
loUowing day after arrival.
This race is being
promoted by Max Friedman, a businees man ot
San Francisco, who is raising the sum of $12,000,
for awards and expenses, from the leading firms
of the places in which the aeroplanes will stop.
The aviators who have already entered are;
Bob Fowler, Silas Christofferson, Gus Seigfried,
the monoplane flier, Roy Francis, H. W. Blakeley, and Frank Bryant, and it is expected that
others will be tempted by the attractive prizes

113

735
peller:
VV illiams.

GENERAL

IN

field,

to

ILLINOIS
The

in.
fuselage conists of 2 spruce sticks
constructed in the usual triangular
in.,
form with two cross pieces as bracing.
The chassis for starting and lighting consists
01 bamboo and cork wheels.
The propellers are 9 in. in diameter, with a
They
twenty inch pitch, cut out of white pine.
are driven bv twelve strands of \s in. flat rubber.
The total weight of the model is about 41,4 oz.

The

By M.

planned for aviation, so far, has been conceived


by the bureau of aeronautics, headed by A.rnold
Krtickman, of the Panama-Pacific Exposition Co.,
and is to be held during the Fair activities in
1915.
The affair is to be an around-the-w;orld
race to be started and finished at the Exposition
grounds, and in which the aviators of all coun-

Selley

year.

constructed of spruce and


bamboo, covered by varnished bamboo paper,
measures 24 in. x 4^ in. The elevator measures
The planes as can be seen
11
in.
X 4^ in.
from the illustration, are perfectly rectangular in

The

NEWS
California News
By R. H. Blanquie
The most stupendous and gigantic event ever

Armour

the

March, 1914

tile macliine can fly if equipped with a suitmotor.


Owing to the machine being in a
bad condition from age, Director C. D. \Valcott
said that it would be preferable to have a duplicate built of the original for flying.
Francis Wildman of the U. S. Army Aero
Corps, recently established a new world's' record
for flying-boats when with a passenger he soared
to an altitude of 3,500 feet in 25 minutes, at
San Diego. This constitutes the seventh new record established by the San Diego division of the
army Aero Corps within a month.
During the latter ^art of January Lieut. Taliaferri broke the U. 6. A. and American records
for single day endurance by flying from San
Diego through Pasadena to Elsinor, a total disThe former American entance of 260 miles.
durance record was held by C. Melvin Wood
The
who had covered 255 miles in one day.
new record was made in 3 hrs. 45 min., an
average of 58 2-3 m. p. h.

that
able

Pennsylvania News
By W. H. Sheahan.
Mr. Jos. A. Steinmetz, Vice-President of the
Aero Club of Pennsylvania, addressed the members of that organization and visitors at the
monthly meeting held in the Bellevue-Stratford
Mr. Steinmetz beside being
Hotel, February 6th.
a prominent Philadelphia manufacturer, is the
inventor and owner of many patents in connection with aeronautical matters.
very interesting talk was given upon the
"Means of Providing Aerial Defense against inBlue prints
vasion by Aeroplane and Dirigible."
of the latest patent granted were inspected with
much interest by the audience.
company has been formed and military demonstrations before the various foreign governments will be held during the conung summer.
Wm. Thaw, the Pittsburg aviator, made a record trip on Tanuarv 20th, when he flew from
Stuart, Fla., to Palm Beach, in his flying boat.
The distance of 45 miles was made in 31 minutes
and an altitude of about a thousand feet was

maintained.

been
activity
has
interest
and
Renewed
that Rodman Wanaof Philadelphia is financing the building
of a giant aeroboat, at the Curtiss plant, with
the intention of making the long talked about
announced that the
It
is
transatlantic flight.
start will be made in June.
In a letter addressed to Mr. Hawley, President of the Aero Club of America, Mr. Waua"The flight is to be made in the
maker says:
cause of science and in the interests of world's
peace the crossing of the Atlantic in a flight
of an aircraft, is, to my mind, as important to
aerial navigation as the voyage of Columbus to
Once the Atlantic is
transportation by water.
crossed in flight of an aircraft, there will soon
follow regular transatlantic trips and fixed safe

aroused by the press notices

maker

passenger air line."

Blair Thaw
It is announced that Alexander
2nd, of Pittsburg has sailed for France with
a stabilizing device of his own invention and
100 h. p. Curtiss hydro-aeroplane
will enter a
in the $100,000 aviation contest for safety devices

for

brother

aircraft.

Wm.

Thaw

Thaw, the

is

accompanied by his

aviator,
principle

who

will

make

upon which the


device works has not been made public, but
members of the Aero Club of America who
have witnessed tests were much impressed with
It is claimed for the invention
simplicity.
its
the

official

trials.

The

that it gives perfect lateral as well as fore and


aft control, that it prevents skidding and stalling
and will bank the machine automatically when

making turns.
At the regular monthly meeting

of

the

Aero

Club of Pennsylvania, held the early part of


February, Mr. Clarence P. Wynne, President
of the Club made tlie announcement that plans
have been completed for the purchase of two
30 000 cubic feet capacity spherical balloons by
be
the Club, with which a series of races will

The original idea was


held later in the season.
capacity.
to purchase a large balloon of 60,000

March, 19 14

AIRCRAFT

286

March, igi4

he oil reservoir to get into the motor proper


To Enter For Jacques Schneider Trophy
except through the oiling system and the motor
Raymund V. Morris, who is flying at St. can be run at an angle up to 30 degrees for
I

Rodman Wanamaker Orders

Transatlantic

Aeroplane

with the little monoplane flying


boat, is so well pleased with its performances
that he has signified his willingness to enter it
in the 150 mile over-sea race for the Jacques
Schneider trophy with its accompanying cash
prize of $5,000.
Although one of the fastest
machines in America with its present motor of
100 h.p., it is intended to replace this with one
The race
of 160 h.p. for the French competition.
will be held this year on the Mediterranean Sea
near Monte Carlo.

Petersburg,

Fla.,

been made that Rodman


of John Wanamaker, who
ov/ns large department stores in New York and
Philadelphia, has ordered a Mammoth Biplane
to be constructed for the purpose of making an
attempt to fly across the Atlantic Ocean some
time during the summer months of this year, in
competition for the prize of $50,000, offered by
Lord Northcliffe, and $5,000, offered by Mrs.
Victoria Woodhull Martin, of the Woman's Aerial
League of Great Britain.
Control for Wright Biplanes
Sketches of the flyer show an enclosed hull of
Following the recent announcement by the
mahogany, thirty-five feet in length and with a
The motor of 200 horse-power Wright Company of many improvements in aerosix foot beam.
planes and of their activity in bringing American
is located in the bow and drives a large tractor
screw.
Behind the motor are attached the wings, aviation again on a sound footing, details of
which have a spread of eighty feet and a depth the new Wright control have been disclosed.
Aft of the wings is the en- The iisual lever system has been replaced by an
of nearly ten feet.
Ac automobile type of steering wheel in combination
closed cabin, about twelve feet in length.
commodations are provided for two operators. The with a handle, which makes the control not only
cabin will be equipped with instruments for in- stronger and simpler, but makes it much more
dicating the position of the machine in the air,
Formerly the elevator was controlled
its flving speed, motor speed, direction of flight, effective.
AH of the controls will be in duplicate so by a forward and backward movement of a lever
&c.
that either or both of the aviators may operate the in the left hand, while the warping and rudder
were controlled by the forward and backward
It is understood that Rodman Wanamaker will movement of a lever in the right hand, the rudder
appoint both an English aviator, and an American being offset for a turn by turning the handle of
This control, which has
a\iator, to act as pilots on the trip, and those this right hand lever.
spoken of at the present time are Lieutenant been used ever since 1908, was very effective
John H. Towers, U. S. N., and Lieutenant John for exhibition flying, for which it was particularly
"C.
Porte of the Royal Navy Flying Corps, of designed, and has proven a very precise one
when once mastered.
But for long distance
Great Britain.
flights many aviators found this control tiresome,
Create Aerial Squad
and in the new and safer machine it has be^Vrrangements are being formulated for the es- come necessary to modify it into the new form.
tablishment of an aviation detachment as part
The steering wheel is of automobile type and
of the naval branch of the Massachusetts State the control is perfectly instinctive, the wheel bemilitia.
Captain Daniel M. Goodridge, of Newton, ing pushed forward and back to control the elevachief of the Naval Brigade, has submitted a bill tion of the machine and turned from side to
to the Legislature asking for the creation of an side to balance it laterally.
In turning the wheel
aerial squad consisting of an aviation officer and from side to side the rudder handle is turned
ten brigade mechanicians.
with the wheel, thus giving a perfect lateral bal-

Announcement has
Wanamaker, the son

New

May

ance, and in turns it is onlv necessary to off-set


the rudder handle to one side or the other, still
controlling the lateral position of the machine
by turning the wheel and handle together side-

" Transatlantic Trip Impracticable/'


says Orville Wright

"A

transatlantic trip in an aeroplane is at the


time impracticable.
It
would be foolfor an aviator to try this trip with the
engine now used in aeroplanes. I will not attempt
such a trip until greater perfection aud more
stability are -secured for the flying machine."
Thus Orville Wright, one of the pioneer builders
of "heavier than air" machines, answered the
question as to whether he would enter the lists
with other aviators, who declare that they will
try a trip across the Atlantic Ocean.
"The machines as they are now constructed
have not the staying power required for a voyage
of this length, and under no circumstances will
the engines hold out under the continuous strain
of such a journey," continued Mr. Wright.
"The engines a"re not heavy enough to withstand the constant shock and vibration withoiat
rest.
I
do not doubt that the trip could be
njade with ease if one or two resting places were
provided on the way.
But, of course, this is
not the plan and I cannot believe that an aviator
who knows the game well would risk his life in
an undertaking of this kind.
Efforts have been
made to cover the same distance on land and
have failed, and while necessity may force many
things, it will not bolster up a weak engine when
once the let-down comes."

present

haidy

Detect Submarine Mines


That submarine mines can be easily detected by
aviators at an altitude of between fifteen hundred
and two thousand feet was discovered recently at
Pensacala,
Florida.
when
Lieutenant
"Jack
Towers, accompanied by a Coast Artillery officer,
made a flight over the entrance of Pensacala
Harbor.
Five mines had been planted in the
harbor a few hours previous by the Artillery
Corps.
All the mines were seen when the hydroplane
was at an altitude of fifteen hundred feet, and
Lieutenant Towers said that he could even follow the anchor chains down to the bottom of
the harbor.
Lieutenant Belling, who did not know the locaof the mines then went out on a flight in
rch of the
nd at a height
t

m.

thousand

The

easily
"picked up" four
was obscured by the shadow

feet

fifth

HE
and

any length of time, without becoming over


ricated.
Another new feature is the use of

lubcovi-

per deposited water-jackets in place of the cast


iron jacket cast integral with the cylinder, this
process being controlled by the Kirkham com-

pany in America.
A good idea of the satisfaction Kirkham motors are giving can be gained by the fact that
over
this

50 per cent, of the orders received so far


season are from former Kirkham owners.
the aviators sending in repeat orders

Among

DeLloyd Thompson, Art Smith and John


Tweed; DeLloyd Thompson has purchased a new
50 for his new machine he having such good
success with the 4-cylinder, 40 h. p. motor which
are

he

used last season.


Art Smith has used a
the past two seasons, He
getting one of the new 75 h. p. motors with
which he intends to do the loop and some upside-down flying.
John Tweed, who used a 6-50
in his Hydro, last season, has purchased a new
75 for his flying boat.
One of the 6-cylinder.
50 h. p.
Kirkham motors was recently delivered
to Aviator Fred Hild for use in his Marshonett

Kiikham motor during

is

monoplane.

Remarkable Letter from Captain

J.

Hector

Worden
Mr. Alfred W. Lawson,
Editor Aircraft.
Dear Sir:

With pleasure I inclose my check for $1.25


per your bill of February 7th though the
magazines that Mrs. Worden ordered for me were
old ones, I have found more than enough in
each one to repay me for the order.
Words fail to express mv appreciation of your
untiring efforts to place our profession in the
sphere in which it nghtty belongs, and it is with
itride that I refer to and show a copy of your
classy publication as evidence of the importance
and developments in aviation to date.
And I
can assure you it has helped me win many
prominent converts. The news in your November
issue that you had become a practical pilot ot
even our monoplanes, was the most gratifying
inforination I have had in a long while, and I
herewith extend my sincerest congratulations.
The Sixth National Corn Show opened here at
the State Fair Grounds February 10th to 24th.
It is a tremendous big and important exposition,
among the free attractions are flights by Frank
Terrell, 80 h. p. Curtiss; Fred De Kor, SO h. p.;
Hall Scott, Katherine Stinson-Wright, and myself in Moisant 50 h. p. Gnome.
Flights as follows:
Capt. Worden opened festivities by flight over entire city, dropping bunas

ways.
This type of control was adopted after careful
study had been made of all existing systems and
combines many features that have become standard in Europe, the control for lateral balance by
the steering wheel, for example, being the standard requirement in the German army and used
on the German Wright aeroplanes.
The novel
feature of the control is the simple manner in
which the rudder control is combined with the dles of literature interspersed with 100 passes;
warping.
altitude, 6,000 feet; time. noon, time in air 30
General exhibition flights in afternoon;
It has been known for some time that the minutes.
Wright Company contemplated a change of con- first one by Worden, one by Terrill, then two by
De Kor. Following four days very bad, bitter
trol, and aviators have been much interested to
know what form this would take. Expert flvers. cold, windy weather; each dav opened bv Woramong them Harry C. Atwood. Oscar Brindley. den, two flights bv Worden, 6ne by Terfill and
Yesterday (Sunday) 30,000
Beckwith Havens and several of the army and two by De Kor.
navy airmen, have expressed admiration for the paid admissions to grand stand, same program
new system, particularly because of its instinctive- except, good weather; Terrill and I in air toness. which is botind to make it much easier and gether, five flights by De Kor.
In quick getaway and short stop, monoplane
safer to fly than formerly.
wins, left ground in 55 feet landed and stopped
27 feet from first touching ground,
(without
Kirkham Motors
breakage.)
Miss Stinson has been unable to fly because
Judging from the reports coming from tie
Kirkham Aeroplane & Motor Company of Savona. machine was not ready till Saturday at which
N. Y., there will be considerable activity in time her mechanic (R. Wagner) took machine
aviation this season.
This company is alreadv up 50 feet, found wind too much for him and
working their factory overtime in order to take made short turn and quick land with the wind,
fortunately only landing gear and tail spars were
care of the orders now on their books.
The new model Kirkham aviation motors are smashed and by hard work machine was almost
now ready and, if orders are any indication, ready yesterday, but a faulty motor prevented
tbev are meeting with proner approval.
In gen- Miss Stinson from doing anything but two short
her work shows that she
eral design and constrrction. the new models straightaway jumps,
are very similar to the
1913 models.
There understands more about the game than just which
is a general refinement of details, however,
and lever to pull, and due credit should be given
her.
a few changes have been made which have been
Being the veteran it is left each day for me
found bv actual experience to be an improveI believe that I am indisputto lead the way.
ment over the previous models.
The Kirkham company employ their own avia- ably the veteran omno. flyer of this country,
tors to test their motors and do not depend in-on having flown in France at Bleriot school In Mav.
1911, and been at it steadily ever since, and on
their customers to find out their weak points
Prominent amons the new features to be found the road steady (including Mexico) since Tanuon the new model Kii-kham aviation motors = arv. 1912, and have never had a bone broken,
and
I
but three smashes in the entire time.
two independent
of two carburetors,
the use
magnetos and a double oiling svstem in the S'\ believe this is a creditable record for one who
Snecial arrangement is also has flown so regularlv from baseball parks and
cylinder models.
made in the lubrication system for up-S'de-down country fairs.
Yours very truly.
flving and loopine the loop, the motor beinof so
CAPT. J. HECTOR WORDEN.
rr-nstn-ted that it is imnossible for the oil from
i

clean-cut,
reliable

efficient

KEMP

air-

cooled motors.
Built in four sizes
right price. Ask the ma

the

A IRCRAFT,
A

MUNCIE, IND.

VOLS.

I.

II.

of the Aeronautical

CLOTH BOUND

Catalog and particula

Kemp Machine Works.

Complete History

$3.50

III.

IV.

Movement

EACH

LAWSON PUBLISHING COMPANY


37-39

EAST

28th

STREET

NEW YORK,

N. Y.

AIRCRAFT

March, 1914

Wi

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
20

SEVEN WORDS TO LINE

CENTS A LINE

FOR SALE

FOR SALE
AND MOTOR CYCLESBRAUNER J. OSTERNORTH ALBANY AVENUE, CHINOTE: NOT CONNECTED

MOTORS
AERO
NEW USED.

OAARD,
CAGO,

2023

in.

WITH ANY AVIATION COMPANY.

Two C,
FORforSALE:
hydro biplane
100
f.

POSITIONS

style

boats,

Pittsburgh,
Pa.

b.,

Libertv,

CURTISS

$600

and

Cooke, Aviator

New York

Constructor,

124

West 64tb

lakes,

unsatisfactory motor, why not exchange it for


Everything fi
larger motor and fly successfully?
State yoi
aviation bought, sold and exchanged.
needs
U. S. .\ero Exchange, 38 Park Row, Ne
York City.

buy a passenger carrying Thomas


Capable of
Flying Boat without motor.

RAFT.

.\NTED: Opposed
Have

for

glider

GoODj^AR

atent

J.

SECURED

or

Fee Returned

(or iree search of Patent Office


to Obtain a Patent, and What to
Invent, with list o( Inventions Wanted and
Prizes offered (or Inventions sent (ree. Patents
advertised (ree.

are experts on AIRSHIPS and


technical matters relating to

VICTOR

Washington, D. C.

ft.

all

J.

pitch,

1,200 R.P.M.

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

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patents

AERIAL

Washinglon, D. C. 624

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BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES

For Flying Boats Use JEFFERY'S

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PATENTS

How

NAVIGATION.

Patent Attorney

804,

persons that are


I
{Serial number
504107 U. S.), also France and England, and my
"Semi-Automatic Engine Control" (Serial number
646300 U. S., France and England), that it is my
intention in the future to ask a small royalty from
them. Hugh L. Willoughby, Bewails Point, Florida.

Akron, OUo
& Rubber Co.,
Londnn.Eng. Mexico City. Mex

Send sketch

and

SARGENT,

71/.

liox

LEGAL NOTICE

Branches ;ind \ireniiesin 1(13 Principal Cities


Write UB (in Anythiiii.' Y.m Want in Rubber.

Your Inventions

urn

DESIRE to give notice to all


using my "Patent Rudders"

The Goodyear Tire


Toronto. Canada

60 H. P. Motor for aeroplane


full 60 H. P.
Must

Must be cheap and

Sprinf^s that tn veteran manufacturers and aviators


signifies maximum service. Circular on req'iest.

Records.

St.

instructor in

A.

S.

The trade mark on Aeroplane Fabric. Tires and

We

716 12lh

late

and strongest patented rigid con


We will furnish any siz
struction dirigible.
and arrange exhibition flights for two men, on
man, small demonstrator or revolving ballooi
exhibition.
Oscar I. Laisy, Dirigible Hallooi
Constructor, 9702 Laird Ave., Cleveland, Ohic

AKRON, OHIO

PATENTS
L.

pilot,

open for engagement.

MISCELLANEOUS

WANTED:A

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is

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SALE: Bleriot Type Monoplar


MOTORS AND MOTOR CYCLES- P>OR
AERO
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Eight ft. propeller; K.
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Will exchange.
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CASH WITH ORDER

E.

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COLEMAN,
W.

Patent Lawyer
Washington, D. C.

MARINE GLUE

Waterproof Liquid Glue, foi- waterproofing tlie eanvas covering of Hying l)o:its. It not only watiryear it will last as
proofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a
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long as the boat.


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muslin for wing surfaces. Send for circularn. dirertions for une. etr.

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in

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S.

A'

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only original American Monoplane on the market
Highest efficiency of any monoplane in America

The

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Tuition

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HEINRICH PROPELLERS $20 UP


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Two and Three Bladed-Tliree bladed tvpe for flying boats andthan
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AIRCRAFT

288

March, Ipi4

THOMAS

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Flying
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STUDENT
Makes New

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time

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is

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NAIAD
We

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Do

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The HALL-SCOTT 100 H-P is the most powerful, smoothest running, and reliable equipment
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Write for booklet upon

Sample Book

THE
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motor.

this

Data and Prices on Request

CONOVER

CO.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

MANUFACTURERS

FRANKLIN STREET,

NEW YORK

San Francisco,

818 Crocker Bldg.

When Purchasing an Aviation Motor

Calif.

Boland Aeroplane and Motor Co.

THE BOLAND MOTOR


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Don't buy " hot air" for your motive power just
because it is for an "' air-o-plane." You need real
' Hot air " doesn't produce results.
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and that

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Kirkham Motor, and other Kirkham owners.
in his

We guarantee

results

let

BOLAND CONTROL
new

BOLAND

IVIOTOR.

the embodiment of utmost safety and simis basic in principle.


Write for particulars.

Factory

Office

FT.

1821

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NEWARK, N. J.

WIRE

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us tell you about

is

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NEW YORK

and dependable. This is well shown by the


good work done during the past season by Aviator
reliable

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Equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and

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is

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it

Also get full particulars of the Special Proposition


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in
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making soldering easy.
This wire is specially drawn from extra
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Also Aviator

Aviator
a

supplied

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Cord

of twisted wire.

THE

KIRKHAM AEROPLANE & MOTOR


SAV0NA,1NEW YORK

CO.

John A. Roeblings Sons Co.


TRENTON,

N. J.

WRINKLE'S PRESERVATIVE BALLOON VARNISH


An

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propel-

t h e
most
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You can get an Excelsior from the following agents. D-M Aero Co.. Denver
Col.. Nels J. Nelson. New Brilam, Conn.. Wm. Sylvester. Aviation Field
Oakwoods
Heights. Slalen Island, N. Y.. J. A. Conrow, 1526 W. Lehigh Ave.. F^hila
Pa
Edward Crablree. Hangar No. 9. Hempstead Plains. N. Y. Booklet u pon request.

lers

deliver

goods.

The

EXCELSIOR PROPELLOR

The

6-cylinder

00 H.

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an ideal aeronautic power-plant.

MAXIMOTORS
50
For

to

are built

in

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Also Machines built to any special design

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IF

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YOU WISH A

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further particulars, just write to

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and FLYING BOATS

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>

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ARTHUR

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,<*'^>

WASHINGTON

Here are the Facts

MOISANT MONOPLANE "BLUEBIRD"


THE BEST OF ALL FOR

SPEED

SAFETY ENDURANCE STABILITY


Used by the Leading Aviators, Moisant Aviation
School

The

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Write at once for Booklet

Address

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS,

1790 Broadway, N. Y.

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

The hearty

reception of the

Thomas

Flying Boat proves

that the public recognizes the unquestionable

advantages of

steel construction

EVERY OWNER IS SATISFIED AND DELIGHTED!


THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT IS PRACTICALLY UNSINKABLE.
wreck

to

it,

for the reason that the hull

covered with sheet

The
for

is

constructed of

two-ply

It is almost impossible
planking and is entirely

steel.

fact that the

THOMAS FLYING BOAT

will not

absorb water

is

one of

many

reasons

UNSURPASSED EFFICIENCY.
BEFORE YOU SELECT A FLYING BOAT, BY ALL MEANS INVESTIGATE THE THOMAS.

its

great and

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see the

tional values

and

Thomas

Flying Boat to fully appreciate and understand

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Biplanes

the

its

points of excep-

superiority.

are built upon the enviable reputation of the famous

Thomas

American Record Holders.

Send

for Booklet "

T"

Today.

Address

THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


BATH, NEW YORK

CO.

YOU SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-

IT IS.

IF

YOU DO NOT SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-IT

DESIGN OF THE SLOANE FLYING-YACHT

The above drawing was


design of a

new

furnished Aircraft by the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New ^'ork as the


inherently stable Flying-^acht they are about to bring out shortly.
See page 298 for details.

IS

NOT

SLOANE
FLYING BOATS
For Sporting and Naval Use
The most

perfectly designed and best constructed Hying boats in the world.

THE SAFEST
Built according to the best engineering practice in design and construction, this

Aeroplane

Sloane

product of the

Company

represents

the

greatest

new

advance

in

MARINE^ CRAFT
Solid Honduras Mahogany V
monoplane style wings, folding
and double wiring throughout are some of the
Investigate and compare our flying boats with
tremendous advance we have made.
so far attained.

sheltered seats,

bottom

hulls,

comfortable and

top extensions,

new

features of the

others

OWL BOATS

well

strong construction

and you

will

craft.

realize

what

SLOANE MONOPLANES
For Sporting and Military Use

For Over Water and Land Flying

TRACTOR BIPLANES

REAR PROPELLER GUN-PLANES

and

SLOANE AERO-SKIMMERS
For Sportsmen.

Ideal for high speed travel on the water

shallow streams.

We

and delivery use on

recently furnished Mr. Robert J. Collier with

one of these craft

GNOME

fitted

with a 220 H. P. Anzani Motor.

RENAULT

ANZANI
AT LOWEST PRICES

Aeroplanes

built to special design.

Parts supplied

in

fact,

Designs developed

everything aeronautical furnished

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


1731

BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

AIRCRAFT

April, ipi4

289

CONTENTS APRIL,
The Possibilities of a Trans-Atlantic
The Fighting Aeroplane has Arrived.
Foreign

Review

1914
Walter A.

Flight

(Page

House

291

292

illustration)

Arthur V. Prescott
Lester L. Sargent
Walter A. House
F. H. Russell

News

Recent Aeronautic Patents


A Treatise on Inherent Stability
Description of the Burgess-Dunne Hydro-aeroplane
Scale Drawings of the New Burgess-Dunne Hydro-aeroplane
The Hamilton Aeroboat, Cabin Model
News in General
The New Sloane Flying Yacht
Top, Plan and Side View Drawings of the Hamilton Aeroboat
Correspondence
of

293
295
295

296
297
298
298
298
299
^^-

...

H. M. Hamilton

M. E. Henry

W. H. Phipps

AIRCRAFT
ALFRED W. LAWSON
President and Treasurer
ERNEST C. LANDGRAF

Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company


37-39 EAST 28th STREET, NEW YORK. U. S. A.
Telephone, 5017 Madison Square

Secretary

WHEN YOUR

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In the United States, Mexico. Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands,
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Only high-grade advertisements of thoroughly reliable firms arc
solicited.

Enle cd as "secoud-class matter" February


"Aircraft"

is

18, 1910. at the

ALFRED W. LAWSON
PAUL J. PALMER

WALTER

A.
Contributing

Editor

HOUSE
Editors

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registered as a trade-mark by the U. S. Patent Office, under

3, 1879.

290

AIRCRAFT

April.

IQI4

S!i;sss!i;>i;!fi!i;!i;sssssssss!i;>fi!iisy;!i;!ii;>fi!i;>i;!i;sssxs!i;!i;ssssss;s!i;s!i;ss!i;s!i;s

AIRCRAFT
Vol. 5

THE

New

No. 2

POSSIBILITIES

York, April, 1914

OF A TRANS-ATLANTIC FLIGHT
By

WALTER

has repeatedly been pointed out wliy the


crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by aeroplane is a perfectly plausible undertaking.
While the writer is of the opinion that a
Trans-Atlantic flight is a possibility and
will be accomplished within the next
three years, he is also of the opinion that
this flight will not be accomplished within
the year of 1914.

This decision has not been arrived at through prejudicial


It is based on an actual study of present conditions.
Two attempts, or rather one, with the other a failure
in its infancy, have failed with the dirigible, although it
inclinations.

seems conservative to believe that a rigid dirigible could


It therefore remains for the aeroplane to
achieve success.
pave the way for skeptics.
Some good and reasonable statistics regarding the oceanic
The distance is 1,640 miles instead of
flight can be advanced.
The present duration record
3,000 as generally understood.
exceeds sixteen hours; cross-country flights of unusual distances and duration have been made and flying by map and
compass is now an everyday occurrence.

There

is

planes, both

no doubting the efficiency of present-day aeromachines and motors for past performances are

convincing proofs. But, with the extraordinary weight, headresistance and allowances for severe weather conditions
our weather bureau sometimes makes mistakes to be encountered, would a 200 horsepower motor be sufficient to
drive a mammoth one hundred foot spread machine much

A.

HOUSE

are arranged for, and. with a favorable "breeze" of 20 or 30


m. p. h. flying would be "comparatively easy." (The writer

wonders what England calls a breeze?) At 1,000 feet, the


machine would be above the fog-banks of Newfoundland
and star observations could be made at night. In case of a
breakdown, the machine, which is constructed to float like
a flying-boat, equipped with land-chassis, would alight on the
water.
(In the meantime, a storm has suddenly come up
and waves, thirty or forty feet in height, are raging. This
is not included in the description.)
After repairs, the machine gracefully soars aloft and the flight is continued.
To quote from the article: "In the event of a breakdown,
it would be necessary to trust to the buoyancy of the machine, a large reserve of which is provided for by the petrol
tanks alone in this case, as these would displace 3,200 lbs.
when empty, and the machine without petrol weighs only

2,250 lbs."
this

Naturally, then,

breakdown

we

are supposed to suppose that


will not occur until the tanks are empty; or

that the gasolene will be turned out in mid-ocean and the


wireless brou.ght into play for towing aid. And gasolene al-

most a quarter of a dollar!


Another machine is described as a "float machine" of smaller spread, power and speed, a duration range of eight or
ten hours and a proposal of three 600 mile flights.
(Note:
The British make a good allowance of 1.880 miles, starting
at St. Johns, Newfoundland, and finishing at Valentia.) This
machine checks up: Power, 150 to 2(X) h. p.; Total Surface,

Spread, 65 feet; Chord, 12 feet; Total Surface. 780 square


Speed, 80 m. p. h.; Total Weight, 4,500 pounds; Load
per square foot, 6 pounds; Petrol, 320 gallons (2,250 lbs.);
Oil, 150 lbs.; Power, 230 h. p. Salmson (Canton-Unne) Fuel
Consumption, 15 gallons per hour; Weight of Motor and
Radiator, 900 pounds; Weight (approx.) of Two Pilots, 320

Fuel Capacity, 83 gallons petrol (600 lbs.); Two


pounds; Weight of Machine, 1,000 pounds;
Floats, 4(X) pounds; Total weight, 3,000 pounds; Speed, 65
m. p. h. The machine would probably be a biplane.
It would be necessary for a patrol of boats from America
and England to be strung out across the Atlantic. Taking
on fuel from a steamer in a mid-ocean swell was commented
on by British authorities and has led them to believe that
Smoke siga non-stop flight would be the most practical.
nals by day and sky rockets by night are also commented on,
with a good supply of cigarettes for the occasion.
Numerous patrons of the science are dominant in the
belief that an old sea-dog should accompany the pilot, for
in case of forced landing he could more ably cope with the
Would an old salt know anything more about
situation.
handling a flying-boat in mid-ocean than an aviator? The
writer has formed a picture in mind of a Davy Jones grabbing a hauser-line, running out along the left wing and
standing there waving a red flannel shirt much the same as
and did noththe proverbial boy of the burning deck stood

pounds.

ing.

over sixty miles per hour?

For a distance of 1,640 miles this would take, in clear


weather, exactly twenty-seven and a third hours. The motor,
no doubt, would be capable of standing up consistently for
this length of time, but could enough petrol be carried for a
flight of this duration,

chine,

pilots,

fuel,

summing up

the total weight of mathe additional head-

wireless outfit and

resistance of an enclosed cabin?

England is getting the fever. Statements were given out


proposed monoplane "land machine" to cross in an unbroken flight. Herewith are the specifications:
of a

feet;

The

petrol capacity runs to twenty-one hours, but a flight


hours is figured owing to the throttling down

of nearly thirty

of

motor

as the fuel weight decreases.

Five four-hour

shifts

600

sq. ft.;

Pilots, weight, 320

An
that

Atlantic flight

is

possible,

and

I,

for one, sincerely

Rodman Wanamaker will be successful


He deserves credit and praise even

taking.

in the

hope

big under-

should he

fail.

AIRCRAFT

293

The French Minister ol War has


placed in the 1914 program of liis
country a series oE armed and armoured aeroplanes. The first of
these is herewith shownan 80 H.
P.

Dep. monoplane. (1) The marksstanding and ready to shoot

man
and

(2)

The

position. This

gun in
gun is so placed that
a theg
und

quick-firing

people, a pilot and a marksman


but here is a flying maching fitted
with a quick-firing gun for use
against other air craft, and what is
:

aeroplanes so that they will carry


several of these quick-firing guns

The Sikorsky aeroplane which

is

April, igi4

AIRCRAFT

April, jpi4

293

TOCEIGK
BY
Arthur V. Prescott
The 100

h.p.

Mercedes,

natik-pfeil

eh

whi

biplane with

Juration record in
Aircraft, Page 279.'

>rld's

having readied

Coming Aviation Meetings

existing

r>

150

metres

(480

Mr. Newberry

feet)

above the

on March 1, in
Meeting at Monaco for hydro- preparing to fly across
the Andes, fell with a pasaeroplanes an<l flying boats. To be preceded senger and was killed.
by races from seven European capitals to
Austria
Monte Carlo, for which $15,000 in prizes
has been offered.
The .\ero Club of Austria has sent two entries
Preliminary con- for balloon pilots to take
At Monte Carlo.
.\l.ril 18th.
part in the annual race
test to select French entrants for the Jac- for the Coupe Internationale
des Aeronautes, to
ques Schneider trophy and $5,000 prize for be held in Kansas City this year.
water aeroplanes.
Two Austrian inventors announce the perfection
the of a "light bomb"
competition
for
International
.\pril 20th
which will make safe the landSchneider Trophy and prize.
ing by aeroplane at night.
The device, which is
Meeting with races and contests attached to an aeroplane and may be released at
.\pril 15th-22nd
at St. Petersburg, Russia, to last one week. will, is fitted with a parachute and burns
four
Military contests at Farnborough minutes, illuminating all the country below.
.\pril lst-30th.
In a
under the auspices of the British Army; recent test the bomb, released at a height of 500
naval contests under auspices of the British yards, lighted up the country for a radius of
Navy.
about a mile and a half so brightly that the aviMay lst-17th Military contest under auspices of ator had no difliculty in selecting his best landing
German .\rmy.
place.
The device can also be used in warfare
May 17th-25th Contest for trophy and prize of- for scout work at night, the aeroplane above the
fered by Prince Henry of Prussia, under light being invisible.
of
Germany.
Imperial
Aero
Club
of
auspices
The Austrian -Aero Club is organizing this year,
May 24th-29th Water flying contest at Bodensee, in addition to tlie circuit of Austria, for prizes
Germany, under auspices of the Imperial of a total of 200,000 kronen C$41,500), the third
Aero Club of Germany.
International meeting at Vienna.
This meeting,
aeroplane lasting a week, will occur in the latter
May 20th-30th London-Paris-London
half of
race, under auspices of the Aero Clubs of June, while the Circuit occurs in April.
Great Britain and France.
Genoa-Tripoli-Genoa,
Circuit
of
May lst-30th
Belgium
under auspices of the Italian Aviation SoBelgium will be represented in the International
ciety.
rivers, Balloon race to be held in Kansas City this year
three
of
the
Tune I5th-25th Circuit
by two balloons and the names of the two pilots
Rhine, Meuse and Escault, under the auschosen are Ernest De Muyster and Levi Girard.
pices of the .\ero Club of Belgium.
From the headquarters of the International
Tuly lSth-30th Marine flying contest in the EngAeronautic Federation at Brussels, it has been
lish Channel.
announced that a special meeting of the federation
August lst-9th Contest of hydro-aeroplanes and would be
held in May in an effort to obtain reflying boats at Warnermunde, under the
moval of restrictions on the international navigaauspices of the Imperial Aero Club of
April lst-15th

Germany.
September 6, 7,
the
Society.

der

September9th-10th
Garda.

September

Circuitof

auspices

of Brescia, Italy, unthe Italian .\viation

Water flynig contest on Lake


meeting and
International
Cup Race.

20th-27th

Gordon Bennett Aviation


October Ist-lOth Contest for flying boats and
hydro-aeroplanes on the French Atlantic
Coast.
Other contests and races will be for:
The Pommery Cup, which consists of a prize of
$2,000 to go to the aviator who covers the longest distance in a straight line between the sunrise
of one day and sunset of a second day.
A tour of France for the Michelin Prize.
A St. Petersburg- .Sevastopol race for the Romanoff Prize of 10.000 rubles, offered by Prince
.-\bamaleck-Lazariaff.
.\
race from Constantinople
Turkish aviators alone.

The Criteriun Prize


the

to

Jerttsalem

for

of 10,000 francs offered by

Aero Club of France.

Paris-Vienna race, for which the Municipal


Council of Paris has offered 10,000 francs.
Paris-Bucharest, for which Prince Bibesco has
offered 10,000 francs.
Paris-Constantinople, for which the Automobile
Club of France has offered 10,000 francs.
Paris-Heliopolis, for which Baron F.mpain has
offered 15,000 francs.

Argentina
The greatest height ever attained in an aeroplane was reached on February 11. in .Vrgentina,
Dy George Newberry, an English pilot." Mr. Newberry was reported ascending in a ^loraueSaulnier monoplane to a height of 20,401 feet.
The international record, however, is held by
Georges

Lagagneux,

French

monoplane

pilot,

who at St. Raphael, on December 27 last, rose


Mr. Newberry's ascent, though high20,073 feet.
er than Mr. Legagneux's. could not be recognized as a world's record under the rules, not

record.

"tabloid" with a 160-h.p. Gnome engine.


The
existing machine with 80-h.p. does 93 m.p.h. with
pilot,
passenger and three hours' fuel, so that
with the bigger engine and no passenger, it
should reach 120 m.p.h. at least.
The first experimental Bristol speed machine is at least as
fast as the Sopwith with a similar engine. Mr.
Roe had a biplane of similar type on paper a
year or so ago, but he did not go on with its
construction as it was considered of no use for
military purposes.
It
will
no doubt be produced in a modified form.
Nothing has yet
been made public about the Vickers entry. The
Cedric Lee machines will probably be of the
"doughnut" type, assuming that the one now
under test eventually demonstrates its practicability.

One

learns

also

that

Lord

a
Morane-Saulnier
Schneider Cup race.

tered

Carbery has
waterplane
for

enthe

AN AVIATION BENEVOLENT FUND.


It has been unanimously resolved by the Committee of the Uoyal Aero Club to establish an
Aviation Benevolent Fund, the object being to
relieve aviators,
their
wives, widows, and dependents when in necessitous circumstances. Full
details of the scheme will be issued shortly.
It
was unanimously resolved to vote a sum of
Fifty Guineas as the Club's first donation to
the
Fund.
It
was reported that the British
Petroleum Company, Limited (the Distributors
of Shell Motor Spirit) had kindly promised a
donation of Fifty Guineas.
During June the five aeroplane squadrons in
the South of England will take part in a camp
for combined training
which will be held at
Netheravon on Salisbury Plain.
It
has been officially announced that there
will
be no Naval grand manoeuvres this year,
but a test mobilization will be carried out in

tion of the air.


July.
.Aviators are forbidden by laws to fly over the
Lieutenant Thomas De Witt Milling, U. S. A.,
frontiers of nearly every country in Europe, and who was sent to Europe by the VVar
Departalso over the Panama Canal on the American ment to make a special study
of the progress
Continent, under pressure of severe punishment. of aviation, has completed his work and has
In Russia Hans Berliner, a German balloonist, returned home.
He took back information of
after exceeding the world distance record in a far
reaching
importance
to
the
aeronautical
the vicinity of Perm, branch of the service.
flight from Bitterfeld to
As a practical aviator
was arrested recently for violating the Russian Lieutenant Milling astonished the British authorilaw,
and at last account vvas still in jail. ties by his ability immediately to tly any maNumerous other balloonists and aviators have en- chine given to him.
countered similar hardships.
"He is without doubt one of the best flyers
The Federation requests that diplomatic nego- we have ever seen here," said one prominent
tiations be opened with European countries, to officer,
"and his practical management of any
the end that each nation send an official delegate machine whatsoever makes him unique in aviato the meeting of the Federation, where the aero- tion circles."
nautic organizations of eighteen countries will be
represented.
It is hoped that the discussion at
Horace Short has announced a device whereby
will
result in an international
this conference
agreement allowing aviators other than military to in the newest and most powerful watcrplanes
pass the frontiers on presentation of a passport the wide spreading wings are folded back close
to
the body of the machine, so that when not
from his own country.
in use the machine occupies only one-seventh of
China
the space at present required.
Mr. Short says it makes the waterplane pracis
reported that an "all-Chinese" biplane
It
(excepting the motor) has been constructed at ticable as part of the equipment of a battlebattleship will now be able to find
Nanyuan.
The machine is ready to undergo ship.
its tests prior to being accepted by the General room to carry several of the new type of short
biplanes.
Staff.
March
journalist
who
learned
On
11th a new English height record
Art Lym. a Chinese
was made by Engineer Lieutenant
to fly in .-\merica, has been appointed aviation in aviation
instructor to the Chinese army at the instance Briggs, R. N., who reached an altitude of more
than 15,000 feet at Eastchurch.
of the President of China.
At the greatest height his thermometer regEngland
istered 38 degrees below zero, Fahrenheit, and
have the pilot's face was severely frostbitten.
Gordon-Bennett race
for
the
Entries
On
and
reaching
Vickers,
Ltd.,
the
earth he was removed to a hospital
from
received
been
There are now six machines for treatment.
Cedric Lee Co.
entered, namely, the Sopwith Co., the Avro Co.,
France
the Bristol Co., and Vickers, Ltd., one each,
The Aero Club of France has received four
and two Cedric Lees, so that it will be necessary to hold eliminatory trials in this country challenges for the Gordon-Bennett Race, so that,
France, five nations will be reprematerialize, only three ma- including
if all the machines
sented
in
this
each
country.
The
year's contest.
to
allowed
France, Great
chines being
Sopwith entry will probably be a single-seater Britain and the United States will each have

VVATERPLANE'S WINGS FOLD

AIRCRAFT

294

April, ipi4

team of three, while Germany and Italy which may be secured by civilian pilots through
The Zeppelin "Hansa," hired by the German
will each rely upon a single challenger.
the Aero
Club of France.
Candidates must navy, made her first oversea trip on February
Leaving Cuxhaven about 3.30 a. m., she
So far the only countries which have officially produce a certificate showing that they have ful- J-lth.
entered for the International competition for the nlled their obligations regarding military serv- flew to Heligoland and farther over the North
Schneider Cup for hydro-aeroplanes are Ger- ice, and they must pass an examination in map Sea.
The Zeppelin airship "Sachsen," chartered by
many, France, Great Britain and Switzerland; reading, meteorology, construction and regulation
it
is
stated, however, that an entry has been of aeroplanes, and the working of motors. They the navy, carried out its first nocturnal journey
sent in by the Aero Club of America.
France will also have to make certain practical tests in in marine service on February 24th, traveling
1. A
flight lasting more than an hour, 10 Heligoland and back.
is
the only country which has entered a full the air.
the altitude during this time to be at least 1,000
team of three.
Flights of great length continue to be made
metres,^ and not more than 1,200 metres.
2.
in Germany.
On February 19th, Herr Basser,
PASSENGER HEIGHT RECORDS.
Make a nol
landing with motor stopped the Rumpler pilot, flew for 10 hrs. 6 mins.
On the Schmitt biplane at Chartes on the 25th Irom a height l>lane
of 500 metres above the ground, without alighting, on a pigeon-type
monoplane.
ult.,
Garaix succeeded in regaining for France the machine to land not more than 200 metres
the world's height record for pilot and four from the spot indicated in advance, and with- Starting from Johannisthal at 7.30 a. m., Herr
Basser flew over Frankfort,
Bingen, Cologne,
passengers by going up to 3,150 metres (10,335 out the motor being switched on again.
3.
The
ft.).
The previous record made by the Ger- Three cross-country flights, the first a triangular and Duisburg, finally landing at Wanne.
man Thelen was 2,850 metres.
Garaix also one of 200 kiloras. (the shortest side of the machine was fitted with a 100-h.p. Mercedes
secured the record for pilot and three passen- course to be more than 20 kiloms.) with two motor and carried 95 gallons of petrol.
gers by climbing to a height of 3,300 metres stops at predetermined points, the flight to be
Italy
(10,900 ft.) during a flight of an hour and a made on one machine and in a maximum time
quarter.
The previous record was 2,830 metres, of 48 hours.
Signer Enea Bossi, the only Italian seaplane
to the credit of Sablatnig.
The second and third flights will be of 150 constructor, has delivered to the Italian navy a
kiloms. in a straight line, one to be made non- seaplane fitted with double controls specially deTHE SPERRY STABILIZER.
The machine, which
In the Curtiss-Sperry stabilizer the precession stop and the other to be made between sun- signed for school work.
has folding wings, is fitted with an SO-h.p. enof the gyroscopes due to disturbance of the ma- rise and sunset with a stop indicated in advance
gine and carries a useful load of 630 lbs.
The
chine operate, through the medium of pneumatic
a

full

NEW

relays, the appropriate control-surfaces.


The gyroscopes are kept in motion by electromotors energized by a constant-pressure dynamo and, presumably, an auxiliary accumulator.
Further, Mr. Sperry is credited with the invention of an adjunct to this stabilizer which will
automatically land the machine without the aid
of the pilot.
Of the details of this refinement
they are said to be extremely reticent, which
is
regrettable
but the device is said to have
stood the test of practical operation well.
M. Brindejonic des Moulinais is now doing
his military service as a sapper in the French
army, where he will till in his time as a military aviator.
He has to relinquish his beloved
Morane-Saulnier monoplane, on which he made
so many fine flights, and will in future fly a
Dorand biplane of the type designed at Chalais
Neudon and built by Voisin Freres.
;

M. Pegoud is about to test a new looping


Bleriot which is titted with a double chassis
so that he may land upside down.
The wings
are said to be absolutely flat, so that they may
operate both ways.

M. Quinton,
tionale

co-operate

to

tion

president of the Ligue Naasking French constructors


an attempt to bring the durato
twenty-four hours.
26th, M.
Pequet, accompanied
flew from Paris to Pau on a
in eight hours.
The machine

the

Aerienne,

record

in

up

On February
by a passenger,
Morane-Parasol

is

was fitted with an 80-h.p. monosoupape Gnome.


Mr. Hamel, ever to the fore with the latest
has been flying a Morane-Saulnier monoplane (160-h.p. Gnome) whose speed is alleged
in the French Press to be 215 kilometres (USVa
miles) per hour!
The first flights were made
on February 24th at Villacoublay.
Mr. Hamel
does not vouch for the above speed, but says
it
is
the fastest thing he has ever been on.
As was recorded recently, M. Garaix beat the
world's Height Record with six passengers on
thing,

Schmitt

pilot

and

biplane.
his

The

passengers

total

was

weight of the
477 kilogrammes

The machine also carried 150 litres


(1,050 lbs.).
of petrol and 40 litres of oil.
It is alleged that
the first 1,000 metres (3,300 feet) was reached
in 10 minutes, and the greatest altitude (1,850
metres 6,000 feet) was attained in 27 mins.

On February

12th,

Germany

In

past

the

six

airmen have flown

months
3

speed

122

civilian

German

hours without stopping; 74,

5 hours; 24, 6 hours; 13, 7 hours;


9 hours;
5,
10 hours; 2, 11
2,
12 hours; 2, 13 hours; 2, 14 hours;
2,
hours; and 2, 16 hours.
One has flown 8 hours with one passenger
several 5, 6 or 7 hours, and several hundred
uitii one passenger for
or 3 hours.
1,
2,

hours; 49,
8 hours;

10,

hours;
15

1,

The National Flying Foundation will give no


more cash prizes for record making, because the
principal world records are now in German hands.
Although established only one year ago, the
fund of $200,000 which was set aside as rewards for extraordinary flying achievements is
already exhausted.
The main object of these
rewards was to spur on German flying men to
equal or outstrip their French rivals.
As they
have demonstrated their ability to do so, the
Foundation says that it can now devote its funds
to more necessary purposes.
The greatest world's records won by German
airmen are the longest flight within twenty-four
hours, 1,350 miles, by Victor Stoffler, who beat
the French record of Brindejonic des Moulinais,
1,286 miles, and the longest duration flight, 16
hours, 20 minutes, made by Karl Ingold, which
beat the best French records by three hours.
The first annual report just issued by the National Flying Foundation tells an eloquent story
of the Fatherland's bid for flying supremacy.

The

foundation

German

of

itself is
spirit.

striking

testimonial

public

The voluntary subscriptions, totaling $1,800,000,


were made within a few months after the appeal
was issued.
The honorary patron of the foundation is Prince Henry of Prussia.
The President is the ex-Imperial Home Secretary, Count
Fosadowsky, the active manager is Privy Councilor Dr. Albert of the Imperial Home Office,
one of the coming men in the Kaiser's civil
service.
Dr. Albert was Assistant Commissioner
General at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904.
The magnitude of the Foundation's activities
may be judged by the following figures from
the 1913 balance sheet; there was disbursed for
training flying men $146500; for prizes to flying
men, $119,800; for flying competitions, $53,250;

FIVE-TON AERO-HYDRO MAKES FLIGHT.

Russia

On February 27th the Russian designer of


Sikorsky, made a flight of IS rains.'
duration with
16
passengers on board.
The
weight of the inhabitants of this flying village
was 2,640 lbs., or nearly a ton and a quarter.

char-a-bancs,

A still more sensational performance was a


cross-country flight in the neighborhood of St.
Petersburg, which lasted two hours and six minutes.
Besides the pilot, there were eight passengers on board, and an altitude of 3,000
ft.
was maintained.
Of course, this constitutes
a record for both duration and altitude for a
crew

of

nine.

and

The general dimensions of this interesting machine are: span, 114 ft.; length, 62 ft.; surface,
ft.;
weight emptv, 8,250 lbs.; gap,
1,820 sq.
The machine is fitted with four Argus
9 ft.
motors of 100 h.p. each, and provision is made
for the fitting of a fifth.
The aviator Janoir, who is to attempt the
Paris-Pekin voyage, will start in the middle of
April.
The route passes via Samara, Tchelabinsk,
Omsk, Tomsk. Irkoutsk, Harbin, Inkoon and
Pekin, a total distance of 11,000 kilometres (about
7.000 miles).

has $1,380,000 left for future activities,


the budget for 1914 provides an expenditure of $340,000, including $75,000 for long-distance flights; $62,500 for establishing a waterplane station on the Baltic, and $56,850 for a
motor-building competition among German engi-

The Aero Club of Russia has decided to give


medals to: Lieut. Nesterow for looping the loop;
Alekhnowitch for his Russian height record; Mikhailow for his non-stop flight from St. Petersburg to Tver
and to A. Wassiliew for his
flight from St. Petersburg to Moscow and back

for the establishment of flving bases, $31,250; for


benefits for flying men
dependents, $20,000.
Altogether, the Foundation disbursed $429,000 in promoting the art
of flying.

M. Jean Ors experimented insurance premiums and

with a parachute at Juvisy.


He ascended with
the aviator Lemoine on a Deperdussin monoplane, 100-h.p. Arizani, to a height of 1,000 feet,
seated on the wheel axle of the machine. From
that altitude he let himself drop, and landed
safely after a descent lasting 39 seconds.
He
says it is now his intention to perform a similar
descent accompanied by a passenger, and that
he proposes afterwards to test a parachute of
300 square metres, guaranteed to open in three
seconds, and support at once the weight of the
pilot,
passenger and machine, a total estimated
weight of 600 kilogrammes.

is said
to be 54 m.p.h.
Lieut. Battagli
successfully put the machine through its tests.
Three other machines of the same type arc to
be delivered shortly.
The resuscitated Centocelle aerocamp, where
are both monoplane and biplane escadrilles, with
an eye for the future housing of the coming
"20 inside and 30 on the top" type of aeroplane,
has a shed to take eight present-day
machines fully erected.
Chevillard is to exhibit
there shortly to show the suitability
of the
Savoia-Farman for scientific flying and sensational turns.
P. 5, whose envelope was dispatched it seems
such a short time back to Rome for overhaul,
is
now again flying well around Verona, where
she is stationed.
The older P. series will be,
solemnly and wth the full honors due to their
merits, paid ott and laid to rest during the
year.
After five years of useful life, divided
between experimental, active, and training-ship
duty, they are now to make room for more
modern though perhaps less glorious vessels. They
will,
no doubt at any rate, P. 1 be sent to
the National Museum.

It

and

neering firms.

Other figures which indicate the extent of


Germany's aviation facilities show that the country has
sidized

47

by

aeroplane
the

factories,
Foundation for

19

being

training

subpilots.

The German War Ministry has given 20.000


The biggest aerohydroplane in the world has
made its first trip near Friel on the Seine. marks, the Admiralty 10,000, towards the expenses
The openingThe boat is eight meters 70 centimeters (27 of the German Eastern Circuit.
day,
June 20th, is the "Round Breslau" flight,
feet six inches) long, by two meters 60 centimeters (eight feet six inches) wide.
There are the circuit itself commencing on June 21st and
just

two planes, each 27 meters (88 feet six inches) leading in 434 kms. to Posen; the second day
long, and having
145 square meters of wing is the Posen-Koenigsberg stage, 605 kms. There
There are two motors of 200 horsepower. 15 a rest-day ^t Koenigsberg and a local meetarea.
mg.
June 24th is the third and shortest flight
The propeller is 16 feet in diameter.
The machine is built to carry two pilots, two of 400 kms. from Koenigsberg to Danzig, where
mechanics, and enough gasoline and oil for a the meeting winds up with local flights.
The Zeppelin docks at Friedrichshafen have
flight of about 950 air miles, and weighs, thus
celebrated a jubilee
work has commenced on
loaded, nearly five tons.
Both
w^as
built
by Maurice Colliex with the the twenty-fifth aerial cruiser of this type.
It
aid of M. Janson, both of whom recently con- the twenty-third vessel, now on its army tests,
and
the
twenty-fourth,
nearing completion, are
structed a giant aerohydroplane of the double
destined
for
the
War
Office,
but nothing is
biplane type, which was powered with two 200known at present as to the destination of the
horsepower Chenu motors.

MEDALS FOR RUSSIAN AVIATORS.

within

50

hours.

The German

aviator Mischewsky, who landed


Warsaw after a non-stop flight of 10 hrs.
mins.,
as
well
as
the
German balloonist
Berliner, who landed at Perm after beating the
world's record for distance, are still being detained by the Russian authorities on charges of
espionage.
at
7

The well-known Russian

pilot,

Effimoff,

is

one

join the ranks of the loopers,


make a tour of Russia, giving
the principal places.
On March 10th Sikorsky's giant aeroplane flew
for l^A hours carrying 16 passengers and for
two hours with the ordinary crew of eight.
of

the

latest

and intends
exhibition

to
to

at

Scandinavia

As the result of Chevillard's tour to DenSweden, and Norway, all the naval and
army aeroplanes, except for two Leveque flyingboats, have in Denmark been purchased from
the Farman Freres.
The navy has two Henri
and one Maurice Farman biplanes, and will in
jubilee airship, although it is considered likely a short time probably take over one Henri and
FRENCH MILITARY PILOTS' CERTIFIIt
will
serve Bavaria.
These Zeppelins have one Maurice Farman seaplane; and the army
CATES.
800 h.p. (four Maybach motors of 200 h.p. each). possesses, beside the B.S.
Danish-built monoSeveral modifications have recently been made
The twenty-third Zeppelin dirigible, Z. VIII, plane, an H. and an M. Farman biplane.
in the regulations governing the issue of the came out for the first time on February 21st.
In Norway there are a German (jrade monoFrench military or "superior" pilot's certificate It is to be stationed at Treves.
owner,
a
plane
(private
Rumpler-Dove seamark,

AIRCRAFT

April, IQ14

l)Iane

(the

owner), ai__
a

Bleriot

vy), a Frenc:li Deperdussin (private


possession of the navy and army
several
and M. Farman bi-

in
.

and

^'Yn 'Sweden, two Blerilots (private owners),


three H. Farman biplanes (private owners); navy
one
Bleriot,
one
Nieuport,
one
and army,
Breguet, and several H. and M. Farman aeroAnid the reason why the
planes and seaplanes.
Farman Freres dominate n Scandinavia: Chevili

Our readers know


lard's brilliant flights her e.
Scanthat last year one spoke of a visit to
dinavia by half a dozen IBritish aeroplanes. Will
this
year
?
they come over
to be done, both exhibitio n flights and business,
At the annual meeting of the Danish Aerofor the highest and
nautical Society the cup^

295

longest flight will be presented to Lieutenant


Ussing.
Concerning the Northern sea-flight, the following has been established:
No less than ten entrances are to be received or the flight will take
place later.
Every competitor must be insured
against accidents for 100,000 francs and against
catastrophies for 300,000 francs, or the organization will take care of this for 150 francs.
The entrance fee is 600 francs, 300 of which
are paid back at the start that is, if the machine has flown for 10 mins. before 24 hours
after the official start
and the rest at the arrival at
Copenhagen.
The office of the flight

the

is

at

enter

Copenhagen.
The Farman
Henrv and a Maurice

Spain
Consequent upon the good work effected by
Farman machines, most of them having been
in use for about two years, attached to the Spanish forces in Morocco, the Spanish Government
have ordered a number of the latest model M.
FarmanSj and last week Fourny was at the
Four Wnids aerodrome, Madrid, putting the first
batch of the new machines through their official
the

tests.

Switzerland

Switzerland will be represented in the Coupe


Internationale des Aeronautcs to be held at KanBrothers will sas City October 6th, and the Aero Club of
Farman water- Suisse will send over one balloon for the pur-

plnne.

REVIEW OF RECENT AERONAUTIC INVENTIONS


By LESTER

L.

SARGENT

March
1914.
No.
Patented
for Aircraft, patented in iiembers.
1,089,880.
Porto
Paul G. Zimmermann, of San Juan,
Rico, is the inventor of a nev; Driving Mechanism
He provides in an aeroplane proangle to each other, axles supporting lor Airships.
the disks and connected with each [icller drive the combination, with the propellers,
other, an intermediate disk mounted of two engines, and a single endless driving
on the portion connecting the axles, and flexible connection between the propellers and engines
disks. and arranged to be driven by either one or both
the
with
operating members connected
One engine may
of the engines simultaneously.
Patented March 10, 1914.
Patent 1,089,872.
PatCharles Francis Jenkins, Washington, D. C, has be started by the motion of the engme.
No. 1,089,029.
ented March 3, 1914.
closed
invented an Aeroplane Engine comprising a
Apparatus
for
Starting
and StopLevitating
crank case revolubly mounted upon a fixed crank
shaft, pairs of opposite aligning one-piece cylinders ping Aeroplanes and the like, invented by Emile
detachably mounted externally on the crank case, Bachelet, Mount Vernon, N. V., consists of an
pistons working in the cylinders, respectively, ot aeroplane support, means for producing a periodic
each pair, piston rod members rigidly connecting magnetic field, and means operative in such field
it
to move
the pistons of each pair, sliding in bearings within for levitating the support to permit
half interest in the patent
the cylinders and provided with central oblique without friction.
Miles R. Bracewell, North
slots to receive the crank, a fuel conduit leading rights have been sold to
Adams, Mass. Patent No. 1.088,511, dated Febto the crank case, and conduits carried by the
crank case, leading to the cylinders, respectively, ruary 24, 1914.
Stabilizing Device for Flying-Machines, inand arranged to register successively with the
as the crank rotates. vented by Adolf Sprater, Neustadt, Germany, has
conduit first mentioned,
Patented March 10, 1914. been covered by United States patent 1,087,993,
Patent No. 1,089,645.
February 24, 1914. The stabilizer consists
dated
of
An Aeroplane invented by Reuben R. Swank,
Dayton, Ohio, has a peculiar V-shaped or dropped of two rudder actuating elements located at difThe combination claimed is a framework ferent points longitudinally of the machine, and
center.
dropped at its transverse center to afford space differential transmission mechanism interposed bere^-wa-d tween these elements or vertical surfaces and the
for the operator, a forward rudder, a
rudder.
The surfaces are arranged at opposite
controlling devices for these elements at
tail,
sides of the center of gravity of the machine, and
the center of the machine and respectively in at separate points longitudinally.
front and rear of said space and a driving propelA Flying Machine of unusual type and appearler mounted on a shaft standing along the center ance has been
devised bv William A. Hutson,

PROPELLER

United States by Kurt Schultze,


Pankow, Berlin, Germany, comprises
two disks mounted to rotate at an

the

main

mounted

connecting or disconnecting the several propellers


and operating means. The inflatable compartments
are movable through a circular path from a common center. Patent No. 1,087,946, dated February 24, 1914.
Daniel M. Calhoun, Clarks, La., has devised an
Aeroplane comprising a plane having a rigid nonvibratory front portion, and a rear flexible portion
constituting a substantial proportion of the plane
and forming a continuation of the front portion,
the flexible rear portion being adapted to vibrate
to constitute a fishtail propeller; in combination
uith high-speed actuating means operatively connected with the flexible portion, for vibrating
Patent 1,087,724.
Patented Februthe same.
ary 17, 1914.
An Aerial Torpedo has been devised and patented by
Andrew M. Shuhann, Chelmsford.
Mass. It presents the combination of a body consisting of a hollow box adapted to receive explosive material, a metallic weight secured to the
front of said body, and a drag consisting of a
substantially empty box secured to the rear of

body and projecting beyond the sides of the


same.
A plunger or firing pin causes the detonation of the cartridge when the device strikes
Patent 1,087,192, dated February
the ground.
said

10,

1914.

Arthur Erritt Holbrok


under date of February

patented
10,

1914.

an

Aeroplane
employ*

He

rectangular
open frame, with
Mo., a half interest in the patent a substantially
rights being assigned to William M. Freeman, piopellers above and at one end of the machine.
It has a rotatable frame and Patent 1.086,916.
Pauls Valley, Okla.

motor is provided and


of the frame.
shaft disi>osed to one side of V-space, together
with hmged planes and manual controls for these
its

plurality of inflatable compartments removably


in the frame.
Side, front and rear propellers are provided.
common operating means
lor'iliese propellers forms a part of the combination.
And means are provided for independently

Kansas

City,

A TREATISE ON INHERENT
By

WALTER

A.

HOUSE

STABILITY

(Contributing Editor)

it
dive to either right or left, will naturally
the marvelous performances the center of pressure still closer to the body
regain momentum quicker than the ordinary mathe Dunne biplane, many laymen and since this negative angle is acting at a greater
were led to believe that the machine Tjidius. the cenlei of total pressure may he .-aused chine would and again assume a direct line ot
flight.
without
plane
base
of
the
beyond
the
stability.
move
to
automatic
was equipped with
Vertical fins, as stabilizers, were regarded in
This, however, as every follower of neutralizing the lift.
If we could maintain the center of pressure to the earlier days as an aid to inherent stability,
aeronautics is aware, is not the case.
Automatic stability is lateral or act on the center line of the machine, then one the greatest advocate of this idea being Robert
Esnault-Pelterie, one of France*s foremost enlongitudinal balance achieved by some invention wing would be all that is necessary to afford
While these fins were ar-

^HR0CGI1
of

gineers in aeronautics.
ranged above the wings, notably over the fuselage directly on the center line, the balance wai
nothing exceptional.
However, placing these stabilizers below the
course, occur.
Fig. 2. represents a machine attacked by side fuselage, on the center line, would produce an
If the gusts attack
Herein lies the obvious ad- offset effect to side-slipping.
or diagonal gusts.
It can from the side or diagonally, the machine, naturally,
vantage of hc^'ing the wings sloped back.
iead:ly be seen that the left wing meets these is given excess lift on one wing and a minor
If the gusts effect on the other.
gusts, in this case, unprotected.
The higher the wing lifts, the greater the
are uniform that wing is subject to uniform conA
ditions and on that wing the compensating ef- danger of side-slipping, of course; but, as the
attack the stabilizing
fin
fects of the negative extensions would take ef- wing rises, the gusts
and produce a drag which causes the
fect, aiding with a reduction of the disturbance. beneath
The far wing receives these diagonal gusts machine to alter its course of flight and move
That is to say, were the
The dotted lines clearly cross or crab-wise.
practically at the tip.
emphasize that a sloping of the wings relieves machine flying north and a westerly wind attacks
any pressure even on the tips, while the un- it, the machine, although still directed north, will
course
to
the
northeast.
assume
a
more
fairly,
gusts
these
meets
wnug
slnVlded
The object of this fin is to bring the machine
"head-on," and the lift, consequently,
literally,
back to its normal balance, its side pressure proextent.
is not lessened to any material
stalling
effect
over the wings.
I know
The writer experimented with models employing ducing a
comparison than that of a racing sailthis method of wing-setting and found that, while of no better
a fin beneath it, on the keel
the model had a tendency to "lean*' backwards, yacht which utilizes
prevent capsizing.
the effect was particularly gratifying in resuming center-line, to
These fins were employed mostly on machines
On one
a normal glide after air disturbances.
occasion, the model "'stalled'* and made a tail- having a sharp dihedral angle to the wings, alAntoinettes
employed different meththe
slide but quickly straightened out for a continu- though
body, tlie excess pressure produces a smaller ance of flight.
It has been proven that
This was, I believe, caused as ods of lateral balance.
effect on the machine.
Any less degree of taper, much by the perfect arc curvature of the ribs as aeroplanes with great dihedral angles of the
or reduction in camber and angle of incidence, by the balance.
(Note: The model mentioned wings arc safe in calm weather but wholly imThis is because they
wiu produce the same effect, though smaller
above was a small replica of the Dunne biplane.) practical in high winds.
Taking a wing tapered so as to bring the center
seems conservative, therefore, to assume are naturally too sensitive to side Rusts and tilted
It
Therefore, maof pressure close to the body, but provided with that, in case a direct side gust attacks a machine laterally by even light winds.
wings
set
at
no dihedral angle, or
chines
with
the
would
effect
not
be
angle,
this
ex
the
an extension set at a negative
with back-sloped wings,
tension will produce a downward pressure which particularly
dangerous since a modest amount only a slight one, as in the Blcriots, are more
diminishes the pressure on the planes but moves of lift is still produced and the machine, should practical than the opposite.

that operates automatically, while inherent stability


is naturally stable on account of the form, shape
or practise of design employed in the construction.
Ihe Dunne machine belongs to the latter class.
Inherent stability is acquired througli vertical
The latter
fins or a backward slope ot the wings.
practice has proven the most dependent since the
lormer, that of the vertical stabilizers, acts on
lateral balance only.
Fig. 1 illustrates the plan view of a wing of
machine is thrown out of
triangular design.
line of direct flight, or lateral balance, rather,
because one side gains lift or the other losing it,
the side having the excess lift naturally rising
while the one having the deficit falls.
In a wing with uniform chord, with the pre^suie
per square foot uniform, it is plainly obvious that
the center of pressure of each wing is half-way
along the span.
if the above wing is acted on
by a uniform pressure per square foot, the total
pressure on any strip will be equal to the fore
and aft length of that strip; and the pressure on
longitudinal strips will be equal to the length of
the arrows shown under this strip.
The total resultant force would approximately
equal the heavy arrow, acting closer to the body
rather than half-way.
Thus, acting closer to the

lateral stahilitv, the opposite side being absent.


If this condition be attained, so long as each
wing is in uniform air, no tendency to side-slip
However, these conditions do not, of
exists.

AIRCRAFT

396

A head-on disturbance does not create any dangerous effect except that the machine may rise
or fall, as the case may be; but it is obvious that
fins, dihedral angles and the like are dangerous
devices to tolerate, even in head-on winds, when
turning against these winds may mean a sideslip.

To insure no turning tendencies, it is imperative that the. lines of action of the total resultant side pressure must act through the center
Then the only result
of gravity of the machine.
will be a bodily motion of the machine sideways
Unfortunately, the
without any turning effect.
center of side pressure varies in position with
changes in the direction and strength of the side
gusts; so complete balance, under all conditions,
is impossible.
If the center of side pressure is forward of the
center of gravity, the nose of the machine will
turn with the wind, while the machine will turn
down wind, causing a momentarily decrease in
However, if it is behind the center of
speed.
gravity, the tendency is to turn up wind and increase its speed.
Since this latter case is the
most desirable, it seems imperative to maintain
such an arrangement of vertical surfaces that
will keep the center of side pressure behind the
center of gravity.
Fig. 3 shows a machine turning under the
action of its rudder.
Since the rudder is tlirned
to
the left, the pressure (R) acts against it,
tending to swing the tail to the right.
Momentarily the machine moves through the air crabwise.
producing a side pressure (SP) on the right side.

April, 1914

\\ ith the combined efforts of these two pressures,


the machine starts on the curved path shown.
Immediately after the start of the turning, a
act
(CF) begins to
third
force centrifugal
through the center of gravity of the machine
If the
and towards the outside of the curve.
side pressure acts behind the center of gravity,
But
the centrifugal force opposes the turning.
where the rate of turning has reached a certain
degree and the three forces being in balance, the
machine will turn steadily. When the rudder is
drawn back to neutral, the force (R) disappears,
while the side pressure and centrifugal force have
a tendency to take the machine out ol the turn
and disappear when the machine stops turning.
Taking the contrary, and supposing the side
pressure to act in front of the center of gravity,
as indicated by the dotted arrow, the centrifugal
force and side pressure themselves provide
a
tendency to turn to the left and these, accompanied by the check of the rudder in that direction, causes the machine to turn faster and

faster.

Even when the rudder is returned to neutral,


these forces still cause a turning effect, practically
increasing.
As the rate of turning increases
the side pressure moves further forv.ard and increases, so that a machine may start a turn with
the side pressure behind the center of gravity and.
as the rate of turning increases, the side pressure
may move forward until it is in front of the
center of gravity and, consequently, a spiral-dive
is the result.
The theory of the elevator acting
as a rudder during a steep bank does not explain this problem, unless there are two forces

acting independently of the pressures of the control surfaces so tTiat the machine will cease to
turn when the controls are returned to neutral.
It is obvious, then, that if a machine sidewill exist.
slips, a side pressure, similar to SP,
Also the inertia of the machine will produce a
centrifugal force, since centrifugal force is only
an inertia effect, and the turning effect, caused by
these forces, appears.
Therefore, a spiral may
take place without the use of any rudder whatIf the direction of flight is altered, extra power
has to be supplied to give the machine air speed
in its new course; and if the turn is so fast that
the motor's margin of power is not sufficient for
this extra work is wont to be done
this purpose
The faster
by gravity the machine must dive.
the turn, the steeper the dive.
When the turning rate is such that a force equal to the entire
weight of the machine is necessary to provide
the air speed, the machine will plunge vertically.
There is always a side pressure on machines
with a dihedral when turning and on machines
with non-dihedral wings when banked. The sloped-

back wings with negative tips must always have


the center of side pressure further back, relatively to their center of lift, than the normal
wings.

And since the fins above the center of gravity


have a tendency to increase the bank due to a
side gust, and, erected below, appear too impractical for the good of aviation, the backward
slope of the wings offers the best solution of
achieving inherent stability that has yet been
produced.

DESCRIPTION OF THE BURGESS-DUNNE HYDRO-AEROPLANE


By

F.

H.

RUSSELL

Hydro-aeroplane
Burgess-Dunne
Length of hydroplane, 17 feet, S inches
ched the latter part of February water-tight bulkheads).
and since flying almost constantly at
Beam, 31 inches.
Depth, 15 inches.
Marblehead Harbor, represents the
Propeller, 8 feet, two-bladed.
first

plane

adaption

of

marine

this type of
flying.
The

aero-

Total weight ready to

many

fly,

(5

1,450 pounds.

Late in February Mr. Burgess made a few


jumps with the machine but the weather prevented
extended flights until the first week in March,
substitutio
hydroplane (having more or less when Clifford L. Webster took the machine out
flat bottom and deck) for the wheel gear would and made an extended flight with it the second
seriously aifect the inherent stability of the ma- time he was in it.
chine.
It was therefore after only a very careful
There were many surprises awaiting those instudy of the principles involved and a most ex- terested in the success of the new type.
First,
to

authorities,
and this included
of the aeroplane, considered that

the
the

hausting tabulation of weights, head resistance,


center of gravity and center of pressures at different angles that Mr. Burgess brought forth the
design of his first hydroplane.
One can hardly imagine the excitement followed
by the enthusiasm of the first launching when
it was found that the water line at rest was exactly where Mr. Burgess had designed it to be.
When one realizes that in this type tliere is not
a right angle, that every part of the machine
apparently is diagonal, where the wings formed of
spiral shape are set onto the fuselage swung
backward, and at a dihedral angle, one begins to
realize tiic task of not only finding but establishing the center of gravity and the center of
pressure at definite points, one of the peculiar
requirements of the Dunne type is that the
center of thrust shall pass absolutely through the
longitudinal center of gravity.
The principal dimensions are as follows:
Length, 24 feet, 8 inches.
Width, 47 feet.
Height, 11 feet.
Total area of sustaining surfaces, 428 square
feet.

notwithstanding

increased

weight

on

Challenges Wrights to Aeroplane Patent


Action

"My attention has been called to a statement of


Mr. Barnes, treasurer of the Wright Company, in
which he is reported to have said that the BurgessDunne machine is a direct infringement of the
Wright patents and will be so considered, and that
'if the Burgess Company undertakes to build and
sell any quantity of these machines we shall cerproceed against them.'
He is further reported to have said that as the Dunne machine
contains ailerons similar to the Farman type and
tainly

account as the Farman


type aeroplane has been adjudiof the substantial hydroplane required, the machine was found to rise easily from the water cated by the American courts and proved an
and fly at the normal angle of the older type infringement, there is no doubt that the Burgessmachines.
Much has been said of the inefficiency Dunne machine will likewise be found infringing.
of the surfaces and the large angle said to be
"Mr. Barnes' statement must have been made
required in the
foreign
Dunnes.
A careful under a very serious lack of knowledge of the
elimination of head resistance of all parts and a subject in question.
The Farman type aeroplane
very delicate adjustment of the wings seem to has ailerons which are connected together and
have overcome this difficulty entirely.
Speed de- are operated simultaneously, hence infringing claim
veloped is about 55 miles per hour.
3 of the Wright patent.
There is no simultaneThe controlling levers of the elevators are ous connection between the ailerons on the Dunne
equipped with an automatic lock which enables machine. They are operated independentlv of one
them to be set at any point desired where they another. The system of steering both to the right
will remain until the operator wishes to change and left, and up and down is accomplished by an
hi=; aiigle or his direction.
ailerons system invented by Richard Harte in
On Mr. Webster's fourth flight he removed his 1S70 and copied in detail by Lieutenant Dunne
hands from the controls and allowed the machine in his inherently stable aeroplane.
This patent
to fly itself.
There was a puffy wind of about was brought up in the Wright suit against Curtwelve miles velocity.
The machine maintained tiss but was not found to act as an anticipation
its lateral and fore and aft balance almost per- of Claim 3, which was used in the Curtiss suit,
as
fectly.
A careful observer would have noticed both the Curtiss and Wright machines have their
a slight oscillation in each case immediately over- ailerons connected so that they are operated simulcome by the reaction set up in the various points taneously, while this is not required or thought
of the supporting surfaces.
of in the Dunne system.
its

AIRCRAFT

April, 1914

297

ZO-4i "-

LEFT

WirtG.

Mot SHOwr-

n-8i
I

.9

^^

MYDR^ACRoPLAriC-

AIRCRAFT

298
"Judge

Haze

April, ipi4

AIRCRAFT

April, ipi4

TOP,

PLAN AND SIDE VIEW OF THE HAMILTON AEROBOAT

299

AIRCRAFT

300
"Ligue

TO RAVIATE:

betelling about the "stunts


pulled off in England, with planes electric
light
lighted and fitted with search lights f
flying, and the following ensued:
Airman: "The planes are outlined ?ith electr

The airman was

ing

lights,

the

tturn again
just-turned-sixteen
\
shouldn't think they would allow that.

Airman:
J-T-16;

"Why?"
"If they'd fall they'd get a

Pennsylvania News
By W. H. Sheahan.
At

nume
sugge,

European

or-

cross-country

the
having studied
route for
an alternative
.,
;.

fter

"".,.
f

as

Londo

Africa,

I^aris, Berlin,

Asia,

Vienna,

long, manned "by a German crew of airship sailors and is to embody the latest features in passenger-carrying airships.
promise of
On February 23, H. W. Blakely flew from San
... Lawson who
,
Francisco to Cloverdale, a distance of 85 mies, in
s intention to give
support for the big flight and
prizes
1
hour and 40 minutes, where a Citrus Fair was
of
the
total
th
bringing
in
aid
all possible
During the afternoon the aviator,
parheld.
Eastern
being
the
hich
at
to the $1,000,000 mark
Louis Bleriot who was the hero of the day, gave several exhiiming.
tisans of the contest are
flights.
On his return trip, which he covthinks the project worthy )f the country which bition
20 minutes, he had a close
prod ed the Wright broth 5 and is now planning ered in 1 hour and
call when his engine stalled while he was executing
triumph
11
Instead of landing and not
spirals above the bay.
to glide to earth the craft shot
aeropl
^^J^anes^^Jules Vedrines has stated that tl.., having the anglethe
water.
The intrepid aviator
other downward into
eluding himself,
are m:
held him to the seat,
straps
that
nd
attemptunbuckled
the
side o f the .Mlanti
under the water, and clung to the fuel tank,
which kept the machine afloat, while a tug came to

Constantinople, C; iro, Bagdad, Calcutta, Saigon


Peking, Bering St aits and back to San Francisco
iupporter of the contest is Mr
.\nother valuabl

'

Philadelphia

banquet

February

the

ot

uKhlv
out th'
race a way

America, by way

and show up beautifully.

nd

Nationale

who

ganizer
races,

April, 19 1
It is reported that the Parseval Airship Co. of
Hamburg, Germany, has signed an agreement
with the Exposition Concessions Department to
operate during the fair, next year, one of its diri_
,..:,._carry passengers on regular iO-mile
igibles to
The dirigible is to be 480 feet
sight-seeing trips,

^^i^Hu^or i^^^:^^^^^,rzs^;:k t
.^Hfrc-gter^
Percy Pierce acted as
-^TlrZ^jJS:_
responses were made by Dr. Geo.
A^^ Sub^whS^is-ra
toastmas'ter

and

Harris, H. M. Neely and


S. Gassner, W. D.
Marshall Earle Reid of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, also by U. S. Wilson and E. R. Brown.
Reid in his talk to the members announced that
the press reports that he had given up flying were
erroneous and that he will resume the sport as
soon as the weather conditions are favorable. The
'
Philadelphia Aero Club has a membership

The Aeronautical Society of New \ ork has


proposed to the Panama-Pacific Exposition directors a coast to coast aeroplane race for prizes
amounting

Hayden made

a flight at

an altitude of 1,500

be obliged
motorboat equipment as long as it

Thaw's

flying

Palm Beach

boat

will

port.

to
flies

feet.

carry

the
from the

towed

flights

by

ha

high-powered

'

to France by
and a reply received

Aero Club of
same has been accepted for entry in the
This is the
Coupe Internationale D'Aviation.
s that the Wright C<
first time in fou
the event and thij entry
had a machine entered
was only made owing to the change in the rules

the
that

so that speed alone is not the only feature deBergdoll has


sired in the competing machines.
spent a week at the Wright plant inspecting the
plane being built for him and upon completion
of same will no doubt test same out on the Aero
Club of Pennsylvania grounds. Eagle Field, where
the Bergdoll hangar is located.
Grover Bergdoll has been flying a Wright B for
several years and is regarded as one of the most
He holds
eflicient and skilful pilots in the East.
several local long distance records among which
are his two trips to Atlantic City from Philadelphia,
the first trip being accomplished the first year he
was flyii-ig and in which flight he was accompanied
by his mechanician, Chas. Kraus, Jr., as a passen-

consists

Two biplanes, one for the army and one for the
department, are under constructioll at an
The utmost
icroplane factory in Los Angeles.
secrecj guards the details of construction but it
is
known that the former machines will have a
steel armor that can be attached or taken off in
a few minutes, while the latter will be a convertible
hydro-aeroplane and upon completion will be delivered to the headquarters of the navy aviation
corps at Pensacola, Fla.
On Feb. 7, Lieut. H. B. Post accomplished a
beautiful flight, lasting an hour, in a Wright
hydro-aeroplane, at an average altitude of 5,000
On the same day the same aviator and
feet.
Lieut. Carberry flew from North Islan
'
front of Hotel del
alighted
nd later
ironado, where they had breakfast,
they reAt noon-tiir
turned to the camp.
ated the same periormance.
On the same date Lieut. Mueller 1 mained in
e air 3 hours and 39 minutes, during vllich time
nd the
led for nearly two hours the I ay
lie

been cabled
erica

camp

work shop.

Wright racing machine is being built


at the Wright Bros, plant for Grover C. BergdoU,
the well-known Philadelphia aviator and sportsentry

aviation

ni\y

special

Bergdoll's

was

engines
The Wright hangars are now erected.
army aviators have quarters at the old bar1 he
latks, San Diego, where they also have a complete

in

proposal

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
The North Island army

Atlantic flight in the Rodman Wanamaker flying


few years ago Mr. Anderson built a forty
boat.
foot glider at Bristol, Pa., and made various ex-

initial

at present of four Wrights, three Burgess tractors


The Burgess planes
and five Curtiss machines.
are new and are fitted with eight cylinder Renault

is

periments
automobile.

The

The .Aeronautical Society believes a greater


public interest would be taken in the coast to
coast race.

probably the first case where an oflicial has taken it upon himself to make such a decision and there is widespread doubt as to whether
a flying boat is actually amenable to the regulations governing motorboats.
Warren Anderson, formerly of Philadelphia, and
at one time an active member of the Pennsyl-.
vania Aero Club, has made application to Mr.
Rodman Wanamaker to be allowed to accompany
Lieutenant Porte when he attempts the trans-

This

$300,000.

to

recently to the society at a meeting in New


York, by F. W. Barker, arid quickly adopted, for
the reason stated in the resolution:
"Believing that many more contestants will offer
their entries and that beneficial effects will be ingreater than any proposed around the
linitely
uorld race."

made

members
twenty-six active enrolled, and nt
the centr
club room
rapidly joining.
and the work
part of the city ha
rapidly progressing
the tractor bipla
Aviator Tha"w of Pittsburg, while making flights
threats
at Palm Beach, Fla., was compelled, imder
of arrests, by the Collector of the Port, to take
Stephen MacGordon,
out a motorboat license.
with
a
flight
make
about
to
when
aviator,
Thaw's
Miss Helen Hayden, a Philadelphia society girl,
was obliged to delay his trip until he had procured two government inspected life preservers, a
horn, a pilot's book of rules and a fire extinguisher.
With the above equipment MacGordon and Miss

deliverance.

his

land.
.._

'

'

This becoming
regula
^._

common
headed tow

_.

Diego
La Jolla, and turning back passed over S
and continued onward to Tia Juana, Me
then returned to North Island after endangering
the American endurance record.

Much criticism has been aroused in military


concerning the many fatalities that have
occurred to army aviators of late and has led to
the general belief that oyr army aviation squads
It
equipped with old and faulty material.
""^ll-k"""'". American
fatal
one ye
jt^ongly -pointed out that
circles

Charles
lator,

Niles
the
flew a Thomas biplane and
looping the loop with a Mo.sant mono-

F.

who formerly

plane,

..^ij*

j,

ing

th'

flight,

provided

it

iS

properly organized

to help them in all


and all possible steps take
ways.
California News
In view of acting as pathfinder to the proposed
By R. H. Blanquie
a^r plane race, from San Francisco to San Diego,
Messages from the most influential personages Sil; 5 Christofferson had hoped to fly from the
of the aeronautical world pledging support and co- "F ir City" to the southern port between sunrise
Exposition,':
He commenced his aerial trip on
Panama-Pacific
and sunset.
the
operation in
around-the-world race in 1915 are pouring in February 9 from the ocean beach at San Francisco, after much delay, and 5 hours 51 minutes
cessantly into the headquarters
foreign later, with stop at Firebaugh, alighted at dusk at
A
Aeronautics for the Fair.
o^.u clubs, prominent constructors and famous Serdos, near Bakersfield, tor tfie niglit, alter nav
aviators, as well as many in this country, are ,ig set a new .-\merican endurance record fo

ger.

Oi
manifesting great interest in the globe-encircling one day's flight, with 306 miles to his credit.
cross th
flight and believe it to be within the barrier of the two following dates he attempted to
th
The few who show signs of skepticism Tehachapi mountains but was baffled by'
possibility.
thei
their
rage
above
winds
that
impractical
and
strong currents
and disinterest, thinking the event
er
his enowing to the fact that the ocean has not vet been bcights. On February 16, having changed iiis
pei
is pertraversed by aircraft, will doubtlessly join the gine for a 100 h. p. one in the interval, his
ss and
an
ranks of the many supporters as soon as the final sistent efforts were crowned with due success
their
conditions have been agreed upon; such as to he crossed the mountains a mil"
Ascot
highest peak and succeeded in
course, time limit, repair stations, etc.
xt dav
Mr. .'\rnold Kruckman, manager of the Bureau Park. Los .Angeles, without mishap,
San
of
his
to
leg
last
of
the
East
completed
the
departed
on
a
tour
he
of Aeronautics, has
hour
n
1
of
S.
U.
to confer with the nation's aeronautical leaders and Diego, with a package
get their opinion and views on the contest, and 55 minutes.
Geographical
Weldon B. Cooke, the Oakland aviator, hhas reof the U.
S.
officials
Ilso with
his
1
Department and Meteorological Department to ob- turned to this State with laurels gained in
.Among Eastern flight and proposes to transfer the
from them.
tain valuable information
of
encouragement
and
plane
factory that he founded at Sandusky,
word
have
sent
that
those
President
of
home
city.
Quinton,
the
his
to
support is M. Rene
:

pilots while
re same space of time
latter outnumber the
Such an alarming fact proves
army casualties are out of rea-

'i.-ve befallen ar

Wl^f^l^ wi,l nineteen


.

former 100
clearly

that

ntry
to

w-hen

1.

the

i>

the

sonable proportion and that


the military airmen but with
is not always of the latest
On Feb. 14, Lieut. T. F.
Marcus made a spectacular

the fault lies not with


their equipment, which
model.
Dodd and Sergeant H.
record-breaking cross-

country flight from San Diego to Los .Angeles


and return without a stop. They left North Island
at 6:32 a. m. and after circling Los Angeles,
landed at their starting point 11:15 in the forenoon, thereby covering the appro.ximate distance
of 246 miles in 272 minutes.
Glynn Martin, carrying two passengers on a

motored Martin biplane, flew from


Park, Los Angeles, en route for San
Diego, but was forced to alight at Oceanside, a
distance of about 36 miles from his destination,
Six days later,
owing to burned-out bearings.
out again
after completing repairs, he started
reached North
with one passenger and finally
Island in what is probably the most hazardous
The jourflight undertaken on the Pacific Coast.
"ey was made above the ocean along the coast
ii"e in a furious wind which caused them to take
Hall-Scott

Griflith's

minutes to cover thirty-six


Lincoln Beachey once more came to
an exciting flight in an untried tractor
Hope Ranch Park. Santa Barbara, on
eighty-five

.\fter

miles,
grief after
biplane at

March

2.

looping the loop the new craft became unnot stop turning over and

manageable and did

AIRCRAFT

April, ipr4
until
within 400 feet of the earth.
1 he
of thousands of onlookers
directly below
caused Beachey to exert himself to the utrnost,
which resulted in regaining balance of the plane,
He then steered it across the field toward an oak
grove where there was no open spot on which he
new into a
could alight, and he deliberately
wrecking the machine but escaping himself

over

sight

ith

Western Notes
By Dr.
W.

.'ed

E.

R. Car'
H.v. ^h^vvina
Showing
day
a

picture

ctanrli'nfr' hp^iHp
Deside
standing

Topeka flj
Hall Scott motored tracto
Dr. F. M. Bell, the B.
Loughren,

injuries

his

to

the

sustained

i;

Mi!

nd Lambert, of St. Louis, reports that


forty-four aviators have joined the Aero Reserve,
for service in case of war.
Arnold Kruckman, manager of the Aero Bureau
Denver.
of Panama- Pacific Exposition, was in
conferring with Gov. Ammons and Mayor Perkins,
concerning Denver being chosen as one of the
He was entertained by Den'
ccntrol stations.

Commerce Club and came

""

wYtlihls

and

Secretary, Lowell Hardy,


as soon as his business
was over.

left
1

for
1
1

the
he East
parties

nteres'ted

Associated Press news items speak of Granville


Pollock being hired by the Mexican rebels to get
12 to be
together a fleet of fourteen air craft
onoplanes and two weight-carrying bipl
are a"fraid he won't "//irr(a'thing~^but' some one's

feelings

spending
currency that
in

the

dream

fifty

thousand

dollars

year.

Christofferson flew 800 feet above the


-.,..a=
mountains of Tehachapi and coast ranges recentlv.
The 170 miles was made in three hours 45 minutes.
Beachv did a 1.600 foot spiral while testing out
a Martin tractor specially built for looping, the
machine passing out of control at elevation of
2.000 feet. and. outside a few bruises, our information is that he is ready for another try.
The Western papers state his engine was working at normal rate and never missing, but he
attempted loop when not accustomed to machine.
Bixler. of Hutchinson, is making preparations
for busy season, of exhibition work, making another machine in spare time, so as to have plenty

301

summer on innumerable

The Xavy
mended that

Board of Aeronautics has rccomsix permanent hangars be erected


place of the temporary tent hangars, that
the equipment include two dirigibles and shed.
four motor boats, two motor tractors, a reserve
torpedo boat for work outside the harbor, a hydrogen plant, two captive balloons, meteorological

trips, mostly with passengers, left out in the open for months at a
time on beaches, shoals and docks, and all this
for
a
total
cost of repairs,
per machine, of
less than
$20.00, and at an operating expense
of less, per mile, than for the average automobile.
In view of these facts, it is no wonder that
the
flying-boat is
rapidly finding
favor with
sportsmen and establishing its title to tlie safest
and most enjoyable of man's pleasure craft.
That the Sloane Aeroplane Company realizes
ng popularity of the flying-boat
flymg-boat is evi87'''"^
*.
* now' goiuR
" on jn -dent from ^^^
th" -"
activity
the
c?
"i"
Sloane
shops and the superb workmanship displayed in the construction of the new craft now
nearing completion.
In addition, there is the
novel machine of Israel Ludlow now nearing
completion at the factory and a special experimental type monoplane well under -\vay.
Taking things altogether prospects look very
bright for the coming season.

in

and

observatory

facilities

and

tit

athletes.

oenoist Airboat Line a Success

The St. Petersburg to Tampa Airboat Line, established by the Benoisi Aircraft Company of
Sl.
Louis, co-operating with the business men
of St. Petersburg, has issued a statement oi
i(s first month's business covering the thirty-one
days of Tanuarv in their contract with the city.
n was agreed 'that there was to be no Sunday
flying,
so this left only twenty-seven possible
(jgyg of operation.
In these twenty-seven days.
ninety-seven trips were made, although four and
one-half days were lost for repairs and other
120 H. P. Maximotor for Flyins things on the boat as they only had one boat
there for the first month.
Out of these four
D__^_
*****"
and one-half days of flying lost, three days' loss
The Maximotor makers of Detroit have just was caused by a broken crank shaft in the
'^^Sun the construction of a new 120 h.p. 8 cylin- motor, and the balance could really be ascribed
^^^ ^^ type motor.
The bore and stroke of to bad weather.
''^'^
motor will be
by 5 inches and the
There were carried in all, 184 passengers and
ght will approximately be 350 pounds.
the boat covered a distance of 2.234 miles, or
ilr.
Barton L. Peck, the famous flying boat 4,468 passenger miles, which surely compares,
ler and pilot, has given the Maximotor mak- not only favorably, but much better than the
their first order for their new 120 model, usual taxicab or automobile used for commerit
Scripps intends cial work.
is reported that William
follow suit with another order.
The line has proved highly remunerative as
^'^
The Maximotor makers deserve great credit the cost of upkeep has been much less than for
,
same work with an automobile, and the
for their consistent good eitorts to give America the
amounts received for the work have, of course,
a powerful motor.
somewhat greater,
'*^^1
RM-'- M-.^ Dirigible
n:.4r:k1
Baldwins
The first understanding was that this bne was
Captain Tom Baldwin is now constructing a ' ?e operated for three months during the
new dirigible in which he is embodying several tourist season, but the business men have been
well pleased with the perforn
new devices for controlling the contraction and
Baldwin ex- boats that they are now making arrangements
expansion of its supporting gas.
pects that the new dirigible will be completed to continue the line throughout the summer and
fall,
and increase the number of machines for
by June, and says that be intends to give exhibitions with it at the Panama-Pacific Exposi- next winter.

---'

The New

4^

New

tion

It will
be
San Francisco next year.
long and 24 feet in diameter, torpedo
with gas capacity of 50.000 cubic feet,
by
latest
Halldriven
the
100
h.p.
be
Its full weight will be 1.380 lbs.
motors.

will

It

eived from
being put

at
feet

ISO

shaped
Scott

in

active

service.

Another line is contemplated between St. Petersburg and Tarpon Springs, a distance of about
This to make stops at Passforty-five miles.
Tarpon
Bellair,
and
Clearwater,
A Grille,

Navy Doings at Pensacola


Wagoner-Wright type over
Springs, Fla.
Manhattan Beach.
They have started
ice
at
Xhe recently published report of the Board
school there, and flew with Rocky Mountain News ^f Aeronautics of the United States Navy sets
Air Race Around World Finds Support
reporter as_ passenger, who claims to be first non- f^^th in comprehensive detail the programme of
iator to be
?d as passeneer at tj,^ navy in the matter of aeronautical developand Wright License
His descripti(
tates that
1-lying nient in line with other
of the
ici
advanced nations
ciuvdin.cu
iiduuiis ui
lite
manager ot the ranama
Kruck
Kruckman,
Arnold
like
eking chaii
cloud world,
athe
It
of the recommendations Pacific Exposition proposed aeroplane race around
As the
....M..i,.^
bank:
,. .u...
there ,.
is now established
ocntained in this report
^^.^^,j^
reached New York after a journey
Roy Knobensen had his family up with him at Pensacola the new navv aeronautic centre and
OSS the continent in which he obtained pledges
latter part of February, as one of his trips on a flying school where pilots 'will be trained for the
money and co-operation in the project from
Saturday was with the members of his family. use of air craft in conjunction with the offensive
iiy prominent persons.
The others were for "paid" guests.
operations of the fleet.
Among
those lending aid. Mr. Kruckman says, is
The General Aviation Co. manufactured the
The progress in developing the physical situa
Wright, who has agreed to license all
viile
Wagoner-Wright type machine Hall Scott motors tion at Pensacola has been rapid.
The centre
eroplanes entering the contest, freeing them
Peterson is using in passenger carrying and occupies the old navy yard.
The beach has from
.rom
any
claims under the Wright patents for the
school work.
In fact, aviation is looking up in
mpedi- race, in consideration of a lump sum to be pai<l
and othe
If the Wright patent decision does not ments.
the West.
Four hangars and a lookout tower have to the Dayton inventor by the managers of the
effectively crush all interest, it should in measure been erected.
exposition.
The amount to be paid was not disstimulate invention, but if they were to put royalThe battle ship Mississippi has been detailed closed, but is to be based on the ultimate size of
ties on more reasonable basis I know of several
as the aeronautical station ship and is anchored the prize offered in this countrv.
This has reached
who would co-operate and form companies to in the harbor.
She will be equipped and used the sum of $340,000.
manufacture either planes or parts, who are now
Peterson

is

flying the

afraid to tackle such a proposition.

New

Sloane Flying Boat

The first of the new types of Sloane flyingdes'gned by John Eyre Sloane
nearing completion at the Sfoane .Aeroplane factory in Long Island City, and the trials will
take place around New York within a short

boats

time.

The new machine which embodies many new


and

original

sportsmen
pieces

of

is

features

calculated to appeal
to
to be one of the finest
construction ever turned

pronounced

flying-boat

out.

The
ship
feet,

solid

hull is a wonderful piece of workmanand is 23 feet long with a beam of ^


weighing only 250 lbs.
is
built
f
It
mahocanv polished like a piano and lux-

uriously fitted' out.


The insides of the cockpits are
lined
with polished veneer w-hile the
style
seats are upholstered in corduroy
on automobile s.
The passengers are protected
from wind an d spray bv a windshield and are
even more cornfortabiy situated than in an automobile.
In sneaking about the merits of the flying,^
"Whe
boat, Mr. Sloane recently stated:
*
taken into consideration that sportsmen *vinj) a
eroyear or two ago had never ridden in an aeroplane now own their own flying-boats and last
surnLrcovered over 150^
giving thousands of people' rides in the air without the sHehtest ace dent it is easy to see the
'

flySa,

'

'=rn^^i,K^T^^c"ep?^Z ^t'lcZ.'^{i

far surpass any other form of sport for pure


'
While atsonished_
and exhilaration.
more
they
flying-boat's
reliability,
amazed .at its economy, of operation and u^;
keep.
Numbers of flying-boats were used all
to

joy

as the base of operations for the launching and


alighting of marine aeroplanes on shipboard. CaptaiuM. L. Bristol. U. S. N., is in charge of
aeronautics, with residence in Washington.
The personnel of the Aviation Corps resident
Pensacola is as follows: Lieutenant Comat
mander H. C. Mustin, U. S. N.. commanding
the Mississippi and aeronautic station, who is
aviator
of two years' experience: Lieutenant
an
Commander W. G. Roper, executive officer the

in addition to the $150,000 in prizes to be given

bv the exposition managers, it was announced that


a' prominent resident of the Pacific coast had subIn
scribed $100,000 to be added to the purse.
addition it was stated. $15,000 had been bid by
^ne Western city which wants the route of the
race to pass over it. and $25,000 by another for
It is probable that both can
the same privilege.
$40,000 in special prizes for
he accommodated.
speed, altitude and non-stop distance flights have
been offered in .San Franci
Manatrcrs of the exposition, it vas announced.
would deposit the $150,000 in pr ! money within
This step will
ten davs in a San Francisco ban!

Lieutenant J. H. Towers, in charge


Lieutenant T. H. Brooks, senior
engineer officer the Mississippi, and the followine assigned to the Mississippi and aviation dutv:
Lieutenant P. N. L. Bellinger. Lieutenant R. be taken in response to the dem id of the .Aero
upplied for the
C. .Sauflcv. Lieutenant V. D. Herhster. Fnsign Club of .\merica that a bond he
C. de C. Chevalier. Ensign M. L. Stolz. Fnsign payment of the prizes.
Mr. Kruckman on bis way here called on the
\V. D. La Mont: also First Lieutenant B. L.
Smith and Second Lieutenant W. M. Mcllvain, Governors of Nevada. I'tah. Wyoming and Colo
of the Marine Corps; Passed .Assistant Surgeon rado, and on the mayors of Salt Lake. Cheyenne.
He
Cottle and Passed .\ssistant Paymaster Denver, Kansas Citv. Chicago and St. Louis.
<i.
F.
asked that citizens' committees he annointed
T.
TL flunnell.
__
_
has each State to act as sponsors of the globe circling
K. H. Brownell, civil engineer, U. S. N
id
station
aeronautic
the
contest.
to
assigned
been
To open the race to air craft of all types, it
marine advance base
^.
f Lieutenant Commander Mils- was learned that the transatlantic section of the
1
tin
d his corps of aviators from the navy and journey mav be made aboard a ship by an aerocraft thus
plane unable to fly across.
e Corps is entirely voluntary.
placed in charge of entering will be penalized,
rccetitly
Bristol,
Captain
.^,^..
'..^^
^.-i. ......
.
j'
.
tt
i.
i
ti.
. .!.-. .i.has each
He
dav .l
thus spent,
naval aeronautics, fairly radiates energy.

"'
?V'^^
^''7ln
f
cwf,T
^.nnVr
i- 11
will
simlar
manner
*
in
m
days
work
for
the
finished
120
special
race
be
previously done much
and was selected to give his executive be extended with a penalty for each additional day
ability scope in this new undertaking for great on any pnre ;;'""er,
Controls in the contest it is now agreed arc to
accomp shment.
of flving' school;

"

'

'

m
'

.yp^cal,, bng,,. n,orn.


'.."Ir^^f^lf
ini? he^spoke of^the fact that Pensacola had been
'
ing station largely .... .as
selected
'
nditions. also on account of the
of atmosphe
capaci^^^ harto_r_ and economy of obtaining avail-

able

shore

i.

fli.h.s

space.

n,ica.o ^n^

Governor

York
tions

..,e

.unin.

pojn,

5'-|{y,.

.._,!:."_

Francisco.

Island

sta
--for the- control
three large pitch fires
.

ntrol

all

.At

.
will

sta-

be burned con-

,,\'-|- *^.'lV,lVn'"con%ob

AIRCRAFT

303

April, ipi4

There is to be but one between Moscow


A change
and Vladivostok, probably at Tomsk.
in the route from Asia to .'\merica that has been
made substitutes a course across Bering Sea by
greater.

way

Commander

the

Islands

for

that

over

Bering Strait; the route then follows the Alaskan


coast

Sitka.

to

Sloane
With
of the

plane
school

Company

to

Open Flying-Boat School

completion

the

of

the

to

be

established

in

of the series
the Sloane .\eroflying-boat
first
vicinity of New

first

new Sloane Flying-Boats,


Company will open the
the

York, which will probably be about May 1st.


Already the company has received a number
of inquiries regarding the course and it looks
as if the flying-boat is destined to become very
popular within a short time.

Guy Gilpatric, the chief pilot will be


and instruction will be by dual conthe pupil sitting alongside the pilot and
quickly learning the correct method of operation without any danger.
As soon as possible a second boat will be
put in service and regular passenger carrying
and demonstration flights given.
In addition, the land school will be operated
on an even larger scale than heretofore; inon monoplanes and bistruction being given
The Sloane .Aeroplane Company thus
planes.
being the only concern in the world teaching
on monoplanes, biplanes and flying-boats.
John

in

charge

trol,

Officials Want
Flight Along Coast

Navy Aviation

Long

Trial

the Navy Aviation Bureau think


the aeroplane selected for the Wanamaker transatlantic flight should be required to make a correspondingly long voyage along the Atlantic coast or
overland before undertaking the flight over the
ocean.
So far no naval officer has beeii designated,
as suggested by the promoters of this transatlantic flight, to act as one of the pilots of the aeroThe naval experts feel that there would
plane.
be no lack of volunteers from among the young
officers who have qualified as aviators, but the
department would want full assurance that every
educe
had been take
possible precaution
assigning an officer
the risk to a minimum befoi
Ofircials

of

Bear in mind if this is used on a Hilicop no


March 7, 1914.
gyroscope is needed because there is one already.
Editor Aircraft:
Now, say the aviator steers "w" by his comReferring to the Dallas Corn Exposition, I beg pass and before starting levels up his machine
gyrothe
to say that the aviation end of the programme filumb in line of perpendicular with
was by far the most popular and drew into the wheel. When he starts, if there is a side wind
grand stand the largest crowds ever recorded that blows him out of line then the indicator
weather
disagreeable
remains
of
the
most
gyro-wheel
there in spite
plumb adjusts itself but the
imaginable.
stationary, consequently the perpendicular needle
Of the four flyers present I was the only one swings out some on the chart to a point in known
able to fly every day and fill my contract; Mr. miles on the scale and also in the forward direcFred De Kor missed three days, Mr. Frank tion swings back to indicate the number of miles
to sitch service.
shown on the
Terrill missed four days and Miss Stinson missed at any moment traveled and
ARE. ED.]
[AND EIGHT
Whenever desirable to
live days.
chart by the indicator.
Owing to the bad weather very few photos were plumb up for a new start just move the map to
Glenn L. Martin Doing Good Business
taken and by accident a newspaner man destroyed suit and proceed as before.
Editor of Aircraft:
Very trulv.
I am working my factory to the limit and_ am a roll of film containing a dozen pictures, some
approximately three months behind with orders of which were intended for you.
Jos. E. BiSSELL.
deposits.
Owing to the ease with which my machine
which
we
have
already booked upon
We are building a beautiful tractor for Lincoln was handled in the high and gusty winds everyone
Beachey for his famous looping and upside-down was converted to the monoplane type.
As I was the "vet" of the outfit it fell to me to
Mr. Beachey found other American maflying.
chines unsuited for this work and after comparing lead the way each day, also to make the two overour workmanship witli the foreign machines with citv flights w-ith advertising matter.
Hoping to secure more interesting pictures for
which he was entirely familiar, he immediately
placed his order and wired France for a Gnome you in the very near future, I am
motor.
We have sold an aeroplane to Charles
Yours cordially,
Also a beautiful
Rovstone, not vet completed.
Capt. .T. H. Worden.
outfit to Frank' A. Garbutt, a millionaire sportsman of Los Angeles. Mr. J. H. Little, of Ohio, P. S. I am engaged for the Stock Show at Fort
has placed his deposit on one of our new flyingWorth, Tex., March 10th, llth and 12th; then
He is now in our school taking lessons in
boats.
Denton, Tex., to follow.
the art of flying. Mr. Harry C. Watts, of Chicago,
arrived a week ago and is also in school. He has
bought a convertible tractor and will use a Renault
Editor
of .Aircraft:
motor which was ordered a month ago but has
Perhaps your readers will be interested in the
are running through four
not as yet arrived.
more standard machines for which we have a following scheme for automatically potting the
aircraft so at a glance any old lady
ready sail
'xactly at what spot over the globe she
time to keep in touch
I hope to be able to h
know when a gyroscope is once "set" it
jn and will no doubt
with vou better from n(
Well, depending on that principle and
during the Spring or
e.
be in New York some t
a plumb always points toward the center
Summer.
irth
and will swing itself into position
Yours very trulv.
a few miles away from where it was origGle
come to the instrument as per sketch.
;

THEY

We

Aircraft"

Excelsior
lers

propel-

deliver

the

AIRCRAFT

ipi4

.-Ipril

303

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
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FOR
also 5-gallon gasoline tank

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Aircraft, Box 809.

lilane.

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unsatisfactory motor, why not exchange it for a
larger motor and fly successfully?
Everything for
aviation bought, sold and exchanged.
State your
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U. S. Aero Exchange, 38 Park Row, New

York

THIRD

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Free flying lessons to buyer. H. C.

ICENSED

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'-'

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li.

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For Flying Boats Use JEFFERY'S


Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue,

for waterproofing tlie

E.

F. Street. N.

COLEMAN,
W.

Patent Lawyer
Washington, D. C.

MARINE GLUE

eanvas eoveriug of flying

l)oats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year it will last as
long as the boat.
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muslin for wing surfaces.

L.

Semi fur

W. FERDINAND

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CO.

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'

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::

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A.

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The only

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Highest efficiency of any monoplane

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Tuition

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HEINRICH PROPELLERS $20 UP


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BALDWIN,

L.

1.,

N. Y., U. S. A.

Propeller.
Furnished to the Government of the
states, Mexico, Guatemala, etc. and the leading American Aviators.
.Actual t
for flying boats and tractors.
Three
bladed
type
Bladed
Two and Three
proven the new three bladed types to be 20 per cent more efficient than any other.

The standard American

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CO.

Have you our new


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AIRCRAFT

304

April, ipi4

THOMAS

Benoist
Flying
Boats

STUDENT
Makes New

Altitude
Record

and

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Biplanes

12,575 Feet

This

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m^^"""''

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AND AERO VARNISH


were the
is

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it

unsurpassed record.
contains important information.

Bros. Aeroplane Co., Bath, N. Y.

HALL-SCOTT

first in the field, and the test of


proving that our product is the best

60 H-P

40 H-P

AERONAUTICAL CLOTH
time

FRANK BURNSIDE'S

is

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Thomas

NAIAD
We

THOMAS SCHOOL

^:nL^r^:

have more world records than all other American


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100 H-P

Do not underpower your Flying Boat.


The HALL-SCOTT 100 H-P is the most powerful,

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Write for booklet upon

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THE

A-7,

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CONOVER

CO.

MANUFACTURERS

101

this motor.

Data and Prices on Request

FRANKLIN STREET,

When Purchasing

NEW YORK

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.


San Francisco,

818 Crocker Bldg.

Calif.

Boland Aeroplane and Motor Co.


an Aviation

Motor

THE BOLAND MOTOR


8 cyI."V" lype.60 H. P.

Don't buy "hot air" for your motive power just


because it is for an " air-o-plane." You need real
" Hot air" doesn't produce results.
power.

240 Pounds

MAXIMUM POWER

Kirkham Aviation Motors


is

more than

their rated horse power,

why they produce

results.

They are also

absolutely

Day Tractor equipped with a 4 cyl. 40


Kirkhatn Motor, and other Kirkham owners.
in his

We guarantee

results

let

system of control, which

Office

bai

Factory

FT.

1821

h. p.

us tell you about

is

BOLAND MOTOR.

liment of utmost safety and simprinciple.


Write for particulars.

is th>

BROADWAY
NEW YORK

and dependable. This is well shown by the


good work done during the past season by Aviator
reliable

DeLLYOD THOMPSON, SUPERIOR PILOT NO.

nd

BOLAND CONTROL

plicity

and that

MINIMUM WEIGHT

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE


Equipped with the Boland Control

The
deliver

DURABILITY

RELIABILITY

CENTER STREET
NEWARK, N. J.

RE

it

Also get full particulars of the Special Proposition


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immediately. A word to the wise is sufficient.

Aviator

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supplied

in

sizes

with

making soldering easy.


This wire is specially drawn from extra
quality high grade steel.
Also Aviator
a

plate finish,

Cord

of twisted wire.

THE

KIRKHAM AEROPLANE & MOTOR


SAVONA, NEW YORK

CO.

John A. Roeblings Sons Co.


TRENTON,

N.

J.

Constructors,

as

well

MAXIMOTORS"
There

90-100 H.

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MAXIMOTOR

being successfully tested

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new

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revolutions.

complete with Mag-

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JEFFERSON AVE., E

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Here are the Facts

MOISANT MONOPLANE "BLUEBIRD"


THE BEST OF ALL FOR

SPEED

SAFETY

ENDURANCE

STABILITY

Used by the Leading Aviators, Moisant Aviation

School The Most Up-to-date School

in

America

Write at once for Booklet

Address

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS,

1790 Broadway, N. Y.

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

The hearty

reception of the

Thomas

Flying Boat proves

that the public recognizes the unquestionable

advantages of

steel construction

EVERY OWNER IS SATISFIED AND DELIGHTED!


THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT IS PRACTICALLY UNSINKABLE.
wreck

to

it,

for the reason that the hull

covered with sheet steel.


The fact that the THOMAS
for

is

constructed of

FLYING BOAT

will not

two-ply

absorb water

It is almost impossible
planking and is entirely

is

one of many reasons

UNSURPASSED EFFICIENCY.
BEFORE YOU SELECT A FLYING BOAT, BY ALL MEANS INVESTIGATE THE THOMAS.

its

great and

You must

see the

tional values

and

Thomas

Flying Boat to fully appreciate and understand

THOMAS FLYING BOATS


Biplanes

the

its

points of excep-

of the

famous Thomas

superiority.

are built

upon the enviable reputation

American Record Holders.

Send

for Booklet "

T"

Today.

Address

THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


BATH, NEW YORK

CO.

I>

IF

YOU SEE

IT

IIM

AIRCRAFT- IT

IS.

IF

YOU DO NOT SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT- IT

hBE

Vol. 5

MAY, 1914

No. 3

25 Cents a

Copy

HEY YOU SECRETARIES


!

To

the Secretary of

War

and the Secretary of the' Navy, Greeting:

When Robert Fulton requested an audience with Xai)oleon in order to show him how
he could transport an army of occupation to England by steam-boats instead of sailing
AS A COURvessels, Naiwleon agreed to listen to what he had to say for ten minutes
Steamboats were too advanced an idea for Napoleon to think seriously about
TF^SY

in

those days

and HE

NEVER REACHED ENGLAND.

Now why not utilize


the present time the United States is at war with Mexico.
AIRCRAFT.
the very latest device for war purpose that the ingenuity of man can invent
as they
manner,
most-up-to-date
the
but
in
of
way,
sort
half-hearted
a
in
not
Utilize it,
At

Germany and France.


Germany has over 30 dirigibles and 1,000 aeroplanes in service now and would, no doubt,
France has nearly as strong an aerial force
endeavor to triple that number in case of war.
These countries adopt modern
Russia
is not tar behind.
incidentallv,
and
Germany
as

do

in

methods

in wartare,

^VHY NOT THE UNFfED STATES

':

have twelve first-class manufacturing concerns in the ITnited States who could
w^orld, if only given the opporbuild u]> an aeroplane fleet that would equal any other in the
\<\\y not give an order at once to each of these concerns for 20 machines
tunitv to do so.
and then
which would make 240 machines altogethera rather modest fleet to begin with
fly while the machines are being
send 20 men to each of these concern's schools to learn to

We

built

it you
understand, of course, that you need Congress to enable you to do this, but
in the right way, you can get them.
"AIRCRAFT'" recommends the following American concerns that can do the job
Aeroplane Co., The Moisant Co., Heinrich AerosatisfacUn-ily : The Wiig.ht_Co-' Sloane
Martin Co., .Curtiss Aeroplane Co., The Burgess
plane Co.^ Benoist Aircraft Co., Glenn L.
Aeroplane Co., ChristofFerson Aviation Co.. Boland Aeroi)lanc and

We

go after Congress

"Co.,

Thomas

Bros.

Motor Co., Lincoln Beachey,

Inc.

Lawson's message to tOiigress pui)lisiied in fu


\ttentionis herewith called to Alfred W.
17th, lli;Ui)ages ;!;j.U-.'{;5.).>)and m 'Aurratt.
inthe "Congressional Record," February
No. 12. relating to the subject of aerial war measures.
Volume
.'}.

l!a

NOT

'

The

Safest, Strong-est

and Most Efficient

FLYING BOATS MONOPLANES


BIPLANES
FOR

SPORTING,

MILITARY

AND NAVAL USE

DESIGN AND AVORKMANSHIP TELL THE STORY IN THE END.

ROBERT J. COLLIER, the well-known Sportsman, indorses


SLOANE WORKMANSHIP. Follow his judgment.
AVhy buy

inferior

Remember

machines when you can have the best

for

no extra

cost.

Sloane aeroplanes embodj^ the best features of the monoplane and


biplane types combined with the superior woi'kmanship of the monoplane types.

JOIN

all

OUR LAND OR WATER FLYING SCHOOLS Spend" an ideal

and

profitable vacation learning to fly.

TUITION 'fSOO

Write

for either land or

water course, or $500 for the combined courses.

NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOG giving descriptions, photoinstallation drawings of our ANZANI GNOME LE RHONE and

for particulars.

graphs and

AUSTRO-DAIMLER MOTORS

just out.

Can we send vou

SLOANE AEROPLANE
1731

Broadway,

New York

copy

CO.

City

AIRCRAFT

May, igi4

305

II

A GOOD MOTOR

III

II

YOUR

IN

AEROPLANE ME ANS
SUCCESS
BUY YOUR

MOTOR FROM US
AND SAVE

MONEY
GREAT BARGAINS

IN

SPARE

PARTS AND SECOND-HAND MOTORS

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS


BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

1790

CONTENTS -MAY,

1914

Around the World Air Race

An

Outline

Foreign

How

a Flying-boat Is

Made

News

Practical Aeroplane Design

Fifth

Aero Show

The Panama-Pacific

307
308

Arthur V. Prescott

309

Palmer

311

Walter A. House

313

Paul

The New "Short" Sea-plane


The

Lowell Hardy

Henry Williams

J.

of Great Britain

314

International Aeronautical Congress

316

Upside-down Flying Craze


General

316

M.

News

K.

Henry

3Hi

AIRCRAFT
ALFRED W. LAWSON
President and Treasurer
ERNEST C. LANDGRAF

Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing


37-39

Secretary

NEW

In the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico. Guam. Philippine Islands,


Hawaiian Islands. Cuba (including Postage). $2.00 per year.
Twenty-five Cents the Copy, of All News Dealers.
Foreign Subscriptions. Three Dollars per year.
In changing order give old as well as new address.
Advertising copy must be in hand by the 1st of month previous to
of

thoroughly

reliable

solicited.

Entered as "second-class matter" February


"Aircraft"

is

ALFRED W. LAWSON Editor


PAUL J. PALMER
WALTER A. HOUSE
Contributing

WHEN YOUR SUBSCRIPTION

TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS

date of publication.
Only high-grade advertisements

Company

YORK, U. S. A.
28th STREET.
Telephone, 5017 Madison Square

EAST

18.

firms

arc

Editors

EXPIRES

One month before a subscription expires we enclose a renewal blank


on which you will write your order for the renewal.
When first notified that your subscription will expire, you should
send your renewal at once, in order not to miss a number.
New
subscriptions which are received by us on or before tlie ISth of anv
month will begin with the issue of that month. If received after that
date they will begin with the following month's issue.
We cannot
enter subscriptions to begin with back numbers.
One month's notice
is necessary before a change of address can be made.

1910, at the Post Office, at

New

York, N. Y.. under Act of March

registered as a trade-mark by the U. S. Patent Office, under date of August 9th, 1910.

3,

1879.

AIRCRAFT

306

May.

"

A PROPHET

HONOR SAVE

10 1 ^

NOT WITHOUT

IS

OWN COUNTRY "

IN HIS

ONE-THOUSANDTH

consequence, not
PART has been

In

or

printed

told

of

AMERICA'S OWN STARTLING,


AMAZING, WONDERFUL

BEACHEY
Just

Gnome

back from Europe with two 80

monosoupape
engagements

(single valve) motors, read}' for

to

Loop-the-Loop
UMOQ apisdQ X|j
To

skillful,

reliable aviators

owning

first-class

equipment, Beachy will turn over some of


the many overflow dates he has offered
but cannot fill.
All communications;

LINCOLN BEACHEY,

The

INC., Westminster

Bmlding,

Chicago,

111.

NEW WRIGHT
AEROPLANES
for sport, exhibition or mili-

tary use, over land or water

now embody

quietly

an Aviation

Motor

Don't buy " hot air" for your motive power just
because it is for an " air-o-plane. " You need real
" Hot air" doesn't produce results.
power.

the improve-

ments that have been suggested

When Purchasing

by the experiments
conducted

during

Kirkham Aviation Motors


deliver
is

the past year.

more than

their rated horse power,

why they produce

results.

They are

and that

also absolutely

and dependable. This is well shown by the


good work done during the past season by .\viator
reliable

DeLLYOD THOMPSON, SUPERIOR PILOT NO.

THE WRIGHT

CO.

(THE WRIGHT PATENTS)

DAYTON, OHIO
NEW YORK OFFICE:

11

PINE STREET

Day Tractor equipped with a 4 cyl. 40


Kirkham Motor, and other Kirkham owners.
in his

We guarantee
Also get

on our

full

New

immediately.

results

let

h. p.

us tell you about

it

particulars of the Special Proposition

Models which are now ready. Write


A word to the wise is sufficient.

THE

KIRKHAM AEROPLANE & MOTOR


SAVONA, NEW YORK

CO.

SiiMyiiliWiiniiifiifiSifiiliifiKKKKSifiWiiiKiinfiifiSSSWKXiiiiliifiSSXKXSiliXifiSSSS

New

No. 3

Vol. 5

York, May, 1914

AROUND THE WORLD AIR RACE


By

LOWELL HARDY

Secretary to Arnold

ATERIAL
the

progress has been

organization

world air race.

made

recently in

of the great around the


Arnold Kruckman, manager

the Bureau of
Aeronautics for the
Panama-Pacific International Exposition and
yours truly, his secretary, spent a week in
Washington where we had an interview with
President Wilson and other government officials and succeeded in obtaining official government recognition
in support of the science of aeronautics and for the furtherance

of

of the world's flight in 1915.

The Secretary

of State has issued a letter to the diplomatic

States Government in all


them to give all assistance to Mr.
Kruckman when he visits them on his trip around the world.
They are especially directed to render him whatever assistance
is required to put him in touch with the official heads of foreign

and Consular
foreign

officers

of the United

countries directing

Captain Bertholf stated that leaving Japan coming eastward


on the Pacific leg of the race the last of the thickly settled country to be touched by the flyers will be the Northern Island of
Yezo. From this point the route runs through the Kuril Island,
but sparsely inhabited for a distance of SOD miles to Petropavlovski in Kamchatka.
Petropavlovski is a good sized and
thriving Russian town.
The Kuril Islands belong to Japan,
contain many good harbors and suitable landing places.

From

governments.

documents issued by the State Department


over the signature of Secretary Bryan and bearing the seal of
the United States Government, Mr. Kruckman goes as United
States Commissioner for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. His work will consist of the placing of control stations
at a distance of approximately 1,000 miles apart and supply and
According

to the

Relief Stations at intervals of 300 miles over the entire route to

In this connection one of the prime objects of the trip


of

the

is

the

various scientific commissions which are

being appointed by the heads of the different governments whose


territory is included in the route. The object of these commis-

and register in proper fonu the observations


and information secured by the airmen in the race around the
world and the compilation of an aeronautical map.
In conference with Secretary Hutchinson and President Gannett of the National Geographic Society and the Geological Survey Department of the United States Government, Mr. O. H.
Tittman, head of the Coast Geodetic Survey, and Charles D.
Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, the matter of
the creation of the scientific commission in the United States was
thoroughly gone over. Plans are now under way for the organization of this body and the execution of its work.
Secretary Bryan in his interview with Mr. Kruckman, exsions

is

here the route passes to the

erty of the Russian


is

to obtain

pressed his deep interest in the undertaking, both in the sporting


and scientific side of the event. Secretary Daniels of the War

Commander

Islands, prop-

Government. Petropavlovski to Cape Olga


from there to Bering Island, the

a distance of ISO miles, and

westernmost of the Commander group,

is

180 miles.

The

dis-

tances given are in nautical miles.

At Bering Island is a big


Russian Government settlement reached by Government supply
steamers; from Bering Island to Copper Island, the most eastern
of the

Commander group, is 75 miles


From Copper Island

quent intervals.

be traversed by the flyers.


co-ordination

Kruckman

and Captain George T. Cooper of the Hydrographic Dept. have


also placed their department at the convenience of the exposition
official and have given him valuable data and information regarding the ocean flights, especially between Japan and Alaska.
The route through this region goes by way of Kamchatka and
the Aleutian Islands, the longest water jump being 190 miles.
Throughout this section of the race there are communities scattered at intervals where the needs of the flyers may be looked
after and receive supplies.

250 miles.

This stretch

is

settlements are at fre-

to Attu

is

a distance of

inhabited by natives and in the sum-

mer season is occupied by Revenue Cutter Shore


American territory.

parties.

It

is

Unnak, in Unalaska, the next point in the route, is 150 miles


and is a white settlement with .-\laska Commercial Co.
stores.
From Unalaska to Sanak Island, a white fishing settlement, is 150 miles. The next station is Belkofski, on the main
land, 45 miles distant and following this Sandpoint, 60 miles
distant

distant.

At Chidnik Bay

is

located a large cannery.

It is

120

from Sandpoint. .A.t Ugak Bay is another cannery, 175


miles distant. The town of Seward, on Resurrection Bay, is 240
miles south. It is a large and thriving community.
The next
point is Katalla, a government post office, 170 miles south, on
Controller Bay.
Katalla to Yakutack Bay is 200 miles.
Here
is found a large settlement and post office.
From Yakutack to
the entrance to Cross Sound is 175 miles.
This point is the
entrance to the inside passage which leads direct to Seattle and
is traversed by regular passenger steamers constantly during
miles

summer

Department has given promise of very possible aid and as.sistance


toward making the flight a success. The Treasury Department,
through Secretary Byron Newton, under whose jurisdiction
comes the Revenue Cutter Service has pledged the service boats
to be used as patrols on the Pacific and for forwarding supplies
and relief to the distant points on the route. Captain Com-

the

mandant Elsworth Price Bertholf of the Revenue Cutter Service

whose

season.

Throughout .Alaska

the .Aeronauts will be in immediate touch


with a train of trading stations and supply depots belonging to
the great Alaska Commercial Co.. one of the most powerful

organizations on the continent, and one of the most prominent


factors in life in the far north. The heads of this corporation,
offices

are in San Francisco, have already volunteered the

AIRCRAFT

308

They have
services of the company to assist the world races.
proffered the use of their stations for supply and relief and the
services of their employees in any way that they may be useful.
In addition they have voluntarily offered to set up signals, to
paint the roofs of their stations along the entire route, any color
designated by the exposition manager to assist in guiding the

on their course toward the goal at the Exposition ground.


Regarding the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, additional evidence as to the conditions to be met with on the northern route
has been offered by William J. Ellis, the mayor of St. John's,
Mr.
Newfoundland, who was in New York City recently.
John corroborated in every detail the statements made by Mr.
Cuthbert Lee, secretary of the Grenfell Association, and Capt.
John Black of the Anchor Line Steamship "Columbia." Mr.
Ellis stated that the heavy fogs during the summer which prevail off the coast of Newfoundland, extend approximately 100
miles north and south, but do not reach as far as Belle Isle,
which is 250 miles to the north. The wind conditions he deflyers

comparing favorably with the region in the neighborCity.


They have a prevailing westerly wind
during the summer months, which they describe as their clear
Mr. Ellis stated that as a usual thing, the
weather wind.
westerly wind means a long succession of beautiful weather.
As mayor of St. John's he is very anxious to have the flyers
scribes as

hood of

New York

May, igi4

stop in that city. Mr. Ellis offered the use of a fine aerodrome,
which is located within the city limits.
Acting upon the suggestion of Alfred W. Lawson, as pubhshed in the March Aircraft (page 277), the original time limit
of 90 days has been extended to 120 days, and in addition to this
a decision has been reached by which, in case no flyer finishes

within the 120 days, they will

make

to

AT

accomplishment possible.

this

The

who

it

was the

inspired.

solidity of

Finished in solid

mahogany with

the hood built up of the same material, rounded


about the cockpit after the fashion of the most up-to-date
monoplanes and having spacious and luxurious accommodations
off

for the passengers,

it

inspired

me

with a longing to spring into

and then and there take the craft out if that were possible, and go skimming over the waves at fancy's call; such is
the irresistible call of the flying-boat.
Is it any wonder that
water-flying has taken such a hold with sportsmen and is rapidly
the seat

establishing

its title

to

Since the flying-boat

"The Sport of All Sports?"


is destined to become such a factor

in

and before long will undoubtedly be


used largely for high speed commercial delivery, it is both interesting and instructive to learn something about the construcpleasure transportation,

tion of these craft.

Before a single

stick is cut every detail in the construction of


is first laid out on paper.
If done properly this
an immense amount of work, usually taking from three

the flying-'boat
entails

to four

weeks of the most painstaking and detailed draughting

work.
First, the preliminary design of the whole machine is laid out.
This gives the general form of the finished machine, indicating
the distinctive and original fines of the craft, and forms the

basis

from which the

design

is first

rected and

laid

out in

work

This preliminary
the rough, studied over, changed, cor-

detail

is

laid out.

worked

into shape, until there is a perfect blending


of the various parts one with the other, and the correct distribution of surface, weight, etc.

After the preliminary designs have been drawn up, these are
then used for the basis of the detail work.

First the hull

IS

view

ship his

MADE

While the boat

hull is being laid

out and drawn up, the planes

Next the tail fin, tail


and rudder are designed. Then the metal
are also figured out.

and

tail

drawn
motor

plane, elevator flaps


fittings

are worked

braces figured on, and the connections

and wiring of the control calculated.

After

these have been

all

whatever
This has to be carefully done for the
of steel tubing, braced with welded
steel diagonals, rendering the wihole incapable of being altered
after once built.
up, the engine section is laid out so as to take

it is

desired to use.

made

In the order that these drawings are finished, they are traced
and blue-prints made up which are then sent to the factory and
work commenced on the various parts so that they will be ready
for assembly by the time the complete layout drawings are finished. After all the large layout drawings have been completed,
a large assembly drawing is made of the hull and machine, and
these are furnished to the boat foreman and aeroplane foreman,
whose duty it is to see that the parts are assembled properly.
During all the stages of construction and particularly during
the assembly of the machines, the chief designers superintend
the work and see that everything is carried out as specified.
In constructing the hull, first a frame is built up on the floor
of the boat room, and then the keel is laid from stem to stern.
.A.fter this has been put in place, the rib forms are set up, and
joined together top and bottom With longitudinal side strips.
Battens are next fastened along the sides and top to stiffen the
whole and serve as supports for the planking. After the complete frames have been assembled and joined together, the bulkheads are put in place; then the whole frame is painted with a
w-aterproofing solution and the hull is ready for planking.

The

hull planking of the

Sloane boats rnarks a great advance

Just two wide strips of mahogany


planking are used on the top and sides, and these run the whole
length of the frame. This effectively joins the framework toin

flying-boat

building.

and stiffens the whole hull in a remarkable manner.


After the sides and top have heen planked, the hull is turned upside down, and the planing surface planked.
As the bottom is
gether,

rounded
is

on a very large drawing board, the correct lines being


carefully worked out to insure the proper action of the boat,
both in the water and in the air. This large drawing is of sufficient size to accurately furnish the figures on the boat frames,
and all details of its construction.
laid out

may

HENRY WILLIAMS

engine supports are

at a glance

this idea in

the entire circuit.

flies

flying-'boat.

me

With

Exposition, precedence will naturally be accorded to the contest-

ant

out, the elevator

thing that impressed

a pro-

machine across the Atlantic ocean by steamer if he so desires


instead of flying across, but under certain penalties, the chief
penalty being, of course, that in case any aviator flies across
the Atlantic and finishes the race before the closing of the

the invitation of John Eyre Sloane and


accompanied by Walter H. Phipps, I was
recently shown about the Sloane aeroplane
factory at 933 Steinway Avenue, Long Island
City, and was very much impressed at the
activity shown and the methods employed
there in the construction of the new Sloane

the light hull, and the confidence

down

be able to draw

prize,

the rules will be arranged so that any contestant

AN OUTLINE HOW A FLYING BOAT


By

still

amount of the grand

provided only that they


finish at the Exposition grounds by Dec. 4th, 1915, which is the
They will simply be penalized
closing day of the Exposition.
for each day consumed over the 120 day time limit.
The prize of $150,000, deposited in the New York City National
Bank by the Panama-Pacific International Exposition has been
put up to be won. The Exposition never wants to see the money
again. If the original conditions are too severe to admit of any
of the contestants winning the big prizes, they will be changed
portionate

First,

off

V-shape, the planking

single

layer

of

planking

is

done vnth narrow

is

laid

on,

this

is

strips.

covered

with Jeffrey's marine glue and sea-island linen after which an


outer layer of heavy planking is fastened to this.
After the
hood has been planked, the hull is then ready for finishing off,
;

(Continued on page 31S)

J/a_v,

AIRCRAFT

191

ough.

Austria
Dissatisfaction is rife in the Austrian aviation
corps to such an extent that twelve officers have
applied to return to their troops, and several fieldpilots are about to follow their example.

Australia
Nothing has yet been done with the AustraGovernment's machines in the way of flying.
Harrison and Petre are tuning-up one
of the Deperdussins at Alton, Victoria.
A Mr. Jones is occasionally flying at county
towns in South Australia, and Mr. Hart has
once more smashed his machine and has retired

tion,

After
the

flights,

3,000

309

solo flights of 20 minutes' duraaviator took up passengers for several


a height, on on occasion, of

reaching
feet.

A. V. Roe and Co. are carefully considering


the building of a transatlantic flyer in competition for the Daily Mail's prize for such a flight.
The machine is said to be designed for carrying
three men and fly at speed of 70 m. p. h.

lian

Saturday, May 23rd, has been selected as the


date for the Aerial Derby, and, in addition to
the Daily Mail gold cup, 'a casb prize of 400
and a valuable trophy has been presented by the
distributors of "Shell" motor spirit.
The flying brake appeared for the first time,
for repairs.
Mr. Hawker and his Sopwith "tabloid" have on an aeroplane shown at the Aero Show at
Olympia.
It is the outcome of the demand for
Australia,
and
been creating quite a sensation in
slow
speed in making a landing, adding to safety
On his
are showing people what real flying is.
at
Sydney he was accorded almost a and permitting a quick stop. '1 he device is found
arrival
on the .Avro scout biplane.
The brakes consist
royal reception.
of additional flaps at the rear edge of the planes
Costa Rica
adjoining the fuselage.
They are capable of
placed at right angles to the direction -f
being
The fiesta at San Jose, Costa Rica, was a flight in order to reduce speed for landing. The
great event this year because of the long exrange of speed of this machine is reckoned at
pected flight of Manuel Terce, a French avia- thirty-five to one hundred miles per hour,
driven
Terce captured the popular sympathy last by an eighty horse-power monovalve
tor.
Gnome.
October when after one or two short flights he
Messrs.

fell,
breaking his Deperdussin monoplane berepair.
A public subscription in this plight
provided about $4,300 to buy him a new maMeanwhile
chine, which was ordered in France.
the airman was entertained at public expense at
The government
a hotel for several months.
paid the freight charges on the aeroplane.

France

yond

March 2Sth, on the Paul


with 160 h.p. Gnome moand Integral propeller, Garaix made a new
worla's record by taking eight passengers to a
height of 1.550 metres in 44 mins.
The passengers were MM. Labeille, .Andre, Rene, Legros,
Poulain, Renault, and Turon, and, in addition,
the machine carried ISO litres of fuel and 40
litres of oil, so that the total load was 758 kilogs.
The machine landed by a spiral vol plane lasting
10 mins.
ith nine passenA further record, thi
At

Chartres,

Schmitt biplane,

on

fitted

"

tor

Mr. Schmitt has been four years in perfecting his aeroplane, having built his first machine
in 1910, when thirty years old.
The inventor's
earlier productions attracted
little
attention in
France, where there is a multitude of men engaged in the aeroplane industry.
He found that
the government required machines that would
lift
heavy loads to a great height for the use
of the army, and determined to construct a machine that would excel all others in these respects, as well as in safety, the secret of which
he believes he has discovered.
The inventor soon exhausted his means in
this effort and
had recourse to the American
bankers.
Mr. Belmont was favorably impressed
with the designs of the biplane which he saw,
and agreed to furnish money for its completion.
In the new biplane Garaix, beginning at the
end of January, has made six world altitude
records with passengers, at heights of one to
two miles.
The records are those for aviator
and three, four, five, six, seven, eight and nine
passengers, respectively.
The last of these, the
record for pilot and nine passengers, was made
in a flight on March 31 at Chartres, when he
ascended 5,2S0 feet.
With three passengers
Garaix early in March ascended 10,900 feet
The record has since been exceeded by Robert
Thelen for Germany at 12,300 feet.
The peculiar feature of the Schmitt biplane lies
in the ability of the pilot to change the angle
of incidence of the wings or the angle which
they present to the air stream at will. A sprocket
and chain controlled by screw and hand lever
act on the hinged framework of the wings at
the junction fuselage or body, as shown by the
inventor's description of his device, to vary the
angle at which the wings are presented.
Balancing is accomplished with the aid of two unusually wide flaps or ailerons of the Farman
type at the trailing edge of the upper planes
and with a tail plane, the entire surface of
which is depressed or raised as an elevating rudder.
The motor used is a 160 horse-.power

The principal officers of the civil government


and of the army and a military band of one
hundred pieces went to the flying field to see
He
the aviator exhibit in the new monoplane.
He went up
took no chance of breaking it.
about four hundred or five hundred feet, and
two
flights
of
straightaway
three
or
made two
showing no banking, and was gers, was made by Ga
March 31. The
to three miles,
A gold medal was machine was exactly tl
as for the prereceived with wild applause.
Gnome.
presented to him, and he was driven back to ceding record and the passengers carried were
The maximum angle at which the wings can
with flowBrand, Dumez, Garnier, Laisne, Lebaille, be presented
llie city in an open barouche covered
degrees.
.^t this
angle
Central
ilain,
Renault.
The ma- there is said isto twelve
Pelletier,
ers even to the spokes of the wheels.
be an immense surplus lifting
t
of 1,580 metres (4,820
.\merica seems to be a fertile field for the ex- chine attained a
power.
This adjustment would only be used
d came down by a spiral
inbition flyer,
feet) in 59 minu
in rising from the ground or in slackening speed
It
vol

plane

taking

nutes.

'

China
150 litres of fuel and 40 litres of oil, the total
According to a letter received recently by L. load lifted being 833 kilogs.
Wallace of the Christofferson Aviation Co.,
In the presence of an important French miliS.
Tom D. Gunn, who learned both to fly and con- tary commission, M. Bill tested a new armored
In spite
struct aeroplanes in California is now in Hong Farman biplane at Buc on March 27th.
givyear
past
the
spending
after
Kong, China,
of a bad wind, M. Bill climbed to 1,600 ft. in
ing exhibitions in the Hawaiian and Philippine 9 mins. with a useful load of about 620 lbs.
Islands.
It is said that an aviation depot is to be formed
Gunn has recently built a new flying boat and at Guercif, in Alorocco, where petrol and spare
i.n its first test, it is said, to have left the water parts
will be stored for the use of the French
The shed which was erected at
in less than a hundred foot run powered with escadrille.
a 60 H.P. Hall Scott motor.
Merada in 1912 is to be moved to Guercif.
.\t the general meeting of the Aero Club of
England
France, which was presided over by M. Henri
some interesting figures
The first entries for the Daily Mail's prize for Deutsch de la Meurthe,
aviation were produced. Dura flight around Great Britain were received by concerning French
kilometres (8,150,Royal Aero Club from the Sopwith and ing 1913, 13,040,000 recorded
the
2V, times as much
about
flown,
were
miles)
Hawker
000
II.
G.
probabilities,
Avro firms. In all
The total duration
as in the preceding year.
will pilot the former machine.
against
39,000 hours in
as
hours,
At Hendon, F. W. Goodden, on a two-year-old was 133,800
were made as
Caudron, 45 Anzani, made two perfect consecu- 1912; 23,600 cross-country flights
The passengers carried
with 9,100.
J. E. B. compared
tive loops at a height of about 2,000 feet.
Yet the number
12.200.
Thornely, a 17-year-old pilot, looped the loop were 47,900 instead of
certificates has decreased from 489
also at a height of 3,500 feet on a Henri Far- of new pilots'
The output of machines has also deB. C. Hucks still continues to 384.
man, 70 Gnome.
1,!4S (this does not inin
touring England, giving demonstrations of creased from 1,423 to
The
waterplanes built in 1913).
146
looping the loop, flying upside-down and pirouet- elude the
of engines was 2,240 and of proting around on his wing-tips, his latest demon- year's output
The total horse-power of the
being at Eastbourne before a large pellers 14,000.
strations
engines built has increased from 89,000 h.p. to
crowd, and later at Lincoln.
Harold Blackburn on a Blackburn monoplane 228,863 h.p.
incidentally the pilot and designer are not rePAUL SCHMITT'S BACKER.
Park,
flew from Lofthouse
lated to each other
August Belmont has become the financial sup.
Wakefield to Harrogate, carrying Dr. Christie as
porter of Paul Schmitt, whose biplane, of new
a passenger.
,.

,>
Garaix, has won many recent
Mr. Percival, pilot of the English Dunne ma- type, flown by
for France.
chines, made some fine test flights at Farnbor- victories

alight, giving lift at the expense of forward


In a flight on January 31 the Schmitt
biplane with pilot and five passengers made the
ascent of the first 3,000 feet with planes at an
angle of four degrees.
The angle was then
gradually increased to a maximum of nine degrees, at which a record of 7,^S2 feet was made.
Another development of the biplane is its variable speed, enabling it at the end ot a fast flight
to slacken speed and alight in safety.
This is
accomplished in part by throttling down the engine and increasing the angle of the wings,
which are flattened out for fast flying.
The
achievement is designed to meet recent military
requirements, which also find support in the
rules adopted for the next race for the Coupe
Internationale d'Aviation.
In this contest enreduce speed to
trants must show ability to
forty-three miles an hour.

to

movement.

recently,
Maurice Farman, with M.
as passenger, flew three-quarters of an
the dark on the former's large biplane
which, so it is stated, is especially constructed
for night flying, including search lights and a
new arrangement in the landing gear. The start
was made at Buc at 8.30 p. m. from where Ihcy
louy-en-Joscas,
Villacoublay,
flew
over Satlay,
Petit-Bicetre, Chatillon, Claniart, Chalais-Meudon,
Velizy, Logcs-cn-Josas, Haut-Buc. the camp of
Satory where three searchlights were turned on
them finally returning to Buc at 9.15 E. m.,
where thev landed as easily as in the daytime.
M. Deroye. the well-known Blcriot pilot, has
gone to England, where he will fly a large part
of the summer, mostly with the intention of

Quite

Deromc
hour

in

AIRCRAFT

310

May, 1914

putting the military Bleriots through their acceptance trials for the British Army.
On the 17th, last, Garaix, on a Schmitt biplane, 160 Gnome and Integrale propeller, established a new world's record for height at Chartres.
With its load of pilot and seven passengers, the
biplane climbed 1,650 metres in 31 minutes. Altogether, the machine was in the air for exactly
43 minutes, and the landing was effected by a
volplane of 11 minutes' duration.

schek monoplane, the A. E.G. biplane, the Schwade


and Paschen. A number of the pilots, too, are

Three French naval officers, Lieuts. de I'Escaille,


Destrem and Janvier, succeeded on Friday of
week before last in flying across the Mediterranean from St. Raphael to the island of Corsica.
The two former, each on a Nieuport seaplane with 100 Gnome motor and Integrale propeller, set out from St. Raphael and, after reaching Calvi, flew around tne Corsican coast to
Janvier, who was on a biplane, had
Ajaccio.
to land, owing to his petrol supply failing, just
before reaching Calvi, and he was towed into
The
the harbor by the mother ship, "Foudre."

for

the entire trip of 250 kilo, to Ajaccio


hrs. 45 mms.
interesting note was sent out by the French
Minister of War regarding the future motors
for military aeroplanes which shows a preference to the fi.xed type and all manufacturers were
kindly requested to concentrate their efforts to-

time

for

was 2

An

ward

this

type.

Vedrines, the impulsive French airman,


have put his head in the lion's mouth
when he boarded a North German Lloyd liner
on his way from France to Egypt, which, of
It will be rememcourse, is German territory.
bered that Vedrines was sentenced to a year's
imprisonment for flying over German territory
without permission, sometime ago; but, on landing, he was allowed to go unmolested, the Germans evidently not considering the trophy worth
the honor of a cell.
Jules

seemed

to

Chevillard, the Henri Farman pilot,


lot of flying in Egypt, espeHis
the Sphin.x and Pyramids.
favorite tricks are not alone conhned to flying
upside down and looping the loop but diving at
various camel drivers, straighten out about three
inches over their heads and dodge the stones
they throw at him for his painstaking efforts.

M. Emanuel

been doing a

has

cially

around

Germzuiy

TWO LONG FLIGHTS

IN GERMANY.

The

Zeppelin

tioned

at

passenger-airship "Hansa," stawill


be chartered by the
a series of manoeuvring tests.
service
of the
the

Potsdam,

German navy

for

"Sachsen," at present in
Marine Department, leaves

Hamburg in May and


returns to Saxony for its regular passenger work,
and the "Viktoria Luise" is due in Baden-Baden
season.

the

The new flying-boat built by the Albatros works


for the navy was seen for the first time on the
Mueggel Lake, near Berlin, on March 19th. The
machine is a biplane with a 100-h.p. Mercedes
motor, and, operated by Thelen, it achieved a
speed of 100 kms. per hour.^ One of the passengers carried was Corvette-Captain Gygas, commander of the naval aviation station at Putzig.
The City of Hamburg has given 40,000 marks
towards the expe;ises of the Prince Henry Cir-

and 2,500 marks for a prize.


The Gotha airhsip-hangar is undergoing

cuit

ations

to

lengthened

alter-

house the newest airships; it will be


At present Z. II is
by 20 metres.

stationed there, as the military authorities are


tenants of the shed for five years.
During the year 1913 the Deutscher Luftfabrer
Verband has granted 293 pilots' certificates, 114
having been gained on biplanes and 179 on mononote that 29 difplanes.
It is interesting to
ferent makes of machine were employed in the
making of this number of brevets, that Bristols
account for 25 tickets and Wrights for 14, and
that the 27 remaining machines all bear dis-

30th,

hours duration
on monoplanes.

the rate of

140 m.

p.

while

h.

and Bruno Langer


and will compete in

Kuehne

Helmuth Hirth,
formed a syndicate

have

the

the big events of


ordered three Albatros
and a monoplane.
all

They

year.

two

machines,

GERMAN MACHINES FOR TURKEY.


It is stated that the Turkish Government has
placed a large order for military aeroplanes with
the Aviatik firm of Mulhausen, and as soon as
the weather is more favorable, Ingold is to make
an attempt, on one of the machines, to fly from
Germany to Constantinople.

entries for the Prince Henry Circuit (May


include 40 machines, 20 with military and
with civilian pilots.
The military section, all with 100-h.p. 6-cyl.
Mercedes motors, reads; A, Monoplanes. Lieut.
Canter (Rumpler), Capt. V. Detten (Albatros),
Lieut.
(Albatros),
Joly
Hautelmann
Lieut.
((Jotha), Lieut. Kastner (Albatros), Lieut. Ladewig (Rumpler), Lieuts. Pfeifer and Pretzell (both
Lieuts. von Beaulieu,
Albatros).
B, Biplanes.
von Buttlar, Carganico, Schlemmer, von Thuna,
Walz and Wentscher (all L.V.G.), Lieut. Bonde
and Lieut. Von Hiddesen (Albatros), Lieut. Geyer
(Aviatik), Lieut. Emrich (Otto).

The

17-25)

20

Civilians;

Monoplanes. .A.uslinger

A,

Von Arnim

of

C.

Murvin Wood

is

the

chief

(120-h.p.

A.E.G.), Schuler

the

of Roumania takes the keenflying and inspires the offifeats.

Monday

Sweden

India
flying

New

(100-h.p.

(120-h.p.

Freindt

in

more daring

Scaniaschool for the Indian army


Baron Cederstrom has returned to th
two
at
Sitapur was recently inspected by General Vabis" Aircraft Factory, taking with hir
Sir Beauchamp Duff, and pronounced all right new Henri Farmans and three used Hemiri and
after he had been taken for a fliglit by Cap- Maurice Farman biplanes and seaplanes a
tain Massey in a Farman machine.
as a constructor from the Farman factory

The new

Zealand

Turkey

Russia

Kondor),

interest
to yet

M. Hanouille was killed at San Sebastian on


last,
through alleged explosion of his
engine when he was upside down in a looo
The death is likely to weakened
over the sea.
Italy
construction of the old standard much-used H.
This is the
The Farseval from Campalto seems likely to Farman biplane which he used.
be the first tenant of the big dirigible shed first death of a looping aviator.
She took a long practice
just erected at lesi.
trip last week around Venice, remaining in the
Switzerland
air over S hours.
On March 29th, M. Poulet demonstrated at
M. Chevillard has again given exhibition flights
before members of the Italian Royal family, this Berne on a Caudron biplane before a military
The Commission and a crowd of 40,000 persons, looptime at Naples, before the Duke of Aosta.
performance included all M. Chevillard's well- ing on several occasions.
Swiss aviation is distinguished by having the
known specialties, and at the close of the exhibition he made a journey by air to inspect highest percentage of deaths in proportion to the
The death rate
the crater of Vesuvius, whereon a series of number of national aviators.
unique photographs of this object, viewed in a reaches 21 per cent., far in excess of all other
countries.
novel aspect, were obtained.

Ago), Schroeder (100Sommer), V.


Sommer), Sommer
h.p.
Stoeffler (100-h.p. Aviatik), Thelen (75-h.p. Alba-

(100-h.p.

cers

Spam

Co. has engaged


the services of J. W. H. Scotland to make exhibition flights in that country and among the
first of his performances was a flight from Suvercargill to Gore, a distance of about 30 miles in
30 minutes on a 45 h.p. Caudron biplane.

Beck

The Royal family


est

flying.

Stiploschek),
Jeannin), Friedrich (100-h.p. Rumpler), Holig (100Ilansa-Gotha),
h.p. D.F.W.), Krumsiek (100-h.p.
Schlegel
(100-h.p.
Bristol),
(110-h.p.
Paschen
Gotha), Steften (100-h.p. Etrich), Stiefvatter (120"Bulldog" of Prince Siegismund of Prush.p.
Hennig (80-h.p. Schwade),
B, Biplanes.
sia).
Laitsch (100-h.p. L.V.G.), Schanenburg (100-h.p.

Goedecker),

The Bristol escadrille is stationed at Cotroceni,


with a Henri Farman escadrille, which
consists of four new-type military biplanes and
several school machines.
It is said that the military authorities consider that the Bristols and
Farmans fill all the needs of the Roumanian
army, and that purchases will be confined to these
two types.
together

instructor

Several Moisant military monoplanes are now


have being used and more have been ordered by the
Guatemalian government for army purposes.

biplanes

Roumeuiia

M. Dumitru Cernaianu sends some interesting


information as to the arrangement of the Routinctively German names.
manian Flying Corps, which consists largely of
The committee of the D.L.V. which is charged Bristol machines. The Bristols are divided into
with the administration of the National Fund three sections namely, school machines, practice
The school mahas decided to discontinue the payment of tui- machines, and war machines.
tion fees for young men desirous of becoming chines consist of three side-by-side SO-h.p. monoThe practice machines
aviators, and to devote the whole of its avail- planes and a "box-kite."
able funds to the encouragemnt of further im- include 50-h.p. tandem biplanes, and the war machines are si,x tractor biplanes of the latest type.
portant records by German pilots.
The chief of the Bristol escadrille is Captain
Ascending with three passengers on an Albatros biplane, Herr Thelen set up a new world's Popovici, who took his pilot's certificate on SalisThis officer is a most skilful and
height record of 3,700 metres (12,140 ft.), beat- bury Plain.
Within a month of the arrival
ing that held by Garaix with 3,250 metres. energetic pilot.
Thelen intends to attack all the passenger alti- of the first Bristol in Roumania, Captain Popovici flew a distance of 3,100 miles across countude records now standing in Garaix' name.
hrs.
flew
for
8
He gives the
try, making Bucharest his centre.
On March 27th Herr Hennig
10 mins. on a Schwade biplane fitted with a highest praise to the Bristol machines.
Stahlherz rotary motor, the flight being terThe patriotic Roumanians also look on Bristol
minated by heavy rain.
machines with favor, as M. Coanda, the designer,
is a Roumaiiian.

two flights of about twelve


were accomplished in Germany
Krumsiek left Dresden at 5.30
Guatemala
a.
m., and made his first stop at 5.32 p. m.
Great activity in aviation prevails in army
having been in the air for 12 hours 2 minutes,
The
while Tersen, who started from Neumuenster circles in Guatemala at the present^ time.
at 7 a. m., concluded a flight of UMi hours at president of the Republic, Strada Cabrera, is a
staunch aviation enthusiast and is determined to
Joharnisthal at 6.30 p. m.
keep his army up to the very highest point of
efiiciency by the installation of an up-to-date air
Ernst Stoefiler, brother of the world's record fleet.
holder, recently flew from Mulhouse to Frieburg
Captain Dante Nannini, who learned to fly at
back.
his
wind
at
strong
in 14 minutes with a
the Moisant School at Hempstead Plains, is in
He delivered an Aviatik biplane and set up a charge
of the Guatemala army aviation corps,
new speed record, having made the distance at

On March

bulk of the remainder will be distributed among


the
Farman, Morane, Deperdussin and Voisin
firms in France, but two Rumplers will be ordered in Germanv and two Sopwiths in England.
The airships will include one Clement-Bayard,
one .\stra, and one by the Igor works in Russia.
Some remarkable flying in the order of quick
rising was recently accomplished by Gaber-Vlinsky on a Farman biplane at St. Petersburg.
Carrying Capt. Sliabsky as passenger, the total
weiglit carried being Z27 kilogs., the machine in
2 mins. climbed 500 metres; in 4^! mins., 1,000
metres; in 714 mins., 1,500 metres, while in 35
mins. the height was about 3,000 metres.
A
descent then had to be made owing to the carburetor freezing.
The Russian Government paid $50,000 each
for the two mammoth Sikorsky biplanes it recently purchased.
The National Aerial League is arranging, in
conjunction with the Russian Aero Club, a transSiberian flight from St. Petersburg to Peking,
a distance of 9,000 kilometres (5,600 miles). The
The Rusdate of the flight is fixed for June.
sian club is to provide stores of gasoline at fifteen points, including Moscow, Samara, Omsk,
Tomsk, Irkutsk, Harbin, Mukden and Taku. This
covers a large part of the route of the proposed aeroplane race around the world which is
being arranged by the Panama-Pacific Exposition
managers for next year.

The New Zealand Aviation

Mr.
flying

J.

J.

Hammond

is

on the Government

(140-h.p.

also doing some


S. C. S. Bleriot.

A monument to
who have recently

the

Turkish

lost

their

military pilots
in Syria is

lives

Constantinople.
who flew for the

be erected at

to

Turks in the
War, is having difficulty in collectRepresentations are being made
money.
the Turkish Government in the matter.

M.

Letort,

Bulgarian

good ing
to

his

Venezuela

(SO-h.p.

announced from St. Petersburg


Russian Government has drawn up a
It

is

that

the

scheme
Weyl (140-h.p. Otto).
Barring two Gnomes, both in the Sommer bi- which calls for the provision of no less than
all
the motors are German; two other 330 aeroplanes and three airships, all to be
Of the
rotary motors, however, will compete, the Schwade delivered before the end of this year.
and Oberursel, built on the Gnome system, the aeroplanes 10 are to be of the Sikorsky "Grand"
New types type and 90 others, Sikorsky biplanes and monolast being fitted to Stoffler's machine.
The orders for the
are Prince Siegismund's "Bulldog," the Stiplo- planes of ordinary size.
tros),

planes,

On

April 5th Cecil Peoli, the young American


aviator who learned to fly under the tutulege of
Captain Tom Baldwin, made the first flight from
(!^aracas to La Guayra, across the mountains at
an altitude of about 4,000 feet. Peoli's flight via
the air route was a little over six miles, whereas
the railway running between those two citiea is

i\

vAFT

May, 1914

311

PRACTICAL AEROPLANE DESIGN


By
intention of the writer to
to the practical man, the con
and the experimenter in aero
instruction and design, simple
t clinical, and useful method;
lating the component parts
aeroplane and setting forth
if
arrangement of these com

best

The articles will present in an easily conceiv


able manner the principles of aeroplane design
practically aj-plied, beginning in this issue with
resistance and its calculation.
The subsequent
articles will take up surfaces and their design,
the Eiffel Chart and its uses, disposition of the
surfaces and proportional arrangement, control
areas and balancing the respective parts, and construction materials, which latter will contain wood
tables, metal tables, wire tables, and other miscellaneous information useful to the designer of
aeroplanes.
In preparing these articles, the best authorities
have been consulted and their theories and rules
simplified, modified and, wherein the metric system has been used by them, the English system has
been worked out, thus aiding the designer in the
calculation of his component parts without the
tedious process of reduction being necessary.
All reference to practical examples of aeroplanes

PAUL

J.

PALMER

power required for flight is absorbed by the head sectional area projected at the same speed. If 1, a
resistance and designers should continually bear flat circular plane, or disk, of one foot diameter
in mind the vital aspect of head resistance and be propelled in the direction shown by the arrow
necessity

the

for

its

reduction as far as possible

by the use of rounded bodies and other rehnations


in shape which reduce it to a minimum.
Effect of Head Resistance on Horse-power:
The average 50 horse-power motor will give a
standing thrust of about four hundred pounds with
the average propeller.
At the flying speed this is
reduced to less than half, so, that the thrust per
horse-power in flight does not exceed three or four
pounds, and if the head resistance can be reduced
three or four pounds even, one horse-power could
be saved, and it can be seen from Fig. Ill that at
a speed of fifty miles per hour less than one-half
a square foot of surface is required to produce

with sufficient speed to produce a pressure of 10


pounds, 2, a ball or sphere of the same diameter
would produce a pressure of 1.7 pounds, 3, a
half-sphere would produce 3.2 pounds, 4, a "cup"
or hollow-half-sphere, such as used on an aneometer,
would produce 12.6 pounds, while the
"streamline" body, 5, would produce only 1 pound
pressure, thereby showing the great saving in
power and reduction of head resistance of this

Streamline Forms:

The foregoing

facts

can

stand

considerable thought upon the designer's


showing as they do conclusively the advanand disadvaniages of using Hat, rounded
and
streamline
forms in the entering edge,
a resistance of three pounds. The curves. Figs. Ill
and IV, show the great necessity for the reduction shape, and trailing edges of the exposed comof the head resistance if increased speed is re- ponent parts of the aeroplane.
It has been ascertained by the foremost experiquired, and it can be readily seen that at a speed
of sixty miles per hour the reduction of the head menters that a strut of streamline form will have
resistance by one square foot will save four horse- from 50 to 60 per cent, of the resistance of a
power, and, as stated, due to the rapid reduction non-streamline form strut, and if a proper streamof the propeller thrust with increased speed, the line fuselage is used, enclosing the power equipelimination of head resistance becomes extremely ment and occupants, it will reduce the resistance
from 60 to 85 per cent. This is evidenced by the
important as the speed is increased.
high speeds attainable by the Deperdussin "monoResistance of Various Shaped Bodies: It has
cocque" type of monoplane, the fuselage of which
has been omitted because every designer has his been well established by foremost experimenters is typical streamline form.
own ideas as to the "architectural embellishments" that diff^erently shaped bodies will produce varyRound or Circular Forms: If it is impossible
ing resistances when propelled
air at

of his design, while the underlying aerodynamical


principles used are and must be the same in all
instances if success is desired.

PART

through the
identical speeds.
Fig. I has been prepared showing the effect of the different shapes in common
use upon the air passing by them.

I.

1,

to

Resistance and Its Calculation

shows

the

line

a flat plane projected perpendicular


of flight and its effect upon the air.

This disturbance is the cause of loss of speed and


aeroplane design is the power.
resistance to motion through the air and its calcu2, shows a cylinder and its resultant disturbance.
There are three forms of resistance to be Its effect, however, is not nearly as great as that
lation.
considered:
Head resistance, frictional resistance, of a flat plane surface.
This shape
and drift of the plane or planes. The latter will
3, shows a "fat" streamline body.
causes some disturbance, but much less than that
be discussed under Surface Design.
of a cylindrical body.
This shows
4, shows a "thin" streamline body.
RESISTANCE
practically no disturbing influence upon the air
Head Resistance: The more important of the currents, and also shows the advantage of using a
"length-to-breadth"
ratio.
three forms is the resistance to motion through the large
This shows conclusively that shaped bodies
air of various shaped bodies, and is caused by
these bodies being forced through the air at dif- should be used as much as possible.
Fig. II shows a comparison in pounds pressure
fer
Reducing Head Resistance: Practically all the produced by various shapes of the same face or

The

first

of

principle

HEAD

5H0R

STREftMLWt

Fit I /^iRCliflflENTS

LONQ

STFlFAPH.INt

AROUNP^OO/K

"^

part,

iciKcs

or difficult to secure or retain the streamline form,


the next best must be used.
Round or circular
forms reduce the head resistance greatly but not
as much as the streamline form.
Every exposed
part of a plane should be rounded off to reduce
the head resistance if streamlining is unobtainable.

CALCULATION OF HEAD RESISTANCE


Resistance Per Square Foot: For convenience
and rapidity in calculating head resistance in
pounds per square foot at varying speeds, the
curvCj Fig. Ill has been prepared. It is based on
experiments with square surfaces, one square foot
in area and projected perpendicular to the line of
flight at different speeds in miles per hour.
In
using the curve for square areas containing more
than one square foot, multiply the result for one
square foot at the speed desired by the total area
of the square surface under calculation.
If the
area is a fraction of a square foot, multiply ac'
cordingly.

AIRCRAFT

312
The foregoing aponly to square surfaces, as it has been demthat any given area will have less resistlength-toif the
and
form,
square
ance when of
breadth" ratio, or "aspect ratio' is altered, the
resistance is increased to as much as 48 per cent.
forming
of the resistance of the same area when
In order to facilitate calculation. Fig.
a square.
IV has been prepared. In using this curve, the
for a
first
calculated
be
must
resistance
head
square plate of the same area from Fig. Ill and
percentage
the result multiplied by the increased
shown for the "aspect ratio" of the surface under
consideration.
Since shaped
Resistance of Various Shapes:
bodies produce less resistance than a flat surface
Fig.
of the same sectional area and aspect ratio.
to be
V has been made showing the percentage
taken of the resistance of a flat plane of the
same sectional dimensions as the shaped body, and
K.
constant
is based upon Eiffel's values of the
In calculating the resistance of a certain shape,
the resistance for a square flat surface must be
inpercentage
computed, then the aspect ratio
crease, and finally the result multiplied by the
percentage shown for the shape of the body being

levers

Effect of Aspect Ratio:

Tubing and Circular Rods:


made to enable the designer
the resistance

to

tubes,

circular

of

3.

50

that these parts will lie in the line of normal


flight, and not at a negative angle thereto, as
the downward reaction will use up useful
All such parts, such as outriggers,
power.
and the like, should be so arranged that they
will either counteract the reactions produced
by each other, or exert a lift.
Last,

V.

but

not

more speed; more

least:
speed, less

Less
fuel;

infini-

M.

7/12 of

5.

Aspect

8.

in

per hour:

3.

per cent, of 14.8 :: 15.24 pounds.


Since the resistance of a honeycomb
radiator is one-half that of a solid surface of
of 15.24 :: 7.12 pounds
the same area,
resistance of honeycomb radiator at 50 M.
6.

H.
Calculate

resistance

the

a streamline
inches wide at a

of

Sectional area of strut:

1.

in.

1%

::

82.5

sq.

in.

66

of

ft.

at

strut

Since streamline form

is

::

about 60 per

in.

x 1.25

Calculate the resistance of a tube 2 inches


3 feet long at a speed of 50 miles
1.

From

Fig.

inches diameter
pounds.

VI

the resistance of a tube 2


1 foot long equals .95

and

.95 x' 3 feet


2.85 pounds resistance
2.
of tube 2 inches diameter and 3 feet long at
50 miles per hour.
: :

4.

surface.
103
5.

2.

sq.

4.37 pounds.

::

diameter and

Surface area: 2 sq. ft.


1.
From Fig. Ill resistance of 2 sq. ft.
2.
equals 14.8 pounds for a square area.
Aspect ratio of radiator is 1:2.
3.
From Fig. IV the percentage increase
4.
surface
of
1:2
aspect
resistance
of
a
ratio is 103 per cent, of that of a square

strut 5 feet 6 inches long by


speed of 50 miles per hour.

7.5

Calculate the head resistance of a honeycomb


1.
radiator, 12 x 24 inches at a speed of 50 miles per

P.

P. H. equals 7.5 pounds.

4.

hour.

compute readily
struts and

foot, approxi-

7/12 square

cent, of the resistance of flat surface: 60 per


3.87 pounds, resistance of
cent, of 6.46
strut at 50 miles per hour.

RESISTANCE EXAMPLES

rods,

::

Fig. Ill, resistance of

6.
From Fig. IV a surface of 1:50 ratio
148 per cent, of square surface resistance.
7.
148 per cent, of 4.37 :: 6.46 pounds.

resistance,

ad

82.5 sq. in.

From

or 1: 50.

tem.

has been

non-stranded wire up to two inches in diameter,


and for speeds ranging from 20 to 80 miles per
hour and is for each foot of length; i.e., a 2 foot
resistance as a
2 inch tube having twice as much
one foot piece.
a
It has been thought by many that
Wire:
than
vibrating wire sets up much more resistance
ascertained
a wire not vibrating, but it has been
ditterno
practically
is
there
by experiments that
ence in the resistance, and if the vibration is conincrease
fined to reasonable limits, the percentage
will not be over three per cent.
In the
Cable:
Non-stranded
Stranded and

2.

mately.

near as possible a streamline form.


IV. In designing, special attention should
be paid to arranging the structural parts so

of

VI

Fig.

seats should be arranged in such a


in relative position as to obtain as

manner and

plies

strated

used.

and

May, 19 1

Calculate the frictional resistance of control

planes totaling in area about 60 square feet at a


speed of 60 miles per hour:
Since the area of both sides must be
1.
calculated, doubling 60 sq. ft., 120 sq. ft. is
the amount of surface to be calculated.
From Fig. VII, the frictional resistance
2.
of one sq. ft. at 60 M. P. H. equals .031
pounds.
120 X .031 :: 3.72 pounds the frictional
3.
resistance of 60 square feet at a speed of 60
M. P. H.

calculation of the resistance of smooth wire. Fig.


VI can be used. If stranded cable is used, the
resistance is increased by about 11 per cent.
Honeycomb Radiators: The resistance of a
honeycomb radiator is about 50 per cent, of that oi
aspecl
a flat plane surface of the same area and
ratio.

Perforated

have been
has been ascer-

Experiments

Plates:

made on perforated

plates

and

it

a-ea can
tained that almost 10 per cent, of the
total
be removed by holes without affecting the
Even when as much as 40 per cent
air pressure.
per cent, of
is cut away, the pressure is nearly 90
As the perforations are inthe initial pressure.
creased in number up to 90 per cent, of the plate
the
area, the total pressure is 12 per cent, of
than that made by
i-iitial, which is slightly greater
The theory is
the area of the remaining surface.
backthat the dead air on the back side acts as a
behall
ing to the plate and receives on its own
more
a certain limited momentum and that the
numerous the perforations, the quicker the dead
air

is

removed.

circular strut of one inch


Circular Struts:
section or diameter has a resistance of about 40
pounds per 100 feet run at 40 miles per hour.
Resistance of circular struts i:p to 2 inches diameter
can be calculated from Fig. VI.
Streamline Struts: A fair shaped strut will
have a resistance of about one-sixth that of a circular strut of the same face section, or 60 per cent,
of the resistance of a flat surface of the same
face section projected through the air.
streamline
Fair
Proportions:
Streamline
struts as a rule do not exceed three diameters in
their for'n'aft length.

FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE
In calculating the total resistance of the component parts of the aeroplane, the struts, wires
and frictional resistance of the planes, discussed
heretofore, the frictional resistance of these parts
are included in the methods of calculation and
need not be calculated, and it is only necessary to
figure the frictional resistance of such areas as
the rudders, elevating planes, tail planes, fuselage
covering, ailerons and such fins and keels as used.
The frictional resistance of the air is proportional to the surface and increases about three and
At high
a half times by doubling the speed.
speeds, frictional resistance becomes of greater
import, and must be calculated and added to the
head resistance of the machine as a whole.

To

Pe

Ca

able the calculation of the frictional resistance an


easy matter. Fig. VII has been made, and shows
the frictional resistance per square foot of area
In computing the area of the
at various speeds.
surface for calculation of the frictional resistance,
For
the total area of both sides must be taken.
areas greater than one square foot, multiply the
result for one square foot at the desired speed by
the total area of the surface under calculation.

SUMMARY
iistance,

the

All struts, spars and bracing exposed to


the air in flight should be made streamline
form as near as practicable.
I.

II.

Every

exposed

rectangular

member

should have rounded edges.


III.

All

seats,

power plant

parts,

control

photographs from the Illustrated London News give a good idea of how the wines
S,^
'^^.P"^
of
Short Sea-plane are folded back close to the body so that when in its hangar, it
occupies onlv
about one-quarter of the space it would require without folded wings. This point
is, of course, particularly valuable
that it makes it very convenient for a battleship to carry a sea-plane
as
part
of her equipment, or, for that matter, several of them.
It must be understood that the wings
can
be folded in less than a minute, ^yhlle the sea-plane is floating on the water.
This machine flies over
/u miles per hour with hve hours fuel supply, carrying pilot, passenger and
wireless installation.
,

the

May,

AIRCRAFT

I pi 4

313

THE NEW "SHORT" SEAPLANE


By
\UE

Short Brothers, who for sometime


the past have been turning out
creditable aeroplanes for the British
Admiralty, again come to the front
by evolving loldable wings on their
latest tractor.
At Eastchurch, Isle of
Sheppey,
this
machine
was
put
through some severe tests and found satisfactory
in every way, the patented folding joints in no
way weakening the admirable construction for
which this firm is noted.
in

As may be seen by the drawings opposite, the


fuselage is long, wide and relatively shallow in
depth, is rectangular in section and built with
ash longitudinals and spruce struts.
U bolts are
employed to fasten the struts in place and carry
The 14 cylinder Gnome motor
the guy wiring.
steel
is mounted on
housings within the fuselage
and completely covered by an aluminum housing
which extends back some distance along the fuselage, cockpits being cut in
for passenger and

WALTER

Gordon

unusually

steady

is

namic quality for

The

HOUSE

machine of such speed,

bility for a
to Mr.

nig

A.

a
floats are of

but, accordBell, the pilot, the machine


and possesses great aerodyseaplane.
wood, the bottoms being reinand are divided into numer-

forced with metal,


ous airtight compartments.
Each compartment
has a drain tube, all of which are brought to
a single valve-box from which the whole float
may be blown dry. This box is also fitted with
pressure release valves to release the float from
the effects of reduction of atmospheric pressure
at high altitudes.
The floats are not stepped, set
well forward and a fair-sized tail-float is fitted
for support when at rest, this float being equipped with a small rudder which, so far as the
writer was able to ascertain, served for very
little
use since the machine assumed a normal

when running over the water in


hundred feet.
machine is fitted with slings and rings
and lowering aboard ship.
Profor the equipment of a wireoutfit weighing 120 pounds and an aerial.
machines supplied to the Admiralty are so

flying angle
less than a

Each

for the raising


vision IS made
less

All

fitted.

The general dimensions of the machine are


Span, top plane, 56 feet; bottom plane, 40 feet
chord, 6 feet; gap, 6 feet; total area, 550 sq. ft.
length overall,
39
feet;
weight,
empty, 2,000
pounds; useful load, pilot and pa.ssenger, 320
pounds; fuel and oil, 600 pounds; wireless, 120
pounds; total, 1,040 [lounds; 160 Gnome, 14 cylinders; fuel capacity, 65 gallons 5 hours' flight; oil
capacity, 15 gallons; speed, 78 m. p. h.; climbing
speed, 600 to 1,000 feet per minute.

pilot.

Over the motor

is fitted a blunt cowl of sheet


which is attached the nine foot proto
Air-holes are cut in the top of the shield
cooling purposes and directly behind these
fitted the stream-liiied pipe which carries olf

metal

peller.

for
is

the

exhaust gases.

At the rear of the fuselage is the empennage,


consisting of a large cambered fixed tail-plane, to
A
which are hinged the divided elevator-tlaps.
vertical fin was removed from the machine being
described since the rudder was of such generous
The
dimensions that it was found unnecessary.
rudder is hinged to the tapered point of the
fuselage and further braced by a steel rod extending from its top to the entering edge of the
This type of rudder is characteristic
tail-plane.
of all Short products.
Built into the fuselage behind the motor is
the center cellule to which the main wing strucTliis consists of the ordinary
ture is attached.
short top section of wing, mounted on four steel
tube struts; but the bottom rectangle of the
structure, instead of being within and part of
the fuselage, is beneath it, and consists of a
pair of heavy steel tubes in line with tlie front
and rear spars of the bottom planes, joined neat
sides of the fuselage by a couple of ligliter steel
tubes.
The corners of this rectangle of steel
tubes are immediately beneath the struts from
the top plane section and are jointed to them
with substantial steel clips.

The cross-tube, which corresponds with the


rear spars, ends in a sliort snout of steel. This
snout fits into the end of a long steel box w'hich
fits over the end of the bottom rear spar of an
outer wing section, and is attached through a
The face of the steel box
large steel eye-bolt.
which would normally lie against the side of the
cut away and the joint becomes a
rear spar of the top plane is simithe spar of the center section carrying the snout. Thus, the junctions of the rear
spars of the outer section form pairs of hinges.
The front spars of the outer wing sections arc
also fittetl with long steel boxes which terminate
with steel pins about 1% inch diameter by 4 inches
long.
When the wings are in flying position these
pins enter the front cross-tube referred to above
in the case of the bottom and the steel tube from
spar of the center top section in the case of the
top and are held in place by a heavy locking-pin
about \^i inch in diameter which passes through
In addition, each
both members of the joint.
wing is held from folding back by heavy drift
fuselage
hinge.

larly

is

The

fitted,

wires.

Means for winding back the wings from the


passenger's seats are provided and, although hard
to describe accurately and clearly, the whole operation is extremely simple, the process being
executed by simply removing four pins and deThe adtaching the stay wires from the floats.
vantage of being able to reduce the spread of a
56 foot machine to an overall width of nine feet
dwell
upon.
is too obvious to
The wings themselves are built on spruce
spars, channelled in the case of the front ones
The ribs are latticeand solid in the rear.
work of spruce, those acting as compression struts
against the internal drift wiring being a boxgirder with solid tops ami bottoms and latticed
sides.
The leading edge is of spruce and a wire
The interplane struts
serves for "the trailing edge.
are of oval steel tubes pinned into sockets.
Through the tube and the baseplate of the socket
at these
strengthened
is
and the spar, which
points, passes a steel U bolt which has a pair
of nuts screwed down on the baseplate of the
socket and is pulled up and locked by two set
of double nuts against a washer-plate on thi
To these U bolts "
far side of the spar.
All the lift
..bed.
nd caul E doubled, and one gaththi;
nd othe ir points in constructi<
drift
used for
cable
that simil;
bracing.
The top planes are of a greater span tl
nnbalthe
hinged
lower ones and to these are
anced

At first appearance the writei


ailerons.
to believe that these would prove made
at least too heavy for practical sta

was led
quate

or

Sfi9RT
wiTn

F^LDinc,

winqs-

^'^-

AIRCRAFT

314

THE FIFTH AERO SHOW OF GREAT BRITAIN


By

WALTER

HOUSE
rogue.

HAT

was, without a doubt, one of the


greatest and most interesting exhibitions of aeroplanes, motors and parts
in England and the world for that
matter was the Fifth Aero Show
held under the auspices of the Royal
Aero Club bv the Society of Motor
Upjfacturers and Traders in the Olympia.
to-date construction and a general neatness of design were conspicuous features and proved obas
ranked
viously enough that England must be
one of the foremost countries of the world for
turning out practical and efficient aeroplanes.
His Majesty, King George V, paid a visit lo
the Show, looked around, said the display was
good and then departed while the press played up
the incident in flaring headlines rather than the
occasion for which the visit was courteously exAfter the King's departure, everybody
tended.
connected with the Exhibition ate crackers and
drank tea, smoked, talked, cracked English jokes
and cut up in a perfectly scandalous manner.
After all this, the Show formally opened and the
public watched and listened with an awe-inspiring
gaze, the general prattle of each exhibitor claiming
that his goods were the best in the Show and that

A.

Fifth

Ae

(Contributing Editor)

May, 1914

AIRCRAFT

May, 191

.;

vliich

can be

.n:

3 The "Fh

__ Oljmpia Aero Show, .^


ng Torpedo", a cigar shaped water pi

not quite so deep as

before.

Perry, Beadle & Co.


firm exhibited a business-like flying-boat
that is double-propeller chain-driven along tractor
lines.
The motor and pilot's seat are located within
the boat-shaped hull and the propeller axles are
streamlined back to the rear struts. The hull, fins,
rudder, elevators and lower planes are entirely of
wood, copper sewn on the Saunder's patent system.
In the bracing construction the only thing
that makes one anxious is whether the strainers
themselves are capable of standing as great a
load as the cables.
Altogether, though, the boat
is a fine example of workmanship.
A. V. Roe it Co.
The chief attraction at this stand was the Avro
"Scout" with swept back wings for inherent stability and equipped with "Air-brakes," a sketch of
These brakes conwhich are shown elsewhere.
sist of two interplane sections that are operated
downward at an extreme angle of incidence and
serve as a check against the air speed when landing.
Only one set of struts are used on either
side of the fuselage and these are carefully
streamlined.
The 80 Gnome is almost entirely
This

with

1
ight:
A Nieuport skimmer;
ry latest thing in flying boats.

"Wight" Sea-plane

At the bow

is

the anchor

ed by a spring.

sembling former models,

covered

315

an aluminum cowl

either side of the fuselage and this, together with


the light guying, gives one the impression that
the machine would not stand very deep spiraling.
A. speed of 100 m. p. h. with passenger is predieted for this little "Scout," and in view of the
minimum amount of head resistance, it seems
conservative to allow such.
Many more machines were exhibited, including
the only British built monoplane, a Blackburn,

two-seater^ which indicated speed and high efficiency; Clement- Bayard; Pemberton Billing Flying-boat which the writer thought more of an experiment than a real flying machine; Hamble
River Seaplane and many motors and accessories.
Taken as a whole, the British Aero Show was
a thorough success and marks another step forward in aeroplane industry.
Only for lack of
space, more would be written about it.

extending back

Ailerons on both planes serve


to the pilot's seat.
for lateral stability and the deep fuselage is streamlined back to the elevators. The Avro tractor Seaplane was also shown, a sketch of its floats and
method of attachment being shown elsewhere.

This machine appeared somewhat heavy for practical flying work but should prove very successful
for water work on account of the solid construction and heavy material,

SOPWITH

The "Bat-boat"

of this firm was

shown

for the

time and attracted much attention. This conof a long skiff-like hydroplane with the planes
mounted some distance above. Lateral control is
by ailerons and the upper plane has a greater span
than the lower ones, the latter having a pronounc
dihedral angle which allows them to clear t
water even while the boat is pitching and rolling
heavily.
The planes are staggered forward and
form a fine solid girder. Salmson 200 H. P.,
compressed-air self-starter, is located high up on
the rear of the center cellule struts, w'
radiator is placed in front.
first

sists

WIGHT

Samuel White and Co. exhibited a most


J.
interesting hydroaeroplane in view of the fact that
double cambered planes and propelit possessed
ler which, according to M. Eiffel, prove highly
efllicient.
The claim of extraordinary lifting po
for this type of wing is surely borne out when
one takes into consideration that the Wight Seaplane totals close to 3,000 pounds, equipped with
a 200 Salmson motor and petrol for five
flight.
The hydroplanes, or pontoons, are nothing,
more or less, than shallow, covered-in, threestepped boats that look like rowboats with the oarlocks removed.
These floats, according to Mr.
Howard Wright, are proving highly successful.
The machine has a spread of 63 feet, chord, top,
6 feet 6 inches, bottom, 5 feet 6 inches.
The 21
foot floats are spaced 12 feet apart, center to
center.

VICKERS
The Vickers firm exhibited the most practical
and business-like appearing machines of the
Show. They consisted of a two-seater tractor and
a nacelled "Gun-bus," with the gunner in front
and the pilot immediately behind. A hood extends
back over the gunner's head when he is
thus obviating all light that might prove detrimental to sighting. In the nose of the nacelle are
two transparent openings which give full vision of
the sights and objects.
This nacelle is steelarmored and gives one a confident feeling that it
can serve the purpose for which it was intended.

The little tractor was especially interesting and


attracted attention and favorable comment throughout the week.
It is of the tandem type, the passenger's seat being located in front and the pilot's
seat behind.
The fuselage is carefully covered in
and streamlined throughout, while the chassis.
double V, is extremely simple and constructed of
Palmer Cord tires and disced wheels are
steel.
used.
The 100 monosoupape Gnome is almost entirely covered, the hood extending as far back as
The planes are stagthe rear of the pilot's seat.
gered sharply and ailerons serve for lateral balance. One notices, too, the single set of struts on

1 Avro

Air-brake.

2 Vickers Gun-plane Xacelle.


3 Bieriot Visibility-type.
4
5

M. Farman Gun-machine Naccll


H. Farman Floats.

Seaplane Floats.

r Blcriot

Hydro Tail-float.
Farman Hydro Nacelle.

-H.
H. Farman Hydro
lOEngine Cowls of Various
S

Tail-float.

the Show.

Types Sc

AIRCRAFT

316

May, 1914

THE PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS


The first steps toward the organization of the
Panama-Pacific International Aeronautical Congress were taken on April 17th, 1914, when meetings of the organization committee and the executive committee were held in the Hotel Mc.Mpin,

New

York.

Alan R. Hawley
Professor .-\. .1. Henry
Professor Hergesell
Professor Daniel VV. Hering
Thomas A. Hill
Dr. W. J. Humphreys
Ernest L. Jones, Secretary
Prof. H. Tunkers

The organization committee was composed of


Hudson Maxim, Inglis M. Uppercu, Thomas A. Arnold Kruckman
Jones.
Hill,

Alfred \V. Lawson, Earnest L.

a resolution passed
following persons be received as members to serve in the official capacity designated
until a meeting which shall be called June 10th,
1914:

The meeting was opened with

that

the

For Executive Committee

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Chairman

Thomas A.

Commandant Paul Renard


M. Riabouchinsky
Ricaldoni
Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, U.S.N.
Lieut.

Matthew

B. Sellers

M. Drzwiecki

Inglis

Henry Woodhouse
Orville Wright

Clifford B. II

Sir

J.

Hammer

W. Lawson
Hudson Maxim
Orville Wright
It was regularly moved, seconded and carried
that the last ten days of August, 1915, be designated as the most desirable time for the holding
of lectures and conventions at the Panama-Pacific
Exposition by the Congress, and that the authorities in charge of said Exposition be appealed to
for providing the necessary accommodations and
facilities for said meetings, conventions and lee-

Dr. Charles D. Walcott

EifJel

Professor Davi
Dr. Henry Ga.
Dr. Armand G
William J. H,

S. Baldwin
Glenn H. Curtiss

Alfred

M. Uppercu

Henry Ford

Thomas

Arnold Kruckman

Ralph H. Upson

Duraiid

Thomas A. Ed

Hill, Vice-Chairman
Ernest L. Jones, Secretary
Louis R. Adams

Wm.

Frederick A. Seiberlin
Professor Theodore Schutte
John E. Sloane
"C. H. Tittman
Prof. W. R. Trowbridge

"

G.

elected:

H. Reissner

Dr. W. R. Blair
Captain W. Irving Chambers
Glenn H. Curtiss
Captain Crocco
nry Deutsche de la iMeurthe
F.

Honorary Vice-Presidents, a Secretary General,


Active Secretary, a Controller General, an
Active Controller, a Board of Governors, an Executive Committee, and Delegates-at-large, and such
other officers and committees as may from time
to time be required, the duties and other particulars regarding which shall be provided for by
amendment to these by-laws when required.
On motion duly made, seconded and carried the
following Board of Governors were unanimously
an

Hudson Maxim

Rene Quinton
M. Rateau
Colonel Samuel Eeber

Professor Cleveland Abbe


Louis R. Adams
Professor Assman
Captain Thomas S. Baldwin
Professor Donat Banki
Alexander Graham Bell
Emile Berliner

1915.

The Panama-Pacific International .\eronautical


Congress shall have an Honorary President, 25

E. Percy Noel
Lord Northcliffe
Dr. Herschel C. Parker
Major Von l^arseval

Active Secretary, Earnest L. Jones.

VV.

Exposition,

Albert A. Merrill
Lieut. T. De Witt Milling

Honorary President, Dr. Charles D. Walcott.


Honorary Vice-President, Thomas A. Hill.
Active Comptroller, Louis R. Adams.

Profes

Charles L. Laurance
Alfred W. Lawson
Professor C. B. Le Page
Charles IM. Manly
Charles F. Marvin

On motion duly made, seconded and earned,


following by-laws were ratified, adopted and
confirmed as and for the by-laws of the congress:
The Panama-Pacific International Aeronautical
Congress shall be organized for the purpose of
co-operating with the bureau of aeronautics of the
Panama-Pacific Exposition for the purpose of arranging conventions, lectures, and various otlier
matters under and subject to the approval of the
said bureau of aeronautics at the Panama-Pacitic

the

Albert Francis Zahm


F. Graf von Zeppelin
Patrick Y. Alexander

Hiram Maxim

UPSIDE-DOWN FLYING CRAZE


The craze

upside-down flying which is so down, has benefited considerably by so doing.


prevalent in France and England is beginning His conhdence has increased enormously, and
Two even those pilots who have only seen others do
to take hold of the aviators in this country.
prominent aviators, Lincoln Beachy and Cliarles it must benefit. Surely it is nice to know that a
are the first to give exhibitions in the machine can be wantonly turned over and righted
F. Niles
United States, Beachy flying a Tractor biplane, again. I can remember, not so very long ago, before the looping era, that a very bad gust of wind
and Niles a Moisant monoplane.
Beachy recently made a trip to Europe and struck my machine, which sent the planes up verreturned with a new 80 h
monosouppape tically.
I
thought something very serious was
p.
gnome motor which he has installed in a new going to happen, but the machine recovered somewhat quicker than I did myself.
There is no
Tractor biplane of his own design.
managers
Niles
are
The
for both Beachy and
doubt that the same thing occurring to-day would
kept busy these days, booking upside-down and not be nearly so disconcerting, because one knows
loop-tlTe-loop flights in all parts of this country that it is possible to recover (if there is altitude
for the summer season.
enough) from any conceivable position the machine
Many other prominent aviators are also con- may be thrown into.
sidering doing this sort of work.
"Then again, it will bring about a general
Machines are being strengthened to withstand strengthening of machines, because a machine
the new strain which inverted flying places upon which has successfully looped a number of times
them, particularly on the wings and tall.
has surely proved itself strong enough to withAeroplanes of special design have been pro- stand the strains of ordinary flying.
Gustav Tweer, a British
duced for the work.
SAFETY IN ALTITUDE.
pilot,
has been making trial flights in a mono"The whole secret of the safety of this freak
plane with which he expects not only to fly upside
down but to achieve the new feat of landing in flying lies in the fact of allowing sufficient altian inverted position. This is to be accompanied tude in which to recover from any precarious
One chassis position the machine may assume. I have found
with the aid of double landing gear.
occupies the usual place below the machine, the out that there is no position that the machine can
other in the reverse position above it.
be put into from which it cannot easily be brought
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE ACTS.
back to the normal again, provided, as I say, that
Straps are used to hold pilot and passenger in there is suflicient altitude allowed in which to
Wal- effect the recovery. This one point alone, when
place during these flights, head downward.
ter L. Brock, of Chicago, wbo has been flying at clearly grasped, adds enormously to that most
Hendon, England, with many others who have valuable of qualities which a pilot can possess,
taken up the feat, says, however, that centrifugal confidence.
force chains the pilot to his place while making a
"There is nothing extraordinary required in
loop.
The straps are regarded as a necessary the piloting of the machine. I find it does pracprecaution owing to occasional sudden jerks or tically everything you set it to do in the way of
bumps.
tumbling about in the air. One golden rule which
According to the view of B. C. Hucks, one of I had thoroughly drilled into me by Mr. Louis
the most expert British aviators, as quoted from a Bleriot, when practising for the looping at Buc,
paper read before the British Aeronautical Soci- was to use the controls 'doucement,' i. e., gently,
"There is not the slightest doubt that every as one can easily see that a sudden jerk on, say,
ety:
pilot who has looped the loop, or flown upside the elevator, would tiirow an enormous strain on
for

NEWS
Another Moisant Machine for the Mexicans
On Tuesday, April 21st, at Hempstead Plains
one of the latest Moisant military
monoplanes with an SO h. p. motor, was given
its official test by Aviator
Chas. F. Niles, who
reached a height of 11,000 feet as shown by the
baragraph, although the conditions were that the
machine was to be able to rise 8,000 feet, so that
Aviation

field,

there are 3,000 feet to spare in the test.


William A. Staats, representing General Carranza, the head of the Constitutional forces in
Mexico, accepted the machine officially, and after
making a trip with Harold Kantner, the designer
of the machine, expressed himself as being immensely pleased with it, and stated that there is
no doubt but that Americans can turn out mono-

E.

made

have at present made

tendency always to assume its normal position.


"The machine cannot be made to climb when
inverted, although the engine may be turning full
There is, in fact, very little support in the
speed.
If one tries to
wings when the wrong way up.
keep even the same level, with engine full on,

machine will stall and


normal position again.
the

"The only way


in
an inverted

find

sideslip

my machine

round

to

its

can be kept

for
any period (my
position
longest timed inverted flight so far is two minutes
five seconds, and even that seems quite a long
time to be hanging head downward) is by allowThe
ing it to plane downward the whole time.
control w^hen hanging head downwards is not so
confusing as might be expected, because the pilot
still
bears the same relative position to his maNeedless to say, one has to be very
chine.
securely strapped in for these evolutions, as
otherwise one would certainly fall out."

HENRY

planes equally as good, if not better, than Eurc


pean manufacturing concerns.
This is the second machine that the Carranz.
Government has purchased from the Moisant Com

pany and about the seventh machine that the Moi


sant Company have sent to Mexico during th
past.
Furthermore, there have been about a dozei
Mexican army officers who have been trained in
the art of flying at the Moisant School of Aviation,
at
Hempstead Plains, who are now in
Mexico doing service with either the Federal or

located

"The machine on which

several hundred loops has a far wider range of


control than a standard machine.
The wing warping is nearly four times as effective, and the tail
elevator is considerably larger.
The result is that
For
the machine readily answers to the control.
instance, when doing a perpendicular nose dive,
the machine responds immediately to the elevator
and flattens out without the slightest hesitation,
a point of the greatest importance.
The same
thing happens with the warping.
The machine
can be banked up so that the wings are perpendicular by simply turning rather sharply, and
warping at the same time.
"The machine is fairly easily got into the inverted position, but it is very noticeable how unstable it is when in that position.
It requires extreme care in balancing it, as it were, because the
moment it is allowed to get only slightly out of
the level it will sideslip and turn the right way
This, after all, is only what would be exup.
pected, as it shows its natural stability, and its

GENERAL

IN
By M.

the fuselage, whereas if that movement were


'doucement,' the strain would be negligible.

imer, J. J. Clark. O. Robbins, Allan Hawley and


iny other well-known aeronautical celebrities.

and Puget Sound News


By Paul J. Palmer

Seattle

V. MARTIN has
returned to Seattle from San FranPlans unannounced.
George Takasow, the Japanese airman, received instructions from his
Government to take charge of the

APTAIN JAMES
cisco.

army aviation school.


He and his
witnessed the performance machine have gone on the Aki Maru.
Will tour
were Douglas Houghton, Alfred J. MoTsant, C. D. Japan on Exhibition work for ninety days, and
Peloggio, Captain Thomas Baldwin, Arthur Hein- then take up the army work.
rich. Albert Heinrich, Alfred W. Lawson. Harold
It has been announced that Silas Christofferson
Kantner, Wm. A. Staats, C. A. Stiles, F. Eppel- will hydro-aviate here at the Water Carnival in
Constitutional armies.
Among those who

AIRCRAFT

May, 1914
He announces that he will endeavor to
July.
This is a 900
to Seattle from San Francisco.
if made, will be a "humdinger."

fly

mile trip, and

TO ILWIATE:
"Oh, yes, it is much easier
is one foot from the ground."
"Reawly, y'know. Ah should
?
The othah one would drag so."

Airman:
high than

"?

so.

to

fly

it

?":

tliinli

317
formance of the motor all the way and the lowest
fuel consumption.
It will readily be seen,

order with Leo Stevens for a


type balloon of 75,000 feet capacity, wl
II
be
th(
by the members of the society as so(
ball
season opens.
It
is
rumored that tl:
inter
coming
ibly
the
national balloi
n interview with Dr
affirm or deny the
hldridge he
truth of the
5port.
It is
expected that Mayoi
big bag on May 1st
Blankenburg
11 christen th
meeting 01 the Aero Club ol
At the joi

known

Annual Dinner

institute
26th,

in

the

of

March

Army
lecture,

his

belt
Institute,
Philadelphia,
the evening
-

hall,

Rebe
Col
entertained a large audience
Progress in Military

"Recent

'

support

and

having

been

co-operation

duly
of

attended
the

of

the

participants

the

in

the great

race.

Aviator VVeldon B. Cooke, of Oakland, has recently applied for landing space on or near the
San Franc SCO Ferry Depot to enable him to operate an aeroplane transbay service.
It is reported that Orville Wright has announced
his intention of exhibiting at the Panama-Pacific
Besides his several types of aeroExposition.
planes, he will exhibit his automatic stabilizer.
In making known his intention of exhibiting he
"This is a patriotic occasion and we will
said:
certainly take advantage of it to make a showing
for the sake of aviation."
H. W. Blakely, who recently took a rather
forced bath in San Francisco Bay when the engine of his machine stalled on him, miraculously
escaped death while giving an exhibition flight
He had just ascended
at Santa Rosa, on March 1-1.

from the race track when Silas Christofferson


noticed that one of the machine's planes liad
Signals to come down, with a red flag,
buckled.
promptly made him descend and thereby averted
what would have been surely a fatal accident.
The new 250-foot wooden hangar now under
construction at North Island, San Diego, will soon
be completed and, when finished, will shelter six
machines.
A wooden hangar for a new iiydroaeroplane is also to be built on the beacli near the
ferry landing to replace the tent hangar.
Lieut. Joseph Carbery, winner of the Mackav
Trophy, and regarded as one of North Island's
most skillful aviators, made, not long ago, a
spectacular flight above the San Diego Bay region,
lasting one hour and forty minutes at an average
altitude of 8,700 feet.
Walter Brookins announces his return to the
field by stating that he will establish a passenger
carrying aeroplane service in Southern California
in the near future.

is

and
May.

|jnv Klt,n
Diru
k/IAKKI
tX
J

our budget
Col. Reber's lee-

Society

llSt

Ot dCSCrip

of much shorter duration, and a most im


be
portant point was that military aviators must
" "-'v
trained before war is actually declared
GRAYSLAKE, ILLINOIS
are of but little use.
the
Philadelphia expects to be represented
conlocal
race
^j^^sr^-^-e,
balloon
international
.^the
T.
Arthur
testants,
,inati''o'n"'race_j|.jg^^f>
.
/i,fH.^.
Sharpless can win out in
t 11

balloon
A
4th.
ordered liy the navy.
that starts from St. Louis, July
ana as
of 80 000 feet capacity will be used
expe
Atherholt is a balloonist of manj; years
Balloon
Increase
Prizes
ence and has acted as pilot
xpected that
international races, it
eral
Oflic
s of the Aero Club of America are c
here is a pc
good showing will be made,
prospects for spherical ballooning
enten
(ill
be
balloo
that a second
sibility
year
th nearly $10,000 in prizes offered
piloted py i^iarence i
events in this country.
in the elimination race
These include the nterWynne, president of the Aero Club of Pennsyl national contest at Kansas City in October
which
awards will amount to $7,200; the nathe
world's
Pbi'ladelnhia is much interested in the
tional race at St. Louis July 4, for which the
and it it possTble to se a_fund^of^$50^00 prizes amount to $1,000, besides $150 allowed each
controls,
,,
,,= ^.., ... made one of the
any great contestant for expenses, and the balloon race at the
to
distance would not be increased
Rose Festival, Portland, Ore., June 1, with $1,000
the route
in
extent by including Philadelphia
offered to the winners and $200 added for expenses
It is proposed
nrev?ous to flying to New York.
of each of the participants.
and equiphat $35,000 be spent on aeroplanes
divided

ment and that the remaining $15,000 be


1
-r
nV ri7e monev among the first three aviators Favors Long Trial for T) tns-Atlantic Machine

flict

J^pjDARD CORRESPONDENCE CLUB

^^

^2%^^

to

reach

the

Proposed

:ity.

New York-Bermuda Race


organize

Robert H. Sexton is endeavoring to


aeroplane race between Nevv Y ork and
usual enthusiasm reports
dth

versea
that

prospect:

xceedingly bright for

its

suc-

Sexton went to Bermuda recently and fo.,..^


news of the proposed contest had P^refeped
by Willi
He was met on his ar
Gosling,
Arthur Bluck, Mayor of H; nilton; F. J.connected
others
Assistant Colonial Secretary and
of the colony,
with the Trade Developmen Board

"mV.
that

'

him.

strongly in favor of

Mr. Sexton said.


meeting was immediately held,

attended

by

of Bermuda
M. Dill, president of the Committee Royal
T
Yacht
A1..1,.. representatives
,,oct, fives of
nf the Bermuda Roy
Clubs-

Club and other important

At

interests.

th

which it was
ing it was said that of the $25,000
considerable amount
delired to raise for prizes a
named to
was already available. A committee was
It is prosuccess.
a
aid in making the project
from New York and to end tl|e race
posed to start
at Hamilton.

Thomas De Witt Milling, of the


Llnited States Army avia ion corps, who as an
aeroplane pilot has made leveral notable records,
returned recently to this country from Europe,
iug the progwhere he spent
Lieutenant

Then

after

meet

at

Hamilton,

island, it is
which may include a race around the
Late
Atlantic City.
considerable interest among those aeronautically proposed
.,
nrnnosed to return by way of ---inclined and it is hoped that the good news is in June or early in July is the time consid.
concerned.
all
to
true and that Bergdoll may this year be a con- most satisfactory
testant.
Havens, who won the water flying
Beck
The fact that Bergdoll's entry has been ac- race 01
he lakes from Chicago to Detroit last
cepted and that he will provide his own ma- summei
d J. A. D. McCurdy are among th
chine before going abroad, may prevent a repeto enter the contest.
xpressed a desi
tition of last year's fiasco when Bergdoll sailed
for France with the idea of purchasing a speedy
the World Race
Around
Says
Wright
Orville
"Dep" but upon his
afte
is Possible
tan
he had secured an
motor.
a suitable Gn
Up
th:.l
Orville Wright expresses the opinion
At the last monthly mee ng of the Aero Club
which the Panama- Pac ,,.
le Bellevue-Stratford. round-the-world flight,
of Pennsylvania, held in
impossible of ace j^.
Mr. Rodman Wanamaker w s unanimouslv elected Exposition is planning, is not conditions
But hp
club after first hav- plishment under the modified
an honorary member of tl
"l
present-day machines
ing been proposed by the Board of Directors and does not believe that
then nominated for election at the following capable of crossing the
,p.
a onethat
possibility
e
"It is," he said, "a
meeting.
a
favored
by
float and
Much enthusiasm was aroused in the club by man machine, withoutm
an hour, might succeed
the election of Mr. Wanamaker, who has shown wind of from fifteen
such an attempt would be
getting ac
so much interest in aviation, and who is financing
When
the building of the first machine that will pos- the height of folly.
"".Vf-""""
'?,l'v 'f-?des
fades
rapidly
possibility
^
craft the F
ihe size 01
of the
uic oaii
re- tlie
It is
sibly attempt the transatlantic flight.
ported that the entire machine will be of a
of carrying
brilliant red color to make a
against both sea and sky, als
planes will be of red silk to r
and increase the fuel
gallon means extra
^-,
importance in the longest distance flight ever
attempted.
^
Dr. Thos. Eldridge, president of the Philadelphia Recreation Society made a trip to New
Y'ork during the middle of March and placed an
,

D Dig

tlOnS

if

ordered

the .\eronautical

of

^-'"-c nrp anvinnciv aivoillr,^ tl,^ delivery

Nav?'

name, representing

the race,

reported that Marshall Earle Reid has


another flying boat with 100 H.P. motliat
delivery has been promised early
This news coming with the previous
report that the
racing type Wright machine,
which will be entered in the coming Gordon Bennett,
will
soon be delivered to Bergdoll and
that he will make several tests of same on Eagle
Field before shipping it to France, has aroused
It

the

of the Aeronautical Society

1_

and ptlOtOg
Ot Congenial
as compared to other nations.
ture brought out the important points that
meanS who Want tO
aircraft had been available in the Japanese-Rus- iCOpIC With
c'red"wouid\ave"bTennvaiu'abirand '."!' co": aarry. FREE. Sealed, either sex.

tiot

who expressed themselves

Pennsylvania News
By W. H. Sheahan.

tor
in

opposite

out of the

Navy Will Try Wright Aeroboat

for the purchase and maintenance of


glan
first
.\t
for military purposes.
seemed as though the United States had been
omitted, but careful examination disclosed a small

to,
the tions
representative craft

"Federation Aeronautique" in this


country, is fully assured of. The elasticity of the
conditions governing the race, those which have
been decided upon to date and such as the time
limit which has been extended, and now the depositing in cash of the total amount of the Exposition's prize-money, should be sufficient testimonies
of good faith to efface all suspicions of the sincerity of the organizers to have prizes offered won.
Now comes the official recognition of the A. C. A.,
which will insure fair play in all respects to all of

body

is

Orrel .\. Parker was the toastmaster and the


speakers were Hudson Maxim, Captain Thomas S.
Baldwin, Leo Stevens, Walter L. Brock, Louis R.
Adams, Lee S. Burridge, William J. Hammer,
Professor Edward P. Hopkins, Christoi)lK-r I. Lake.
E. L. Jones, T. R. McMechen, Thomas A. Hill,
Edward Durant and Ray Greenleaf.

'

pierequisite

flight

affair.

The Aero Club of America has finally sanctioned nautics."


Reber's talk was well illustrated
Col.
much talked of around-the-world race after
guarantee sum of $150,000, amount of prize- lantern slides showing the latest types of
money offered by the Exposition Co., had been fighting craft. Great interest was shown
deposited in a San Francisco bank by Mr. Chas. the slide was thrown on the screen shr
This monetary the strength and war budget of the variou!
C. Moore, president of the Fair.
the
the

Atlantic

The annual dinner

klin

California News
R. H. Blanquie

the

was held at Hotel Cumberland, New York, Thursday evening, April 16th, and was a very enjoyable

Bv

why

therefore,
question."

aviation for the War Department.


When asked for his views concerning transatlanflight. Lieutenant Milling expressed the hope
that the $50,000 prize offered by Lord Northclirte
^^^^^
^^ won
^^^^ this
(^,5 ^^
year by an American. He said
Id be
le first to try any machine
,i,at jt would be advi
It for the oversea journey on a long flight close
to shore, to test it out thoroughly in order to make
sure it has the endurance qualities for a long voyage.
ress ot
tic

John Guy Gilpatric

Flies

Over New York

in

Sloane Military Scout


of four thousand feet. John
Sloane military scout mouoHempstead Plains aviation
over the heart of New York
Owing to a leakage of oil he
1 the big meadow in
Central
ice served with a summons
p^^u and was at
requiring his presence n court the next day for
breaking that section of the Park Department
upon the grass of the
ryjes which forbids trespass
tresr
parks.
His landing was spectacular and some
2,000 persons, disregarding the ordinance, swarmed
green
watch
the
aviator
come to earth.
over the
to
Gilpatric left the hangars at Hempstead at 3:40
P. M.
He flew a Sloane military scout monoplane.
His machine took to the air without a hitch, climb
ing at a rate of 900 feet a minute, an astonishing
performance for a machine of only 50 H. P.

Flying

at

Iieight

iilpatr

p^^^ fl^ f^om t


grounds, and circle
city, on April 14tli
^as forced to land

There was a keen wind overhead and Gilpatric


He mounted
it was cold in the upper air.
in a great spiral until he had attained an
altitude of nearly 3,000 feet, when he straightened
out on his course and headed for Manhattan
Ilis first guide post was
straight as a bee flies.
the Brooklyn Bridge, and when he sighted that he
When be crossed the
turned toward the north.
river he was far north of his first objective point
was making straight for the Times Building.
[le had then mounted to an altitude of 3,500 feet.
Twice he made a circle far above the Times Buildng before he was forced to land in the park
in court.
summoned to appear
.'
said that

upward

md

'

l,Tpon

judgi

appearing in court th

the

AIRCRAFT

318
Aviator Offer Services to Uncle

Sam

May, ipi4

Benoist Aircraft Co., R. V. Morris and E. B.


Ford, son of the famous maker of Ford cars.

D. E. Ball, Brooklyn. N. Y.

Henry Woodhouse, New York.


L. Farrell, New York.
P. Myers, Cambridge, Mass.
Delano, commander of the
Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and other
provisional aviation regiment of volunteers that is
being raised in six States of the eastern section security holders, holding 1 per cent, or more of
of the United States for federal service in offence total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securiand defence by air, yesterday issued general order ties. There are no bondholders or mortgagees.
United States Government Sends Hurry No, 1, as follows:
Alfred W. Lawson, Editor.
Pilots, Students and Personnel of
Orders to Wright Company for Aeroplanes To the Officers,Squadrons
(Signature of editor, publisher, business manager,
named:
the Twelve
or owner.)
In order to be under direct federal control and
A little misunderstanding with Mexico has
caused the War Department to send instructions concentrate the aero-military headquarters and Sworn to and subscribed before me this
to the Wright Company at Dayton, Ohio, to hasten chief command at one centre, to be known as day of March, 1914.
the completion of two aeroplanes which are being the District Centre, Eastern Division, we have ap- Form 3526, 5-6012.
Elsie C. Duff,
constructed for the government.
Orville Wright pointed majors to recruit immediately twelve aero
Notaty Public of New York County.
made a statement that, in his own opinion, the squadrons with State field centres as designated.
(My commission expires March 30th, 1914.)
Conditions have shown conclusively that State
aeroplane would serve a most useful purpose in
the event of land fighting and that the aeroplane boundaries in matters pertaining to an aviation
are difficult to maintain and for all
fleet would be found a most necessary part of regiment
Large Concern to Enter Aeroplane
actively concerned impossible to keep within so
military equipment.
Albert Bond Lambert, who recently organized
"Aeronautical Reserve," has announced that

Named For Aero

Officers

the

Denys

Mortimer

Colonel

44 aviators, who are members of this organization,


were ready to serve either in the army or navy
at the call of 'the United States Government.

Field Force

Active Secretary, Earnest

far as
goes.

L. "Jones.

For Executive Committee


Professor Cleveland Abbe
Louis R. Adams
Professor Assman
Captain Thomas S. Baldwin
Professor Donat Eanki
Alexander Graham Bell
Emile Berliner
Dr. W. R. Blair
Captain W. Irving Chambers
Glenn H. Curtiss
Captain Crocco
Henry Deutsche de la Meurthe
M. Drzwiecki
_..
Professo- ^" T7 nnr^n/l..

Orville

Wright

F Harrison
(above are
No. 7).

10 Minutes With Hands


Off Lever

Flies

Demand

State

command

Higgins, Av. Sub. C,


State field

New York

Hammondsport
centres

No.

to

A newspaper despatch from Dayton, Ohio, dated


April 17th, states that Orville Wright set a new
record for flying in an aeroplane controlled only
by a stabilizer. For 19 minutes the biplane hung
in the air without human control.
Big

membership in the said

Majors acting as squadron commanders are:


First aero squadron. Major E. G. Schermerhorn;
Bridgman; third,
second, Major Theodore H.
Major Jerome Kingsbury, regimental district field
centre, Long Island; fifth, Major J. Lansing Callan. P., Albany, No. 1; sixth. Major William Ellwond Doherty, P., Buffalo, No. 2; seventh. Major

This

and

to take care of
will
enable the

is

necessary,

contemplated new business


to turn
out, if
aeroplanes a week, be-

company

four complete

sides their dirigible business.

There are complete drawings of all the latest


type flying machines now being constructed abroad
fo- the company, which will only construct machines that have been thoroughly demonstrated
and proved efficient for actual service in the army
Eind navy.

Eighth aero squadron. Major Harold H. Brown,


P.,
Boston, No. 3; ninth. Major Raymond V.
Morris, P., New Haven, No. 4; tenth, Major
William Bouldin, 3d P., Newark, No. 5; eleventh.
Among the directors of tlie company are ColMajor Clarence P. Wynne, Av., Philadelphia, No. onel Isaac M. UUman, chairman of the New
6; twelfth, Major Grover C. Loening, Dayton, Haven Chamber of Commerce; Rollin S. WoodNo. 7.
ruff, formerly Governor of Connecticut; Everard
Thompson and Samuel C. Moorehouse, of New
The field commanders are: Colonel in Chief, Haven.
Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, of New
Mortimer Delano Colonel, E. G. Schermerhorn York city, the veteran areronaut, and pioneer
of
Colonel, Eugene Kelly Austin; Lieutenant Colonel
the dirigible balloon, was recently engaged as
William Fitzhugh Whitehouse; Lieutenant Colonel, chief constructor of the corporation,
which has
Beck with Havens; Lieutenant Colonel, W. Red- acquired 173 patents on dirigibles and
aeroplanes.
niond
Major Chief
Administration,

Cross;

W. The company owns

of

Lanier Washington.

for Charavay Propellers

That the consistent good work of Charavay


propellers and the high quality of construction
in upholding their enviable reputation for efficiency and long service is evident from the number of new orders and repeat orders that the
Sloane Aeroplane Company is continually re-

Construction
At a meeting of the Connecticut Aircraft ComI)any it was voted to increase its capital from
$500,000 to $1,400,000, which w'ill be paid in cash.

the

College

Park

Aviation

Field, near Washington, formerly owned by the


government.

Statement

STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIRCULATION, etc., of Aircraft,

Navy Flying Corps with Fleet


With the

fleet in

Mexican waters

off

Mexico

a section of
Aviation Corps.
With it
is

published monthly at New York, N. Y., required the United States Navy
by the Act of August 24, 1912.
also is the battleship A'lississif'pi, which has been
Note This statement is to be made in duplicate, attached to the naval flying centre at Pensacola
to aid in developing the tactics of aerial warfare
When it is taken into consideration that the both copies to be delivered by the publisher to the by conjunction of air and
marine craft.
Charavay propeller holds a large percentage of Postmaster, who will send one copy to the Third
ClassiGeneral
(Division
of
Assistant
Postmaster
The aviators have taken with them to the
American
records
and
is
the
most
scientifithe
coast,
according to recent despatches
cally and accurately constructed propeller on the fication), Washington, D. C, and retain the other Mexican
files of the post-office.
in
the
from
Pensacola,
eight
of
the eleven aeroplanes
market it is no wonder that this propeller has
Name of
Post-Office Address
w-ith which the corps is equipped.
found such universal recognition.
Editor, Alfred W. Lawson, 37 East 28th Street,
In the hands of Lieutenant John H. Towers,
The Sloane Aeroplane Company has just
New York.
brought out a new three bladed type; the first Managing Editor, Alfred W. Lawson, 37 East chief pilot of the corps, one of them has flown
nearly four hundred miles without a stop in little
By
of which was delivered to the U. S. Navy.
28th Street, New York.
In manoeuvres they have
actual comparative tests it has shown itself to Business Manager, Alfred W. Lawson, 37 East more than six hours.
flown far out from the fleet, detecting and reThe reasons for the tremendbe very efficient.
2Sth Street, New York.
ous efficiency of the Charavay propellers are not Publisher, The Lawson Publishing Company, 37 porting the approach of hostile torpedo boats
many
miles away before any patrol could come in
hard to trace.
They lie in the scientific design.
East 28th Street, New York.
The aviators have also
excellence of materials, accurate construction and Ozuitcrsili a cornorat-:on. -ive names and ad- touch with the enemy.
sighted hostile submarine boats moving to an
No Charavay properfect balance and finish.
dresses of stockholders holding 1 per cent, or
attack beneath the surface, where they are inleave the factory before
peller is allowed to
more of total amount of stock.)
visible to all other watchers.
being inspected by an expert as to correct pitch
Mrs. C. W. Grossman, New York.
and balance. The balancing is accomplished on
Wheels that can be raised by a lever when not
Mary E. Clement, Bala, Pa.
a special ball bearing bracket and the weights
in use enable the flying boats to descend on the
Clarence A. England. New York.
of the blades are not allowed to vary a fracland and to run over its surface before rising.
Edward C. Gougb, Mount Vernon, N. Y.
of
ounce.
tion
an
W^ith Lieutenant Towers is Ensign Godfrey de C.
Ida May Gifford, New York.
Chevalier and Lieutenant B. L. Smith, of the
Charles H. Heitman, Forest Park, L. I.
Amongst recent purchasers of Charavay proMarine Corps, both aeroplane pilots. Lieutenant
Augusta S. Haviland, Forest Park, L. I.
pellers are the Governments of the U. S., GuataCommander Henry C. Mustin, commander of the
Alfred W. Lawson, New York.
mala and Mexico, Moisant International Aviators,
Bessie Sinclair, New York.
Mississipf^i, is also an experienced aviator.
A
Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, Capt. Hugh L. WilMurray.
Richmond
AeroWilliam P. Uhler, Jr.. Mt. Vernon, N. Y.
new catapult device for launch-aeroplanes from a
loughby. Lieut. J. M.
George F. Campbell Wood, Paris, France.
battleship's deck also accompanies the expedition.
plane Co., Lieut. Walb, Maximillian Schmitt,
ceiving.

AN OUTLINE HOW A FLYING BOAT

IS

MADE

(Continued from page SOS J


the seats put in place and the cockpits lined with light veneer.
When this has been finished the hull is smoothed off, and then
varnished and poUshed like the case of a high grade piano. The
hull is then ready for the attachment of the wings which butt
into steel plate sockets on the sides of the boat, and are joined

Excelsior

propel-

~-

_^,^.r^

together with the conventional uprights and wired in the usual

manner.
tubing.
fitted

Lastly, the tail is fitted and braced to the hull by steel


After everj'thing has been adjusted and all the controls
up, the craft is ready for dismantling and ship-

and wired

ping to the flying station for acceptance

trials.

AIRCRAFT

May, 1914

319

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
SEVEN WORDS TO LINE

CENTS A LINE

20

CASH WITH ORDER

FOR SALE
MOTORS AND MOTOR CYCLESAERO
NEW USED. BRAUNER J. OSTERGAARD, 2023 NORTH ALBANY AVENUE, CHI
CAGO,
III.
NOTE: NOT CONNECTED
WITH ANY AVIATION COMPANY.

partner with $1,000 to act as


Yl/'-'iNTED
' '
Lusiness manager in giving flying boat exhibitions and i)assenger carrying service.
I have the
boat, can fly it. but need the money and the man
Address, Flying Boat, Box S14.
to dn the rest.

D-^

pOR SALE Anzani


feet

French Motor 35-40. Perorder.


.\twood-Kent ignition
hours.
Best offer takes it.

working

and

coil.
Used 40
Hartley, 2905 Lake

S.ALE at bargain:
One geniiin
FOR
biplane, 8-cylinder; looks and

MISCELLANEOUS

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flies

Box

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Ga

QJAHnWILL buy a
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r> URTISS latest improved type (Pigeon Tail)
^-^
lieadless or front control (optional) very sue
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Complete, ready to
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Roberts 4 X power plant. Guaranteed perfect
flier, $1,500.
Free flying lessons to buyer. H. C.

My

and Constructor,

Cooke,

Aviator

Street,

New York

pOR
SALE My
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line

tanks,

condition;

at

Hampshire

St.,

immediate exhibition
ice; speed 60 miles an hour.

in

OUARTERLY,
T'a.

tlie

GRAYSLAKE,

III E.

motor and gasoline turbine which


to anything manufactured to-day.

Du

St.,

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^OR SALE Curtis;


$90.00.

A. B.

latent

LESTER

aeroplane

C,

)5

engin

Maiden, Ma;

applying for a patent, write

"How
L.

without

St.,

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to

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New

SECURED

or

Fee Returned

Send sketch

Sprim-'s tjiat

for fr.
;h of Patent Office
How to Obtain a Patent, and What to
Invent, with list of Inventions Wanted and
Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents
advertised free.
are experts on AIRSHIPS and all patents
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Money on Youi

We

veteran maniifactiners and avi.itors


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,

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Write us on Anytbint,^ You Want in Rubber.

PATENTS
THAT PROTECT AND PAY

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t.>

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The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
sik'iiihi-s

Records.

foi

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VICTOR^. EVANS

Washington, D. C.

AKRON, OHIO
The trade mark on Aeroplane Fabric. Tires and

York.

D
AX
17 M X C
1 Ej ll 10
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Your Inventions
"ore

716 I2thSt.

West

ILLINOIS

GoOLt^irJEAR

NVENTOR, who

is a graduate of a technical
university, has patents on a new type of rotary
is far superior
Will take in
partner with sufficient linancial backing to build a
second motor of 2 cycle, without cylinders, pistons,
crank shafts or valves. This is an exceptional opportunity that should be taken advantage of immediately.
Address Box 816, Aircraft, 37 East

illustrated,

pp.,

Sealed, either sex.

MISCELLANEOUS

Zolle

(Canada 20c.)

year.

FREE.

marry.

STANDARD CORRESPONDENCE CLUB

64tli

biplane, also radiator anc

W.

Write Box 799, care

jyjARRY RICH Big list of descriptions and photos of congenial


people with means who want to

-\IRCR.AFT.

City.

guaranteed to be
your own price.
Buffalo, N. Y.

AERO
MODEL
Philadelphia,

West

124

passenger carrying Thomas


without motor.
Capable of
or passenger carrying serv-

&

CO.

Washington, D. C. 624

For Flying Boats Use JEFFERY'S

E.

F. Street, N.

COLEMAN,
W.

Patent Lawyer
Washington, D. C.

MARINE GLUE

ti.ving boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year it will last as
long as the boat.
For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofiiifr

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue,

lutislin fur

L.

wing surfaces.

Seii<i

W. FERDINAND

&

for waterproofing the

for circulars, directions for

CO.

::

::

canvas coverinff of

use, etc.

201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S A.

::

Heinrich Monoplanes
only original American Monoplane on the market
Highest efficiency of any monoplane in America

The

School

Now

Open.

Tuition

$250

HEINRICH PROPELLERS $20 UP


SCHOOL MACHINE AT WORK

r^U-l/^lv-f^
A D A XT'
A 1
V J-\. Y

HEINRICH AEROPLANE

CO., Inc.

BALDWIN,

L.

I.,

N. Y., U. S. A.

Furnished to the Governments of the L'nite


stantlard American Propeller.
States, Me.xico, Guatemaht, etc. and the leading American Aviators.
Two and Three Bladed Three bladed type for flying boats and tractors. Actual tests hav
proven the new tliree bladed types to be 20 per cent more efficient than any other.

The

PROPELLERS Have you

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

our

new

price

list ?

Write for

it

and save money.

1731 Broadway,

New York

City

AIRCRAFT

320

May. Tgi4

THOMAS

Benoist
Flying

STUDENT
Makes New

Boats

Altitude
Record

and

Tractor
Biplanes

12,575 Feet

t-n-rJj::

have more world records than all other American


manufacturers combined

This

Benoist Aircraft Co.,

^^

Classes

M^g^^^

Address:

AND AERO VARNISH


were the
is

first in the field, and the test of


proving that our product is the best

Sample Book

THE

C. E.

100 H-P

60 H-P

40 H-P

Do not underpower your Flying Boat.


The HALL-SCOTT 100 H-P is the most powerful,

smoothest running, and reliable equipment

upon the market.

CONOVER

Wire

motor.

this

supplied in

NEW YORK

sizes

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

CO.

San Francisco,

818 Crocker Bldg.

WIRE

THE BOLAND MOTOR


8 cyl-"V" type-60 H. P.

with

240 Pounds

plate finish,

DURABILITY

RELIABILITY

MAXIMUM POWER

MINIMUM WEIGHT

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE


Equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and

The

John A. Roeblings Sons Co.


TRENTON,

N.

plicity in

BOLAND CONTROL
new

system of control,

Office

is

which

the
is

ei

nbodiment

of

BOLAND MOTOR.
utmost safety and

ba; ;ic in principle.

Write

at a

FT.

sir

for particula

Factory

BROADWAY
NEW YORK

1821

J.

Dependable Power
FOR

Calif.

Boland Aeroplane and Motor Co.

making soldering easy.


This wire is specially drawn from extra
quality high grade steel.
Also Aviator
Cord of twisted wire.
a

unsurpassed record.
contains important information.

Data and Prices on Request

FRANKLIN STREET,

Aviator

it

Bros. Aeroplane Co., Bath, N. Y.

Write for booklet upon


A-7,

MANUFACTURERS

101

Secure our Booklet:

HALL-SCOTT

AERONAUTICAL CLOTH
time

THOMAS SCHOOL
FRANK BURNSIDE'S

Thomas

NAIAD
We

is

Now Open.

CENTER STREET
NEWARK, N. J.

Usable Price

we have been

building air-cooled motors, seeking constantly to make the


best motor that could be built, incorporating every improvement that experience could suggest.
Our 1914 models approach motor perfection. Kemp air cooling does cool, and we can prove it.
This year we are bringing out a new model of 8 cylinders and 75 h.p., which will be the finished
product of all our experience. It has the most compact and efficient fan cooling system yet devised, and
can be set down in the hull of flying boats or otherwise enclosed without atTscting its cooling ability.
The demand for our motors, based on their merits and not on extravagant advertising claims,
has forced us to double our output this year.
shall take advantage of the consequent saving in
manufacturing to fix new prices, which now as always will be based on cost plus a moderate profit.
When you buy a Kemp motor
you are buying all motor, not graft, waste, extravagance, mismanagement, and exorbitant profit.
The 1914 prices are: Model G-2 16 h.p., $200.00; Model 1-4 35 h.p., $450.00; Model H-6 55h.p., $600.00; ModelJ-8 75 h.p.,
$1250.00.
These prices, which include full motor equipment and the famous Paragon propeller, are strictly net and the same to all.
Beware of the man of many prices and fake discounts. Quality merchandise is always sold at a fixed and publicly known price.
nearly four years

We

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

r
L

MAY WE SEND
YOU A CATALOG J
"|

Muncie, Ind.

EijfeVs Great

Work

in English

"The Resistance
and

the Air

of

Aviation''
Illustrated
Experiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars
Laboratory by G. EIFFEL

Second

edition, revised

and enlarged

PRICE $10.00

6-cylinder 100 H. P.
powerful and comparatively light,
an ideal aeronautic power-plant.

MAXI MOTORS
50

Translated by Jerome C. Hunsaker

The

Lawson

Publishing

MAXIMOTOR,

The

For

to

fills

a long

felt

compact,

want

for

are built in four different sizes, from

150 H. P.

further particulars, just write to

Company
DETR-OIT

EAST 28th STREET


NEW YORK, N. Y.

37-39

1530

JEFFERSON AVE., E

Buy Your Gnome Motor from


Us and Save Money
All Spare Parts Delivered on
Short Notice.

Here are the Facts

MOISANT MONOPLANE "BLUEBIRD"


THE BEST OF ALL FOR

SPEED SAFETY ENDURANCE

STABILITY

Used by the Leading Aviators, Moisant Aviation

School The Most Up-to-date School

in

America

Write at once for Booklet

Address

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS,

1790 Broadway, N. Y.

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

The hearty

reception of the

Thomas

Flying Boat proves

that the public recognizes the unquestionable

advantages of

steel construction

EVERY OWNER IS SATISFIED AND DELIGHTED!


THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT IS PRACTICALLY UNSINKABLE.
wreck

to

it,

for the reason that the hull

covered with sheet

The
for

is

constructed of

two-ply

It is almost impossible
planking and is entirely

steel.

fact that the

THOMAS FLYING BOAT

will

not absorb water

is

one of

many

reasons

UNSURPASSED EFFICIENCY.
BEFORE YOU SELECT A FLYING BOAT, BY ALL MEANS INVESTIGATE THE THOMAS.

its

great and

You must

see the

tional values

and

Thomas

Flying Boat to fully appreciate and understand

THOMAS FLYING BOATS


Biplanes

the

its

points of excep-

superiority.

are built upon the enviable reputation of the famous

Thomas

American Record Holders.

Send

for Booklet "

T"

Today.

Address

THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


BATH, NEW YORK

CO.

YOU SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT- IT

IS.

IF

YOU DO NOT SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-IT

THE DELIGHTS OF SUMMER FLYING ALONG THE HUDSON


'

The above

'.

1>

-'J' J"J!

one of its many passenger


picture shows the splendid new Thomas Flying Boat making
carrying flights under the skillful handling of Pilot Ralph M. Brown

IS

NOT

SLOANE
Aeroplanes, Monoplanes, Biplanes, HydroAeroplanes, Flying Boats, Aero-Skimmers
machines
THE
and comfort
ideal

for military, naval

and sporting

uses.

Speed, safety

unrivaled.

For over three years, Sloane Aeroplanes have been used by dozens of
and novices; carrying hundreds of passengers, for thousands of
miles over land, sea, mountains and cities without a single accident.
pilots, pupils

Can Any Other Means of Fast Transportation Show Such a Record

QUI

Spend an

CI
oCnOOl
Flying

ideal

Flying-Boat.

for Safety?

and profitable vacation learning to fly on the new Sloane


Tuition $300 for the full course no breakage charges.

Special terms to militarj^ and naval officers.

Builders, Fliers- Attention!


You cannot possibly get the utmost out
of your aeroplanes unless you equip them
waste
with the finest motors.

Why

power plants ? Get


a record-breaking motor and make your
machine a record-breaker. Why is it

money on

inferior

foreign aeroplanes hold all the world's


Not because they are better
records ?
built and designed but
they use the

simplj''

because

Le Rhone, Gnome, AustroDaimler and Anzani Engines


which are the

lightest,

most powerful and highest developed power plants so far produced.


machines to finish in the recent International Hydro-

j^ou notice that the only two


Aeroplane race at Monaco used 100

Did

? that a new
of 16 hours, 28 minutes was recently established by
pouictwithaeo h. p. z.^i^Ao^t' justthinkofitflying for 16 hours non-stop with a 60 H. P. motor in a stock machine and only descending
then on account of darkness.

H. P. Gnomes

J
Kecora
Worlds Uuration D

iir

f^

l>

May we
the Gnome,

JL*

send you catalog, giving descriptions, photographs and installation drawings of

Le Rhone, Aiistro-Damler and Anzani Motors

It will

pay you to learn more

about them.

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


1731

BROADWAY

\AMERICA
i

AGENTS 1

NEW YORK

CITY

AIRCRAFT

June, 1914

321

JOHN EYRE SLOANE

WE

present here a good likeness of John Eyre


Sloane, one of the foremost of our American
aeroplane manufacturers.
Since his entrance
int..i the aeronautical movement in
1910, Mr. Sloane has
taken a leading part in its development.
Having a
talent for mechanical science to which is added a superior commercial training and adaptability, he is especially
well lilted to carry on the work of supervision over the
three manufacturing plants of which he is the head
an aeroplane factory, a motor factory and a propeller
factory.

When the Sloane -Aeroplane Company was first organized Mr. Sloane decided to encourage the construction
of the monoplane in this country and began by importing several of the best European makes both Deper-

dussin and Caudron and later bringing out his own


design, of monoplane and flying boat.
Besides manufacturing aeroplanes Mr. Sloane has conducted the
Sloane Aviation Schools at Hempstead Plains, N. Y.,
and Los Angeles, Cal., and will shortly open an up-todate flying boat school in the vicinity of Xew York.

While a staunch believer in the inonoplane for overland flying Mr. Sloane is of the opinion that from an
educational and sporting standpoint the aeroplane's gei.
eral popularity must be established by means of the
flying boat and for that reason he will give the aeromarine work the largest part of his attention this season.
The new Sloane flying boat represents a great step forward in the development of this type of craft, and
quite likely before long we will see a number of these
boats in use in the United States Navy.

The coming marriage of Miss Madeleine Edison,


daughter of Thomas A. Edison, the famous inventor, to
John Eyre Sloane has been announced to take place this
month and Aircraft, in behalf of its readers wishes
them every happiness.

CONTENTS JUNE,
-An .\nalysis of the

1914

Dunne Machine

The Enea Bossi -Aeroyacht


Scale Drawings of the

Albert .Adams Merrill

323

House

324

Prescott

326

Palmer

327

Walter

.A.

Enea Bossi Aeroyacht

325

Foreign News

.Arthur

\'.

Paul

Practical Aeroplane Design

J.

Table of Squares

328

Practical Aeroplane Design Charts

329

General

M. E. Henry

News

330

AIRCRAFT
ALFRED W. LAWSON
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322

AIRCRAFT

June, ipi4

New

No. 4

Vol. 5

York, June, 1914

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DUNNE MACHINE


By
(ROBABLY many
remember

readers

ALBERT ADAMS MERRILL


Aircraft

of

that during the past year

will

have

published in the columns of this paper several articles calling attention to certain characteristics to be

surfaces

known

found

in the disposition of

as Eiffel's

tandem number

tW'O.

The

two

disposition consists of

surfaces,

equal in area, placed on the same level but one behind the other
a distance apart equal to twice the chord, the angle of incidence
of the front surface being greater than that of the rear surface.

This disposition is but a modification of the old Penaud type of


monoplane, the size of the tail being increased until it equals the
This disposition produces a longisize of the front surface.
tudinal V between two surfaces equal in area, and this longi-

we

produces a longitudinal righting


all know,
magnitude of this righting couple is a function
of two independent variables which are, the difference of incidence front and rear and the distance front to rear.
This righting couple is one characteristic of converging tandem
surfaces but it was not this characteristic which first attracted my
attention to them. In Eiffel's book he gives some figures on his
tandem number two which astonished me because of their extremely lift values. It was these figures which started my study
tudinal

V,

couple.

Now

as

the

of the characteristics of this disposition.


that Eiffel's figures on

Subsequently

learned

tandem number two, as pubHshed

in his

second edition, are wrong. It now appears that the lift of tandem number tw.o is not as great as his original figures show.
My evidence for this is of three kinds. First, I analized Eiffel's
lift
figures carefully, and, using the principle of moments,
found where the c. p. should be. This position did not check up
I then tested tandem
W'ith his own experiments on the c. p.
number two for c. p. at the Institute and my figures checked
up well with his c. p. figures but did not check up at all with his
lift figures.
This is internal evidence that his lift graph is wrong.
Second, I witnessed a flight with a full sized machine having
practically Eiffel's

tandem disposition number two.

had a large longitudinal righting couple, as


its

rear surface, in the

about one-half of what


at all
I

what

Eiffel's lift

wake

it

This machine

should have, but

of the front surface, lifted only

would lift in fresh air. This is not


graph would lead one to expect. Third,
it

heard direct from the laboratory that an error

in

weighing

is

admitted.

As my support

of the tandem

was based primarily upon a behef


I now have shows that this

high Hft and as the evidence


disposition does not have a high lift,

I am forced to retract much


have said about the value of tandem surfaces, at least those
dispositions similar to Eiffel's number two.
Nevertheless these
I

by stimulating me to a study of the tandem


things and with this knowledge I propose,
in the present paper to analyze the forces acting on the Dunne
machine. First I wish to say that I consider the flying of the
Dunne marks an epoch in the history of flight. Since the Wrights
figures of Eiffel's,

have taught

the

first

reduction to practise nothing

propose

now to find,
know the

-Ml students

been done

in

Dunne machine.

if possible,

the cause of

its stability.

superficial characteristics of the

Dunne

machine, a V-shaped biplane with warped wings, ailerons but no


rudder. .As stability has to do only with rotations about one or
more axes and as rotations are produced only by couples we have
to discover the righting couples

machine.

First

it is

which come into action

in

this

to be noted that the incidence of the front

center section is five and one-half degrees greater than the incidence of the rear tips, this produces the longitudinal V and
gives a righting couple about the lateral axis.
.\ longitudinal
righting couple in one form or another is very old. It is present
in most machines being produced by the tail, but when produced
by a tail there is a time lag in the introduction of the righting
couple due to the gap between the main surface and the tail.
This is one reason why a monoplane is steadier longitudinally at
very high speed than at very low speed, because manifestly at

high speed the time lag in the introduction of the righting couple
is reduced.

Now

in the

Dunne machine we have

As

a peculiar condition.

warped continuously from bow to tip, there will


be a longitudinal V between any two ribs of the same wing. The
the surface

maximum

is

difference of incidence

is

large

(over

degrees) but

the actual areas between which this difference exists

because the incidence

is

small

changing continually, hence to get a


righting couple of the proper magnitude the other independent
is

variable must be large, i.e., the distance front to rear.


Dunne
makes this sufliciently large by having a large horizontal V, each
wing being swept back a Httle over 30 degrees. So far, then, as
longitudinal stability is concerned Dunne has nothing but what
can be obtained by a properly designed converging tandem sys-

From observations of its


Dunne machine does not have a

tem.

ple.

It is

the pilot

flight

it

is

manifest that the

large longitudinal righting cou-

large enough for safety but not so large as to prevent


from controlling the machine when landing without

power.

Turning now

to lateral stability,

combination of the horizontal


first

believe that this

is

and a weather helm.

due to a
Consider

the effects of a horizontal gust from the right side.

It

is

evident that under this condition the air path of the machine

turns to the right and hence the aspect of ratio of the right

in its

that

made

flying equal in value to the

me many

wing

is

be very

greater than that of the left wing.

much

In this case

it

might

greater and this would cause the machine to over

bank to the left were it not for two offsets, the negative tip
and the weather helm produced by the vertical panels at the tips.
The weather helm, by causing the machine to turn to the right
ends to prevent over banking to the left and the negative tip
on the right wing, by producing a downward pressure also prevents that over banking to the left which the difference in aspect
Consider next an up gust from the
ratio alone might cause.
right side.

Under

this

condition nothing can prevent the ma-

AIRCRAFT

334
chine

from banking

to the left, but note that

when

the machine

June, 1914

maintain stability

we have

to get a design

which

will introduce at

will slide to the left, the air path will turn to the left, the lateral

the proper time certain righting couples of the proper magni-

righing couple will come into operation on the left side and the
machine will come back to a level keel.
So far as I am able then I have analyzed the forces acting on
In my own mind there is on doubt that
the Dunne machine.
Dunne has incorporated in his machine those necessary couples
which must be inherent in the design of every flying machine if
it is to be anything other than an exceedingly dangerous toy.
In closing, however, I would call attention to this fact. To

tude.

There are a great many ways by whch this can be done,


and Dunne's design is only one way and not, I think, the best
way. When we understand the theory of stability better I believe
it will be possible to get the necessary safety without any such
ungainly, complex and expensive design as is seen in the Dunne
machine. Nevertheless great credit should be given to Dunne.
He has blazed a new path through the wilderness of aeronautics
and has put up a sign board that all will do well to read.

THE ENEA BOSSI AEROYACHT


By
MOJX'G

the comparatively

who

structors

are

few

WALTER

scientific

striving

to

con-

produce

something practical for the crossing of the


i\tlantic Ocean,
Enea Bossi, the Itahan
aviator-constructor, of Milan, must be considered as one of the most serious men who
has taken an interest in the $50,000 prize
offered by the Daily Mail, of London.
M. Bossi's aeroyacht, scale drawings of which are shown oppoIt
site, is really interesting and worthy of careful attention.
comprises the latest ideas in aerodynamic efficiency and is of

One

sound and sane design.

notes at a glance the careful details

of cabin construction, which offers but


its

on account of a

size

head-resistance for

form. This cabin seats


and wireless operator; The pilot

fine streamline

three persons, the pilot, aide

and aide are seated

little

side

by side with double controls so that

The wireless
operate the large machine in shifts.
operator's seat is located further back over the center of gravity,
which is consequently located somewhat closer to the fore

may

either

day design.
Salmson motor
mounted back between the wing-spars, making a well-calcu-

than

This
is

found

is

is

in

most

machines

of

present

necessitated by the fact that the heavy

lated distribution of weight.

This cabin
width.

is

7 feet 8 inches in height and close to 7 feet in

Both the

bow while the wireless


Windows suralmost immediately behind.

pilot

and aide

sit

in the

operator's

seat

round the

cabin, affording plenty of light

is

wind and
cupants from
throughout the whole interior
cold,

and protecting the oc-

rain.

Electric lights are provided

fitted

and

finished

up

in the

most

luxurious of styles.

The 300 H.

Salmson motor of nine cylinders

P.

type turned out by this well-known firm.

is

of the latest

It lies flat in the hull

and drives two geared-down propellers of 14 feet 7 inches diameter through frictional shafts, the propellers turning about 400
R. P. M. Judging from this, the yacht will not have a very great
speed and, as can be seen by the drawings, no extra provision is
made for carrying an over-amount of fuel. It is doubtful, therefore, if this big trans-Atlantic Flyer will startle the world with
any extraordinary performances, since it appears incapable of
very great endurance and must either have this or speed.

The greatest spread is 78 feet 8 inches with an overall length


of almost SO feet. The upper planes have a larger span than
and, as can be seen, the lower planes have a
the lower ones
shght dihedral angle to allow for a certain amount of wallowing
;

A.

HOUSE
While

in the sea-troughs in case of forced landings.

may appear

to be

good one

some, the writer

to

this idea
is

of

the

dominant opinion that this gains nothing. Of course, a limited


amount of pitching and rolling can be allowed with the dihedral
angle, but since the planes are only about three feet off the sur-

face and measure 55 feet 8 inches in span,

very large wave to


as

roll

along and

roll

would not take a


it.
And,

it

the machine with

(?)

for stabiUty

The

wing-tips are provided with small auxiliary floats for sta-

while drifting or running over the water. Lateral stability


secured through the use of large ailerons, balanced and work-

bility
is

ing in opposite directions the

The

Farmans.

same

as the Curtis

ailerons are a continuation of the

and latest H.
wing angle of

much the same as a warp. The


main planes are built up of two ash spars, securely braced between with heavy cable and ribs spaced about one foot apart.
These planes are in three sections of about twenty-six feet
each. The lower planes are in two sections.

incidence, giving a partial effect

The

and elevators are relatively small for such a


combined measurements being 8 feet 7 inches

tail-plane

large machine, the

The elevators are of the


depth by 20 feet 3 inches spread.
divided type, with the rudder hinged to a small fin beneath.
This rudder measures about six and a half feet by three and a
half, which, taking into consideration that the

machine

will not

be a speedy one, does not offer abundant confidence as to being

any too

The

large.

however, is faultless in design and construction.


Well braced and completely covered with three-ply wood, laid
over a form diagonally and glued, pohshed ai.d finished down it
offers

hull,

heavy,

Great care has been exercised in


one of great reliability and, although somewhat
It is single-stepped,
to come up to expectations.
about midway between the planes, from which
slopes sharply to about one foot in depth at the
A side view of this hull gives the impression

source for praise.

making

this hull

it is

sure

the step located


the entire

form

rudder location.

of a huge whale.

Although not completed and tried out yet, the Enea Bossi
Aeroyacht has predictions for great things in the future just as
and its trials are
all craft have great predictions for the future
awaited with interest. For all its minor faults, this flying-boat
may make good, just as I hope it will, and make a good bid

to cross

but to succeed in the crossing

the Atlantic;

is

quite

another thing.

Lincoln Beachy's Marvellous Performances wind blowing at the time of from 30 to 40 mile
velocity.
Despite these conditions, however, at an
at Brighton Beach
altitude of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet he dived into a
Lincoln Beacliey, of whom it can well be said half dozen loops, flew upside down for considerthat there is no more dexterious aeroplane pilot able distances and tumbled his machine about in
upon earth, recently visited New York and gave the air in almost every conceivable manner.
The biplane with which Beachey gives his wonthe dwellers of the big town some thrills in upsidedown flying and looping the loop that they had derful acrobatic performances was designed by
A three days' exhi- Lincoln Beachey and Warren Eaton and is a marnot previously experienced.

from

the

center

section

This serves to mount the


control members.

Lateral

control

midway between

is

beam

front

seat

pilot's

foot brake

rest tlie momentum of the


acts directly on the front

is

machine

extremities.
all the

and

provided to
in rolling

ar-

and

tire.

obtained

by

ailerons

placed

main planes and pivoted on


struts.
These ailerons
feet over all and together
bition series was arranged at Brighton Beach on vel of aerodynamic efficiency.
It has the ability
They are controlled by the
May 22, 23, 24, by W. H. Pickens, the famous to climb at the rate of more than 1,125 feet per shoulder yoke, while the rudder and elevator are
meet promoter, in which Beachey and Barney Old- minute.
The main planes of the machine both controlled by a wheel pillar similar to that used on
The elevators have a total
field, the automobile racer, were the whole show. have a span of 21 feet.
Their chord is 3 feet 6 a Thomas biplane.
And it was generally admitted that the show was inches and the gap is 3 feet 9 inches. The sup- area of nearly 16 square feet.
porting surface not including the fixed lifting tail
The power plant consists of a monosoupape
well worth the price of admission.
Gnome motor which develops 84-brake-horsepower
Beachey did all manner of stunts in all kinds is 147 square feet.
In
fact,
Pickens advertised that
weather.
The under carriage is rigid and mounted on at 1,350 r. p. m. and weighs with magneto fuel
of
Beachey would fly *"in rain, shine, fog or cyclone." three 20-inch wheels shod with 4-inch tires. The and oil pumps and engine plates, 205 pounds, to
During one of the days Pickens announced that single skid is braced by steel V-tubes to the front which is fitted a 7 foot 9 inch diameter propeller.
The speed of the Beachey machine is 84 miles
it was the gustiest, nastiest weather Beachey had and rear beams of the lower center section, while
ever looped the loop in. There was a cross, puffy an inclined V of ash runs to the front supports per hour.
two
measure
have 26

the

rear

the

outboard

8 feet by 2
feet of area.

June, ipi4

AIRCRAFT

325

AIRCRAFT

326

China
Over a 130 kilom. course from Pekin to PaoTing-Fou four Chinese aviators on Caudron machines took part in a race on April 13th. Although
the name of the winner is not given it is stateu
that he completed the course in iO minutes.
Chinese aviators have been forbidden to fly over
the city of Pekin or even to approach within 30
kms. of that city. The interdict has been imposed
as the result of rumors arising that revolutionaries were engaging aviators to drop bombs on

Pekin.

England
The new Wight seaplanes are attracting considerable attention lately by their fine performances, and especially when undergoing "official
tests" for the navy.
Recently a "Wight," fully loaded with fuel for
4 hours' flight, wireless apparatus, and pilot and
passenger, climbed 3,000 feet in 7^ minutes while
her maximum speed is recorded at 78 miles an
The total weight of this machine is 3,500
hour.
pounds, including 1,000 pounds of useful load.
August of this year has been chosen by Gustave
Hamel, the British aviator, to make his attempt
to fly across the Atlantic in the event of favorable
winds prevailing. The monoplane in which the
It
flight is to be made is now under construction.

This flight had to be


cal miles, or 2S0 kiloms.
immediately preceded by one round of the course,
in which the competitor was required to "taxi"
across the line before rising, then make two descents to the surface of the sea at specified points.
Then, without alighting, it was necessary to continue for the flight proper, the starting line having to be crossed in full flight, and as the course
was ten kiloms, round, 28 laps had to be covered.
Entries had been received from France, Great
Britain, the U. S. A., Switzerland, and Germany.
Those competitors who were present at the contest were:
Espanet (Nieuport), Levasseur (Nieuport), and Garros (Morane), for France; C. H.
Pixton (Sopwith) and Lord Carbery (Deperdussin)
for Great Britain;

Burri (F. B. A.) for Switzer-

land; and Weymann (Nieuport) and Thaw (CurStoefller, who was Gerfor the U. S. A.
many's representatives, had a smash on the previous day, as also did Lord Carbery on his Morane, but he promptly made arrangements to use
Janoir's Deperdussin in the actual race.
The rules specified that the start must be made
between 8 a. m. and sunset, and when two bombs
were fired at 8 a. m,, the sea in the Bay of Monaco
was calm, but there was a strong easterly wind.
Almost immediately alter the firing 01 the bombs
Levasseur and Espanet made their appearance, and
after carrying out the preliminary round in fine
style started on the long flight.
Pixton started at
is to be driven by an engine of 200 horse i)ower,
8.16, and the magnificent way in which the Sopeighty
miles
an
which will develop a speed of
with effected its amen-issagLS, together with its

The aeroplane is to carry 320 gallons of


and 150 gallons of oil.
Winston Churcliill, First Lord._of the Admiralty,

hour.

petrol

is an enthusiast on aviation, looped the loop


six times with .'\viator Hamel over Sheerness harMr. Churchill lately has also
17th.
bor on
spent much time at Sheerness and Eastchurch in
making trips iu waterplanes and aeroplanes.

who

May

France

ARMED AND ARMORED AIR


The French Air Corps

is

now

CORPS.

in possession of

squadron of armored aeroplanes, each carrying


a quick-firing gun, capable of throwing a shell
These machines are of
weighing half-a-pound.
the monoplane type, and are two-seaters, having
a

tiss),

armor,
rifle

MONACO

NEW

was disqualified.
Garros won the prize of 25,000
francs for the best time over any course, 5,000
francs for his flight to Buc, another 5,000 francs
for his flight from Brussels to Monaco, as well as
the prizes of the French President, the Grand
Duchess of Mecklenburg, the French Naval Minister,
and the Belgian .\ero Club.
Renaux was
awarded the prize of 10,000 francs for the best
flight by a machine having more than 25 square
metres of surface, while Brindejonc took the 5,000
francs for his Madrid-Monaco trip.
The only
other competitor to finish at Monaco was Mallard
on a Nieuport, and he and Verrier were awarded
4,000 francs each, while Hirth, Brindejonc, and
Moineau, who covered more than 1,000 kiloms.,
were given 3,000 francs each, and StoefHer and
MoUa, who completed more than 5,000 kiloms.,
1,500 francs each.

The rules for the new International Michelin


Cup Competition for 1914 have just been pubThe prize is valued at $4,000 and will be
given to the pilot who before January 1st, 1915,
shall have flown in the fastest time over a fixed
itinerary of about 3,000 kms.
This is, of course,
practically an aerial circuit of France.
The competitors can start from any of the stations in the following list, but for convenience the
distances are given as starting from Versailles,
which include any of the aerodromes of Buc,
great speed made a very favorable impression.
Chateaufort, Villacoublay and Saint-Cyr:
The result of the race was: C. Howard Pixton,
Versailles
km., Peronne 160, Reims 120, SaintSopwith hvdro-biplane, who covered the 150 nautiDizier 110, Gray 130, loignv 180, Beaune 160,
cal miles 'in 2 hrs. 13 2-5 sees., hrst, with Burri
on the F. B. A. flying boat, whose time was 3 Vienne 180, Nimes 190, Pan '380, Saint-Andre-deCubzac
Romorantin
200,
310, Angers 190, Evreux
hrs. 24 mins. 12 sees., second.
Regarding the Curtiss entry which did not enter, 210, Calais 230, Versailles 250 Total 3,000 kms.
It is interesting to note that 12 of the 14 landing
A. C. Burgoine had the following remarks to
stations have been established bv national subscripoffer in "Aeroplane":
"Yesterday afternoon the Curtiss entry arrived tion. Angers and Calais by local committees, and
'en plein vol,' and proved to be an ancient con- the rest by the National Committee.
traption that should have been on the scrap-heap
No change in machines is permitted in the course
long avo.
Of the old biplane type, with over- of the flight, and towing is only permitted aT a
hanging upper biplane, she has a long, shallow walking speed. Pilots can fly by day or by night.
single-step float, with cylindrical metal wing-tip
The competition is international, and a German
floats
and 'spring-boardes.'
The engine is an itinerary of 3,000 kms. has already been marked
8-cylinder Curtiss.
The tail is built up with bam- out as follows: Johannisthal, Dantzig, Schneideboo booms, and tliere are small fixed surfaces, both muhl, Breslau, Dresden, Gotha Mayence, Stuttgart,
vertical and horizontal, in addition to rudder and Mulhouse,
Darmstadt,';
Gelsenkirchen, Hanover,
elevator.
The pilot, poor wretch, sits right out in Hamburg, Warnemunde, and Johannisthal.
front of everything.
The surface fabric is all
baggy and doped in black, and badly wants reGermany
newing.
All bracing is by piano wire of light
A 34
DIRIGIBLE TRIP.
gauge, and about
only thing

vital parts protected by chrome-nickel steel


21/2 millimetres thick, which is proof against
They have
bullets at a range of 700 metres.
engines developing 95 H. P. and a stated flying
speed of about 62 M. P. H. On paper, these seem
to be exceedingly formidable machines and not to
be matched in the air service of any other power.
the
in the machine
Their armOT will enable them to fly with com- one can really admire is a very neat and clever
parative safety at fairly low altitudes, which is idea in spring clips to secure the straining screws."
According to
good for purposes of observation.
THE
AERIAL RALLY.
most authorities the unarmored machine will have
The best flight recorded at the close of the comto maintain an altitude of over three thousand feet
in order to be reasonably safe from modern rifle petition on April 15th was that of Garros over the
Monaco-Buc course, while his second flight over
fire, while, with one reservation, the new French
type ought to be able to fly safely over a hostile the Brussels route secured for him the second
The result was as follows:
position at a height of possibly less than two thou- place.
1.
Garros (Morane-Saulnier, Gnome motor. Insand feet.
tegral propeller), Monaco-Paris, 1,293 kiloms. in
RECORD.
WORLD'S
12 h. 14 m. 21 s.
Over land, 10 h. 32 m. 53 4-5 s.
Poulet brought back to France the record for Over sea, 1 h. 41 m. 27 1-5 s. (record).
2.
Garros (Morane-Saulnier, Gnome motor, Induration without landing on April 26 when he
flew continuously for 16 hours, 28 minutes, 56 4-5 tegral propeller), Brussels-Monaco, 1,293 kiloms.
seconds in tlie neighborliood of Etampes and Or- in 12 h. 2/ m. 13 s. Over land, 10 h. 7 m. 18 s.
leans.
The machine used was a Caudoron biplane (record). Over sea, 2 h. 19 m. 55 s.
3.
Brindejonc des Moulinais (Morane-Saulnier,
with 60 horsepower Le Rhone seven-cylinder rotary motor.
He started from the aerodrome at Gnome motor). Madrid-Monaco, 1.293 kiloms. in
Villesauvage at 5:0S a. m. and did not touch the 16 h. 2 m. 21 3-5 s.
Over land, 12 h. S3 m.
1-5
s.
Over sea, 3 h. 9 m. 10 2-5 s.
ground until he landed there at 9:37 p. m. The 21
4.
Renaux (M. Farman, Renault motor), Bucflight was officially observed by commissioners of
the Aero Club of France and will be accepted by Monaco, 1,293 kiloms. in 53 h. 58 m. 43 2-5 a.
Over land, 51 h. 5 m. 13 s. Over sea, 2 h. 53 m.
the International Aeronautic Federation.

the

June, igi4

ENDURANCE

30 2-5

s.

lished.

HOUR

On May 22, the new navy dirigible L 3,


made a remarkable trip from Friedrichschafen to
Potsdam in thirty-four hours.
The dirigible on
the trip passed over Frankfort, Metz, Bremen
and Heligoland, and upon landing

still had gasosufficient for sixteen hours more of flying.


average speed of nearly sixty miles an hour
made by the dirigible, and at one time,
over a short stretch and with the wind following it, she reached a speed of ninety miles an

lene

An

was

hour.

ARMY FLYERS WIN

IN

CONTEST.

PRINCE HENRY

Lieutenant von Thuena won the first prize in


the Prince Henry reliability contest, flying the
total
distance of about
1,103
miles in
1,035
minutes.
Lieutenant Werner von Beaulieu was
second in 1,050 minutes and Lieutenant Waldemar von Buttlar was third in 1,065 minutes.
Eighteen military aviators and thirteen civilians
composed the competitors in the endurance race,
but about thirty additional military aviators participated in other contests connected with the
meeting.

THE SCHNEIDER CUP COMPETITION.


Verrier (H. Farman, Gnome motor), Buc5.
TO TAX AVIATORS IN GERMANY.
Mr. C. H. Pixton on a Sopwith seaplane won Moanco, 1,293 kiloms. in 63 h. 15 m. 28 s.
Garros (Morane-Saulnier, Gnome motor),
6.
the Schneider Cup and thus England has demonIt is stated that the German Foreign Minister
strated- its superiority, over France at least, in Brussels-Monaco, first time, 245 h. 45 m. 46 s.
is
considering a proposal to impose a tax of
On the last day of the competition IBrindeionc probably 100 marks on all aviators visiting Gerthe construction of over water machines.
Moulinais completed his
It may be recalled that this year tlie competitors des
flight
over the many, irrespective of whether they arrive on an
were set the task of flying a distance of 150 nauti- Monaco-Milan course, but owing to a stop at Padua aeroplane or by any other means.

AIRCRAFT

June, 1914

FLVING IN GERMAN COLONIES.

flying ground which will be utilized chiefly


for military purposes has been formed at Karibib
Tests will shortly
in German South West Africa.
be made by the Government with a view to
demonstrating the possibility of using aeroplanes
for the transport of medical men and mails in
the Colony.

S05-MILE FLIGHT IN

GERMANY.

Starting from Konigsberg at 5.10 a. m. one


day recently, Lieut. Mikulski flew to the Johannisthal aerodrome, and alter a short stop went
From there they new to
on to Mulhausen.

btrasburg, arriving at 8.05 p. m., so that


distance flown during the day was
miles, and the average flying speed v\orked
to 72 miles an hour.
total

Two aeroplanes have been


W. .Africa auring April, an

German

sent to
Aviatik

biplane,

the
805
out

Truck, for Karibib, and a

the interesting cross-country flights of each week,


pilots travelling from one quarter of Germany to
another and back in very good time. Koenigsberg.
near the Russian frontier, is a very favourite
trip,
especially tor the pilots stationed in the
south at Metz or Strassburg, as this takes them
from the most southerly to the most easterly of
the German provinces.
Lieut.
at

Ulm,

country

Wencher,

of

set up a
flight with

new

the 19th Ulans, stationed


world's record for cross-

two passengers.
Starting on
a 100-h.p. L.V.G. biplane from Metz, with Lieuts.
Neumann and Roeder, at 10.50 a. m. on April
27th, he landed at Freiburg at 1 p. m., the distance being about 200 kms.

Major Siegert, piloted by Lieut. Geyer, flew


from Strassburg to Hanover on an inspection
tour, and the following day to Koenigsberg in
an unbroken flight of ten hours. Returning with
Lieut. Mikulsky, Lieut. Geyer flew from Koenigsberg to Berlin, where he landed, and then to
Mulhouse,
in
Alsace-Lorraine,
covering
1,200
kilometers
mins.

in

net

flying-time

of

11

hrs.

45

Recently,
Engineer
Dahm piloted a Gotha
waterplane from Warnemuende to Gedser on the
Danish coast, carrying two iiassengers.
Midway
over the ocean a faulty valve caused an hour's
stoppage for repairs, which were accomplished on
a very stormy sea. .After a stay of an hour and a
half the visitors returned to Warnemuende. Their
net flying time for the 45 kilometers was i2
minutes.
Much has been made by the British
Press of the feat of changing a valve on the
water.
It has already been done by the Naval
Air Service, and by Mr. McClean on the Nile.

Germany's first "looper" is Gustav Tweer, who


inade successful experiments at Bork on a 50-h.p.
Grade monoplane. Tweer's flights are causing no
little
sensation in the Empire, and he has arranged

to demonstrate
at
a
large number
of
His machine is fitted with a landing
on top of as well as below the wings.

cities.

chassis

The engine

is

4-cylinder inverted

making very good progress. The "Sachsen" has aeroplanes were put to work and according to
been housed at Potsdam for a thorough over- all reports gave a very good account of themhauling.
Since it was first chartered by the selves.
.\
complete survey of the Mexican
navy about a year ago it has carried out i7 tours positions were obtained as well as a thorough
without the

slightest mishap.
Scliiitte-Lanz airship lias been over
Forest on various occasions on its
trial trips.
Destined for the German army, it
will be listed as "S.L. 11" and housed at Cologne.
With her four motors of 170 h.p. each she is
capable of 85 kms. per hour, and so far has
given entire satisiaction.
Following a conference between representatives

The new

the

of

Black

tlie

German Army and Navy departments and

Hying ohiceis it has been decided that all German


military aeroplanes are to carry a "First-.-\id"
outfit which will be arranged in a pocket at the
back of tlie pilot's seat.

Holland
S.
to

Koland
steel biplane, built by the L. F. G., to Ketmanshoop, with Fiedler as pilot.
Both machines
are fltted with 100-h.p. 6-cyl. Mercedes motors
and, when arrived, will be under the supervision
of an aviator-officer, Lieut, von Scheele.
There is now great activity in military aviation,
and long columns would hardly suthce to chronicle
be piloted by

327

type.

Piteous letters have arrived in Germany from


the three balloonists, Herren Berliner, Ilasse and
Nicolai, kept under police surveillance at Perm
for espionage since February 8th.
A charge list of
ISO pages has been made out against them, one
of the accusations being that they were engaged
in studying the wind currents for the Zeppelin
airships.
It is reported that the Zeppelin works at Friedrichshafen
are
building a
hydro-aeroplane
to
compete for the "Daily Mail" trans-.Atlantic prize.
The attempt is not expected to be made till next

year.

At present the Dutcli .Vrmy possesses four

flying

observation

of

were

tliere

American

no

assuurance

harbor for
lurking mines

the

set

to

that

destroy

Some

remarkable photographs were taken from above.


As soon as the
.\rmy landed its Corp two or three army machines
were brought into play with good effect. A naval
aviation school at Vera Cruz has been established an has for its equipment three hydro-aeroplanes and two flying boats.
.\n admirable site
has been selected for the school with sufficient
beach and breakwater for all purposes. Lieutenant
Patrick N. L. Bellinger who has distinguished
himself so far because of his sjilcndid work in
securing
accurate
maps and vaualble photographs of the enemy and his surroundings has
been made the Lieutenant Instructor of the
school while Lieutenant John H. Towers is the
officer in charge.
He has with him three qualified pilots in Lieut. Richard C. Saufley, Ensign
Walter D. La Mont and Ensign Melvin L. Stolz.
Many naval officers of the .Atlantic fleet have
had some experience in flying and are anxious
w-ar

ships.

but in the lorthcoming estimates provision


is to be
made for the extension of this branch
of the service by the acquisition of more machines.
.Aeroplanes are to be used as much as
possible at any manceuvres which may be held,
and it is also proposed to carry out some flying to qualify as pilots.
exercises in connection with the Army and Navy
Russia
in the Dutch East Indies.
The "Ilia Mourametz," the Sikorsky biplane,
Arrangements are being made for the establishment of a works in Holland for the construc- has acquitted herself well with the two 200-h.p.
Salmsoiis
by
which
she
is now driven, having made
tion of aeroplanes.
A flying ground has been
secured adjoining the aerodrome at Soestenberg, about thirty flights, totalling 20 hours.
Still
later advices slate that of the
10 big
where Farman biplanes and Brouckere monoplanes will be built under license.
The Company Sikorskys on order 6 will have each 2 Salmson
will
be under the management of M. Henri engines each of 200-h.p. and 2 of 130 h.p. each,
i.e., 4 engines totalling 660 h.p. on each machine.
Wijnmalen.
The mere school machines will have each 4
Italy
Argus engines of 100 h.p. each, or 400 h.p. per
Italian airsliip continue to good work in their machine.
almost daily mana;uvres and it is generally conIt is stated from St. Petersburg that arrangeceded that as far as her dirigibles are concerned, ments are being made for a race between the
Italy ranks second only to Germany.
The fol- Sikorsky giant biplane and an express train from
lowing figures respecting Italian lighter-than-Air- the Russian capital to Moscow.
M. Sikorsky
Craft therefore is interesting to note.
will pilot the aeroplane, while the train is to be
Cruisers (1) "City of Ferrara," Italian military driven by M. Shtshukin, Assistant to the Russian
build, 12,000 cub. meters, 500-h.p., 70 kms. per Minister of Communications.
hr., .^,800 kgs. .useful load, 24 hrs.' fuel capacity,
Russia's co-operation in the around the world
stationed at Ferrara. (2) "City of Venice" (Pars- aeronautical race of the Panama-Pacific Exposieval), 9,600 cub. metres, 360-h.p., 59 kms. per tion is assured.
hr., 2,800 kgs. useful load, 20 hrs' fuel capacity,
The supervision of the race through Russia
stationed at Venice.
(3; "Gi," Italian military and Siberia will be in charge of the Aero Club
build, 40,000 cub. metres, 100 kms. per hr. (under Imperial de Russia.
Infteen stations have been
construction).
as supj.ly points along the Trans(4) "Vl," semi-rigid, designed by designated
Sig. Verduzio. 14,650 cub. metres, twelve com- Siberian Railway.
partments, 400-h.p., 90 kms. per hr., 24 hrs.' fuel
The Russian Aero Club has now decided upon
capacity
(iiivler
construction).
Unnamed the route which is to be follewcd by the aviator
(5)
,,Ii.
Parsev.il, 1s,i){hi
metres, 600-h.p., 75 kms. per Janoir in his flight from St. Petersburg to Pekin.
Ini-Mh.
.nnsimction).
hr.
There will be fifteen stations on the way at MosSeoul,
ll'i
lu
(P5), Italian military build, cow,
Samara, Oufa, Kourgau, Omsk, Tomks,
4,200 to 4.;uu Lub. metres, 100 to 160-h.p., 52-60 Krasuoiarsk,
Nijnioudinsk,
Irkoutsk,
Tchita,
kms. per hr., 1,000 to 1,500 kgs, useful load, 10 Matziewskaia,
Tsitsckar,
Kharbine,
Mouckden,
to 20 hours^ fuel capacity, stationed variously at Takou, and the total distance will he about 9,000
Bracciano, Campalto, Boscomantico, Tripoli, Leros. kilom.
"P" stands for "piccolo," i.e., small size.
Switzerland
The Italian Navy also has a dirigible similar
The German aeroplanes were very .successful
10 the "City of Ferrara," known as "MI," and 111 the military tests
at Geneva, and the Commisanother of this type is under construction.
It sion has laid a favourable
report, advocating their
is
interesting to note that many of the Italian purchase, before
the Diet.
dirigible sheds have been built by Muller, of
On April 22nd, M. Oscar Bider left Berne at
Berlin.
5.40 a. m. with a passenger on a Morane SaulnierMajor Piazza having been authorized to loop Gnome monoplane, crossed the summit of
the
the loop, and having stated that it would seem Jungfrau, a peak 4,167 metres
high, and landed
advisable for looping to be made one of the tests at Brigue at 7.18.
This is the second time M.
wdien the Government accepts machines for its Bider has crossed the Jungfrau.
pilots, presumably looping by the military aviators
Sweden
will be sanctioned.
The Sodertelje (Scania-Vabis) Aircraft Factory
Lieut.
Salamoni on the 22nd at Centocelle
(Rome) reached 4,700 metres (14,500 ft.) on a Chief Manager Baron CederstrSm has asked
Henri Farman, the first notable record of that the Minister of War for a subvention of $15,000.
escadrille.
Judging by the number of N.C.O.s for building Farman aeroplanes in Sweden with
Ten Farman biplanes have now been
taking their tickets on both biplanes and mono- sole rights.
planes of all sorts it will not be long before bought, and six .Army officers will now be taught
officers will cease to be their own aerial chauffeurs, flying.
and so will have time to attend to the duties
Turkey
proper to their rank.
.\ parasol Nieuport with
On April 9th a seaplane flew at Constantinople
Morane landing gear built at the Macchi works for the first time.
Mr. J. D. Cooper flew a
was recently tested by Clement Maggiora at 100-h.p. boat before a naval
and military comBusto.
mission at Kiitchiik-Tchekmedje.
The demonstraJapan
tion was organized by the Ottoman Naval League.
M. Liger, pilot of Moranes at Villacoublay, has Mr. Cooper proposes to fly across the Sea of
Marmora, from Kutchiik-Tchekmedji to Kadistarted on his way to Japan, where he will organkeiiy.
ize aviation schools, presumably for the GovernLieuts. Selim Bey and Kemal Bey have flown
ment.
from Edremid near Beyrouth to Jerusalem on
officers,

100,000 marks ($25,000) in prizes have been


given for the three-cornered flight Berlin-LeipMexico
zig-Dresden.
A fifth of the sum is to be kept
their Blcriot (80-h.p. Gnome).
for local meetings during the event, and the
It
is
stated that Capt.
The invasion of the U. S. .Army and Navy
Joseph dc Govs dc
remainder awarded to the longdistance fliers.
Mexico has given some opportunity for Mereyac, who was secretary to General llirchinto
L.Z.24, the new Zeppelin the army will list the government of both the U. S. and Mexico auer, and is now in command of an
escadrille at
as Z. 9, is nearing completion, and will com- to
sit
Hardly had the Chalais-Mendon has been selected to take charge of
up and take notice.
mence its workshop tests shortly. L|Z.25 is also marines landed in Vera Cruz when the raw llic organization of military aviation in Turkey.

PRACTICAL AEROPLANE DESIGN


By
P.\RT
The second
the
tion is
is

which

step in the design of an aeroplane


selection of a lifting surface whose secin lift, drift, and stability, and
easily adapted to the questions of speed,

efficient
is

weight carrying capacity, power consumption, etc.,


being considered by the designer.
This selection is wholly a matter of results
obtained by experimenters of the great aerodynamical laboratories of the world, and is not
a matter of mere guess-work, upon the part of
the designer.
It cannot be "fixed" theoretically,
and
one can say that a parabolic curve or

II.

PAUL

J.

PALMER

LIFTING SIKFACES AND THEIR SELECTION.

true arc of a circle makes the best wing section


for an aeroplane, but "results," and results alone,
demonstrate the type of Surface best suitable for
aeroplane work, the cargo-packer requiring one
Therefore the
section and the racer another.
author will not attempt to advise the designer
what section to use, but will supply the "dope"
obtained from actual experiments made by Eiffel,
the "dean" of Aerodynamical Engi
and leave the matter of selection of sui
to
the design

NOMENCL.ATURE: In

order

to

make some

of the h
Plate 11

ill

this

bed.

on

curved

"plane"

clear. Fig. XII,


self-explanatory.
flat plane and

article

and

is

TYPES OF SURFACES:
the

comprise

The

the surfaces use<l


resulting from the

all aeroplanes, the forces


action of the air on these surfaces supporting,
balancing,
propeiling tli/t; aieroplane through
the medi
of support, the air.
"
- ~
FL.Vr SURFACES:
The flat, or true, plane
practical aeroplanes for the main
is not used in
lifting surface owing to its inefhciency as com.
pared with a curved plane of the same size. Flat

AIRCRAFT

328
surfaces,
ailerons,

however,
elevating

are

for control areas,


rudders, and stabiliz-

used

planes,

keels, where the action is required to act


in both directions, using the top and bottom or
Fig. I, Plate II, shows
botli sides of the surface.

ing

the action of air on an inclined plane being proFig. I, Plate III, shows the
pelled through it.
lift
and drift, or "polar diagram," centers of
pressure, etc., for a flat plane at various angles
The calculations relating to the
of incidence.
use of the flat surfaces in connection with control areas will be discussed under that head in

have assumed arbitrarily that the parabolic curve


the best, but the most recent experiments showthat the most efficient section is not truly parabolic, but circular in form, and it will be best
for the designer to take the results of the most
successful experimenters rather than to experiment himself, unless he be fortunate enough to
possess the "wherewithal" to make original tests
of various curvatures for himself.
is

June, 1914
That the center of
normal flying angle.
pressure varies greatly can be seen from the
cenler-of-pressure curves on Plate III for each
surface.
The greatest change in the center of
degrees
pressure of an aerofoil lies between
and 12 degrees. It is this fact that renders the
In debalancing of a plane a difficult matter.
signing an aeroplane the weights should always
be so placed that the centers of pressure, gravity,
thrust and resistance fall in the same line and
the

ACTION OF THE AIR ON A CURVED common point.


PLANE; Fig. II, Plate II, shows the stream
Change of speed

or load per square foot does


not affect the center of pressure providing the
angle of incidence remains unchanged, and the
center of pressure of an aeroplane changes only
with the alteration of the angle of incidence,
camber, and aspect ratio of the surface.
ASPECT RATIO: It has been proven that a
TYPES OF CURVED SURFACES: There are
long narrow plane is more efficient than a short
innumerable curvatures in use in aeroplanes at
Liffel has determined that the best
wide one.
the present time, some parabolic curves, some
aspect ratio, or the ratio of the chord to span
true arcs of circles, some combined curved and
is about one to six, and that no great advantage
planes, each serving a particular purpose.
flat
be
gained
by varying from this ratio.
can
No particular section can be selected off-hand
SHAPED PLANE ENDS: The general tenwithout first considering all the conditions of
monoplane
is to make the
dency
among
CENTER OF PRESSURE: The center of planes with rounded endsbuilders
These conditions include the weight
the problem.
and tapering in plan.
of the machine ready for flight, speed, angle of pressure on a plane changes when the angle of
The stability and balance Eiffel has shown that at the ends of the planes
available,
and so
horsepower
on. incidence is altered.
incidence,
there is a falling off of pressure which enables
Authors in general have given much space to of an aeroplane depends upon the correct loca- the plane ends to be shaped or rounded, rethe question of the correct plane section, some tion of the center of pressure for the wing at ducing the resistance somewhat and increasing
In biplane practice, owing to
efficiency.
the
structural difficulties, curving the ends is not
done very much, though some constructors curve
a

future article.

CURVED SURFACES: It has been proven


that the curved plane gives the greatest lift and
least drift of all surfaces and is, therefore, used
by all successful builders and designers.

around a typical curved plane,


lines flowing
The "upand is drawn from a photograph.
trend" of the air currents is shown taking place
advance
of
the leading edge and shows why
in
a curved plane will lift even at a negative angle
The parof incidence of two or three degrees.
tial vacuum formed on the back of the plane and
the increased pressure on the face is clearly
This demonstrates that the top of a
show-n.
plane is really many times more efficient than
In some cases the depression
the lower portion.
on the top of a plane contributes more than
two thirds the lift of a plane.

them

slightly.

AND

LIFT

DRIFT: The lift and drift of a


per square foot vary according to
section of the plane and are different for
surface.
Plate III contains the lift and
drift or polar diagrams for a speed of one mile
per hour and are given in thousandths of pounds
per square foot.
Since the lift and drift of a
plane is proportional to the square of the speed,
a table of squares is given in Plate II.
In
using the table, multiply the lift and drift at
one mile per hour for the angle of incidence,
by the square of the speed it is desired to at-

plane surface
the

each

tain.

INCREASE OF ANGLE OF INCIDENCE:


By

increasing the angle of incidence the lift and


increased almost proportionately, especismall angles, or, approximately, increasing the angle from 4 degrees to S degrees will
double the lift.
drift is
ally for

SELECTION OF WING SECTION:

When

"cogitating" upon what section to use, the designer should always bear in minds the general
performance of the actual plane.
Constructors
should always endeavor to produce an aeroplane
that will have a maximum lift and minimum
resistance.
This, however, cannot be obtained
at the expense of stability.
The result is that
builders
have
adopted
V-shaped
planes
and
"bird" wing types at the expense of efficiency.
The author will not attempt to advise the section to be used, but will supply the results and
let the designer select that section which seems
best suited to the conditions of the problem.

PLANE SECTIONS:

The results and curves


III are taken from Eiffel's "Rethe Air and Aviation," and are rethe English system of mathematical
calculation.
The surfaces given are: Flat rectangular plane, Fig. I: Circular arc, camber
113.5 of chord. Fig. II: Circular arc wnth camber of 12 of chord. Fig. III.
Curve forward,
plane rear, Fig. IV. Eiffel or Crescent shape,
Fig. V.
Wright, Fig. VI. Breguet, Fig. VII.
(The center of pressure curve was not supplied
by Eiffel, and hence is not given) Maurice Farman, Fig. VIII. Bleriot XI, Cross Channel type,
Fig. IX.
Bleriot XI "bis," Fig. X.
Voisin plane,
which is practically Curtiss, Fig. XI. The wing
section and aspect ratio plan is furnished so as
to
enable the designer to "lay out" his plans
readily, with a "sure-thing" curve.
shown on Plate
sistance

duced

Square
1296
1369
1444
1521
1600
1681

5041
5184
6329

5476
5625
5776
5929

17 64

100
lEl
144
169
196

3 61
4C0

441
84
529
576
625
676
729
7B4
B41
900
961
1024
1089
4

11:36
lr;26

1849
1936
2025
2116
2209
2304
2401
2S00
2601
2704
2809
2916
3025
3136
3249

4 624

900

-^

NOTICE:

6241
6400
6561
6724.

J.00

6889
7056
7225
7396
7569
7744
7921
8100
8281
8464
8649
8836
9025
9216
9409
9604
9801
10000

AIKCRAFT.

4761
4

SQUARES

6084

33 64

3481
3600
3721
3844
3969
4066
4225
4356
4480

TABLE

Speed.

PRACTICALPlate: II-

ThiB table of

SUMMARY: In selecting a plane section for


an aeroplane, the designer should bear in mind
that:
1.

aquaree is to be used

of

to

2.

The aspect
The center

alteration

in connection v/ith the

lift and drift in pounds

per square foot at a


speed of one mile per
hour.

The figures

given In the polar diagrams are to te multi-

plied by the square of


the speed to obtain the

lift and drift.

AEROPLANE DESIGN.

""'^^

p'

viy^i^li'^-

ratio should be about 1 to 6.


of pressure changes with the
of the angle of incidence.

3.
For small angles, the increase of the liftand-drift is almost proportional to the increase
of the angle of incidence.
4.
Increasing the angle of incidence from 4
degrees to 8 degrees approximately doubles the

The

actual lift and drift of an aeroplane


angle of incidence multiplied by the
equal to the product of the lift and
square of the speed multiplied by the area of
the plane in square feet.
6.
The general performance and use of the
actual aeroplane when constructed.
Care in the selection of a plane surface
7.
and section will give the least variation in the
center of pressure under changes of the angle
of incidence, and will give more speed through
not requiring large control areas.
S.
The fastest and most efficient aeroplane is
one in which the cross section of the plane is
such that for any change in the angle of incidence
the center of pressure changes in a minimum
5.

drift

wing

at the
is

amount.
The next article will be on the Eiffel Design
Chart and its use in the design of an aeroplane.

AIRCRAFT

June, ipi4

|L1FT(K,1IN

PaUNUS

PER

jaUAREFOOT^

iS

oLIFTC<)m I FOUNDS

329

PER oSOUARfFOOT

i^y^--m^^ 4-a[4-!+H

%'CHOR0 FROM ENTERING- EO&E

MFECThhTW:

7.

"CHORD FR0nENTEfllN6 ED&E

<Z1

/'-f

ASPECT

RATIO- ri.l5

^ST'V*
oLIFT

(Ky)lN POUNDS PER

SQUARE

FOOT

?s"

gLlFT(KyllN oPOUA/OSPER ^SaUAItE FOOT

5" SlIFT

(y)IN

gPOUNSPER

S0UAREFT.8

AIRCRAFT

330
Seattle

June, 1914

and Puget Sound News

Bv Paul J. Palmer.
rR. G. W. STkOMEK, the Tacoma flier,
seems to be having his sliave of the
jinx, for on Sunday, April 27th, when
and prem flight "something broke"
cipitated the airman and the plane to
but
tlie ground, smashing the plane up
a little,
Stromer
Mr.
only bruising
ishman of the U. S. District Court lor
n District of Washington has a case
The
on his hands which he is "cogitating" over.
Foss Boat Company brought suit against The Harcost
vey Crawford Aeroplane Company to recover
ComFoss
The
Crawlord.
sold
to
of some rope
an
pany sought to libel the "Crawford No. 2,
aeroplane, and it is up to Judge Cushman to deor
cide whether an aeroplane is a nautical device
This case will decide the posia "land-lubber."
tion of the aeroplane in the legal and commercial
world, by determining whether it is a marine animal, a bird, or a terra

hrma

navigator.

Charles Zorn, the old Benoist flier, has become


connected with the Hamilton Company ot Seattle.

airboat described in the April Aircraft is


nearly completed, and will be tried out on Lake
Washington soon.

Ihe

TO RAVIATE:

Irate Landowner
that the spot upon

"Are you aware of the fact


vhich you have landed is my

property?"

Airman

(after

si

The Wright Aviation School Doing Well


the
Judging from the activity displayed
from
nu"mbe"r of students enrolling and graduating
Dayton, Ohio,
the Wright School of Aviation at
being taken
so far this season the art of flying is
people who intend to make a proin earnest by
UP
'
' '
'
up
j,eii as those who take
iession of
flying as a pure sport.
Mr. Howard M. Rin chart, the expert Wright
is meeting with
pilot, has charge of the school and
turning out aviators of qual... ...
exceptiona
of being the first graduate of the
Norman, of
V.
Lloyd
of
lot
the
fell
to
se'ason
Chicago, who acquired his brevet on May 9th.
Among the other students who graduated recently
with honors are Jesse A. Carpenter of Chicago

and Earl Utter of Columbus Junction, Iowa.


Instruction on the School machines is
ith the
ticularly easy owing to their equipment
new type of rudder, which tends to maKe tne
machine automatically stable, but at the same time
to
delicateness
gives a degree of preciseness and
the control which is most gratifying.
Mr Orville Wright does a great deal of flying
1

of
these days at Simms Station for the purpose
constantly keeping in touch with the art and
the machines whenever
making improvements
possible.

aero^ii.uL.,^. ..^.. design of the newest Wright


boat to be built for the U. S. Navy will shortly
be made public,

First Trans-Atlantic Flyer Abandoned


first designs for the proposed trans-atlantic
have been built for Rod
vhich
fly
the
g miscarried somewhere
construction of the aircraft has been suspi nded.
according to late newspaper advices, and the construction of a second machine to be built under
has
the directions of Lieutenant John C. Porte
begun.

The

,_.

Ihonias

which

pc

pilot,

age

bu'^ir

seated

...

zn

..-

j'f

the latest

doing a

Favorable action was taken on the


Senate Military Affairs Committee on

bill

May

carrying business

Y.,

during the past

Woodruff, past Governor of Connecticut; and


a wealthy manufacturer of New

prevents it fron bouncing or tipping over.


When it is desired to start the aeroplane these
hooks are turned so that they disengage from the
wires and the aeroplane runs along on its rollers
just as it would on wheels.
With a few minor changes in the apparatus
Wires
Monoplane
on
Lands Sloane
Mr. Amiss feels confident that he has developed
On the first trials made on May 11th ai the a device which will be of great value in warfare.
Hempstead Plains Aviation Field with the wire
launching and landing device of James T. Amiss,
Books by A. H. Verrill
of Baton Rouge, La., John Guy Gilpatric, using a
Harper and Brothers of New York have recently
Sloane monoplane equipped with rollers alighted
on the wire pathway, but the machine not being issued two new books by A. H. Verrill relating to
Harper's Aircraft Book explains the
equipped with brakes, which are part of the design, aeronautics.
making of model aeroplanes and the operation of
rolled off the end of the runway.
The device which is designed to facilitate aero- large aircraft in an accurate, simple and compreand
starting
from
battleships,
alighting
on
planes
In the preparation of this book the author had
or on bad or restricted grounds.
The apparatus consists of a landing platform the aid and co-operation of many noted and sucS.

M. Ullman,
Haven are large

stockholders.
The capital stock
of the Connecticut Aircraft Company was recently
increased from $500,000 to $1,400,000.

New

made

passenger

Isaac

of a network of wires ten inches apart


stretched between two rows of posts 200 feet apart.
For naval work the wdres are stretched along one
side of a battleship or above the forward deck,
while for military work they can be erected at
almost any point, particularly in the mountains
Aviation Corps Bill Passes the House
and over grounds wdiere good landing places canfor
Any aeroplane or hydro-aeroplane
On May the ISth, the Hay bill providing
not be found.
the organization of a separate army aviation corps can be adapted to land on these wires by a simple
a project which it was first intended to incor- attachment of rollers underneath the chassis and
was passed the fitting of a special arrangement of hooks
porate in the Army Appropriation Bill
by the House as a separate measure without a which catch on the wires when the machine alights
dissenting vote.
The measure provides for a corps of 60 aviation
Half of these offiofRcers and 260 enlisted men.
cers are to be known as junior military aviators
and half as military aviators. Provision is made
for the assignment to the corps of unmarried ofhcers under the rank of Lieutenant as aviation stuAssignments of all officers are to be from
dents.
the line of the army under the rank of Captain.
Additional rank, pay and allowances are to be
granted, and in the cases of death a widow of an
aviation corps officer will be entitled automatically
The terms of enlistment
to one year's full pay.
are four years, and increased pay ranging from 35
per cent, to 75 per cent, above pay of the same
grade in other branches of the service is allowed.
Aviation students are to be selected from unmarried lieutenants of the line under thirty years of

Thomas Aeroplane Co., and Kalph


Thomas Flying Boats at Dobbs Ferry, N.

thriving

Dobbs Ferry is situated Dn the Hudson River a short distance from New York City and a
great many New Yorkers have ta ven advantage of the opportunity to fly at the rate of $20 per trip
This boat was described in detail in
in such a wonderful craft as the Thomas Brothers turn out.
the March number of Aircraft.

cessful

aviators

as

well

as

many

of

his

fellow

members

of the Aeronautical Society.


Harper^s Gasolene Book is brought out for the
purpose of acting as a guide, in a simple, practical
way for all those who own, use or operate gas
and gasolene motors. In its preparation elTort has
been made to do away with technical terms and
names and to adapt the book to the requirements

who possess little or no knowledge of enBoth books are equally


gineering or mechanics.
well written and answer admirably the purposes
for which they were produced.
of those

by the
22d.

Nothing Doing Yet


Negotiations have been under way for some
time past between the Connecticut Aircraft Co.

and The Wright Company looking to an arrangement whereby the former company would acquire
the exclusive license to build flying machines under
The Connecticut Aircraft Co.
the Wright patents.
proposed to guarantee the payment of royalties of
$1,000 on each machine, the aggregate of which
would be not less than $75,000 each year, so it
However, all propositions set forth
was stated.
up to the time Aircraft goes to press were rejected by Orville Wright.
Samuel H. Morehouse, council for the New
York; New Haven and Hartford Railroad, is president of the Connecticut Aircraft Company. KoUin

Photograph of the new armored monopla


of Paterson, N. J.
It is of the monocoque type a
chord 6 feet, and 150 square feet of lifting surface
pilot.

ilitary scout work by Maximilian Schmitt,


has a spread of 25 feet, length IS feet, wing
the machine weighs 600 pounds without

Loaded

AI RCRAFT

June, 19 1

331

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
20

CENTS A LINE

FOR SALE
A T A BAR(;.\1.\,
" complete with 70

Tractor Hvdroaeronlanc
H. P. MAXIMOTOR ai
ranged for passenger carrying.
Will be sold fo
just one-half the original cost.
Address Max
motor Makers, 1530 Jefferson Ave., E. Detroil
Mich.

MOTORS and Motorcycles. Bought and


AERO
sold ne used. R.
Ostergaard, 1938 N.
J.

Albany .-\ve., Chicago. 111.


with Aviation Company.

AVIATION MOTORS:

Note:

Not

connected

All makes, air and


water cooled, all horse powers, perfect condition guaranteed, from $250 up.
Complete machines, monos and bi]ilanes, liydroplaTus and aero
boats from $500 up. If you have an underpowered,
unsatisfactory motor, why not exchange it for a
larger motor and fly successfully?
Everything for
aviation bought, sold and exchanged.
State your
needs.
U. S. .4ero Exchange, 38 Park Row, New
York City.

SEVEN WORDS TO LINE

CASH WITH ORDER

AIRCRAFT

333

Excelsior

June. 1914

WRINKLE'S PRESERVATIVE BALLOON VARNISH

propel-

deliver t h e
lers
The most
prominent
aeror
c
the l^celsior
plane manufacturers and aviators in America recognize the superiority of
Propeller.
You can get an Excelsior from the following agents. D-M Aero Co [Denver.
Aviation Field. Oakwoods
Col.. Nels J. Nelson. New Britain, Conn., Wm. Sylvester
Pa.,
Phlla.,
526 W. Uhigh Ave.,
Heights. Slaten Island. N. Y., J. A. Coniow.
Edward Crabtree. Hangar No. 9, Hempstead Plains, N. Y. Booklet upon request.

BALLOONS, DIRIGIBLES, AEROPLANES, ETC.

EXCELSIOR PROPELLOR

WRINKLE PAINT MFG.

An

Elastic Non-porous Varnish for silk, linen,


muslin and other fabrics used in the manufacture of

goods.

Mo.

Belt Aye.,St. Louis,

CO., 1488

HE
and

efficient

clean-cut,
reliable

KEMP

Built in four sizes


right price. Ask the ma

nd

sell

the

World.

at

who owns c

Catalog and partlcula

CO.,

COLUMBUS, OHIO

BUY DIRECT FROM THE MANUFACTURER


AND SAVE THE MIDDLEMAN'S PROFIT

air-

cooled motors.

Aero Varnish Manufacturers in


Guaranteed Absolutely Waterproof.

Largest and Oldest

Full line of woodwork, metal fittings and accessories for all types
of machines in stock, ready for immediate delivery.
Builders should have our catalogue describing 750 parts and fittings, for reference.
Send 6 cents for Catalogue B.B.

AERO MFG. AND ACCESSORIES

MUNCIE, IND.

THOMAS

Benoist
Flying
Boats

STUDENT
Makes New

Altitude
Record

and

Tractor
Biplanes
have more world records than all other American
manufacturers combined

1913 Model "Thomas 65"-HoIds Ai


Endurance Record with a Passenger

This

Benoist Aircraft

,15'"^'

AND AERO VARNISH


first in the field, and the test of
proving that our product is the best

were the
is

Secure our Booklet;

Thomas

it

unsurpassed record.
contains important information.

Bros. Aeroplane Co., Bath, N. Y.

Do

not underpower your FIjdng Boat.


The HALL-SCOTT 100 H-P is the most powerful, smoothest running, and reliable equipment
upon the market.
Write for booklet upon

Sample Book

THE
101

A-7,

C. E.

100 H-P

60 H-P

40 H-P

AERONAUTICAL CLOTH
time

FRANK BURNSIDE'S

HALL-SCOTT

NAIAD
We

is

Now Open.

Address:

12,575 Feet

THOMAS SCHOOL

t::ir^:
Classes

Co., ^^

CO.

14-16-lS Dunham Place, Brooklyn, N. Y.


Successors, Cordcaux. Etter Manufacturing Corporation

Kemp Machine Works.

this

motor.

Data and Prices on Request

CONOVER

CO.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

MANUFACTURERS

NEW YORK

FRANKLIN STREET,

WIRE
Aviator

Wire

supplied in

sizes

THE BOLAND MOTOR


8 cyI-"V" type-60 H.
240 Pound

with

plate finish,

Cord

P.

DURABILITY

RELIABILITY

MAXIMUM POWER

MINIMUM WEIGHT

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

of twisted wire.

Equipped with

The
plicity in

John A. Roeblings Sons Co.


TRENTON,

Calif.

Boland Aeroplane and Motor Co.

making soldering easy.


This wire is specially drawn from extra
Also Aviator
quality high grade steel.
a

San Francisco,

818 Crocker Bldg.

N.

Boland Control (two movements) and

ihe

BOLAND CONTROL
new

is

system of control, which

Office

BOLAND IWOTOR.

the embodiment of utmost safety and simWrite for particulars.


is basic in principle.

Factory

BROADWAY
NEW YORK

1821
J.

FT.

CENTER STREET
NEWARK, N. J.

Buy Your Gnome Motor from


Us and Save Money
All Spare Parts Delivered on
Short Notice.

Here are the Facts

MOISANT MONOPLANE "BLUEBIRD"


THE BEST OF ALL FOR

ENDURANCE STABILITY

SPEED SAFETY

Used by the Leading Aviators, Moisant Aviation


School

The

Most Up-to-date School

in

America

Write at once for Booklet

Address

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS,

1790 Broadway, N. Y.

ijiiiiiriiiiiJiiriiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiii

A GOOD MOTOR

IN

YOUR

AEROPLANE ME ANS
SUCCESS
BUY YOUR

MOTOR FROM US
AND SAVE

MONEY
GREAT BARGAINS

IN

SPARE

PARTS AND SECOND-HAND MOTORS

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS


1790

BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

The hearty

Thomas

reception of the

Flying Boat proves

that the public recognizes the unquestionable

advantages of

steel construction

EVERY OWNER IS SATISFIED AND DELIGHTED!


THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT IS PRACTICALLY UNSINKABLE.
wreck

to

it,

for the reason that the hull

covered with sheet

The
for

is

constructed of

two-ply

It is almost impossible
planking and is entirely

steel.

fact that the

THOMAS FLYING BOAT

will not

absorb water

is

one of many reasons

UNSURPASSED EFFICIENCY.
BEFORE YOU SELECT A FLYING BOAT, BY ALL MEANS INVESTIGATE THE THOMAS.

its

great and

You must

see the

tional values

and

Thomas

Flying Boat to fully appreciate and understand

THOMAS FLYING BOATS


Biplanes

the

its

points of excep-

superiority.

are built upon the enviable reputation of the famous

Thomas

American Record Holders.

Send

for Booklet "

T"

Today.

Address

THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


BATH, NEW YORK

CO.

YOU SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT- T

IS.

IF

YOU DO NOT SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-IT

THE FINAL TRIUMPH OF SIDNEY F. BECKWITH, ONE OF AMERICAS MOST PERSISTENT EXPFRIMENTORS WHO, AFTER
THREE YEARS WORK FOR THE LOVE OF IT. IN CONJUNCTION WITH MR. CR\BTREE. IS REACHED
AS SHOWN ABOVE, WITH MR. BECKWITH ACTING AS HIS OWN PILOT

The Beckwith 80

h. p.

Military Tractor Biplane in action at

Hempstead

Plains,

N. Y.

IS

NOT

SLOANE
Aeroplanes, Monoplanes, Biplanes, HydroAeroplanes, Flying Boats, Aero-Skimmers
machines
THE
and comfort
ideal

for military, naval

and sporting

uses.

Speed, safety

unrivaled.

For over three years, Sloane Aeroplanes have been used by dozens of
and novices; carrying hundreds of passengers, for thousands of
miles over land, sea, mountains and cities without a single accident.
pilots, pupils

Can Any Other Means of Fast Transportation Show Such a Record for Safety?

pi
Q V 1
r lying OCnOOl

Sp^^^^ ^^ ideal and profitable vacation learnino- to fly on the new Sloane
Flying-Boat. Tuition $300 for the full courseno breakage charges.

Special terms to militarj^ and naval officers.

Builders, Fliers- Attention!


You cannot possibly get the utmost out
of your aeroplanes unless j^ou equip them
with the finest motors.
Avaste

Why

money on

power plants ? Get


a record-breaking motor and make your
machine a record-breaker. Why is it
inferior

aeroplanes hold all the world's


?
Not because thej' are better
built and designed but simply because
they use the
I'oreign

records

Le Rhone, Gnome, AustroDaimler and Anzani Engines


Avhich are the lightest, most powerful and highest developed power plants so far produced.
Did you notice that the onlj' two machines to finish in the recent International HydroAeroplane race at Monaco used 100 H. P. Gnomes ? that a new
1.*
1J> TV
J of 16 hours, '28 minutes was recentl.y established bj^

WY
World

D
UuratlOn KeCOrd

flying for 16 hours non-stop with a 60


then on account of darkness.

May we
the Gnome,

poukt with aeo H.

H. P, motor

p.

in a stock

Le Rhone^n^t

think of

it-

machine and only descending

send you catalog, giving descriptions, photographs and installation drawings of


Aiistro-Dnimler and Anzani Motors 1 It will pay you to learn more

Lc Rhone,

about them.

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


1731

BROADWAY

\AMERICA
V

AGENTS

NEW YORK

CITY

AIRCRAFT

July, 1914

333

SEIDLER'S BEACH
NEW JERSEY
the

is

bonafide flying boat station

first

in the world.

flying

the most ideal landing place tor


boats within 50 miles of New

York

City.

It

is

We

No owner
boat
to

Brusisels,

or pilot

of either

flying

New York

Beach
Beach

Seidler's

adapted

known

for

Hotel

flying

flyers as

is

especially

well

which

is

Wal-

makes

a dot

Frank Coffyn, Grover C.


Loening, Ifre d W. Lawson, Walter E.
Johnson, Earl Beers and Barton, have
this

operated by the observer. A pull of one second


Thus
a pull of three seconds makes a dash.

Such

the

is

ter Brookins,

made

si.x

J. Collier,

men.

Robert

Morse code revealed against

From VILLUSTRATION,

Communicate with

FRANK SEIDLER

FOR LICENSE APPLY TO

JAMES MEANS

JERSEY
1

96 Beacon

CONTENTS JULY,

News

Grover Cleveland Loening

335

R. H. Blanquie

336

new Wright Aero-boat

Practical Aeroplane Design


Eiffel

to English

The Martinsyde Trans-Atlantic Machine,

News

Walter A. House

337

Arthur V. Prescott

338

Palmer

339

Paul

Aeroplane Design Chart reduced

General

U. S, A.

1914

News

Scale Drawings of the

Foreigh

BOSTON, MASS.,

Street

.,...,..
.................
...........
...............
............
...........
..................

The New Wright Aero-boat, Type


California

Paris

.American engineer, Mr. Means, has invented for the


service of military scouting on board aeroplanes a system
of optical telegraphy of remarkable simplicity. The Morse
signals are shown against the sky with lamp black.

For Further Particulars

NEW

the sky.

An

beach their head(|uarters.

CLIFFWOOD

Belgium

months ago M. Breguet, of Paris, acquired


a license for France of a system invented by an American,
Mr. Means, and they have not delayed in applying it to
their biplanes.
Underneath there is a reservoir of lamp
black of a capacity of 20 litres. There is also a reservoir
of compressed air which is kept filled by a small air pump.
.\ tube connects the two tanks.
In this tube, is a valve
Five or

hydro-aeroplane should come


without visiting Seidler's

or

CONQUETE DE LAIR

From LA

Cater to the Airmen

J.

340

measures

description and drawings

M.

E.

341

Henry

342

AIRCRAFT
ALFRED W. LAWSON
President and Treasurer
ERNEST C. I^NDGRAF

Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing


37-39

Secretary

28th STREET, NEW YORK. U.


Telephone. 5017 Madison Square

EAST

TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS
the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippine Islands,
Hawaiian Islands. Cuba (including Postage). $2.00 per year.

In

Twenty-five Cents the Copy, of All News Dealers.


Foreign Subscriptions. Three Dollars per year.
In changing order give old as well as new address.
Advertising copy must be in hand by the 1st of month previous to
date of publication.
Only high-grade advertisements of thoroughly reliable firms are
solicited.

S.

Company
A.

WHEN YOUR
One month

ALFRED W. LAWSON Editor


PAUL T. PALMER
WALTER A. HOUSE
Contributing

Editors

SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRES

before a subscription expi

AIRCRAFT

334

July, JQif

Hotel Cumberland
NEW YORK
Broadway

at 54th Street

Headquarters

for

Avi-

ators and Automobilists.

New and

Fireproof

Strictly first class.

Rates reasonable.

$2,50
With Bath
and up

Send

Ten Minutes' Walk

for Booklet.

to Thirty

Theatres

STIMSON

H. P.
The

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

NEW WRIGHT
AEROPLANES

The

now embody

the improve-

ments that have been suggested


quietly

by the experiments
conducted

of Perfection

MODEL D

for sport, exhibition or mili-

tary use, over land or water

Acme

Kirkham Aviation Motor


THE FIRST AMERICAN MOTOR TO HAVE
Two

Independent Magnetos, each operating a separate

set of

spark plugs.

Two

Independent Force Feed Lubrication Systems, either of


which is sufficient to lubricate the motor under normal

during

conditions.

the past year.

Copper Water Jackets, together


with fitted aluminum water connections, eliminating all
soldered joints.

Electrolvti rally Deposited

Special Provision in lubrication system for Looping the


and Upside Down Flying.

THE WRIGHT

CO.

(THE WRIGHT PATENTS)

DAYTON, OHIO
NEW YORK OFFICE

1 1

PINE STREET

Loop

Also the first to produce a gear-drive motor.


Let

i(s tell

yoti

ahont these and other features iiicor/iorated

NEW MODELS
It

will also

pay you

which are
to take

PROPOSITION we
Get Busy.

in

our

NOW READY

advantage of the

SPECIAL

are offering for a limited time only.

Word

to the

Wise

is

Sufficient

Booklet and full particulars upon request

THE

KIRKHAM AEROPLANE & MOTOR


SAVONA, NEW YORK

CO.

AIRCRAFT
Vol. 5

New

No. 5

York, July, 1914

!fi

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROBOAT TYPE "G


By
X

GROVER CLEVELAND LOENING,

the development of water aeroplanes both

country and abroad, the biplane


seems to have great predominance over
the monoplane type. This is particularly
true in aeroboats, which have become almost universally of the biplane type.
It is recognized that perhaps one of the
greatest advantages that the monoplane
type could have over the biplane is that the aeroplane surfaces
would be so much higher oflf the water for similar positions
of the centers of weight, support and resistance.
There is difficulty, however, in the monoplane type in
suitably mounting the two smaller pontoons used in conjunction with the central boat, in the three pontoon system
in

now becoming

so

this

popular.

Whereas

in

biplane

the

type

attachment of these small pontoons to the end of


the lower surfaces is easily made.
From an aeroplane viewpoint aeroboats are distinctly in
the class of heavily loaded machines, and since high speed
over water when landing and starting is as little desired as
is high speed over land, it follows that being by nature of
weight carriers, the biplane gives better results than does
the monoplane in the amount of sustaining surface that can
be obtained for the same weight.
There is, however, an additional feature favoring the bidirect

plane as a craft of the type of the new Wright .-Veroboat.


Propulsion in this Type "G," as it is called by The Wright
Company, is derived from two propellers one on either side
of the center at the rear of the wings. Ordinarily propellers
in this position would be poorly protected from the spray
thrown by the hull, and from actual contact with the water
surface when the craft heels from one side to the other, but
in the

Wright Aerobont the propellers have been so mounted

above the tip of the


lower wing, with the result that the lower wing of this biplane
type forms a perfect protection to the propeller against spray
and waves, a feature which was demonstrated so conclusively
in recent tests of the Wright Aeroboat for the United States
Xavy. as to render this provision an exceedingly satisfactory
that the tips of the blades are slightly

one.

DESCRIPTION OF TYPE

"G"

The Wright Aeroboat Type "G" belongs

to

the class of

three pontoon marine aeroplanes, the center pontoon or hull


furnishing most of the flotation, while the smaller pontoons
attached to either wing end do their share in supporting the
craft.

No

special

to these auxiliary

unnecessary.

hydroplane paddles, however, are attached


end pontoons as their use has been found

B. Sc.

AM,

C. E.

Even more su than in former practice the center hull is


exceedingly boat like in appearance and is virtually a watertight pontoon, the motor, seats and other parts being placed
entirely above the deck, which seals the top of the pontoon.
-At the same time tihe sides of the hull are carried above this
water-tight deck to the height of the wings, and from an
enclosed body for the motor, and seats, protecting them very
effectively from spray and waves.

The motor

motor car fashion, and


motor and situated at
the center of the wings. At the rear of the main wings are
tlie two propellers and beyond these the rudders, which are
carried on a tail frame from the center section.
Under the seats and above the step of the hydroplane pontoon are large air tubes, which pass from the deck througli
the bottom of the hull. These tubes serve not only to ventilate the step but drain the cock-pit in which the seats are
located of any water shipped in bad weather. This feature is
similar in arrangement to that o f self-bailing life boats With
this provison and the added feature of a water-tight deck,
it is impossible for the new type of craft to retain any of
the water that might be shipped in rough weather, as the
water would immediately flow ofif either through these tubes
is

situated in the front,

the seats side by side, are back of the

or out to the rear along the water-tight deck. This feature


has contributed greatly to the excellent rough water qualities

new craft.
The hull is constructed of ash and spruce framing of
enormous strength with some of the keels as great as 4 square
of the

cross section, the entire framing being covered with


metal sheeting, which is carefully treated both inside
and out for preservation against the deteriorating action of
The neat dash board back of the engine, the
salt water.
comfortable rubber matting floor and the leather upholstered
seats, are so similar in appearance to that of high-class motor
cars as to have caused considerable astonishment among
those who first have seen these new crafts.
The stream line hoods over the engine and around the
seats are built stronger than usual of a combination of metal
and double planking of wood covered with canvas.
Directly in. front of the engine is a large space which is
used for the storage of anchor and anchor rope and other
marine equipment, and back of the seats is a convenient
place for tools and other equipment. The arrangement of
the entire craft is an exceedingly comfortable one, and the
engine, transmission, planes, boat, seats and controls arc all

inches

in

a thick

very accessible.
It is

made

interesting to note that in tests of the Navy aeroboat


Toledo recently, the passenger carried was able quite

at

AIRCRAFT

336

open up the engine hatches, examine the engine


while in flight and make minor adjustments. It would even
be possible to replace spark plugs while the machine is in
operation in the air.
The boat hull itself is 19 feet long and at its widest has a
beam of 43 inches. The height of the hull is such as to give
a clearance to the tips of the wings of 3% feet above the water
surface when hydroplaning, which gives splendid rough sea
qualities and makes the possibility of catching a wing in
rough water quite remote. Over the engine the metal covereasily to

made

form of two large hatches, which slide in


and out. When removed these hatches give access to the
engine for one or two persons and when closed serve as a
practical water-tight covering.
With this arrangement huilt
as strongly as it is on the new aeroiboat, it is possible for
the craft to plunge head-on into a large wave without having
the water stop the running of the engine or causing any
ing

is

detrimental

in the

effect.

The wings

of

the aeroboat are 38 feet

span and 6 feet

chord with a distance between planes of 5 feet. The main


The interior
carrying surface is 430 square feet in area.
construction of the wings themselves, like most other details in the machine, have been much improved over previous
practice. The ribs are made solid of I beam shape and the
spars are increased in depth.

The

thickness

of

the

wing

being very much greater than has previously been employed,


thereby adding to the strength. The wings are covered with
a special grade of linen, which is treated with a preparation
developed by The Wright Company, which gives to the lines
a smooth finish that is not only weather proof, but is proof
The struts, of a splendid stream line form
against seas.
are of ample cross section and the important sustaining wires
throughout the craft are doubled, there having been introduced an entire duplicate system for the main warping wires
as well.

An

wing contype of joints adopted for connecting

interesting feature in connection with the

struction are the

new

These joints consist


wires to the struts and planes.
simply of a hook-shaped plate of great strength into which
This has permitted of the entire
the eye of the wire fits.
elimination of the number of bolts and pins which are ordinarily employed, and has thereby greatly increased the safety
of the machine.
The very finest grade of a special steel wire is used
throughout and turn-'buckles and other joints apt to become
loosened have been almost entirely eliminated. As an engineering structure of .beams, struts and tension members, the
wing cell of Type "G" is a unit of remarkable strength and
lightness and throughout there has been employed a much
larger safety factor than is usually the case.
It is of importance to note that the wings are not divided
at the center as is customary, the spars at the boat being
continuous from one wing to the other. This feature has
eliminated the body joints which are a source of not only
added weight but of considerable danger because of the great
the

strains at this point.

At the

tips of the

wings are mounted on either

auxiliary pontoons which help to float the machine,

side

the

These

pontoons are attached to the lower wing spars by strongsteel braces and are themselves merely smaller duplicates^ of
the central boat in const'-uction.
The control of the wings and rudders in the

new type

is

and provision has been made for mounting either


the customary Wright lever control or the new Wrght wheel
duplicate,
control.

California News
R. II. Blanquie.

By

ferries from San Francisco to Oakland, a distance of 6 miles over the San Francisco

Two

aerial

Bay and tlie Oakland Estuary have been inaugurated during the past month. The first service
was started by Weldon B. Cooke, pilot, and three
The company purchased their
other promoters.
craft, seating two passengers, from the Christoffer-

July, igi4

The rudders

of the Wright aeroboat are exceedingly novel


form and very powerful in size. The rudders for the
of the machine are pivoted on two steel tubes,
which form the rear struts of the tail frame supporting the
rudders, a convenient arrangement which has helped greatly
to reduce head resistance.
These twin rudders work in
unison, due to their being suitably connected by cross wires.
in

direction

The area of the direction rudders totals over 22 square feet.


The elevator of the new Wright inherent stability type, is
carried very high being attached to the top of the rectangular

frame above the two rudders. This feature has greatly


added to the natural tendency in the balance of the machine
to overcome the high thrust of the propellers. The elevator
in Type "G" is 16 feet span and has a total area of 53 square
feet.
The construction of both the elevator and the rudders
is similar to that of the wings and ample bracing has been
tail

provided to avoid vibration.


The transmission on the new Wright aeroboat has introduced many refined engineering problems in which the experience of the Wrights for so many years in this kind of work
has resulted in a remarkably successful drive. As customary
in Wright practice two propellers are used, rotating in opposite directions and in the case of the aeroboat the increase
in efficiency that is obtained thereby is even more valuable
than on land machines. The propellers are 8 feet 6 inches
in diameter and rotate approximately at 580 r.p.m.
They
are driven by chains from the central drive shaft, one of
the chains being crossed.
The shafts are so distanced by
guides and radius rods as to permit of easy alignment.
The central drive shaft passing under the seat drives the
propellers from the engine situated in front.
At the front
end there is mounted the new Wright shock absorbing drive,
a feature new to aviation which is an application of the highest engineering principles, and is a step in the progress of
aeroplane construction that has considerable significance.
This shaft carries at its end a steel cone upon which are
mounted pins. On the fly wheel of the engine similar pins
are mounted and connection between these, and the pins on
the shaft is made by eight shock absorbers. The shaft cone
is

free to rotate in relation to the fly wheel, but the

two

are

restrained by the shock absorbers, these being the only direct

connection between th engine and the transmission. As a


consequence, the power of the engine is entirely transmitted
machine by these shock absorbers. The
introduction of this elastic element has not onljf enabled
the weight necessary in the transmission to resist the severe
strains of the engine to be greatly reduced, but has greatly
lengthened its life.
This, however, is equally true with reference to all other
steel parts of the aeroplane, which by the introduction of
this shock absorbing element are relieved of the constant
vibration which tends to crystalize steel parts, thereby greatly
increasing the safety factor of the machine.
It may in addition he remarked that by this arrangement,
there is obtained entire freedom in the placing of the motor
and the propellers and the ideal system of having the motor
in front and the propellers in the rear has been rendered
exceedingly simple and practical.
The weight of the entire aeroboat empty is 1,300 pounds, a
record in construction in machines of this size and strength.
The motor that is mounted is a six-cylinder 60 horse power
Wright.
The speed range of the machine is in the neighborhood of
40 to 60 miles an hour, and splendid climbing ability has
been shown.
to the rest o fthe

Cc, the same being one of two


flying-boats intended fi
postponed Amundsen
polar expedition.
Many people have crossed th
bay in the modern ferry for the nominal charge o:
five dollars.
Mayor Rolph of San Francisco wa;
the passenger on the maiden trip.
The second service was effectuated by the S. F.
Oakland .Aerial Ferry Co., with J. L. Likas, pres.
E. S. Howard, treas., and Roy Francis, the well

known

flyer,

pilot.

The

tractor

type

flying-boat,

company, was constructed by the


Aeroplane Co., of San Francisco, and
capable of carrying four passengers.
These
o aerial ferries should prove, during the comg months, very popular, not only because of

used

by

this

iterson

usefulness but also


p they offer, with the
small charge.

eir

of

the

maximum

splendid

aerial

of safety,

for

AIRCRAFT

July, igi4
The Federal

Ins])ector

and Guthrie have been


spectors

for tlie U. S.
Francisco Bay region,
enforce all water aircral
for each passenger carr

Christofte

onths
rry

ters

from the

337
foot

of

bay

.^)8

RAF T

k C

July.

M.

21st

Dill

I'annan liiphuu'

licf.iri'

wliicli

ArraiiKcnienis

(.HO-Ii.|j,

;iiillint

.-I

niiiHl,
{,rri

mofc ma-

ordered six

lias

III

officers who lullil eeitain rct|uirements, while


latter is granted to non-commissioned officers

Belgium
Jt

men who

famous
mai.e an attempt on the

M. van den Horn,

that

said

is

the

pilot, intends to
trans-Atlantic flight, and that a seaplane is being
huilt for him at Nice.
At the review held at lirnssels in honor of the
King of Denmark recently, six II. Farman biplanes, iiiloted by army officers, carried out a
series of cvohitions above the parade ground.

pioneer

FaOSTO

liY

Mui

for

iivi;-.-

II,'

:i

"HIi

oiTeriiiK $2,iMlrprntl-

bill

K'lili.-iii

.liviiIrO

|.ii,

h-

'I

li.lliiws:

;r,

1.

,V,

!,'

.1

Saulniur

,il..n

fur

Irie.l

"..III .|ll^

i'

,1

K.isill.i!

an

III

r.iHiil

r.ai.i.l

alliliiih'

111.;

Ml-.

liil'.lil.

I'rencli

l.nl

was

il

winily and aflrr lie uol U|i .abnill .S.noo feet


The Cnhaii .illilu.U rr.ui.l is held
landed.
about 11,000
u|.
Kosillo himsrlf. ulin u.nl

(oo

he
by

nt

Cliannel

Ml
bis
llrw
Sanli.iK", Cuba,

aviator

aeroplane .11
the
Thi

Key Wcsl

on

same

Ihc

day,

be flew

.vliicli

Havana

lo

hydro-

Curtis

li.|.,

''l"'\.

..'l

I"

irlil'

Ci-an.l

'"''<

.'lV.,v'n'

'.

In

i.il.r

i(li

WINS
will,

i-a.a-,

I'lir

,a.,l

llie

nf

\n.l.

l.,,ins

PKOJICCTKD TRANS-ATLANTIC
FLIGHT.
i

I'.L.id.

in

which

is

The Norwegian

II;

cil|.

was

lir

min.

II

biplaiu-

nr

innu

in

tnnk

|.;iil

250

pl.nul

allv til,'
kail.,',: li,
faiKlisli
th,.

."..i-

in

l.i

.-

ml

n.,,l;

.-nmal

N.'ial

Derby

.,

,.

race over
,i,..i-i
\,
h., lav's contest.
sain,
many others
lU "m.-nl.' .I.....I." Ill
avialKin ,:,aili,- l.i-l winter.

iiiilinr.

ii'ti,

II,.
.-,1

II,.

11,11,1,111,

^n.i.il.
,i

Hi.-

...

France
NI':W
Tlie

new

KF.GUL.'VTIONS

FOR

,\1I1JT.\|;V

PILOTS.

h'nn.li

rcKliliili

aeroplan... h,
the l.',..,i,li
,.,.,-|ili,.,it,.

11.

.w

FRICNCIl

iss,,,.,l
h.l v,;
niililiiv
a nl Innal ns
fnr
iin.ahla-.atinlis
llir
r:.i .Inn;
n a.i.l ,ai.slii,, rilnls ,a,i|il,.v,il by

,\iiiiy.

II

IS

i,a'.iKiii/i,l

.-I

I'nlai,1,1

I,i|,l

ai,

officers,

a. hi

iii-l
f.ir

il'.ii

11"'

a,M,i|il,ili,'

""ly
lillots

\i

<r 23,000
four
aii,l

view

In

m,.,

ha.

Ian,

a
I,

Scbmoger and

Lieut.

Grandenz, crossed
on May 27th,
I..;
iMre arrested. The
,i.i,i,liiiz to Thorn, and
at

l,i|,lanc

PRINCE HENRY PRIZES.

Tbucna (L.V.G.
(2)

Lieut,

mn

Chenii motors are

h.li.

J,S

bi|,l.i

von Huanl

llliliz-

laiiig built for Maubeuge,


ires caiiacily, with four 225

,iilil
111.

,,.,

ii.

the 25 pilots who started on the Prince


completed the fourth stage
Circuit,
13
within the lime-limit, ending on the evening of
May 22nd. Chief honors went to Lieuts. von
Thnena (17 brs. 15 mins.), von lieaulicu (17 hrs.
.^0 mins.), and von Huttlar (17 hrs. 45 mins.).
On the evening of May 25th the prize distribution took place in Cologne at a baniincl at which
Pi
II. R. H. Prince lienry of Pr
2
Iilacings of the
stages of the circuit

1'
I

li.li.

le.iu nl

Zo.lia,-

Capt.

slalinn

llviiiK

frnnlni-

Of
Henry

niiig thrniiKli fnr |.-,|,iii.al nf


envehMie of J.i, 1)1111 ,-tibie
.1,

ll.r

at

sec.

pilnl.

sin,

iaili:ii

.\rrial DmIi
anil a |.lli-M-

.alll.nnKli

KM

br.

Hie

llic

Waller L. I!rm-k weiil to ICiiiclaiid from ChieaKO


two years ago ami s.nm ,l.,ii h.n, 1... ll,.n ihe
....,1
..ilnimein, .i.,,|,l
Deperdiissin and 111

White

uilli
,

making

has been

win,

|.ln.,r.

AMUNDSEN

iiiCKin-.

.\ll<

Aimilcan

.!v

n.s for

ll.,,.

lime was

being

is

near Nice.

you
I'AK.M \\
IC.M'iJin inx.

M.

serious study of a\ alimi


n,
ing aeroplains
chased a M.ininr h.-uanai.

!in'Viniii^li"'avialn. .".,.

""K,^Kllia|,ri'nr.':

machine

special

Knhi

well'

of

l;ii".l.iii

second.
lirock's

shorter

lillle

Pernambuco in
Ihan the more

lo

i.uiiic.i

route.

Van den Horn

for

the

Novcmlier oflietrs w.ir llvii.i.; i.


Mr. v\ere caiiK.I oil then line hv a severe thunderGen- storm, and landed more than 10 miles from the
coiifrontier.
They were released on the following
day after explanations.

he-

[i.

AN

.l',

l--|-.,n,'r,

Paris

next

reported

is

ages

Two German
Paul

from Nice that Van den Born,


iinKmliertd as one of the first H.
rm.i i.n;
.ii
aiiKcmcius for an
|.il.ii
l/,n;
/^lO.OOO prize.
..m. H.' /'-"/
attempt In
....
llie .Mlanlic from
i..
Van den l!i..i.
.n.
It

hnill

UKITI.SII
il

ilir

S.ilnnla,,

M' w
,\MI'.l;l('.\N

ilmi

The

to

.SHOW.

.\i-;K()

oiplancs and

Drnaiili.a 6th.
Snrnl.iv.
elcetetl Commissaire
liaigc of all arrangements in
ihr Salon.

I'.inrk,
11
W.ilUn' I..
n,nr Ihr rlrvrn ininii.l

at

been

li.as

ANOTIIICK

lirazil,

'"

V,.v.'\;.''-

eral
nirl

:il'l,.a

30

ruiiisl

and close on

northerly

England
Ihr

lias

Konakry

fr

yea

last

least

nn June 1st
number
Only one
must be pre-

l-i

Iin

date the
been crossed 99 times by aeroplane.

TIIK NKXT l'.\kl,S


ili.nl.il
It has now ben
Aero Show shall hjim

who will
another Farman

I'arla,

.XiiKusiiii

filiiuai;'.

last

Cuban

of

llanUlol.

contemporary states that

.Miaane

Cln.iiir

XI)

prize

1913, 293

113 certilieates were taken on


180 on monoplanes.
of the pilots make an interesting
There
were:
9 of 18 years; 21, 19; 28, 20;
study.
21, 21; 20, 22j 23, 23; 31, 24; 31, 25; 15, 26; 20,
27; 16, 28; 12, 29; 10, 30; 8, 31; ", 32; 4, 33; 5,
Of
34; 5, 35; 4, 36; 1, 37; 1, 38; I, 41; 1. 43.
these only 82 were military brevets, but it must
be noted that for obvious reasons many officers
never take the ordinary certificate.
certilicalts;

pilots'

Idioms.

.\iHlr,'

ll'.'i'i'im'i'r,',

im

landing may be made per day and


ceded by a cross country flight of

21st,

II.

..(iin,,)

it

GEKMAN PILOTS IN 1913.


The German Aero Club granted during

and

A rUlZlC b'OR IIARnFl.nr AISITOR.S.

RODliltlUEZ.

fuban ConKrcss voted

Tlie
000(1(1

llie

pass through a course of training;

TIte Soeiely of llardiba


1,000 fiaiies for llie avialm
and .Seplember 30th, mal.. s
of landings on the beach at

IN CUHA.

AVIATION

,,,

ii

i,-iv.i linn

,\ir,iii:iii

.ApparL-iUly tliere was


J.er day.
in 1913 for every 3,000 llighls,
reiiresents rather a high deatb-ralc.
have been made by Ibe fierman
Tmi
ilii s
iictmits to be given to competent
.iMli.ui aviators who desire to fly over
Aiiplications mu.st be

lllKiils

smash

Icslud and delivered a


Clergel-Iilin motor)
rnmmission at Marckt-l'ischaniilii;irv
Mil the strength of the fine
\ i' iiiiri.
iM II
liiiM' |iut up, it IS Said that the
.iiM
{1m

On May
llciiri

KJi

111

npl

AIRCRAFT

July, 1914

GHRMAN

S.

W. AFRICA.

-started

1 he av:alion

section which was sent


South
is reporlt
great work.
Ilcrr Buchler has
.Swakof.munrJ ami Isakos. anj on on
I.e earned a sort ol aer:al mail between Swako|>mund and Karibib, together with a (lassenger.

West Africa some time back

(lone

Italy

The aviators" ca|iital, as Turin has certainly becan show quite a nice variety of aerial
vehicles just now, as well as several (reak.ijlanes.
-Maggioia Hew the 50 h.p. Parasol Xicuport over
there from Busto recently to exhibit it to the
powers that rule, and now iJe Dominicis is back
from France with a looping Caudron whose virtues
he will endeavor to impress upon tbem.
On May 24th felcstino L'suelli's new dirigible
(Isuelli no. of U.OOO cm., and 50 yards long,
which is fitted with a 100 -S.I'.A., when undcrtakng he rtrial trip, left the hangar at Villa I'izzone,
near Milan, and very shortly got into the tail
of the cyclonic disturbance which raged over X.
Italy at that period.
The crew of three decided to
land, and accomplished this manoeuvre safely in
a field, and when no abatement of the wind seemed
likely, and time was wearing on, they proceeded
to detach the nacelle, hoping to tow the envelope
still
inflated to the shed.
In spite, however, of
assistance from troops, before the release valve
could he operated, the gasbag broke away and
navigated for three hours on its own, being found
(iuite close and scarcely damaged the same night.
come,

from K

339

i-.iO a.m. recently and finSwitzerlanii


9:30 p.m., having landed
The tests to be passed by candidates for the
His Hying time for the 1,400
Swiss flying corps are suflTicicntly severe,
.\fter
8Vj hours.
preliminary
they will have to pass an
The giant Rus n Sikorsky biplane continues examination training,
as follows: Theory
Knowledge of
to attract world wid
attention to its (performances meteorology,
map-reading,
knowledge
of the aeroas the largest heavi er-than-air flying machine yet
jdane and internal-combustion engine.
rractice:
constructed, and in view of reports that the <kTwo crosscountry flights of 150 kms. without
signer has prepare
plans for a much larger landing,
a circular flight of 300 kms. in two
craft.
The Il>a M iuramets, as it is known, has days. Inand
the course of these flights the pilot must
taken sixteen jtrso
aloft for one and one-half attain an altitude
of at least 2.500 metres, must
hours, and again li;
flo
for
hours
th a cross a mountain
chain 2,000 metres high, must
crew of eight.
(_%
ily fo
remain at an altiudc of at least 1,000 metres for
dred horsei*ower ei
big aeroplane hag 45 m ns:
lie must climb to 500 metres and deoeen auie to continue running at reduced speed
scend with engine stopped. .Ml these flights must
with three of them, while the fourth has been unbe made on a Swiss military machine, starting
dergoing repairs. Ncchanics are able to move about
each time with four hours* fuel and carrying a
without disturbing the balance of the machine.
dead weight to represent an observer.
The wings sj.rcad 120 feet and the body is 65
feet long.
There are cabins covering 28 feet in
length, with an enclo.sed pilot hou.se in front.
There are dual control wheels and a powerful
Turkey
searchlight.
The total weight of the aeroplane
without iiassengers and fuel is about three and
Now that the Ottoman mission has returned to
one-half tons.
It lifts more than one ton, licsides
Constantinonle, considerable developments are to
800 pounds of fuel oil.
Its planes have an area he exiected in Turkish aviation shortly.
f'apt.
of 1,292 square feet, about five times that of a bi- fioys has gone to San-Stefano to sujicrintend a
plane of ordinary size.
new installation there. A project is on foot to reRecently the Russian government was rcportefl organize the whole Turkish air service.
as having ordered several of the big biplanes for
On May 18th Command^int Fazil made many
its army and others to be fitted with floats for
interesting flights, and carried out bomb-launching
the use of the Russian navy.
The government, experiments with consi'lerable success.
however, wishes to obtain the best ideas from the
Salim Bey and Kemel Bey have now terminated
aeroplane constructors of all countries and recently their Constantinople Cairo "raid.''
The Turkish
announced a prize contest* for naval aeroplane de- authorities look upon the flight with considerable

ished at Oalcli
twice on the w
kil. f870 milesj

it

al

PRACTICAL AEROPLANE DESIGN


By
Part

LSTAV EIFFEL,
1

umerous

by

experiments,
has
a
every
aeroplane design
"
,

III

that
r

be

reiations_hip
ot
the speed,
surface, head resistance,
power, and that if the form ar
angle of the planes be given togethi
with the foregoing elemenl
possible to
complete the design under
The
Eiffel Chart snows graphically the relationships
of the diffe ent elements of the aeroplaiie in
connection w th different wing sections which are
standard, and for diflerent angles
:idence.
ihe chart IS calculated to give the
unknown quantities without intricate inathemati

hf
right,

"'
of i^?5S;;!^.'"'"t;Sr''-J^
incidence, weight, and the *i".?,:,?.?"?.".:.f"i!
required sr>eed are
pven. the power necessary to drive and the surlace necessary to support the aeroplane can be
ascertained for various head resisunces by a
'.11

simple

geometrical

diagram.

The Chart:

In the Eiffel Chart the curves


the upper left-hand corner represent the head
resistance while the lines crossing the head resistance curves indicate
^ spetd
.,
in_miles
..,
^^ per
j_.
,
hour
:n relation
horsepower
The speed scale
is divided into speed:
ids from 20 to 125 miles per
hour.
Opposite
the
si>ced-in-re]at5on-tt horse
power scale is given a speed scale in relation to
area, and this is divided into speeds from Z2
to 120 miles per hour.
Beneath the head resistance curves and speed scales with relation to
area and horsepower are the scales indicating
horsepower required for horizontal flight, and the
required supporting area of the main plane.
This latter scale applies only to monoplanes, for if
biplane construction is contemjiiated, more area
is necessary owing to the loss in efficiency
of
"biplane surfaces.
This extra amount necessary
to add is shown in the table beneath the area
scale, and is for a "gap"
and by "gap" is meant
the distance between the planes of 2/3, 3/3, and
4/3 of the chord of the main planes. The figure
in the lower left-hand corner with the diagonal
lines indicates the total weight of the complete
loaded aeroplane and its relation to the tyi;e of
wing-s*ction usedTo the right of this latter
jortion of the chart are shown the lift and lift !
drift curves for several standard wing sections
for different angles of inddence ranging from
degree to 12 degrees.
The upper right-hand
portion of the chart contains curves of head
resistance of square areas, effect of various as[*ect
ratios upon resistance, frictional resistance, the
use of which has l>een previously explained in
Part I of this series apr^earing in the May issue
of .\iBCRAFT. The figure showing the prop<^irtions
of aeroplanes is a "composite" example of each
type of aeroplane, biplane and monox)lane, andrepresents the areas and dimensions and projiorticns of an average aeroplane expressed in ficrccntage of the main plane aera and span of the main
plane, respectively.
While this figure d'>fcs not
show the absolute proiKjrtions, it will serve to
give to the designer an idea of the apifroximatc
relationships and will aid in the calculation of
the various control elements and dimensions.

To

chart.

The

Eiffel

PAUL

J.

PALMER

Aeroplane Design.

Chart and

its

Use

having i>reviously determined the to the speed desired indicated on the "specd-withw ight, type of _wing-section, speed relation-to-area" .scale.
Where this line interdesired aiiM
-j,.a,.,..i
and thi
iijtdi iicafj
tut total
head resistance,
it:9i9idiiee, locitic
sects the
locate upon 3*:ti3
iiic "area"
did Mjdic,
scale, that
inai inierscCiion
Intersection inrjicaies
indicates
the weight scale the diagonal line indicating the the area necessary to support the given weight at
weight, such as line "xy" on the sketch.
Inter- the given speed.
This area, however, is tor monosect this diagonal line with parallel lines "q" plane surface only, and additional area must lie
and "r," drawn from the ends of the "angle- added as indicated by the table beneath the area
of-incidence"
line
"sp."
Erect
perpendicular scale.
lines at the
nterscction of these parallel lines
If the user of the chart will always remember
with the diagonal line to the base line. Draw line that the "ky" curve indicates the area relationD from point I, the intersection of the perpen- ship, and the Kx/Ky curve indicates the horsedicular line and the base line, to point 2, which power relationship he will have no difficulty in
iaer point is the intersection of the "headre- using the chart.
.Some times, when the angle of
sistance-curve"
and
the
"speed-in-relationto- incidence line is to the right of the intersection
horsepower" scale.
Where this line cro.sses the point of the Ky and Kx/Ky curves the lines D
".horizorj.tal-flight-horsepower" scale, that intersec and D will cross each other and the parallel lines
"q" and "r" will l>c reversed. In such case, con(jpn
indicate the horsepower regiiired,
horizontal flight only,
about, with a proijeller nect points 1 and the "speed-in-relation-to-area"
efficiency of 70 i>er
.30 i>er cent, must be scale, and point 3 with point 2 on the head resistallr^u^^H /r.r
u.^^k kt
allowed
for losses
in jK^wer transmission, and be- ance curve. This will "put everything to the good."
ween 20 per cent, and 25 per cent, allowed for
.After having determined the plane area, the
erve power and climWng, this makes a total figure showing the proportions of the different
f from 0 per cent, to 60 per cent, additional
|yjM;s of planes will help to calculate the area
by the chart.
After of the control apparatus and the dimensions acP'^^.e^ ^^^^ t",^*
'^ving
^i>ower required pro- cording to current practice; and. given
due
_ determined
'^'^'^'^ "' determine the area required to supjKirt the
allowance for discrepancies in calculation, success
^''''" "eight by .Irav,:nx !:ne D. from point 3 an.l fame a-.Kait their pursuer.
designe:

approximate

L ifV o5

lot

S o r

p/.f)Ve

sA

?\o-^<

RftTiC Lift

tci

t^

5"<>^t.-<

i-w-f

SKETCH

BXffBL

5CTic/y

CURVES

Fcl\

BtftEUHT

/VC- 5KTf/1

THE EiFEL Chabt:


manner and method

In order to make
clear the
of using the Eiffel
Chart a simple sketch has been prepared.
Thi<
sketch is not to scale, but will serve to demon"how and the wherefore" of the
strate the
L'sE

The

IS

340

AIRCRAFT

July, 191

POUNDS PER 50
?

i-

3,

FT.
<,

AIRCRAFT

July, IQ14

341

THE MARTINSYDE TRANS-ATLANTIC MONOPLANE


As

be seen from the accompanying drawwhich may be taken as being correct and
will

ings,
to scale in
details are

all

essentials,

though

some

of

the

not yet wholly decided upon, the


Trans-Atlantic machine is on the usual Martinsyde lines, though in actual structural design the
machine is materially different from anything that
has gone before.
The fuselage is of similar form to that hitherto
employed in the smaller Martinsydes and up to
the trailing edge of the planes of somewhat similongerons
and
with
hickory
lar
construction
In the front thereof is to be
three-ply covering.
mounted a 215 (nominal) h.p. 12-cyIinder Sunbeam motor driving through a reduction gear a
Behind
12 foot diameter four-bladed propeller.
the motor a water-tight bulkhead is built across
the fuselage, and a second bulkhead of similar
back.
farther
some
14
feet
construction is fitted
Behind this bulkhead the fusuelage is of the
and wire-braced type, normal to nearly
strutted
all types of machines other than the Martinsyde,
but with enormously strong vertical and thwartwise members.
This 14-foot section of fuselage is thus a watertight compartment and has a flotational capacity
of nearly twice the full load weight of the
machine.
Towards the forward end of this compartment
the front spars of the wings cross the top longerons of the fuselage, and at about the middle
the rear spars come into the fuselage beneath the
longerons, the spar ends butting against each
other on the centre line.
From the spars where they enter the fuselage
spring a pair of inverted struts which terminate
at the centre skid and carry the main bracing
wires of the wings, and from the spar butts,
through the agency of a pair of longerons attached thereto, is slung the petrol tank, a trifle

9 feet long by close on 3 feet diameter, biplane box, the lower w e of the system takii
weighing when full about one ton.
By this the tension which is norr ally taken by the low
construction the wings and the lower cabanes spars of a biplane.
Bracing wires are taken to five points on each
with their attendant bracing wires become a
complete unit carrying directly the main weight spar, giving spans between points of sxipport of
of the fully loaded machine, the pilot and pas- about 6 feet only, whereby the bending moments
senger and the motor being minor details as far on the spar and the consequent stresses therein
as weight is concerned, compared with the fuel, are reduced to absurdly low values.
The permanent undercarriage consists of a cenand it becomes possible to make the fuselage itself
quite light
actually it is lighter than those of tral skid attached to the bases of the two lower
cabanes already mentioned and to a further simithe existing monoplanes of the same mark.
the nose of the fusePilot and passenger's seat are at the rear end lar pair of struts beneath
A pair of wheels on a cross-axle supported
of the watertight compartment, level with the lage.
by two U's carried from the wing spars close
trailing edge of the wings.
for
trials and for startwill
be
fitted
the
body
At the rear end of the fuselage is the tail, of to
approximate semi-circular plan form and 21-foot ing on the actual Trans-Atlantic journey, but will
whole rolling gear may
span, fitted with large split and balanced elevator be so attached that the
be released and dropped by operating a lever
flaps and a large balanced rudder.
from the pilot's seat atter the start. The central
The wings are of 66-foot overall si)an, the skid and skids attached to the lower king-posts
trailing edge some 3 feet longer than the leading are relied on for landing, as the machine will he
edge, of 14 feet 6 inches chord at the roots, quite light when the flight is finished and should
tapering to 10 feet 6 inches at the tip, with a total be able to land very slowly.
The spars are
surface of about 770 square feet.
From over the engine to the rear of the seatof silver spruce of about 1 foot depth at the ing accommodation a streamline cowl is fxtted,
roots, tapering both in their depth and in their and all external struts, king-posts and the like are
Former ribs, streamlined.
distance apart toward the wing tip.
The machine emplo' will weigh
of similar construction to those usually employed 2,400 pounds, or slightly less; fully loaded for
at
frequent intervals and cross the great attempt, about twice that figure.
in this work,
compression struts complete the wing structure
Taking existing machines of normal dimenproper.
The plane section is that which Messrs. sions as a basis, this machine at 5,000 pounds, with
Martin and Handasyde have already used with 200 b.h.]). available and a normal propeller efliexcellent results, but with a slice cut off the top ciency should be able to climb about 200 feet
of the curve, leaving the wing between spars abso- per minute, so that there does not ^PP^^^ ^o .'*^
lutely flat.
any reason to expect danger from the
puld the motor
The wing bracing system at first sight appears benig sluggish at the start, and
s good ground
to be the normal king-post method, but is actually perform as it is expected to, the
will
air
still
rather different, as to the bracing wire from the for supposing that her speed
per hour,
les
ends of the king-post run to the cabanes both on appreciably exceed the S0-S5
1
the flight to
This arrangement con- which is required to carry thr(
the top and the bottom.
stitutes
a
box girder system analogous to a schedule.

some

AIRCRAFT

343

NEWS
New

Around the World Race

GENERAL

IN
By M.

E.

HENRY

Wright Flexible Drive

Arnold Kruckman left Kew York on June 16


The new Wright flexible drive as adopted on
a trip around the globe for the purpose of the new aeroboats and military machints consists
deciding upon the course to be taken by the air- of an auxiliary slialt connected at one end to tlie
motor by the sliock absorbing element, and at the
men next year.
The rules for the big race have been promul- other end driving the propellers. On the fly wheel
of the engine, there are fixed steel pins and at the
gated as follows:
The time for starting the contest from San end of the auxiliary drive shaft there is a steel
Francisco is May 15, 1915.
It must be completed cone with similar pins attached to it.
The pins on
before December 4 of the same year. The exposi- the fly wheel are attached to the pins on the drive
tion's prizes, first of $100,000, second of $30,000, shaft cone, by a number of shock absorbers. The
only
to transmission end of the shait is supported by a
and third of $20,000, will be paid in full
competitors who complete the entire distance in ball bearing, while the other end of the auxiliary
Winning competitors completing the shaft merely rests on the crank sliaft of the motor
121 days.
distance in more than 121 days will suffer deduc- free to rotate about it but restrained and held in
tions from the prize money of $1,000 for each position by the shock absorbers.
There is thus
additional day for the first, $300 for the second obtained a perfectly flexible unit, the power being
There
and $20 for the third prize winner, the money to transmitted through the sliock absorbers.
for

be used for additional prizes.


Competitors may avoid flying across the Atlanor Pacific under the rules, transporting their
craft by steamship and suffering a deduction of
$20 a nautical mile thus travelled for the first
prize, $6 a mile for the second and $4 a mile for
the third.
The exposition managers agree to seek $150,000
A
additional prizes from cities along the route.
competitor may alight at any point between controls and have his craft transported away for repairs, providing he resumes flight at the same
At controls he may subpoint where he halted.
Heavstitute another aircraft of the same class.
ier than air craft may not be replaced, however,
reverse.
than
air,
or
the
by lighter
General Castillo, Cuban Commissioner to the
Exposition has announced that his country will
enter "afleast t\TO- flrers-in the Round the World
Race.
Captain T. H. Worden, the famous aviator
who recently was with the iVIexican Federal ,\rmy
has been proposed by the city of Dallas, Texas,
as the pilot for the aeroplane "Dallas," which they
desire to have represent that citv in the race.
The Chamber of Commerce of Dallas has agreed
to back their flier to the extent of $25,000.
Prince Rupert, B. C, is the most recent contender for the location of a control station for the
Application w-as made to the E.xposition
big race.
Bureau of Aeronautics by the Secretary of the
Chamber of Commerce, backed up by a personal
letter from the Prime Minister of British Columbia, indorsing that city as a favorable place for
the station.
tic

John

E.

Sloane Organizes

New Company

to Build Aeronautical Motors


Tohn Eyre Sloane, president of the Sloane AeroCompany of New York, has just organized
the new Sloane Daniel Company, and has leased
a large factory with 15,000 square feet of floor
space at Bound Brook, N. J., for the purpose
of manufacturing all types of gas engines; both for
aeroplane and marine use.
Most of the motor machinery formerly located
at the Sloane Aeroplane plant in Long Island City
has been shipped to the new factory, and the additional space thus provided is already being used
This means that
for the building of flying-boats.
plane

from now on the whole Long Island City plant


will be used exclusively for the manufacture of
There is space enough to facilitate
aeroplanes.
quick work in the building, and erection of several
machines at a time. It is hoped before long, if the
demand for flying-boats warrants it, to make the
factory even larger, so as to turn the boats out
on a very large scale.
The motor lactory will be in close connection
with the aeroplane plant, and here, in addition
to the motor work, the metal work for the aeroplanes will be manufactured, as well as any
special fittings and attachments that are needed.
The new motors are constructed under patents
issued to Mr. Paul Daniel, who is now associated
with Mr. Sloane, and will be built in both the
rotary and stationary types.

ers

for

July. lOT-f

them absolutely water proof. There are a great


many other ways that Marine Clue is used by
the constructor and to those who are interested
in the matter we resiiectfulty suggest their getting
into

touch

with

the

distributors

for

furtlicr

par-

ticulars.

Walter Johnson

!n

Connecticut

Walter Johnston, the famous pilot who was


formerly with the Thomas Bros., spent two weeks
during June at Island Beach, two miles from
Greenwich. Connecticut, carrying passengers in
his new Blasiar flying boat and giving exhibitions
generally for the benefit of the Summer Resort
people who engaged him for the purpose.
Johnston spent a very profitable season in Florida last
winter and is making preparations to return to the
next
winter.
Everglaes again

are eight shock absorbers used in the drive for


Any variations
the six-cylinder Wright engine.
or shocks in the rotation of the motor are taken
Loening
to Russia
up by the stretch of these shock absorbers. In a
back fire for example, the motor w-ill stretch the
Grover C. Loening, engineer with the Wright
shock absorbers almost a half revoKuion bef9re Company, has entered the competition for designs
The amount of spring of hydro-aeroplanes to be held by the Imperial
effecting the transmission.
that can be obtained by this device is very great Russian Navy Department, and in which about
and takes up. without damage to the transmission twenty thousand francs in prizes are offered.
or to the rest of the machine the most severe
Loening has long been actively engaged in aerovibrations of the engine, at the same time greatly plane development, and is one of the few_ engiThe neers of this country to have specialized in the
easing up the strains on the engine itself.
additional weight of the drive on the new Wright new field, being the first one to develop the flying
aeroboat is only about 18 pounds.
boat.
In 1912, Loening made the earliest successIn addition to reducing the shocks on the entire ful flights in this type of craft, spending over
machine and greatly eliminating dangers of crys- two years in practical experimental work in the
talization of steel parts, the introduction of the vicini'ty of New York.
flexible drive permits of entire freedom in design
For more than a year Loening has been with
with reference to the placing of the engines and Orville Wright in Dayton, in the capacity "of engipropellers.
In the case of the Wright Aeroboat neer, and in the development of the new machines
and the new Wright military machines, it has ren- under Mr. Wright's direction, has had the oppordered exceedingly simple and practical the instal- tunity of introducing many practical innovations
lation of the engine in front of the operators, in the aeroboat, the latest type of which built
motor car fashion, with the propellers in the rear. by the Wright Company, is reported to be remarkThis combines the elements of safety due to ably successful.
placing the motor in front, the comfort and effiAt the conclusion of his engineering work with
ciency of the propellers at the rear and (though Mr. Wright, in July, it is said that Loening will
the seats are back of the engine and slightly back again take up aeroboat work in tlie vicinity of
for
observaview
planes)
the
the
edge
of
of the
New York, though it is understood that any deThe sign
tion is not in any way seriously restricted.
for the Russian Government would have to
extreme comfort of flying in a machine of this be built abroad.
type has been a revelation to those who have had
the opportunity of taking trips on these new
There is a feeling of security in seemachines.
ing the motor in front of one, and it is interest- Baldwin Returns from Europe After Aring to note that the noise does not
ranging for Dirigible and Aeroplanes

May Go

one's

heac

Baldwin returned from


Captain Thomas S.
Europe recently and brought with him an option
on an $80,000 dirigible and another on the win-

Marine Glue Useful for Builders ning Sopwith biplanes for the Connecticut Airrights are available
The aeronautical industry is indebted to some craft Company. The aeroplane
only in the event that a license can be obtained
to L. W. Ferdinand & Co., of Boston,
patent.
for the introduction into this country of from Orville Wright under his

Jeffery's
extent
Mass.,

Marine Glue, which is now being used ..Captain Baldwin inspected many aircraft plants
England, France, Germany
by almost every builder of aeroplanes in America. and flying stations in
abroad. He reports that
Especially valuable is Marine Glue as an applica- and other countries while
dirigible is so strong among
tion to flying boats as it is made expressly for use the demand for the big
Powers that he found only
Military
European
the
double
the
between
in combination with calico
planking of diagonally built hulls, which bakes

Jeffery's

AIRCRAFT

iQi^

July,

343

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
20

CENTS A LINE

SEVEN WORDS TO LINE

CASH WITH ORDER

FOR SALE

MISCELLANEOUS

OR SALE:

-^

ft.

Sound

Biplane glider. Upper plane 24x41/.


Lower plane 20x41/2 ft. Length 16 ft.
construction. Just completed.
Suitable fov

20-25 h.p. motor. H.


Voungstown, Ohio.

OR

W.

S.\LE: Cheap.

Craver, 222 Custer

.\ve.,

*'

RIGHT TYPE FLYING

BO.\T, complete,
cy!. motor and extra

with Kirkham 50 h.p. ft


Curtiss landing gear.
Will sell all or separately.
Reasonable. Make offer, Hazelton, 500 VV. 14;tli

New

St.,

York.

and Motorcycles.

sold new used. B.


.Ibany Ave., Chicago, 111.
ith Aviation Company.
^

J.

Bought and
Ostergaard, 1938 N.
Note: Not connected

CURTISS

latest

Cooke,

L.

716 12th

St.

Aviator

New York

and Constructor, 127

$90.00.

Box

830, Atlanta,

aeroplane

A. B. C, 95 West

and

lifting capacity, higher speed,


safety.
Send for literature.

Reimers, R.F.D. No.

D /\
AX
17 M X C
1 j 11 to

Bellingham, Wash.

attach my Automatic Balancing


I Mechanism Patent No. 1,092,888 to first
three aeroplanes without charge.
The most

Maiden, Mass

simple and efficient for

SECURED

this

purpose.

AHLBRECT

Chianti Street, E. E. Pittsburgh, Pa.

PATENTS

or

Fee Returned

Send sketch

(or free search of Patent Office


Records. How to Obtain a Patent, and What to
Invent, with list of Inventions Wanted and
Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents
advertised free.
We are experts on AIRSHIPS and all patents
and technical matters relating to

THAT PROTECT AND PAY


BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES

FREE

Hishest Relerences.

AERIAL

NAVIGATION.
J.

3,

WILL

without engine

St.,

better

stability

E.

FREE FREE

MISCELLANEOUS

VICTOR

D. C.

G.

Address, A.

Patent Attorney

W ashington,

more

West 64th

City.

^OR SALE Curtiss

Ho

SARGENT,

-l

your plane

fiiei

Patent.'

LESTER

qnORNADO CABLE CLAMPS, automatic clamping effect, V, doz. for 3/32-inch cable, 75
cents postpaid.
TORNADO STRUTS wil) give

SALE at bargain: One genu


FOR
biplane, 8-cylinder; looks and

Your Inventions

bookie

Aero Motor complete, $75 cash.


desired as aviator.
Paul Rohrer,

Tail)

atent

(Pigeon

type

My

AVIATION MOTORS:

City.

improved

headless or front control (optional) very successful flier many miles cross country.
construction strongest in world.
Complete, ready to
lly.
Roberts 4
power plant. Guaranteed perfect
llier, $1,500.
Free flying lessons to buyer. H. C.

^*-

York

rjETROIT
'-' tion

Lindsey Hopkins.

All makes, air and


water cooled, all horse powers, perfect condition guaranteed, from $250 up.
Complete machines, monos and biplanes, hydroplanes and aero
boats from $500 up. If you have an underpowered,
unsatisfactory motor, why not exchange it for a
larger motor and fly successfully?
Everything for
aviation bought, sold and exchanged.
State your
needs.
U. S. Aero Exchange, 38 Park Row, Nev

THIRD

interest in patent offered to partner


^-' with capital to build and manufacture
aeroplane.
Aircraft, Box 809.

Ind.

St.,

ERO MOTORS

/~\NE

Hydro-aeroplane, in good

condition, without motor, radiator or propeller.


Idress Jack Gebel, 456 Pearl St., New York City.

ATA

B.'VRGAIN.
Tractor Hydroaeroplane,
complete with 70 H. P. MAXIMOTOR arranged for passenger carrying. Will be sold for
just one-half the original cost.
Address Maximotor Makers, 1530 Jefferson Ave., E. Detroit,
Mich.

"-

WATSON

EVANS &

CO.

624

Washington, D. C.

For Flying Boats Use JEFFERY'S

E.

F. Street, N.

COLEMAN,
W.

Patent Lawyer
WashlnBton. D. C.

MARINE GLUE

Waterproof Liquid Ghte, for waterproofing the canvas covering of Hying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year it will last as
L'se our

long as the boat.

For

tise

muslin for

L.

in

combination with calico or canvas between veneer


Si ml for cirnitnrs, directions fur line. etc.

in

diagonal planking, and for waterproofing

win;;- siirf:ices.

W. FERDINAND

&

CO.

201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U.

S.

A.

Heinrich Monoplanes
The only

original

American Monoplane on the market


in America

Highest efficiency of any monoplane

School

Now

Open.

Tuition

$250

HEINRICH PROPELLERS $20 UP


SCHOOL MACHINE AT WORK

THE WORLDS LEADING PROPELLER

CHARAVAY
Best by Actual Test

HEINRICH AEROPLANE

Gives more thrust than the


motors either
type, as supplied to the U.
20 per cent, more efficiency
for all leading

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

CO., Inc.

BALDWIN,

L.

I.,

N. Y., U. S. A.

leading foreign propellers.


Highest developed types
in stock or made at short order.
New three-bladed
S. Navy for tractors and flying-boats, gives nearly

than other makes.

Write for our new price

list

and save money


1

73 1 Broadway,

New York

City

AIRCRAFT

344

July, ipi4

WRINKLE'S PRESERVATIVE BALLOON VARNISH


goods,

prominent
plane manufacturers and aviators in America recognize the superiority ot the Excelsl
Propeller.
You can get an Excelsior from the following agents. D-M Aero Co^ Denver.
Col Nels J Nelson New Britain, Conn.. Wm. Sylvester, Aviation Field. Oakwoods
Heights. Staten Island. N. Y., J. A. Conrow. 1526 W. Lehigh Ave.. Phila.. Pa..
Edward Crabtree. Hangar No. 9. Hempstead Plains. N. Y. Booklet upon request.

EXCELSIOR PROPELLOR

Mo.

Beit Ave., St. Louis,

CO., 1488

HE
and

clean-cut,
reliable

efficient

KEMP

air-

cooled motors.
Built in four sizes and sell at the
ght price. Ask the man who owns one.

Catalog and particulars on request.

An

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THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

THE

1914

THOMAS BOAT FLYING OVER THE HUDSON RIVER

THOMAS BOAT, piloted by Ralph M. Brown, flew over 200 times at Dobbs Ferry during
THE
three weeks, carrying a large number of prominent people, amongst whom were Mrs.
the
last

Whitman, the wife of the District Attorney of New York, Prof, David Todd, the Astronomer
Amherst College, Mr. Louis R. Adams, President of the Aeronautical Society, Mr. Alfred W. Lawson,
Mr. Ernest L. Jones, Mr. Henry Woodhouse, Mr. and Mrs. George K. Turner, Mr. Clifford B. Harmon
TWO HUNDRED AND TEN FLIGHTS AT
and others. They were all satisfied and delighted.

Chas.

S.

of

DOBBS FERRY, WITHOUT A SINGLE ACCIDENT OR TROUBLE OF ANY KIND.


Before you select a Flying Boat, by all means investigate the Thomas. You must see the Thomas
Flying Boat to fully appreciate and understand its points of exceptional value and superiority.

Send

for Booklet "

T"

Today.

Address

THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


BATH, NEW YORK

CO,

IF

YOU SEE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT- IT

IS.

IF

YOU DO NOT SEE

JUST BEFORE STARTING A TRIP IN THE

IT IN

AIRCRAFT-^TT

NEW SLOANE FLYING BOAT

TESTING THE MOTOR BEFORE MAKING THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL TRIALS AT STEINWAY BEACH,

THE SLOANE

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For over three years, Sloane Aeroplanes have been used by dozens of
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pilots, pupils

Can Any Other Means of Fast Transportation Show Such a Record for Safety?

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inferior

power plants

a record-breaking motor and


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Get

make your
AVhy is it

foreign aeroplanes hold all the world's


records ?
Not because they are better
built and designed but simply because
they use the

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most powerful and highest developed power plants so far i)roduccd.
two machines to finish in the recent Intei-iiational HydroAeroplane race at [Monaco used 100 H. P. Gnomes ? that a new
wT
1*
ij> r^
J of 16 hours, *28 minutes was recently established bv
S UUratlOn KeCOra poulet with aOO H. p. LeRhoue-]xKi think of itflying for 16 hours non-stop with a 60 H. P. motor in a stock machine and only descendingthen on account of darkness.
which are the

Did

lightest,

j^ou notice that the only

Worla

May we
the Gnome,

send you catalog, giving descriptions, photographs and installation drawings of


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?

Le Rhone, Austro-Daimler and Anzani Motors

about them.

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


1731

BROADWAY

XAMERICA
I

AGENTS

NEW YORK

CITY

A I R C R A F 1"

August, ipi4

34J

CHMITT MONOPLANES
AFETY
PEED

TRENGTH
TABILITY
PERFECTION IN CONSTRUCTION

AND DESIGN

Won

First Prize

New

and Cup

York

at Aviation Races

City, July 4th,

Held

in

1914

FOR PARTICULARS WRITE TO

MAXIMILIAN SCHMITT AEROPLANE & MOTOR WORKS


96 Dale Avenue, Paterson, N.

CONTENTS AUGUST,
The

1914

....

Oceanic Flight Failure or Success?

J.

Vincent Buranelli and Walter A. House

.....
........
.....
.....
.....

The Sopwith Hydroaeroplane

News

Foreign

347

Walter A. House

348

Arthur V. Prescott

349

Practical Aeroplane Design Chart

Paul

J.

Palmer

350

Practical Aeroplane Design (Part IV)

Paul

J.

Palmer

351

Walter H. Phipps

351

Chas. V. Obst

353

The New Sloane Flying-Boat


The Coming

Model Flying Boats

News

in

Review

General
of

Trials

of the Era of Safe Flight (The Spcrry Gyroscope)

.........
.........
.....

352

M.

Recent Aeronautic Patents

E. Henry

353

Lester L. Sargent

354

AIRCRAFT
CHAS. H. HEITMAN

Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing Company


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frendcnl and Ireuiurer

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AIRCRAFT

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the past year.

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Aviation

THE WRIGHT

CO.

Motor

(THE WRIGHT PATENTS)

DAYTON, OHIO
NEW YORK OFFICE

1 1

PINE STREET

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THEperform
under
to

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its ability

conditions

by running throughout the loops and sidewise rolls,


ideal power plant for safe and sane flying.

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BMKKBisaffiwssaaaisssffiaaBSffiKBffiaKaKaaaffiffiaffiaffiaaffiasaffiBaaffiaMaasiasaaaaffiK

THE OCEANIC FLIGHT-FAILURE OR SUCCESS


By VINCENT BURANELLI and

UCH

speculation has been advanced by


various writers on the subject of a Trans-

Atlantic flight and, although the majority


look for failure, with some few in the minority confident of success,

an article on the
be encountered seems appropri-

difficulties to

ate at this time.

In the

first

place the Wanamaker-Curtiss

combination deserves much credit for the big undertaking


they have on hand and especially to Lieut. Porte for his nerve
in essaying to pilot this craft on what will be, if successful,
an epoch-making incident.
The machine chosen for this flight is a large, slow-speed
biplane, powered by two 100 h. p. motors connected direct to
two propellers at the rear. In general construction, the machine
follows, somewhat, regular Curtiss principles, the motors being
securely mounted between the first set of plane struts beyond
the cabin, each motor driving independently.
The top wing
spreads 72 feet
inches with 46 feet
inches for the lower.
Chord is 7 feet
inches giving a wing area of approximately
800 square feet.
The length of the hull is 32 feet
inches
with a depth of S feet 6 inches and a width of S feet
inches.
Stocked, ready for flight, with petrol, et cetera, the entire
weight figures something like 2,500 pounds. Given its full load,
as

it

will be for the big flight, the

weight reaches 5,000 pounds.

The craft was designed for a speed of sixty miles per hour.
At the specified speed of si.xty miles per hour the trip between
Newfoundland and the Irish Coast would require about twentyeight hours of actual steady flying and about three hundred gallons or 2,500 pounds of gasoline would be consumed. This seems
to be about the limit allowed for weight in petrol.
Now, the
question naturally arises, would this be enough fuel to make
the entire flight?

Remembering

no allowances were made on the above


figures for a possible deviation from the course and the necesthat

lliree

WALTER

A.

HOUSE

sary head-resistance that will have to be encountered in heavy


weather, winds, etc., many are led to believe that this would
not be near enough petrol, at least not enough for security.

One

many experts lay particular stress on is the


the machine nears the end of its flight, the consumption of the petrol will naturally cause a noticeable decrease
in weight.
That is true; but, unless all the gasoline and oil
are placed over the exact center of gravity, some fancy figuring
thing that

fact that as

for the weight distribution will have to be made. Let us suppose that the wings have an angle of incidence of eight degrees,
the machine a speed of sixty miles per hour.
The total load
is 5,000 pounds, diminished by almost half as the
fuel is used
up.
Flying at eight degrees, constantly, as the fuel-weight
decreases, the

lift will exceed the weight of the machine and


movement will become apparent, the machine losing
forward inertia.
This alone should convince one that such a flight by stages
would be the more practical, the reloading of fuel keeping the
weight in proportion with the lift. Only two remedies remain
to overcome this difiiculty: pivoting the wings for decreasing

a climbing

the angle of incidence, such as

Paul Schmidt biplane; or


is resorted to, the time
required to complete the journey is only extended that much
longer, and one will find that, with such a high powered motor,
decreasing the

the

speed.

If

the

the

latter

mere throttling-down process will not save a great amount


By that I mean, more explicitly, that, taking into

of gasoline.

consideration that the head-resistance, drift and drag will only


decrease a fraction, lost power will be evident somewhere.
With the weight decreased by half, the angle of incidence

would be decreased by four degrees. This, of course, moves


the center of gravity further back and the forward movement
is

regained by this weight distribution.

Not only

that,

but

it

move the center of thrust and tail-plane surface through


an equal angle from the line of flight. This method has proved
very practical on a smaller scale, as the efficiency of the center
will

Views of the Rodman Wanamakcr Trans-Atlantic Flying Boat 'An

AIRCRAFT

348
of

thrust

stabilizer

with

decreases

the

and the

cosine

efficiency

increases with the sine of the angle they

means

the line of flight, which

small angles, same will increase rapidly as a given line

from

of

make with

that while hardly noticeable for

moves

What makes

most undesirable

system

this

the angle of incidence varies,

as

on a long

flight

Newfoundland starting

the

before dismantling for shipment to


point.

time of this writing, had no real

where short

The machine

trial

have been made to

flights

ing facilities and climbing ability.

feet to 90 feet.

that,

tested out

August, igi4

the

in

this

case

is

center of pressure

moves forward or backward, its direction depending on


and the camber. This will cause either
dragging or nosing tendency which can only be counteracted
by locking the elevator-flaps. If the center of pressure moves
forward, it will be positive
and if moving backward, it will

except at

up

to the

out the weight carry-

test

Any

has,

Hammondsport

defects in the motors

could not possibly be found on these inadequate flights.


Running each motor on the block in the shops, under a brake test,

the angle of incidence

does not necessarily imply that they are perfect for this great
feat.
The Curtiss motor has always given a good account of

itself,

either

the

in

case

of

the

Trans-Atlantic

flyer,

decrease

in

the only alternative since the wings have no changeTo reduce the speed from 60 miles to
bad enough, but, in actual trials, the machine, showed
only a little more than SO m.p.h. Decreasing the speed ten miles
on the hour would make this large craft impractically slow.
Realizing this, Lieut. Porte changed his plans to make the flight

speed

is

able angle of incidence.

45

long

is

made

in three stages, the first stop to be

at the

Azores, a point

which the writer has always advocated as being the best and
most plausible location.
It would seem to be a critical mistake if this craft were not

conditions,

home

trial flight at

One

be negative.

As

but for a long duration

many adverse

the

flight,

point that could be utilized on the

the fact that, instead

of

BY WALTER

="00

^OT

the successful entry of the Sopith firm of England in the French


hneider Cup, much interest has been
excited
small
hydro that
in
the
showed its heels to the heavier and

machines

umsier

it

was

pitted

against.
For excellence of design
onstruction, the "Sop with" without a doubt
rthy of careful consideration and study.
Although the main planes are staggered sharply

and

forward,

lateral

stability

achieved

is

by warping

the wings, a point that has provoked much comment as being impractical.
With a spread of
24 feet 6 inches and a chord of 4 feet 9 inches,
these planes are camberless, that is, the ribs are
perfectly flat on the under side, and set at a
low angle of incidence.
Internal guying is lacking and the construction of the entire machine

throughout

is exceedingly light.
notes with some apprehension the absence
plane-striits.
Only four

One

heavy guying of the

of

of these struts are employed and only a


single strand of cable utilized for guying. Other
attaching the lower main beams to the fuselage
by the conventional nut and bolt practic
main planes are absolutely fre^
ng se- ^
cured any too solidly to the fu
cept for W
a single guying of small wires
e upper
sets

beams.

The

fuselage

is

of

streamline

form,

extra

and modeled, somewhat, along "Nieuport"


At the bow is located the 100 h. p. monoGnome motor and at tiie rear, the tailplane,
non-lifting,
elevators and large rudder.

deep

lines.

soupape

The
vided

tail-plane is serai-circular in shape with diflaps attached and the three-quarter cir-

rudder swinging between.


This rudder is
on a large perpendicular fin extending
from the leading edge of the tail-plane.
The aviator's seat is located directly under the
rear beam of the upper planes, set low within
the fuselage and surrounded at the top by a
padded buffer.
Control is by a wheel mounted
on a central column and rudder-bar.
A fore and
aft motion of the central column operates the

cular

swung

tur

of

the

vheel

to

lithe

the ,vmg-warping and the foot-bar works


Recording instruments are located
on the dash directly in front of the operator.

Two

floats are attached to the simple landingrather far forward, and a single tailwith water-rudder attached, secured to the

chassis,
float,

rear part of the fuselage.


The main hydros
are not stepped, are irregular in form and unusually deep.
These are spread rather far apart
so that no tip-floats are necessary on the wings.
Since the tendency is to "lean" backward when
running over the water, no provisions are made
for the 7 foot S inch propeller for protection.
This machine is a single-seater, has a mean
speed of 80 m.p.h. and an approximate weight
of 600 pounds.
Construction throughout is extremely simple and comes up to the fine standard
set by the Sopwith firm.
Altogether, if America
could produce something just as neat we might
not find aviation quite so dull as some of us

imagine
time we

it

is

over

here.

At

were wakening up.

least,

it

is

about

on

craft

is

itself

first.

Wanamaker

decreasing the angle of incidence of

wings or slackening the speed, an arrangement might be


the angle of incidence of the tail-plane might
be increased as the weight decreases, thereby balancing up the
line of flight more evenly, although a lifting-type tail-plane
will dampen the speed of the machine somewhat.
Of the three
suggestions set forth, this last one seems to be the most practhe

made whereby

tical

for results.

Nevertheless,
this

flight,

with

Lieut.

cessful completion

all

the

difficulties

A.

HOUSE

to

be

encountered on

may carry the task through to


and we sincerely hope that he will.

Porte

THE SOPWITH HYDROAEROPLANE


tINCE

crossing the Atlantic under

motor should prove

suc-

AIRCRAFT

Anyast, IQ14

349

TOREIGN
T^EWef

KKKNCH AR.MOIKKD Hll'LANK BlILI AT CHALAIS-MliLDON

BY
Arthur V. Prescott

new product of the French military aircraft factory has a tractor


type fuselage, but is a propeller biplane having two 160 h. p. Gnome engines
mounted in streamline casings in the manner shown in the accoropanyinir
l>hotagraph and each driving a separate propeller. The front portion of
the fuselage is armoured with 8 mm. thick steel plates and a Hotclikiss
machine gun is mounted in the extreme nose of the fuselage, a position
which provides a very wide angle of action
Tills

I
kms

Capt. Roald Amundsen, the Antarctic explorer,


3ok his aviator's certificate on June 11th at the
rmy flying-ground at Gardermoen.

16 mins. 39 2-5 sees.; 40 kms., 22 mins.


14 sees.;
50 kms., 27 mins. 47 2-5 sees.; 100
kms., 56 mins. 20 sees.; 150 kms., 1 hr. 24 mins.
11 1-5 sees.
Greatest speed, 108.4 k. p. h.
Distance (with Five Passengers). Quarter of
an hour, 20 kms., Vi hr., 50 kms.; 1 hr.. 106

London-Manchester
the

fact

that

Distance

London
out

of

Ar
eight

Duration

(five
(five

passengers), 150 kn
passengers), 1 hr.

11

Race.
starters

in

race from London to Manchester and back


three finished, it was nevertheless an interesting and historic race.
There was a little
of the sensational about it, too, for it was won
by the winner of the recent .-Verial Derby, VV.
L. Brock, the popular hero of the race whom
many hoped would win.
Excellent as Brock's
performance was, Carr and Alcock, who finished
second and third respectively, also put up most
creditable attempts to win the race, tlie former
because he was making his first big flight on a
fast
monoplane the Morane-Saulnier and the
latter on account of his being delayed nearly an
hour at the start by slight engine trouble and
encountering a storm on his return which the
others missed.
On the day before the race, several of the
competitors made speed trials at Hendon in order
to
provide the necessary data for the handithe

only

(Buc, Sept.
(Buc, Sept.,

1st, 1911)
1912)
4th, 1914)
Poulet (Etampes, April 24th, 1914)..
Basser (Johannisthal, June 24th, 1914).

Langer (Johannisthal, Feb.

Landmann

(Johannisthal,

June

Mr. George Reynolds and Mr. J. H.


Ledeboer.
The pilots were J. Alcock, W. Birchenough, P. Bjorklund, W. L. Brock, Lord Carbery, R. H. Carr and Louis Noel, and each
flew three times each way over a distance of
about a quarter of a mile.
Lord Carbery on his
80 h.p. Bristol scout attained a speed of over
100 m.p.h.
At 9:30 a. m. the limit man, \V. Eirchenough, on
the 70 h.p. Maurice Farman, started ofl^ on the
capiiers,

stage of 91 miles to Birmingham, with a


mechanic as passenger, and was soon lost to
view in the mist.
L. \. Strange was sent off on the 80 h.p.
Bleriot, and
he also soon disappeared in the
mist.
Lord Carbery then made a test flight on
his 80 h.p. Bristol, during which he flew into a
fog bank about 500 feet up.
.Mcock's engine
was got going and at 10:55:40 he started off,
carrying ITarold Lane as passenger and course
finder.
Conditions were then improving somewhat, and it was hoped that Hawker on the
100 h.p. Sopwith, R. Skene on the Martinsyde,
and perhaps Gordon Bell on the Airo would be
able to come over from Brooklands, where it was
stated the weather was very bad.
Louis Noel,
W. L. Brock, and R. H. Carr were then dispatched at short intervals on the three Moranefirst

Saulniers, each getting away in (n\G style.


Lord Carbery got away' next. Hawker following some 25 mins. after, so that out of the fourteen entrants eight had started, leaving six non-

This brings M. Garaix's list of records to 41!


The total weight of pilot, five passengers and
fuel was 608 kgs., or 1337.6 lbs.
On June 9th, M. Eugene Renaux, carrying a
passenger on a .Maurice Farman biplane (100
h.p. Renault motor and Integral propeller) flew
round the marked course at Etampes and beat
the World's Speed Records from 250 kms. to
400 kms.
These have been held by M. Guillaux

snce February llth, 1913. M. Renaux also set


up a record for 500 kms., previously unrecorded.
he following are the figures.
Distance.
M. Renaux.

II

13
14
16
18

01 20
17 57

07
28 56-4
10

2Sth,

1914)

England
Des|jite

1-ourny
l-ourny

21 49

Reinhold Boehm (Johannisthal)


24 12
Great events are preparing in Germany to wind
up the unprecedented sporting activity of this
year.

The Society of German Motor Vehicle Manufacturers, with the Imperial Automobile and j\ero
Clubs, have decided to arrange an International
.\ero Show in Berlin at the beginning of November, in the new exhibition halls on the Kaiser-

damm.
German
fullest

exhibits

industry will be
extent and a large
is expected.

represented

number

of

to

its

foreign

250
300
350
400
450
500

-.

kms
kms
kms
kms
kms

2h. 50i
3h. IS;
3h. 47i
4h. 15i
4h. 43

M. Guillaux

28s
3h.
4m. 5s.
3h. 34:
465.
4h.
4m. 4s.

44s
17s

biplane 7,500 metres, or approximately 24,606

feet.

29s.

Greece

16s.

At Toul, France
n June 29, the French mili.\djutant Vinctnot, piloted
by George .Tou.x.
)ux, and carrying eight passengers,
established a record for continuous navigation by
dirigibles.
It remained in the air thirty-five hours
tary dirigible ballo

At Leipsic on July 14th, a new world's record


r altitude for aeroplane was established by
Heinrich Oelerich, a German aviator, who rose in his

Tlie first Sopwith seaplane (100 h. p. Anzani)


for the Greek navy has been delivered at .Athens.

Guatemala

twenty minut

The Guatemala Government's


was

Germany
Johannisthal, Germany, o
worhl's altitude record for an ae
only the aviator was made bv t
man. Otto Linnekogel, who at' th aerodrome atta ned a height of 6,600 metres,
approximately
21,654 feet, in his monoplane.
Basser broke the world's duration record, held
by Poulet (60 h.p. Caudion-Le Rhone biplane),
.\t

officially

the

of

opened July

7th

proclaimed C.
-Moisant School of .Aviation, the chief instructor

and Capt. Dante Naunith the head of the army


aviation

Corps.

on June 24th.

On

Rumpler

umpler

Russia
It

he ascended at
nsthal at 3:50 p. m. on the 23rd and
at 10 a. m^ on the 24th, having flown
first biplane built
a

biplane,

Johanlanded
18

hrs.

by the

aviation academy
the President

by

Manuel Estrada Cabera. who


Marvin Wood, formerly of the

Republic,

350

AIRCRAFT

August, 1914

AIRCRAFT

AiKjust. 1014

351

PRACTICAL AEROPLANE DESIGN


PAUL

By
Part IV

IRACTICALLV

aeroplanes of the
present era can be classed as either
oplane or biplane type.
Once in
hile a tri plane type is built, but
et,
the multiplane type has not
all

sfully

used.

The

follow-

to

ing plane type, as developed by Prof.


P. Langley, has not been tried enough
determine whether it is a representative type

or

not.

Samuel

Monoplanes: The Monoplane type of aeroplane resembles more closely Nature's aeroplane,
the bird, in that it has only a single lifting surface.
The monoplane is the most efficient of the
different types, being from 18 per cent, to 25 per
cent, more efficient for a given area than biplane
surfaces, and even more so when multiplane types
are considered.
Monoplanes possess greater speed
but are harder to learn to operate than the biplane
type, and, after learning, require more attention
from the pilot.
Head resistance is considerably
less in monoplanes than in biplanes owing to the
elimination of struts and diagonal wiring such as
is
required in the biplane types.
The principal
difficulty with monoplane types is the bracing of
the single lifting surface, masts or pylons are
necessary, and with large plane areas and dimensions, it is extremely difficult to properly and
sufficiently brace the
wing structure.
Fig.
1,
Plate V shows a monoplane type.
For machines of large size the mc noplane type
is not very much more efficient thai
the biplane
surfaces, .but when speed and quickr
ment, "dart-like" in a way, are desi ed the mon
oplane is the superior type.
Biplanes: The biplane type of aeroplane surfaces were the first to actually transport a human
being through the air self-propelled by the aid
of dynamic force.
The prnicipal advantages of
the biplane type are the ease of making the structure strong, and simplicity of plane structure.
The struts separating the two surfaces acting as
compression members in a Howe truss, which is
one of the strongest engineering structures.
Biplane types are easy to operate in comparison
with monoplane types, and, while they lack the
phenomenal speed qualities of the monoplane, pos
sess the ability to carry large "cargoes.'
And for

aeroplanes whose area is large, and above a certain size, the biplane type is more practical, practicable, and
feasible than the monoplane type.
Fig. II, Plate V, shows a representative biplane
type.

The efficiency of biplane surfaces varies from


IS per cent, to 25 per cent, less than a monoplane surface of the same area, owing to interference of the two planes upon each other. This
loss depends upon
the distance separating the
two planes, the further the planes being separated, within reasonable limits, the more efficient
will be the biplane.
Eiffel ascertained that with
a distance of 2/Z the chord between the planes
gave a loss of efficiency of 23 per cent., a distance of 2>/2, or equal to the chord, gave a loss
of 20 per cent., and 4/3 of the chord, a loss of
IS per cent., of that of a monoplane surface.
The designer and constructor must, therefore,
realize that the most efficient biplane must have
the greatest possible distance between the planes.
Staggered Biplane Surfaces: Some constructors have been staggering the planes in their
machines, placing the top plane in advance of tlie
lower one, thinking thereby to increase the efficiency, but Eiffel, in his experiments, discovered that, contrary to the general understandstaggering the surfaces forward or backing,
ward does not materially increase the efficiency
of the machine, but that it does aid in maintaining the longitudinal stability, making the ten
dency to "pitch" become less in a plane with
staggered surfaces than when "normal."
Following Plane Types: This type of surface has been popularly termed, the "Langley"
type of surfaces. In this type, the planes follow,
This type shows remarkone behind the other.
able longitudinal stability, but the rear plane
suffers a loss of efficiency, and, therefore, must
be placed at a different angle than the forward

J.

PALMER

Disposition

of Surfaces

order to make it more efficient.


Fig.
VllI, Plate V, shows some results obtained by
Eiffel with following plane types.
"A" having
the chords in the same plane and parallel.
In
this type the center of pressure was displaced
in the same direction as with a single monoplane,
"B" wherein the chord of the rear plane was
inclined 2}/^ degrees, "negative" angle, or at a
less angle than the forward plane, this demonstrated the lift to be more than with a monoplane
surface when the whole "machine" was inclined
at an angle of about 7 degrees.
The center of
pressure in this type "B," instead of traveling to
the rear as with a monoplane surface, when inclined at small angles, moved towards the front
of the plane, thus aiding very materially the
longitudinal stability.
Type "C," wherein the
rear plane was set at a negative angle of 5 degrees below that of the forward plane demonstrated, by its results, that the planes should not
have a great difference in their respective angles,
the 21;^
degrees arrangement possessing much
better lift qualities than when 5 degrees was
plane,

ni

types B and C showed great difference


their flying angles, B flying at 5 degrees and
at 12 degrees for the same lift.
In each model the distance between the two
planes is equal to twice the chord of the surAlso,

in

faces.

Multiplanes: Figs. Ill and IV, Plate V,


show triplane and multiplane types. The triplane
has been tried hy several of the great constructors, Curtiss, Voisin, Roes, etc., but, owing to
its inefficiency,
was abandoned in favor of the

biplane type.
The quadroplane has been
experimentally, and reports have been made
flights were made with about 10 horsepower,
as far as known, nothing further has been

along

this

tried

that
but,

done

line.

Inherent Lateral Stability.


It is the aim of the designer and constructor
evolve an aeroplane possessing inherent longitudinal and lateral stability and several methods
are now used to attain this end.
These will be
discussed.
The prevalent arrangements are vertical
panels or "screens." dihedral angles, following planes, and shaping the wings in the for
of
ad V. The latter type has been proven
to be very successful.
In all these types.
the exception of the vertical panels,' " artificial
means of "banking" or inclining the machine
laterally, must be provided.
If this is not done,
it will be extremely difficult to turn curves propto

erly.

Vertical Panels: Vertical panels, or, as they


sometimes called, "screens" have not been

are

used much lately for retaining lateral stability.


The Dunne biplane uses them to some extent.
They operate on the principle of the box kite,
the air-pressure on the panels resisting any tendency to "skid" or slide off on a tangent to the
line of flight.
Some ailerons should be provided for "emergency" use, the panels maintaining the lateral stability under ordinary conditions.

The

principal

the

absorption

objection to the vertical panels is


of power by the frictional resistance of the surfaces.
Otherwise, they constitute
a simple and effective means of aiding lateral
stability.
Figs.
and VI, Plate V, show vertical panels in place on both biplane and monoplane surfaces.
Vertical Fins: Vertical fins, in monoplane
types, act in the same manner as the vertical
panels in the biplane surfaces.
Dihedral Angles: Lateral stability can be aided
very materially by the use of dihedral angles,
The "positive"
either "positive" or "negative."
angle is where the tips are higher than the
center, as Fig. IX, Plate V, and the "Negative"
where the tips are lower, as Fig. IX, Plate V.
The principal disadvantage of the Dihedral angles,
especially if large, is that in disturbed air, excessively disturbed, dihedral angles lose their efficiency, and tend to cause an excessive "roll"
or sidewise pendulum action which would eventually "knock" the plane out of control, and, there-

fore, ailerons or other means of correcting lateral stability must be provided.


But for ordinary work, a slight dihedral angle aids very
materially in the operation of the machine.
Positive dihedral angles afford more stability
than the negative type.
Many of the birds are
equipped with the dihedral angle, which, however,
can be "cut out" in "rough weather."
Negative diliedral angles are apparent also in
many birds, the downward droop aiding the stability.
Some aeroplanes will fly better with a
slight negative angle or "droop," but, as with
the positive angle, means must be provided to
"butt in" with more efficient means of retaining
the stability.
An extreme negative angle causes
a tendency to capsize the plane thus making
a "jjositive" dihedral, which is much more stable.
\-Shaped, or Arrow Shaped Planes: Shaping
the planes in the form of a wide V, Fig. VII.
Plate V, with the apex of the V in the direction
of flight is used by many constructors, especially
foreign, and it aids very materially lateral and
longitudinal stability.
The principle of this aiding of the lateral stability is that, upon the
plane being thrown out or lateral balance, the
tendency of the machine is to fall towards the
In so doing, the lift is increased on
low side.
the low side owing to the increased aspect ratio
of that side.
This increased lift on the low side
raises the low side, the high side dropping owing
to the loss of lift due to its decreased aspect
ratio.
This restores the lateral stability of the
machine. The V-shape also aid^' longitudinal stability by "spreading
the center of gravity over
a longer "for 'n' aft" distance.
The balancing of a
short piece of wood and a long piece of wood
on the finger is illustrative of this principle.
Following Planes: The following plane or
"Langley" type also aids very materially the
longitudinal stability of an aeroplane, as explained
before under that heading.

Proportional Arrangement.

The relationships of control areas and the main


plane area are somewhat related in all machines,
and Fig. X, Plate V, has been computed showing
this relationship, and is the average relationship
of these parts to the main plane.
Dimensions
are treated in the same manner, and from the
figure it is possible to calculate approximately the
required areas for the various areas and dimensions of the plan under consideration.
It must
be remembered, however, that a speedy plane does
not require as much control area as a "lumber
wagon" and the designer must add or subtract
accordingly.

Dimensions and Areas: The dimensions and


of the plane in regard to the area and
chord of the wings and the fore and aft length
are measured in terms of the spread and area
of the main planes in both types of machine.
areas

Monoplane.

Main

!..100% square

Plane

15%

100%

in feet, lineal

7%

Rudder
Tail

feet

area of plane
area of plane
of plane
area of plane

Ailerons
Elevators

3.5% area
15

fin

Dimensions.

Span
Chord
Length O.

20%j of span
75% of span

A
Biplane
Areas.

100%

Main Plane

7%
7%

Rudder
Tail

square feet
area of plane
area of plane
area of plane
area of plane
in

U%

Ailerons
Elevators

10%

fin

Dimensions.

Span
Chord
Length O.

The next

100%
15%

A
article

will

in feet, lineal

of span
85%) of span
cover placing of weights

and proper methods of balancing

lifting

tail

and

non-lifting tail machines, etc.

THE NEW SLOANE FLYING-BOAT TRIALS


By
MIE

first

trials

of the

new Sloane

Fly-

ing-Boat conducted at Steinway Beach,


L.
I.,
the
latter
part
of
June,

were

especially

interesting in that
they demonstrated the worth of the
lew features incorporated in
the design.
Before starting the construction of the new
craft, Mr. Sloane figured out that if a flyingboat was to be made really practical for naval,
as well as sporting use. it must be more efficient
than the average machine of this class.

From comparative tests with monoplane and


biplane types of surfaces, it was speedily demonstrated that the old-fashioned type of laminated
rib used so extensively on biplanes in this coun-

WALTER

H.

PHIPPS

inferior in point of efficiency to


the monoplane type; and. in consequence, Mr.
Sloane decided to develop a flying-boat using the
monoplane style of rib, which would compare
favorably both in quick rising and weight carrying with the best military monoplanes and tractor
biplanes.
That he was correct in this theory
was clearly shown at the first trials of the Sloane
Flying-Boat when on the first run with three
people aboard and the throttle only half open,
the new craft literally tore off the water, much
to the astonishment of those present who had
expected to witness nothing more than a planing
test since the craft was a new one and fitted
with a new three-in-one control designed especially for flying-boat use to afford an instinctive
try

is

vastly

control which would leave the feet and shoulders


free.
It speaks volumes for the ease and instinctiveness of this control when it is borne in mind
that at the very first flight Mr. Gilpatric was
able to handle the machine with practically the
same ease and skill as when using the Deperdussin control with which he has flown thousands
of miles.
The sporting type of Sloane Flying-Boat belongs
The
to the class of long hulled waterplanes.
central hull furnishes the flotation, as well as
acting as a fuselage to carry tail planes and rudder.
The Sloane hull is one of the nearest
hull in flyingto approach a true motor boat
boat construction and skimming at high speed
on the water with its polished mahogany sides

352
and glistening in the sun is a sight to gladden
heart of any speed boat enthusiast and
the
inspire him with confidence to pursue entrant in
the realm of high speed marine craft.
Just as the main hull is constructed of solid
mahogany, so are the two wing tip pontoons,
and it is interesting to note that here as in
other parts of the Sloane craft, a great advance
has been made; for, although of exceptioiial
strength, these wing tip pontoons only weigh
about

SIX

pounds

The motor

apiece.

is

placed

over midway between the planes, affording a space for two passengers in the rear,
just in back of the two front seats, from which
a

little

There is ample room in


the craft is controlled.
these two cockpits for four passengers and it is
surprising how comfortable and secure one feels
when riding in both the rear, as well as the
front cockpit.
The hull is of single step type.
bottom, in front, and constructed in the usual
manner with spruce and ash frames. The front
dash is low and gracefully shaped, affording an

F^

C RA FT

wind and spray


The hull itself
measures 23 feet long and 36 inches wide, with
beam of 36 inches at the bottom and 44 .nches
shield.

efficient

a
at

The

height of the hull is 40 inches


which keeps the wings well above the water.
The top wing has a span of 42 feet and a
chord of 6 feet, and the lower wing has a
span of 30 feet and a chord of 5 feet 6 inches.
The ailerons are fitted to the outer extremities
of each wing and each measures 9 feet by 30
inches.
The interior construction of the planes
is
one of the special features of the Sloane
Flying-Boat, and like most of the other details
practice.
is
a great improvement over general
The beams are very deep and strong and the
ribs are built up in the most improved monoplane fasliion closely spaced ana with light
false
ribs between every
one to preserve the
special shape of the wing and prevent any sagThe wings are covered with
ging of the cloth.
linen treated with four coats of aero varnish
and two coats of spar varnish; thus giving the
planes a smooth finish that is proof against
the top.

August, 191
weather

and

The

seas.

struts

the

THE SPERRY GYROSCOPE


application to the
flying machine, is another example of the remarkable speed of the development of some modern
Two years ago, Mr. Elmer A.
epochal invention.
Sperry fitted a Curtiss aeroplane with his device,
and experiments in stabilizing were then undertaken.
Careful testing continued all winter at
San Diego, under the eye of Glenn H. Curtiss and
the officers of the Aviation Corps of the United
Many improvements were made,
States Army.
and the progress was steadily continued for many

months

at

in

its

Hammondsport.

Full details have now been received of the signal triumph of this wonderful product of Ameri-

France.
in
ingenuity
can
where, at a safety contest
the award of $10,000 offered
by the French War Depait
ment was won by the aero
plane fitted with the Sperry
The contest, e\
stabilizer.
tending over two hours, was
held on the Seine, betwet-n
Bezons and Argentine. Law
rence D. Sperry, son of lli'
inventor, piloted the winnmi,
machine, assisted by a mtch

The
anician.
machine
the
young

Sperry

control

of
perfect,

was

standing

up

duri^ng the flight with his


arms folded, while the mechanician climbed to the end
of the lower plane and back.
Rtne Ouinton, the
M.
National
of
the
president
League of France,
Aerial
who states that the invention
is being hailed by European
experts as one of the most

important contributions ever

made

to the science of aviagives a graphic account


of a flight which he took with
young Sperry.
He says:
"Imagine the aeroplane in
At a given moment
flight.
the passenger rises, leaves his
tion,

and climbing out onto a


wing calmly walks here and

seat,

there,

as

the

fancy

takes

him.
At the same time, the
pilot rises and holds his two
arms above his head, in or-

der to prove that he


touching any of the

is

not

mech-

doned and apparently thrown


out of equilibrium, keeps on
way at a speed of
50
in
the

We

Nothing happened for five or six seconds; the


machine appeared to have stopped.
Then, suddenly it plunged head down, like a dolphin, in a
dive that was as graceful as it was impressive.
We rose again, and Mr. Sperry had a new experience for me -a glide with one wing so sharply
inclined that it seemed incredible that the ap-

paratus could be working.


We leaned over
towards the horizon at an angle of 45 degrees.
The pilot did not touch the controls. The machine governed itself, and even in this abnormal
position, while literally buffeted by the wind, it
navigated in absolute safety.
The Sperry apparatus consists of- four little gyroscopes that

into

fit

rest

of

the machine.

The power plant consists of a 110 h. p. Boland


Motor turning an 8 feet diameter by 6 feet 6
inches pitch Charavay Propeller, which gave the
craft

water

speed

of

miles

sixty

an

and seventy miles an hour

hour
in

the

on

the

air.

Gene

Dimensions.
Span (top) 42 feet. Chord (top) 6 feet.
Span (lower) 30 feet. Chord (lower) 5
6

inches.

Seating

people.
23
length of machine 26
Capacity

Length of hull
Overall

Power Plant 110

feet

feet.

h.

p.

THE COMING OF THE ERA OF SAFE FLIGHT


The Sperry gyroscope,

which

special
steel
sockets are of streamline
form
wrapped with linen and treated with the same
varnish as used on the wings, making them
proof against the elements.
All the guy wires
are doubled as are also all the control wires.
The tail planes, elevator and rudder are of ample
size
and pleasing lines which blend in with

feet

Boland Motor.

inches.

AIRCRAFT

August, ipi4
case.

When

of

gyros holds

tile

mounted

machine is in flight, the rotation


tlie structure in wliich they are
horizontal regardless of all move-

the

truly

(d)

the passenger moves out on the plane,


the angle at which the ailerons meet with
the air gradually increases to automatically
compensate for the upsetting couple. As
the passenger returns towards the center,
the ailerons gradually return to their nor-

.\s

ments of the machine.


4.
When the automatic stabilizer is in operation,
the controls are held with perfect rigidity, and the
pilot cannot use them even if he wishes.
5.
When the automatic stabilizer is in operation, the pilot uses the small lever to the left for
controlling the aeroplane longitudinally, and the
small pendant lever on the steering wheel for controlling tlie aerojilane laterally.
He is entirely
relieved of the task of stabilizing the aeroplane,
and uses these levers only for directing its flight.

B.

Demonstration
is

of

applied in

the

action

of

the

The upsetting couple applied in this case is


about eighty meter kilograms.
The same points should be observed as given
under No. 8, i. e., that the machine is entirely
under automatic control, that the longitudinal inclination of the aeroplane does not change, and
that the rudder is now compensating for the upsetting couple.
C.
Dernonstration to Observers who will make
flights as passengers in the demonstrating

.-\uto-

flight.

The

passenger making
about eighty kilograms.

this

flight

weighs

7.
The machine will rise from the water in the
fly under automatic control.
8.
Automatic lateral control will first be demonstrated, as follows:
The passenger will leave his
seat and climb out on the wing to one side for a

usual manner, and

distance

of

between

10.

c)

control

12.

The

pilot

relieved

is

from

all

work

of
direct
easier

stabilizing the machine, and has only to


pilot is showing that the machine is its flight, which task becomes simpler and
under automatic control by moving out than steering a motor car. The pilot will from
of his controlling seat and holding his time to time place his hands on the steering wheel
head.
for the purpose of keeping the machine on a
The
straight course of flight.
When the pilot touches

The

steering

the

wheel

while

the

automatic stabilizer

Note the difference


flight

when

in

re-

the automatic

thrown

out.
the pilot throttles his engine, and in
that way approaches too closely the critical speed
necessary in order to sustain the aeroplane, the
automatic air velocity device operates to volplane
16.

machine.
is asked especially to observe the
following points:
After gaining speed on the water, the auto-

matic stabilizer will be thrown in, and the aeroplane will rise from the water under complete
automatic control.
In rising from the water, and
in controlling the angle or climb of the aeroplane,
the pilot uses the small lever to the left.
U. The aeroplane flies smoothly with almost
complete absence of the so-called "bumps."

metres from the centre


While this is being done the machine will be
under automatic control.
Observe that:
(a) The upsetting couple applied by the passenger is between one Inuidred and twenty
and one hundred and fifty metre kilograms.
(b)

assume hand-control.

gard to smoothness of

The passenger

and

a half and two


of gravity of the plane.

one

IS in operation, he cannot in any way assist the


apparatus in stabilizing the machine, because the
controls are rigidly held by the servo-motors.
13.
The gyroscopic base-line, i. e., the structure in which the gyroscopes are held, constantly
maintains the horizontal plane.
The graduated
circles on this device act as an accurate clinometer,
constantly indicating the inclination of the machine laterally and longitudinally.
14.
The gyroscopic base-line is causing the controls to ailerons and rudders to make very small
movements. These movements are instantly counteracting each
disturbing effect
simultaneously
with its occurrence.
15.
By operating the foot-treadle the pilot can
instantly throw out the automatic control and

mal position.
9.
Demonstration
of
automatic
longitudinal
control.
The passenger will leave his seat, climb
up on the lower plane, and go backward approaching the propeller as closely as possible.

matic Stabilizer when an upsetting force


6.

353

IS

When

the machine to an angle of about twenty degrees.


17.
When the automatic air velocity device has
volplaned the .machine, the pilot cannot regain
automatic longitudinal control until the volplane
has brought the speed of the machine back to nor-

When

18.
the
trol continues to

aeroplane turns, automatic con

operate, although the pilot can


use any angle of banking he wishes.
19.
When the speed of the engine is reduced,
all
parts
function
as
before.
The automaic
stabilizing device is independent of the engine for
a time sufficient to enable the pilot to make a
landing or to restart the engine in case the latter
accidentally stops.
20.
The pilot alights on the water with the
aeroplane under full automatic control."

MODEL FLYING BOATS


By CHARLES V. OBST

HE

sport of model flying has


progressed to
point
where a
the
model Flying-Boat contest is about
to be held by the leading model assoscientific

thii

ntry.

The

Ae

cience Club of -America.


For some
time past a number of flyers have
experimenting with, and testing models of
this wonderful type of machine.
.\
few words as to the requirements and the
difliculties to be met with in constructing and
testing a model flying boat will certainly be a

been

great help to many experimenters.


Primarily, a flying boat must be a heavier than
machine, the boat of which shall support the
entire weight of the model when floating or hydroplaning.
Outriggers or tip pontoons must be
solely
for
the purpose of balancing on
the
water.
When rising from the surface of the
water in flight the weight must be supported,
of course, by the planes.
The model, when
adjusted for its final trials, must be in perfect
balance on the water and also in the air.
This
means that the center of pressure of the apparatus must be approximately the same in flight
and when planing on the water, in order that
it
shall travel efficiently and smoothly on either
element.
The question of speed is one wdiich is very
important.
The flying speed of such an aeroplane must be equal to, or greater than its
hydroplaning speed, otherwise the boat would
simply be lifted from the water without a chance
to skim on its surface.
A slow flying boat is
out of the question, the ideal type, as evolved
by many experiments, being a speedy, small proair

machine, with high aspect ratio planes


of
average area.
The small medium pitched
propellers, besides being easier to handle because
of the heavy motors used, allow the boat to be
placed nearer the remainder of the model, which
is a great advantage as it brings the
center of
resistance near as possible to its proper posipellered

tion.

The boat

itself, by being constructed with one


and as near streamline form as possible
little
resistance to the air in flight.
By
careful designing and workmanship, a strong efficient boat body twenty inches in length can be

step

offers

made to weigh less than one ounce. The balancing pontoons are absolutely useless if placed
as they are in a man carrying flying boat, above
the water.
.\
large machine can, by the use
of

its

warp or

ailerons,

has been taken up


abroad after having been offered to this country first and rejected.
It is the Davis non-recoil
gun, for use in aeroplanes.
The first of these guns has been consigned to
the Naval Ordnance Officer, Woolwich, England,
and will be subjected to an exhaustive series of
tests and wil) be adopted if it meets the requireiiiventiuii

When two shot guns are fired butt to butt


there is no recoil.
That principle has been used
the Davis non-recoil gun.
The Davis gun is in reality two guns. The
one which is to be sent abroad fires a sixpounder from one end and a load of bird shot
of equal ^^leight from the other.
The impacts
of the two loads compensate, and as a result there
in

is

practically

no

recoil.

The gun is ten feet long and weighs 156


pounds, but the regular service guns of the same
calibre will weigh only fifty-four pounds.
They are mounted forward on the aeroplane.
The operator raises or depresses the muzzle with

wing

tip float

from

gear

operated

by

E.

The

becoming dangerous.

The first test is to be for safety, then for


velocity, penetration and ballistics, and after that
the gun will he taken to the Royal Naval Flying School at Eastchurch, Isle of Shippey, where
it
will be mounted on an aeroplane and tried
out.

The Davis
American
the

offer

non-recoil gim was offered to the


government, but from all indications
was pigeonholed.

Kanter and Heinrich Winners


Harold
Schmitt

shown

Kanlner with the new Maximilian


Monoplane which was first
"Aircraft" for June, won first prize

Military
in

on which you have worked and experimented for


weeks, skim over the water, rise and soar high
in the air is a beautiful and inspiring sight.
As
it
glides steadily back to the water, alighting
easily as a feather and completing the wonderful flight, you are convinced that no other model
can compare, in beautiful flying, with the model
flying

boat.

HENRY
right

liand. while with


is effected.
firing is electrically accomplished.
The operator holds a double disk between his teeth, and
when both horizontal and vertical adjustments
are satisfactory he bites on the disk, closing the
circuit and firing the gun. which has a muzzle
velocity of 2,000 feet a second.
The projectile has two fins to direct its course,
and the bird shot, fired in the opposite direction,
are graphited to keep them from packing and

the

hand the horizontal adjustment

the left

Secondly, the complete model, launched from


hand should climb easily and fly steadily
before any attempt is made to fly from the pond.
When the airboat has jiassed these tests satisfactorily then it is ready for the final and decisive trials, rising from the surface of the water
and soaring.
If
well designed and powerful
enough, the model will be seen planing the water
a few feet from the start and will have ascended
into the air with a run of about fifteen feet.
Although a flying boat model is the most difficult to build and fly successfully and will not
make flights of duration or distance similar to
those of a hand launched, or other type of
model aeroplane, it is the most beautiful machine
of all in action.
To see a neat flying boat model
the

GENERAL

IN
By M.

Another Amtrican

the water.
Needless to say, every part of such a flying
boat must be thoroughly waterproof, no ordinary
glue can be used successfully in its construction.

NEWS
Ordinance Designed for Aeroplanes
will be Tested in England

lift

the water; in a model, once a float of that


kind touches the water it will not lift again,
thus causing the machine to swing in circles and
spoiling a flight.
Hence, the balancing pontoons
on a model flying boat should touch the water
when floating and be of such form as to assist
the boat in hydroplaning.
.-\s
the pov\er required to carry a model of
this type from the water, and to support the
added w'eiglit and resistance of a boat and pontoons in the air, is about double that necessary
for a hand launched model, it can easily be
seen that long motors are essential.
A large
percentage of the turns stored in the rubber
motors is used up in getting the flying boat from

Amberoid, and the varnish made by diluting this


glue are the best preparations in use at present
In testing this kind of model, the boat and
pontoons should be tried first and adjusted to
skim properly.
With the bow high above the
surface of the water and the center of gravity
about one-fourth the boat's length from the rear
end,
the machine
will
plane on the water's
surface easily. Since this apparatus will not proceed with the wind, which swings it around as
soon as released, starting against the breeze is
ahvays the proper method.

and

Albert S. Heinrich in one of the famous


Heinrich monoplanes won second prize in the
aeroplane races given by the Mayor's Fourth
of July Celebration Committee of New York
City on July 4th.
It was the first air race of
the year in the vicinity of New York City.
The race was won by Kantner at sixty-four
miles an hour over a forty-six miles course from
Governor's Island up the Hudson to Spuyten
Duyvil, back through the Narrows to Sea Gate
and thence returning to the starting point.
He
covered the distance in 43m. 26 l-5s.
Heinrich's
speed was a little less than sixty miles an hour
and his time 46m. 46 4-5s.
Kantner won by
3m. 20 3-5s.
He took a prize of $1,000 and
Ileinrichs of $500.
Third and fourth prizes of
$500 and $150 were not awarded, nor was a
special trophy offered for flying boats.
It was a dav of misfortunes for the marine
aircraft that kept all five entered out of the
race.
Two of them attempted to leave the Atlantic Yacht Club, at Sea Gate, to reach the
starting point just before the gun was fired at
three o'clock in the afternoon.
B. R. VerJ.
planck broke a wing on his Curtiss flying boat
in getting off.
He repaired it in twenty minutes,

AIRCRAFT

354
but small boats crowding about him gave him no
room for the run over the water required to get
up flying speed. Frank Burnside, in a Thomas
boat, failed to leave the rough water.
Haldeman von Figyelmessy and his hydroaeroplane were on a truck that was mired trying
One
to haul them to the beach near New Dorp.
landing monoplane, a Caudron driven by W.
L. Bonney, was smashed in trying to rise at

Garden

From
rich

It

for
the

monoplanes Kantner and Hein-

down on

the discomfiture of their


The boats
a strange situation.
battling with the waves were helpless,

looked

rivals.

built

City.
their light

was

machines equipped with wheels,


little
at any time to rise from the water,
above them, covering a course enOnce
over the water without touching it.
off the land they kept the air to the end, then
alighted where they had arisen.
The race was won on elapsed time. Heinrich,
who came out second, was the first away, at
3:09:02.
He faced the south wind on the parade
ground, made a half circle, climbing fast, and
crossed the starting line 1,200 feet up, flying up
Kantner followed at 3:17:51. Large
the Hudson.
crowds watched them at the Battery and along
At the stake boat off Spuyten
Riverside Drive.
Duyvil Kantner had gained more than a minute
over his rival in elapsed time, covering the distance in 10m. 54s., while Heinrich's time was
while

and unable
flew

safely

tirely

llr

58s.

^ ..Lith, Heinrich flew_ higher and


Manhattan side than his successful rival.
Kantner gave a good exhibition to big crowds
on the Jersey shore.

the

On

way south passing Governor's

the

August, 19 1
Island

was seen that Kantner was steadily gaining.


Sea Gate both encountered a stiff southwest
wind that had worked trouble for the flying
boats on the white capped surface and were
obliged to warp their wings frequently in balit

Off

ancing.

Five minutes after leaving Sea Gate Heinrich


crossed the finishing point, at 3:55:49 1-5, throttled his engine quickly, and turning sharply to
He
the right landed south of Castle William.
had traveled fast on the last leg, but could not
overcome Kantner's lead in elapsed time. Kantner passed the line at high speed at 4:01:17 1-5.
He kept on beyond the island, turned in a wide
circle toward the New Jersey shore, and coming
back landed in front of the judges' stand amid
cheers.

An

Labor Day Race Proposed


race between New York and

aeroplane

proposed for Labor Day with


is
Trenton, Philadelphia, and Baltimore
The promoters are: Allan R. Hawley,
Thomas S. Baldwin, and Israel Ludlow.

Washington

stops at
en route.

of the Canal Zone, and the


of the
Government has started criminal prosecution of
Chas. K. Field, editor; Robt. J. Fowler, aviator;
Ray S. Duhen, photographer and Riley A. Scott,
writer, under the National Defense Act of 1911,
This act profor disclosure of military secrets.
vides for the punishment of any person, who,
purpose of obtaining information refor
the
national
defense
to
which
he is not
specting the
entitled lawfully, goes upon any vessel or Government station or fort, or takes photographs
or sketches thereof, or who receives photographs,
knowing them to have been illegally taken.
The fact that the photographs complained of
in the case were taken from an aeroplane raises
for the first time the interesting point of jurisdiction by the Government over the upper air
and involves a decision as to whether a person
sailing over a reservation can be held to have
entered it unlawfully.
This point is quite important in a military
view, because a military expert merely by passing over a fortress can observe enough to enable him afterward to draw an accurate sketch
of the defenses.
fortification

Army Aviation Corps


Under
The May bill organizing a special aviation service
in
the
Signal
Corps of the army was agreed
Defenses,
Raising
National
Law Protecting
upon July 11th and has gone to the President.
Question of Jurisdiction Over Upper Air This bill provides for a service of 60 officers
Government

Starts First Prosecution

In April the Sunset Magazine published an


entitled *'Can the Panama Canal Be DeThis article was accomstroyed from the Air?"
panied by reproducing photographs showing some
article

and 260 enlisted men and creates special grades


of "Military Aviator" and "Aviator Student" and
provides for an increase in the pay of officers
and men of from 25 to 75 per cent.

REVIEW OF RECENT AERONAUTIC PATENTS


By LESTER

FLOW

are the principal aerial inventions for which patents have recently
been granted. They include an armored aerial machine, an aeroplane
compass and inclinometer, and novel
gyroscopic control devices for stabilizing aircraft.

CLINOMETER.

SARGENT

E. Johnson, WashPatented May 26th.


ington, D. C.
In a device of the character described, the
pointer
gravity-controlled
combination
of
a
mounted on a compass having universal bearings,
and a member having a concave surface opposite
relative
anguscale
indicating
said pointer having a
lar

AEROPLANE.

Martin L. Kors, Chi1,098,735.


cago, 111.
Patented June 2d.
In a flying machine the combination of supportrelease a
valves
adapted
to
ing surfaces with
portion of the air supporting them; said valves being individually nearly balanced with respect to
the effect of said supporting air when seated; and
vanes on the valves extending beyond their seats
on that side of the supporting surfaces from which
they open, thereby steadying the valves when open.

L.

movement

Henry

L.

of said pointer

and surface.

AEROPLANE.

John Thomas Simpson,


Patented May 26th.
-An aeroplane having a plane supported to turn
around an axis, yokes on the plane at a distance
apart, abutments between the yokes and wires connecting the yokes and engaging with the abutments,
and means for varying the angular relation of
the yokes to change the camber of the plane.
1,098,131.

Newark, N,

1,098,130.

J.

FLYING-MACHINE.

John

Thomas

tion
site

between each arm of the lever and the oppoanchorage means.

1,097,489.

FLYING-MACHINE.
May

Simon B. Voss,

Plartly, Del.
Patented
19th.
flying machine having a supporting plane

of
circular form, elevating planes disposed beneath
the front and rear portions of said circular plane,
stabilizing planes
arranged beneath the lateral
portions of the circular plane, said elevating and
stabilizing planes being mounted to tilt from a
horizontal to a vertical position on horizontal transverse axes, and means for tilting said elevating
and stabilizing planes.
1,096,129.

AERIAL NAVIGATION.

Matthew

B. Sellers, Baltimore, Md.


Patented May 12th.
In an aeroplane having wheels and skids and a
detent means holding the wheels in a lowered position; a device for actuating said detent means
comprising a wing or portion thereof adapted to
rise a limited distance under the pressure of the
air in flight, a spring depressing said wing when
the pressure is reduced, a lever suitably connected
with said wing and engaging a catch when said
wing is raised and actuating the catch when the
wing is depressed, connection between the catch
and the detent means substantially as described.

Patented May 26th.


Simpson, Newark, N. J.
aeroplane having stabilizing ailerons, two in
The Firm of Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, Un- number, adjacent to each extremity, means for
terturkheim, near Stuttgart, Germany. Patented actuating diagonally opposite ailerons in opposite
directions, said means comprising a lever secured
2d.
propeller-driven armored aerial machine to a fixed pivot, said lever having slots curved
the combination with a hollow propeller shaft car- on a circle, the center of which is adjacent to the
rying the propeller, of a gun arranged behind said pivot, levers mounted on fixed pivots having pins
shaft and in alinement with the axis thereof, said which engage with the slots, and connections beAERIAL NAVIGATION. Matthew
1,096,130.
gun being adapted to be adjusted at an angle to tween the levers and the ailerons.
Patented May 12th.
B. Sellers, Baltimore, Md.
said axis, thereby enabling the gun to shoot either
An aeroplane steering device comprising a norJohn Thomas Simpthrough said shaft or at such an angle as to shoot 1,098,129. AEROPLANE.
mally horizontal handle bar transverse to the maPatented May 26th.
son, Newark, N. J.
outside the periphery of the propeller blades.
An aeroplane having a main sustaining plane chine, adapted to rotate on its long axis, a support
Auberlin, and an auxiliary plane on each side of the center for said bar permitting it to tip, or incline in a
William
AEROPLANE.
1,098,547.
Hudson, Ohio, assignor of one-half to Herman of the aeroplane, and connections between the vertical plane, a vertical pivoted post carrying
two auxiliary planes for moving one in and the said support, and permitting the bar to swing in
Patented June 2d.
Auberlin, Detroit, Mich.
The combination with a main longitudinal other out synchronously, beyond the rear edge of a horizontal plane; an arm projecting upward from
said support and provided with guide pulleys at its
frame, or aeroplane structures at opposite sides the main plane.
upper end, a drum affixed to said iiandle bar;
thereof, each structure comprising fixed uprights
AEROPLANE-GOVERNOR. Ray E. lines leading from said drum over said pulleys to
at the front end of the planes, an upper aero- 1,097,645.
26th.
Patented
May
control the wings; lines leading from the ends of
Cal.
Los
Angeles,
Kellogg,
uprights,
plane pivoted to the upper end of said
mocomprising
a
described
the handle bar to control the rudder; substantially
class
A device of the
a lower plane pivoted at its front end adjacent
the lower ends of said uprights, rods 8 connecting tor driven shaft, bearings carried by said shaft as described.
the rear ends of the upper and lower planes, and spaced from opposite sides of its axial line,
MEANS FOR AUTOMATICALLY
whereby both planes are tilted simultaneously, and propeller blades mounted to swing in said bear- 1,096,251,
EFFECTING AND MAINTAINING THE
means to tilt said planes, said means comprising a ings, a rigid arm connected to each of said proEQUILIBRIUM OF AERIAL OR OTHER UNpair of shafts located in alinement and operatively peller blades, a sleeve slidable upon said motor
said
rigid
with
MACHINES.
said
sleeve
STABLE
James S. Lang, Boston,
links
connecting
shaft,
sides
of
the
at
opposite
connected to the planes
Mass. Patented May 12th.
main frame, means to independently operate said arms, and weights movable with said rigid arms.
In a flving machine, the combination with the
shafts and a clutch between the shafts to lock them
ROTARY COMBUSTION-ENGINE body of tlie machine, of a member pivotally se1,097,150.
together for simultaneous operation.
FOR AERIAL MACHINES. Louis Vallez, cured thereto, means whereby said machine may
be automatically controlled from said member as
Patented May 19th.
Lille, France.
FLYING-MACHINE. George C. Beid1,099,146.
In an engine of the character described, the the body of the machine becomes changed with
Patented June 2d.
ler, Rochester, N. Y.
An aeroplane, substantially horizontally pivoted combination of a fixed shaft, oppositely disposed relation thereto, a gyroscopic engine carried by
for
shaft,
pistons
said
said pivoted member, and means whereby the
rotatable
about
cylinders
balancing wings, actuating means connected theremeans mounted between said force generated by said engine may be applied to
cylinders,
with and including means for holding the wings said
against movement whereby one wing is so held cylinders for operating said pistons, a casing sur- said member for restoring it to its original position
when the other is tilted, and gravity controlled rounding said means, and members closing the in the event of displacement from such position.
ends of said casing and carrying means for transmeans for operating said actuating means.
AEROPLANE. James S. Lang, Bos1,096,255.
mitting power to a given source.
ton, Mass.
Patented May 12th.
Tames V. Crowthers,
1,098,098. AEROPLANE.
In an aeroplane, the combination with a main
STABILIZING DEVICE FOR AERO1,097,584.
Patented May 26th.
Philadelphia, Pa.
plane,
of separate auxiliary lifting planes
Monsey,
lifting
PLANES. Daniel Stephen Dickens.
In an aeroplane, the combination with a plane
oppositely arranged adjacent said main plane and
N. Y. Patented
having flexible ends, of a suspended gravity conmovable translatably toward or away from the
1. In a craft of the class described, the combitrolled weight, and collapsible connections between
same for carrying the lifting efficiency thereof,
said weight and the ends of the plane adapted to nation with a movable surface device for affecting
means for mounting said auxiliary planes whereby
??
?
automatically warp said ends by the lateral move- the poise of ?
combination
described
the
they may be moved translatably toward or away
class
craft
of
the
thereto
when
In
a
with
reference
weight
ment of the
lever from said main plane in reversely opposite directhe connections are extended, and means to raise with a pivoted plane element of a weighted
and lower the weight to place it into and out of of the first order carried thereby for oscillation tions, one to approach said main plane as the other
operation, at the same time collapsing the connec- transversely of the axis of the plane element, is moved away therefrom and without changing
the angles of incidence to the atmosphere of said
anchorage means above and below the pivotal
tion with the ends of the plane.
auxiliary planes, and means for moving said auxof the plane in normal positic
iliary planes as aforesaid.
AEROPLANE COMPASS AND IN- respect to the body of the cr
1,097,925.
1,098,785.

ARMORED

AERIAL

MACHINE.

Paul Daimler, Canustatt, Germany, assignor to

An

AIRCRAFT

August, igi4

355

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
20

CASH WITH ORDER

SEVEN WORDS TO LINE

CENTS A LINE

FOR SALE
ANTED

Will give interest in my patents and


''
machine (bird type) to mechanic who will
construct same.
I will furnish all materials necessary. Address B. F., care of Aircraft.

'\JJ

P
^

OR SALE:

Cheap.

Hydro-aeroplane, in good

condition, without motor, radiator or propeller.


Address Jack Gebel, 456 Pearl St., New York City.

MOTORS and Motorcycles. Bought and


AERO
sold ne used. B.
Ostergaard, 1938 N,
J.

.Albany Ave., Chicago, 111.


with Aviation Company.

Note:

AVIATION MOTORS:

Not

makes, air and


water cooled, all horse powers, perfect condiComplete mation guaranteed, from $250 up.
chines, monos and biplanes, hydroplanes and aero
boats from $500 up. If you have an underpowered,
unsatisfactory motor, why not e.xchange it for a
Everything for
larger motor and fly successfully?
State your
aviation bought, sold and exchanged.
needs.
U. S. Aero Exchange, 38 Park Row, New
All

City.

ATcomplete
.\

B.\RGAIN.

Tractor

pURTISS

latest improved type (Pigeon Tail)


headless or front control (optional) very succoncessful flier many miles cross country.
struction strongest in world.
Complete, ready to
fly.
Roberts 4 X power plant. Guaranteed perfect
flier, $1,500.
Free flying lessons to buyer. H. C.

FLYING BOAT

My

Cooke, Aviator and

New York

St.,

127

Constructor,

Build this

Hydroaeroplane,

with 70 H. P. MAXIMOTOR arranged for passenger carrying. Will be sold for


Address Maxijust one-half the original cost.
motor Makers, 1530 Jefferson Ave., E. Detroit,
Mich.

Ae

in

h Building

Ins

OR

'

S-ALE

biplane,

bargain:

at

8-cylinder;

ndsey Hopkins.

Model

bodies the latest ideas

West 64th

City.

Box

One genuine

OTHER 'IDEAL"

rtis

looks and flies li


830, Atlanta, Ga.

,25c

MODEL

FT.

PLANS:-Ble-

Wrieht. 25c; Nieuport. 25c; Cecil Peoli


Champion Racer, 25c; Curtiss Convertible Hydroriot, 15c;

connected

^*-

Vork

MISCELLANEOUS

plane, 35c.

P
'

Complete Set

OR SALE Patent

No. 1079167 of November


1913, in which the motor is only used to
launch the flying machine in the air, after which
the rear flexing planes propel and balance the
apparatus automatically.
As eight pounds
weight produce one mechanical h. p. in the
flexing planes, this patent is a monopoly in a
navigation on the basis of Patent 919834
Foi
1068332 and documents filed in first Patent.

52 PP.

18,

of Six. $1.2=,

Postpaid

IDEAL" MODEL AEROPLANE SUPPLY CATALOG.

Ideal Aeroplane

&

5c

W. Broadway, N.

Supply Co., 82B

Y,

furllier

information apply to The Western Fidu


Exchange Bldg., Denver. Colo.

ciary Co., 619

FREE FREE
WILL

my

attach

I Mechanism

Automatic Balancing
No. 1,092,888 to first

Patent

three aeroplanes without charge.

ORNADO

Cable Clamps, U. S. Patent, a


matic clamping effect, Yi doz._fqr 3^/32;i
ers, R. F. D. No
cable, 75c postp;
Bellingham, Wj

simple and efficient for

AHLBRECT

Address, A.
1

MISCELLANEOUS

The most

purpose.

this

Chianti Street, E. E. Pittsburgh, Pa.

rOR SALE Curtiss


$90.00.

aeroplane without engine,


A. B. C, 95 West St., Maiden, Mass.

jyjARRY RICH Big list of descriptions and photos of congenial


people with means who want to
marry.

FREE.

Sealed, either sex.

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PATENTS

ILTe!:Pr:a

Send sketch

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37-39

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A IRCRAFT,
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Five or six months ago M. Breguet, of Paris, acquired


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Underneath there is a reservoir of lamp
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In this tube, is a valve
tube connects the two tanks.
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pull of one second
inakes a dot a pull of three seconds makes a dash. Thus
is the Morse code revealed against the sky.

From L'lLLUSTRATION, Paris

An

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196 Beacon

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THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

THE

1914

THOMAS BOAT FLYING OVER THE HUDSON RIVER

THOMAS BOAT, piloted by Ralph M. Brown, flew


THE
the last three weeks, carrying a large number

over 200 times at Dobbs Ferry during


amongst whom were Mrs.
Chas. S. Whitman, the wife of the District Attorney of New York, Prof. David Todd, the Astronomer
of Amherst College, Mr. Louis R. Adams, President of the Aeronautical Society, Mr. Alfred W. Lawson,
Mr. Ernest L. Jones, Mr. Henry Woodhouse, Mr. and Mrs. George K. Turner, Mr. Clifford B. Harmon
of prominent people,

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THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


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CO.

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C L, 1
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built and designed but simply because


they use the

Le Rhone, Gnome, AustroDaimler and Anzani Engines

lightest, most powerful and highest developed power plants so fiir produced.
notice that the only two machines to finish in the recent International HydroAeroplane race at Monaco used 100 H. P. Gnomes ? that a new
ir
1 l>
r\
J.*
J of 16 hours, 28 minutes was recentlv established bv
S
poulet with aOO H. p. Lc F/wne-^mt think of itflying for 16 hours non-stop with a 60 H. P. motor in a stock machine and only descending
then on account of darkness.

which are the

Did you

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SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


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BROADWAY

['^^^'4'^

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AIRCRAFT

Scptrinbcr, IQ14

35:

CHMITT MONOPLANES
AFETY
PEED

TRENGTH
TABILITY
PERFECTION IN CONSTRUCTION

AND DESIGN

Won

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York

City, July 4th,

in

1914

FOR PARTICULARS WRITE TO

MAXIMILIAN SCHMITT AEROPLANE


96 Dale Avenue, Paterson, N.

CONTENTS SEPTEMBER,
Side with Strongest Air Fleets Likely to

News

Foreign

Practical Aeroplane Design Chart

Practical Aeroplane Design (Part

V)

Win European War

& MOTOR WORKS


J.

1914

........

W. Lawson

359

Arthur V. Prescott

361

Alfred

..............
.............

Pioneers of Aviation

Paul

J.

Palmer

362

Paul

J.

Palmer

363

Ladislas d'Orcy

363

Chas. V. Obst

364

Mortimer Delano

365

Model News
General Reports of the First Aviation Corps

News

in

and Puget Sound News

Seattle

An

M.

Henry

365

Palmer

366

Vincent Buranelli

366

General

Paul

Essay on Wings

E.
J.

AIRCRAFT
CHAS. H. HEITMAN
f resident aim l reasurer

ERNEST

C.

Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing

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37-39

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358

AIRCRAFT

September, 1914

!iisyiXsx!i;ssx!iai;ss!i;s!i;ss!f;!i;!i;sss!iffi!i;s!i;u;s!i;!i;!iffi!infi!infiS!iMS!fix

AIRCRAFT
Vol. 5

SIDE

No.

\i:\\

York, September, 1914

WITH STRONGEST AIR FLEETS LIKELY TO


WIN EUROPEAN WAR
By ALFRED W.

HE

balance of power in the great European


struggle will no doubt be the air forces for
the simple reason that no great land or
marine manoeuvres can be accomplished
successfully as long as aeroplanes and airships are able to hover above out of reach
uf the enemy's guns and report back either
by wireless or by fast scout machines just
what is being done.
The radius of action of an aeroplane with full war equipment can be approximately set down at 300 miles, that is to
say, the most modern aeroplan^ are capable of flying 300
miles over the enemy's country and back again without landing, whereas the radius of action of the latest Zeppelin airships with full war load can be set down approximately at
600 miles, that is to say, it is able to fly over the enemy's
country for 600 miles and return safely without having to
refuel.
Therefore with either the aeroplane or the dirigible
of the enemy being in position to manipulate without restriction it can plainly be understood how precarious would be
the movements of the troops below.
The Zeppelin airships, for instance, could actual!}' make
the French army at the front a negligible quantity if permitted to operate without restriction by flying completely
over the troops and using explosives to put out of commission the French bases of supplies and ammunition, and also
by destroying unfortified railroad bridges and the like over
which fresh troops, provisions and ammunition would have
In other words, if the
to be sent to the army at the front.
German Zeppelins were enabled to work without restrictions
the German armies could be notified of the French manoeuvres and besides destroying its base of supplies would be
enabled by so doing to permit the unhampered movements
of the German army.
All this could be accomplished and the war terminated in

LAWSON

short order by a German victory except for one reason, and


that is that the French will combat the Germans in the air

with both aeroplanes and dirigibles. So it can be readily


seen that it requires aircraft to fight aircraft, and therefore
the first and most important orders of both the German and
French generals and admirals will be to clear the air of
opposing aircraft and the first to do so will have a tremendous
advantage over its opponent, so much so, in fact, that it is
quite likely to be the deciding factor in the great European
conflagration.

All of which, by the way, brings up the interesting ques-

which of the contending forces has the strongest


and also as to the relative value between the aeroplane and the dirigible in war.
Some of the aeronautical
authorities contend that the aeroplane will have the advantage in the air fight, whereas others are of the opinion
that the dirigible, and particularly the Zeppelin rigid type
dirigible will prove its sixperiority.
There are many points in favor of both types of aircraft.
The Zeppelin, for instance, has an approximate lifting capacity
of about fifty tons and is capable of staying up in the air
for more than forty-eight hours at a stretch.
It is able to
cover more than twelve hundred miles with its war load and
point.
is capable of hovering over any particular
It is also
tion as to

air fleet,

capable of carrying a more powerful wireless outfit than the


aeroplane and also more men, guns and ammunition. It can
also navigate in fog or darkness and incidentally the very
It can rise to a height of
latest Zeppelins are noiseless.
about ten thousand feet, which is considerably higher than
necessary to keep out of the way of land batteries, and it is
also capable of rising to that height in less time than the
heavy military aeroplane. Its speed will run from fifty to
sixty miles an hour.
On the other hand the aeroplane has its advantages in
being able to climb higher than the dirigible and fly at greater

This picture shows a group of English Military .\viators just before starling for the front

in

the European conflict.

AIRCRAFT

360

speed. The latest military aeroplanes are armored and carry


one rapid-fire gun. It has been the theory of the authorities

who

is superior that the aeroplane


the dirigible by flying into it at great
thus destroying an airship that costs a quarter

claim that the aeroplane

will be able to

speed and

ram

of a million dollars and carries twenty-five people with a


machine that costs $10,000 and carries from one to two people, while on the other hand it is claimed by the adherents
of the Zeppelin airship that owing to its being able to carry
heavier guns it will be enabled to put out of commission
any number of aeroplanes with shot and shell before they

can get within striking reach of the dirigible. The latest


Zeppelins are mounted with guns on all sides, bottom, topand either side, so that from whatever angle they engage
the enemy they can pepper him at a distance. Furthermore
they claim that before an aeroplane can climb to a position
above them they can be miles away from it, and again that
the aeroplane which climbs much over 10,000 feet has about

used up

all

its

energy for either fight or

travel.

Whichever theories are correct will shortly be demonstrated, in fact, as I am now talking, the superiority of the
aeroplane and dirigible is being demonstrated in Europe, and
the success of this demonstration
of

is

the key to the success

the opposing arms.


Of the five countries at

war Germany has preeminently


the strongest air force, they towering head and shoulders
above any of the other countries in dirigibles and having
approximately an equal number of aeroplanes with France.
The fact might be stated here also that the German and
Austrian aviators hold all the important aeroplane records
except the speed record, which is held by France, but as
great speed is not the dominant factor in war aircraft, owing
to the fact that by increasing the speed of an aeroplane its
reduced, therefore the speed record
lifting capacity is
amounts to very little in comparison to long distance, duraGermany has
tion, climbing, lifting and altitude records.
now eighteen Zeppelins ready for action and about twentytwo dirigibles of the non-rigid and semi-rigid type such as
the Parseval and Gross type, and it can put into the field
immediately over 1,000 aeroplanes. There are also factories
in Germany which can turn out in the neighborhood of two

September, igi4

monthly and about 200 aeroplanes monthly.


France as the second aerial power can muster twenty-two
dirigibles altogether, which, with the exception of one Spiess
rigid airship, which is somewhat similar to the Zeppelin in
construction are all non-rigid and semi-rigid types. France
also has in service to-day over 1,400 aeroplanes and has factories which are capable of turning out at least 200 aeroplanes each month.
Next in aerial strength comes Russia with eighteen dirigibles and about 800 aeroplanes. Austria can muster up eight
dirigibles and approximately 400 aeroplanes while England
has nine dirigibles and about 400 aeroplanes. In figuring out
the strength of the opposing forces with England, France
and Russia on one side and Germany and Austria on the
other side it seems to me that the aerial contending forces
dirigibles

are very nearly equal in strength, although


that

owing

to

the

W.

Lawson

is

just pos-

tremendous

the present time.

Any one giving anything else but approximate figures


would prove conclusively their ignorance of the entire subThere are too many changes constantly going on by
ject.
additions and subtractions to be exact.

AERIAL STRENGTH OF THE COUNTRIES AT


Compiled by Alfred

it

advantage Germany
holds with its great ZeppeHns, that Germany and Austria
may be considered slightly in the lead. During the past ten
years Germany has expended approximately $100,000,000 to
produce its great war air fleet, while it has cost France approximately $60,000,000 for the same purpose.
In presenting these figures of course I can do so only
approximately for the reason that about a year ago the different governments decided to keep their air fleets and
governmental expenditures absolutely secret, but I base my
figures upon a previous estimate I prepared for the United
States Congress which required over two years' work to
properly compile, and judging from the progress made in
the different countries in the production of both kinds of
aircraft, and knowing the number and capacity of the different aeroplane factories in these different countries it
becomes an easy matter for me to give the approximate
aerial war strength of the European governments, so that
these figures which I have prepared can be considered as
accurate as it is possible for any human being to compile at
sible

for the

United States

War

WAR

Department

APPROXIMATE NUMBER AND CAPACITY OF DIRIGIBLES AND AEROPLANES BEING


UTILIZED BY THE CONTENDING FORCES TO-DAY
FRANCE, RUSSIA, GREAT BRITAIN, BELGIUM,

AND SERVIA

(Approximate)
Aeroplanes

FRANCE
RUSSIA

GREAT BRITAIN
BELGIUM
-

22
18

9,000,000

1,400

6,000,000

3,000,000

200,000

800
400
100

SERVIA

60
Total

51

18,200,000

GERMANY AND AUSTRIA


(Appro.ximalc)

GERMANY

40

AUSTRIA

19,000,000

2,000,000

Total

21,000,000

AIRCRAFT

September, 1914

3G1

TOREIGN
TVEWcf
BY
Arthur V. Prescott

which Otto Linnekogel established


Tin- Uumpler Monoplane
a world's altitude record of 6,600 metres on July 9th
in

Power. Tlie armoured machines are intended by


the French to be used in co-operatio'n with artillery as fire-controllers.
The faster type Caudrons

Argentina
The

diiratii

beaten
Argentii

been

Goubat,
Rum|iler-Dove.

by

ently

Lieut.

performances he

Australia

On

Guillaux flew from Mel(560 miles) carrying mails


Some short while
monoplane.
Guillaux performed the journey

M.

ISth

July

Sydney

bourne to
on a Bleriot

previously M.
the opposite

in

direction.

Austria
It

that during the bombardment of


Austrian military aeroplane flew
to observe the effect of shell fire
the Austrian lines to correct

stated

Belgra

an

city

back to

Italy

On

with unarmoured fuselages of monoplane type


are being bouglit by the French army for use
with cavalry scouts.
Twenty armed two-seater biplanes took part
in
the military review at the Hippodrome at
Longchamp on July Hth.
On July 11th M. Rugere beat a world's record
by flying to 3,400 metres Cll,160 ft. J on a Voisin
biplane U30-h.p. Salmson), accompanied by three
passengers.
.;Vn
interesting experiment was carried out at
Buc recently, at the request of the Federation
Colombophile. A hamper containing a number of
carrier pigeons was taken up on a Bleriot monoplane, when at an altitude of 1,500 metres it
was opened, the birds flew off without any hesitation.
The lirst two birds arrived back at their
loft at
Agen at 6 p. m., having taken eight
hours for the journey of 530 kiloms.
Almost all of the French civilian aviators have
gone to the front in the war game as volunteers and from all reports are doing wonderful

work

as

July 27th,

monoplane
passenger,

Sig. Landini, flying a Gabardini


(50-h.p. Le Rhone), and carrying a
flew from Turin to Viege in Switzer-

land, having crossed


of Monte Rosa.

Alps over the summit

the

Japan

On July 13th. Liger, on


Gnome went up to a height
mg the previous Japanese
metres.

Morane-Saulnier-

his

_^

of 2,300 metres, beatheight record by 600

The Japanese Government continues to quietly,


fact secretly acquire increasing numbers of
aeroplanes which they are using in conjunction
with both their army and navy manceuvres.
ni

scouts.

Morocco
The

Belgium
aviation organization of Belgium
year.
At present the Belgium
army possesses four complete escadriUes, two in
process of formation, and four others are to be
Each escadrille is equipinitiated immediately.
ped with four two-seater H. Farmans (80 h.p.)

The

dates

military

from

last

Belgium.
There is a motor-transport
each machine, which carries a canvas
shed and a traveling workshop, which has an
electric lighting set capable of illuminating all
four sheds of an escadrille.
In addition there are available for government
use about sixty civilian machines.
built

wagon

railway truck.

in

for

China
The

Saharan escadrille recently was sent


some rebels in Taza, who had entrenched
Germany
themselves in an inaccessible position on the
mountain side.
The infantry could do nothing
It
iported that the .Mgemeine Electriscbe
against them, so General Gouraud ordered two
Gesselshaft have built a tractor biplane at Tegel,
of the military aviators_ to fly over the mnnrs
near Berlin, with folding wings which from a
and bombard the
large bombs
were
state of being ready to fly can be folded up in
placed in each machine, and the
less than four minutes, to fit into the standard
against

Chii

ig

to

be

apt

pupils of
forty Chi-

At the beginni ng of May,


nese officers started a
:ourse at the Caudron
Military School and on May 20, ten of these
already qualified for avi; itor's licenses,
The
operations
agai nst
-White
Wolf's"
brigands were entirely uiv successful until the Chinese air squadron was bi
acti
squadron consisted of four Caudron biplanes, three
of 80 h.p. and one of 50 h.p. commanded by
Col. Tsing, and was quickly successful in locating the brigands which led to their capture.
As China is about to purchase a great many
more aeroplanes for the war department and
as the European supply is cut off owing to the
war, they will now have to look to the American
(

manufacturers

to

fill

flying

army office
The Albatros

firm

grounds

This firm main-

and

.1,1

only

trains

reported_to be very busy,


as there are something over 300 men employed.
This firm is now making only one type of machine, tractor biplane constructed almost entirely
of wood.
This firm has evolved a device for
testing cables while flying, the strains being registered on a chart.
The instrument is an arrangement of pistons connected by oil-tubes to
is

adicati
Official
examination
graphs used on his D.

of

W.

in

breaking

July 14th Herr Basser, carrying Dr. Elias


as passenger, left Johannisthal at 5.30 a. m. and
flew without landing to Budapest in 4V4 hours,
a distance of 475 miles.
Another new Zeppelin has just been completed
at Friedrichshafen.
She is destined for the army
and ill be kn
Z. I.\.

Great Britain
r ranee

entered into a contract which binds the French


firm not to build these machines for any other

in

the

damage,

30th,

Navy,

It.

Gran,

succe ded

in

Cruden

of

late

flying

Bay,

at-''''lClen"'

%L,^\
.

th

aero

Englant

ear Stavanger.
hr\
thus having flowi
at a speed of 76 miles per hour.
to
be the longest distance flow
of land on record.
|"a,";de'd

Norwav
the

320 miles
claimed

'his is

out

of

sight

On

their orders.

Caudron Freres have recently completed an


armoured biplane for the French army.
This
machine is practically a standard 80-h.p. (!^audron
with an armoured nacelle.
The engine is completely
protected,
and
the
extra
weight
of
armouring reduces the machine to a single-seater.
The machine has given highly satisfactory results on tests, and the French Government has

July

Oelrich's

F.

whole

Norway
On
1

barothe
world's height record give the actual
height
reached by him as 7,850 metres, instead of 7,500
metres.
7,850 metres is 25,756 ft., 5,600 ft.
over Legagneux's previous record, and within 700
ft.

to the
enemy's camp.
The
eight bombs were planted exactly
of the stronghold, doing terrific
'he result that the infantry
the position and take all the
off

854 aviators licen.ses have bee


the present time by the Roval
.

Owing

to

the

war,

t'

been postponed.
excepting naval and military, has
been prohibited from flying over the whole area
of the United Kingdom and of the coast line
thereof and territorial waters adjacent thereto
with the exception that flying is permitted within
three miles of a recognized aerodrome.
The English Government has placed an order
with all of the best aeroplane manufacturers for
-Ml

their

aircraft,

entire

output.

Russia

On July 12th. M. La|,orte broke a world's


record at St. Petersburg by flying for 9 hrs.
16 mins. on a Voisin biplane (Salmson engine)
with two passengers.
Russia w-ho has been acquiring numbers of
aeroplanes from almost every well known manufacturing concern in the world now has an air
force of over 800 machines and several Russian
factories capable of turning them out rapidly.
.Mmost their entire air force has been sent to
the western border and at latest reports were
giving splendid accounts of their powers as air
scouts.

Servia
biplanes

has
of

and Farmans.

about

French

of
tion,

monoplanes and
chiefly

Bleriots

AIRCRAFT

362

September, iqi

n
Li_

tu_

<:
or

-J

=^ i5

or
p
"J-O

m
1 QC'-'< Ul

CD

I-

lo

'-n,

CD
.,

Li

><

d< 051.

Ld

<C

AIRCRAFT

September, 1914

363

PRACTICAL AEROPLANE DESIGN


PAUL

By

^HIS

article, the concluding one of this


series, is upon the balancing of the

aeroplane, ways and means of determining centers of gravity, thrust, resistance, and etc., and the correct relationship of these centers.

CENTER

OF

GILWTTY:

The

center
gravity of an aeroplane is that point
vhicb the weight of the respective parts
balance each other longitudinally, laterally, and
vertically.

LONGITUDINAL CENTER OF GRAVITY:


The

longitudinal center of gravity of an aeroplane in horizontal flight is readily and easily


found, but for changes in "flight" angle, allowances must be made for the resulting change
in
the center of pressure line of the lifting
surfaces, for the centers of gravity and pressure must fall approximately in the same vertical line, and if the center of pressure is known
all
that remains to be done is to balance the
aeroplane upon some sharp edge as in Fig. 1,
Plate VI.
A safe tigure for the center of pressure location is 37 per cent, of the chord of
the lifting surface f
the entering edge. Thi:
=
with the airman and
balancing must be
power plant "ready
flight."
If the balance
"oiT,
be moved forward or
lalance is obtained,
backwar
until
In th
case of a lifting tail aeroplane the balancing process for longitudinal balance is somewhat different, for the center of gravity must
comcide with the resultant centers of lift of the
main plane and the lifting tail.
This is shown
Plate VI.
In balancing a lifting
in Fig.
II,
tail
machine, the balance must be such that
the distance, in feet, from the center of pressure of the main surface to the center of gravity
of the aeroplane multiplied by the weight lifted
by the main planes will equal the product of
the tail lift by the distance, in feet, from the
center of lift or pressure of the tail plane by
This
the weight supported by the tail plane.
can be demonstrated mathematically as follows,
using Fig. II, Plate VI.
Taking the total weight of the machine as
1,000 lbs, the area of the main planes as 150
ft.,
sq. ft., and the tail area 25 sq.
the total
lifting area, then, would be 175 sq. ft., which
divided into the weight, 1,000 lbs., gives a loading per square foot of 5.77 pounds.
This loading multiplied by the area of the main planes,
150 sq. ft., gives a lift of 865.5 pounds for the
main planes, and for the tail, 25 sq. ft. x 5.77
1

PALMER

J.

V Balancing

Part

the Aeroplane

equals 134.5 pounds lift.


Taking the chord of
the main planes as 6 ft., the center of pressure, w^ould be 2.22 feet from the entering edge.
Of the tail, it would be .925 feet from the entering edge, which is Z7 per cent, of 2.5 feet,
the chord of the tail.
This makes the distance from the center of pressure of the main
plane to the center of pressure of the tail
plane equal to 16 feet, (E) on Fig. II.
The machine can then be "trial" balanced as
follows:
Taking for example, the distance from
the center of pressure of the main plane to the
center of gravity of the machine as 2 feet.
(A) Fig. II, then 2 feet x 865.5 lbs. would
give
1,737
foot-pounds.
The product of the
tail
lift
134.5 lbs. x 14 ft., the distance from
the "trial" center of gravity to the center of
pressure of the tail plane, then should equal
1,737
foot-pounds
correctly
to
be
balanced,
but the result of 14 x
134.5
is
1,883 footpounds, thus showing a "false" balance, and the
weights must be shilted forward or bacKwards to
obtain the "true" balance. Since the tail resultant
is greater than the main plane resultant, the center
of gravity must be shifted backwards to
counteract the discrepancy.
From the "trial"
balance it was found that the difference in footpounds of the two resultants was 146 footpounds.
Since each plane has to "share in the
profits," the tail plane
losing 14 of 146 and
the main planes gaining Y-i of 146 we obtain
for the main plane a foot-pound resultant of
1,737 plus 73 which gives 1,810 foot-pounds, and
for the tail plane 1,883 minus 7^ which gives
1,810 foot-pounds, which is the correct value
since the two resultants must be equal to obtain
correct balance.
To obtain the amount we must
move the center of gravity backwards, we simply divide 1,810 by 865.5, and we find the center
of gravity to be 2.9 feet back from the center
of pressure of the main plane, or C, Fig. II
equals 2.9 feet and D equals 13.1 feet.
CENTER OF GRAVITY: In all
aeroplanes, save tiie Wright Land plane, the
parts are symmetrical in regard to the lateral
Center of bravity, and hence do not need to
be calculated, see Fig. VII.
If necessary, however, to calculate the lateral center of gravity,
the method of procedure is the same as for
the nonlifting tail machine's longitudinal center
of gravity, the center line of the machine corresponding to the "center of pressure" of the
main planes, and the center of balance would
have to be in line with the center line of the
machine, see Fig. VIII.

LATERAL

CENTER

OF THRUST: The Center of


Thrust is taken on a line with the propeller
shaft and is horizontally applied.
See Fig. III.
The center of thrust should be in line with the
center of resistance to secure the best results,
see Fig. V.
The Figs. Ill, IV, and V. show
the manner of balance and the effect of having
the center of thrust high, Fig. Ill, low. Fig.
IV, and in line with. Fig. V.
If too high. Fig.
Ill, the aeroplane when in flight will tend to
"nose down," and the elevating plane must be
raised and power consumed thereby to counteract the tendency to dive.
If too low, the
reverse action will take place, tending to stall
the machine, and the elevator plane must be
Ipwered to counteract this tendency.
But if in
line,
which is the ideal position, no trouble
will be had in keeping a horizontal flight line
without the use of the elevator, to counteract
any disturbing tendencies.
If,
however, the center of thrust must be
above or below the center of resistance, the
control areas should be located in the axis of
instability, see Fig. VI, as near as possible, for
placed in this line (D),
"

the
cient

nore

effective,

and give

effi-

CENTER OF

RESISTANCE: The cei


of
resistance of the aeroplane is that point
the forces due to the head resistance of the
planes, guy-wires, etc., counterbalance, and owing to the unstability of the medium of support
is,
at best, only approximately obtainable.
In
most cases, however, the center of resistance is,
in biplanes, about half way between the planes,
and in monoplanes, about half way between the
"heighth" of the entering edge and trailing edge.

CORRECT

RELATIONSHIPS: The correct


relationships of these centers of gravity, thrust,
resistance, etc., must be such that the best posresults can be obtained.
The better the
centers of gravity and pressure coincide, the
easier it is to maintain
inherent longitudinal
equilibrium.
The better the centers of thrust
and resistance coincide, the less elevator action
will be required.
It is the intention of the author to prepare
sible

series on "Aeroplane Construction Materials"


the near future.
This series will go "handin-hand" with these design articles, and will
contain tables of tests, weighty, and miscellaneous
information
regarding
woods,
metals,

in

fastening materials,
constructor and designer.
cloths,

etc.,

useful

to

the

PIONEERS OF AVIATION
By LADISLAS d'ORCY
who

have a general knou'lcdge of the history of air navigation, we suggest going back to \'olume 1, No. 1, page 3,
and reading the "Summary of Human Flight, " which gives an insight into the inception of the movement.
Following this up he should then begin by reading the various articles by Ladislas d'Orcy, entitled "Pioneers of Aviation. " Article 1,
entitled "Sir George Cayley," appeared in Aircraft, Volume 2, page 267; Article II, entitled "Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow,"
appeared in Volume 3, page 150 ; Article III, entitled "Felix and Louis Du Temple, " appeared in Volume 3, page 179 ; Article IV, entitled
"Captain Le Bris, " appeared in Volume 3, page 317 ; Article V, entitled "Count d'Esterno, " appeared in volume 4, page 199, and Article
VI, entitled "Alphonsc Pcnaud," appeared in Volume 4, page 221.
We intend to continue publishing the "Pioneers of Aviation" from time to time, so that the reader by preserving all of his monthly
AiRcuAiTS will eventually have a most complete history of the movement in every way.

To

llic rt'iiJcr

K'oii/d

VII.

Thomas Moy.
The

success

of

Penaud's little aeroplane soon had an


England,
echo
in

where
jilane

n
the

mono-

the

had originally
produced for
time,

first

where

all

but

activity in

had

ceased
after the noisy failure of Henson's experiments, only to
be revived in the
aviatics

late sixties

by

Wenham

on entirely

dififerent principles,

commented upon in due course.


Nevertheless there was in England

which

will be

at

least

one

man

to

be captivated by the principles of the monoplane and this


was Thomas Moy, who had previously experimented with a
biplane, which a report of the Aeronautical Society of Great

Britain characterized as "one of the most determined attempts at solving the problem, which has yet taken place."
Thomas Moy, who had spent quite a considerable time in
studying the mystery of soaring flight and had contributed
to the Aeronautical Society a very creditable paper on this

produced in 1879 an aeroplane model, which he


termed a military kite. This machine showed plainly the
influence of Penaud's planophore; the supporting surfaces
were tilted up at their outer ends and were fixed to a box
girder at a dihedral angle to one another; in the rear there
was a stabilizing tail of half the linear dimensions of the
wings, which measured 660 square inches of surface. Propulsion was obtained by the untwisting of rubber strings, which
actuated two two-bladed tractor screws in opposite directions to each other.
The whole machine weighed only
twenty-four ounces; it rose from the ground running on its
wheels and forming thereby an angle of incidence of eight
degrees, it succeeded in making several short flights.
But on a whole, this machine was very much inferior to
that produced by Penaud nine years before, chiefly owing to
the fact that it was badly balanced, for quoting Mr. Moy's
subject,

AIRCRAFT

364

September, 1914

head resistance to a minimum. The machine was mounted


on a running gear consisting first of fovir wheels and later
of three wheels, so as to gain initial velocity by running on

of gravity and rise from earth by its


occasion the aeroplane rose so high,
passed over the head of a spectator.
Ten years later M. Tatin took up again his experiments,
this time in collaboration with M. Charles Richet, a distinguished mathematician and he produced in 1890 a second
model built on larger lines. This measured 18 ft. in its spread
and weighed about 15 lbs.; the body was of square section
and contained a steam engine of 1% H. P., that drove two
propellers, placed one in front and one in liack of tlie body
and giving a speed of 40 miles per hour.
This second machine was first tested at the cliffs of La
Heve, near Havre during autumn 1890; after steam was gotten up, the machine rose into the air and proceeded thus in a
straight line for about 200 ft., when suddenly one of the wire
stays became entangled in the front propeller and precipiIt was thereafter rebuilt
tated the machine to the ground.
and made somewhat stronger and new experiments were carried out during 1896 and 1897 in Carqueiranne (Mediterrannee), an inclined course had been laid out for this purpose, over which the aeroplane was to be launched by means
Several tests were thus made
of a detachable running gear.
over the water front and flights from 250 to 400 ft. recorded;
but these all ended with a drop over a curved trajectory in
the water, wherefrom the aeroplane could be picked out
without any great damage; at last when striking the water,
This accident put an
the machine capsized and foundered.
end to these highly interesting trials, which furnished to the
incredulous world a new proof, that mechanical flight was
swiftly nearing its completion.
Tatin says about these experiments, that "for the purpose of obtaining automatic
equilibrium the tail was too inefficient and its angle toward
the wings was too accentuated. Anyhow it has been plainly
noticed by all those present at the experiments, that had the
apparatus been manned, a slight shifting of the tail would
have easily righted the machine by giving it the convenient

the ground.

incidence."

own words,

stability was very good, but its


was defective and was a perfect puzzle
Mr. Moy's machine deserves, however, a speat that time."
cial mention for the fact that it was the first m which twin
tractor screws were applied successfully; it had also the distinction of being the last monoplane experimented with in
England during the early period of the aviatic movement.

"transverse

longitudinal stability

Hereafter

the English experimenters turned their atten-

all

toward the multiplane as formulated in Wenham's celebrated paper on Aerial Locomotion and thus the monoplane
lost its original country to be taken up and brought to a
tion

successful solution in France.

Victor Tatin.

VIII.

Victor Tatin, a French engineer and at a time the assistant


of Professor Marey, the illustrious physiologist who first
photography in reproducing the
applied instantaneous
mechanism of bird flight, was the next to give an illustration
of the possibility of mechanical flight.
The problem of longitudinal equilibrium having been satisfactorily solved by Penaud's stabilizing tail, Tatin endeavored to make aeroplanes more efficient; for this purpose he
built in 1879 a small, well working compressed air eng'ine,
which he applied to a model of a monoplane. This diminutive aircraft, which weighed only 3.8S lbs. and was supported
by 7.5 sq. ft. of surface consisted of a fusiform body that
carried two wings set at a dihedral angle to each other and
a "pigeon tail" in the rear; its motor actuated two tractor
propellers revolving in opposite directions, which, at a flight
angle of 8 degrees furnished a speed of 18 miles per hour.
This remarkable efliciency was obtained chiefly by making
of the body a reservoir, that contained the compressed air
and fed the engine, a feature that decreased in the same time

M. Tatin

aeroplane at the French military


establishment at Chalais-Meudon, where after a preliminary
run on a wooden platform it rose into the air and circled
around the post it was anchored to, thus being the first motor
driven aeroplane model to leave the ground by its own power.
Free flights were not attempted with this machine, for it
had proven all that was claimed for it, namely, that it could
tested

'this

overcome the force

own power; and on one


that

it

Victor Tatin had excelled

in his motorplane the efficiency


any flying machine that had been built heretofore; its
ratio, 45 lbs. per horsepower, carried through the air at a
speed of 40 miles was but a brilliant demonstration of the
principles, the ingenious inventor had always defended to the
utmost, namely, the adoption of a stream line body, which
diminishes the head resistance to its possible minimum.

of

MODEL NEWS
By CHAS. V. OBST

HE

Model Flying Boat contest

first

far

lid

on

held
19th

Pond,

Tilly

Dvker Heights Golf Course

at

Brooklyn,

New

York.

Eight

Model Flying Boats were entered in


contest which was for duration
Obst whose flying

the

IS 4-5 seconds.

the

chines
greatly

in

new and

size

used in

and

original

type,

features

ni

design

The largest model flying boat,


beaumonoplane built by Frank Schoeb.
and make a flight, but was adjusted to
hydroplane neatly across tiie pond. The winning
model, a double propellered monoplane of the
Canard type, supported by a small, ten compartment boat jumped from the water in a few feet
and climbed swiftly.
It
was flown but twice,
and unfortunately was badly smashed when its
owner slipped and fell on the steep slopes of
the_ hill.
A headless biplane flyboat was flown
in its stead, but being under powered, it did not
rise as readily or make as good duration as the
monoplane.
struction.
tiful_

to

rise

The only reason

were not made


are that this type
is new and the
flyers are working with
conditions which they
do not as yet fully understand, and the unfavorable situation of the pond.
However, rapid progress is being made in these model macliines, in
fact, two of the boats were greatly improved by
the addition

of

better records
of Aeroplane

new

features during the

contest.

The majority of the boats, because of their


center of gravity being too far forward and the
thrust too high, were unable to skim the water
and simply ploughed through it. Without giving
a thought to their balancing of forces a few of
the contestants attempted to use boats modelled
after the man carrying machines.
In a model it
is a difficult thing to lift the rear, non-supporiing
part of such a hull directly out of the water and
plane on the step only, because of the natural
adherence of the fluid.
The boats which gave
best results in this competition planed on two
points: the step, and the flat bottom at the back.
The advantage of using hydroplanes was forcibly
demonstrated by the performance of one small powerful model which, before the addition of this
feature had ploughed across the pond, throwing
up water and spray like a high speed motor boat.
After a small aluminum plane had been attached
under the bow, the boat lifted to the surface
immediately upon being released, and with great
speed, shot over
scarcely a ripple.

The angle
or

floats

tne

of attack

was another

surface

of

the

ally larger size.


All that is necessary is a hull
of sufficient buoyancy to float the machine, with
a well designed bottom to lift it quickly to the
surface and enable it to plane.
The winning
model was supported by a small, high-stepped
huat sixteen inches long with a buovancy of lour
and one-half ounces. Generally speaking the boats
were too large and heavier than necessary.
Large propellers were used on two or three
models and caused them to turn over in the
water many times.
These models were too high
above the water when floating to be stable, because the propellers were too large.
In the air,
the resistance of the boat and floats being very
low, there was always a tendency to dive.
The flyboats with one exception were all monoplanes although the biplane boat model has shown
itself to be more stable than any of the monoplanes so far flown.

QUESTIONS.

pond with

For the benefit of the model readers of Airof the balancing pontoons

matter

which

had

to

be

corrected before good results in planing were obtained.


A sheet of water was thrown six or
eight inches high from each pontoon of one fast
boat, because these pontoons were placed too low
and without any angle for skimming.

The size and weight of the boats varied greatly,


but it was noticed that the machines with small
boats of correct design skimmed easier and rose
quicker than those carrying boats of proportion-

craft questions relating to models


swered fully in this department.
queries to

be

an-

Address

all

will

Model Editor, care Aircraft.


The proportion of the motor to

the

L. C. F.
the
propeller in models varies.
On the average model
used to-day, it is about one and one-half strands of
Ys inch flat rubber, to one inch of propeller.

R. F.
In tractor models the best position for a
non-lifting tail is at the rear, as far back as
This tyj^e of tail has no lifting powers
matter where it is placed, it is simply a fin.

flat,

possible.

AIRCRAFT

Scptcuihcr, iQi^

The Aero Science Club


On
Club,

Saturday,
the

enthusiasm
race, which

August 1st, The Aero Science country.


body of American model
The club

controlling

new contests. A hydroaeroplane duration contest will be held on the


afternoon of August 30th, from 2 p. m. to 5
p. m. at Union Course Pond, Woodhaven, L. I.
Great interest is being shown in water flying
this season and a large number of flyers are
expected to be present at the meet.
The second
competition will be held on the afternoon of
September 20th, at Van Cortlandt Park, New
York City. It will be a speed contest for R. O. G.
machines over a six hundred foot course.
All
models must start on the line with the wind,
flyers,

announced two

and must cross the

linish

line

in

flight.

365

being shown already in this speed


will be the first of its kind in this

is

meetings of the main branch are


held every Saturday evening at The Engineers
Building, 29 West 39th Street, New York City.
.Many interesting and instructive discussions and
demonstrations are taken up each week.
This association controls the model flying in
America.
A branch may be established in any
town with five or more flyers.
For information address the Secretary.

Long
At

Island

Model Aeroplane Club

the semi-annual election meeting of


Island Moiicl Aeroplane Club lit-ld at

Much Long

headquarters on Wednesday, July 22nd, the following members were elected to office:
Mr. Lester Ness, President; Mr. Charles King, Secretary; Mr. G. H. Criscouli, Treasurer.
Much activity is shown in the construction and
trials
of new types, which are produced with
unfailing regularity.
A man-carrying monoplane
glider has been designed by the club and work
on this machine is now progressing rapidly.
It is expected to be ready for trials shortly.
Flying and contests take place on the club
field at
Liberty Heights, Long Island, on Sundays, where new and original models are tested

and flown.
For information

and particulars
secretary at the above address.

write

to

the

GENERAL REPORTS OF THE FIRST AVIATION CORPS


By
The First Aviation Corps, Headquarters Office
of Administration until October 1st at Garden
City, L. 1.

in

ixijiue.

iviaj.
Maj.

Official
District

Announ

Field

Centre;

Is:

Hempstead Plains

Chief of Staff

"Schonbrun Castle"
Zglinitzki ]s
von
vuu z-giiinizM
is

on the
held in
neiu
passports.
He is Adjutant of the
Regt.
We trust they will be able to
return without serious inconvenience.
Capt.-Pilot Charles F. Niles has gone to Mexico.
Our Corps Chief-Pilot Beckwith Havens has returned with his Aide Capt. C. T. Chenevert from
their

Paul
jTtiiu

London awaiting
1st

The

MORTIMER DELANO,

landers

.\vn.

Aerodrome, Chief of Staff, Mortimer Delano;


Corps Chief of Administration, W. Lanier Wash- Cuba and Jamaica.
ington; Asst. Corps Adjutant, J. \Vm. Ilazelton;
Recruiting Dept., VVm. V. M. Gerard; Field CapThe Board of Superior Control has just pertain, D. S. Houghton, Gar. C 1312.
fected plans and issued orders through Colonel
Notice:
Members serving with this Corps are Delano, its Chairman, to select and name 500
hereby informed that General Orders and all corps landing zones reaching from Maine to
notices not "special" will appear in this column Michigan to Maryland and Delaware
for the
of .Aircraft by courtesy of the Editor.
Next purpose of aiding its Pilots to land for any reamonth a summary of this Command will be son with certainty of finding a field and some
given with list of Field Squadron and Staff member of the corps ready to assist them.
officers
with
enrollment by
Departments and
There are in these zones two classes, 100 landSquadrons.
ing depots (L. D.) and 400 landing spaces L. S.).
Lt.-Col. W. L. Washington is in the midst of Each depot will be in cliarge of a Field-Sergeant
the
"German War," staying with the Rhine- and each space under a Field-Corporal.
This
(

NEWS

IN

By M.
In the December number of Aircraft of 1912,
almost two years ago, an editorial appeared from
u'hich the following is an extract:

War
,

in the Air

ECAL'SE

a man can
does not necessarily

the power
aviation.

to

a machine well
that he has
forecast the future of
fly

mean

Recently a newspaper published the


ideas of some English aviators in regard to tuture
military service.
Thomas Sopwith was quoted as
saying:

E.

whole section known as the District Centre has


been majiped out for such landings.
The depot will be the nearest cleared field as
100 to 500 acres near the larger
cities.
A flag will be flown by day. The 400

a sub-centre of

spaces will be cleared fields of 100 acres or less


near small cities and town.
All these fields
will be in the nature of loans for emergencv
by their owners, principally pasture lands.
The
non-coms will be under the Quartermaster's De-

partment of which Walter Lispenard Suydam,

Jr.,

Chief.

is

Their work will consist of selecting and looking

after

cleared field
their zones;
in
keeping list of nearest supply and repair
shops; to keejj flag up, etc.; to give informa
tion to the pilot and send in reports of all
landings made each month.
.-\
list of these 500
landing zones with names and telephones of all
their field non-coms in charge will be furnished
all
Corps-pilots.
Men are now being enrolled
for this work throughout the States, included
in

the

largest

boundaries named.

GENERAL
HENRY

the dailies of whicii tlie following are a few


from the Evening Telegram of August 14th, prove
conclusively that we were absolutely correct and
also that our readers are not only kept in touch
witli the progress but are posted montiis in advance of the industry- :
in

Soldiers in Aeroplanes Fight

Each Other

in Sky
"Paris, Friday. Reports of the work the aerial
scouts are doing in the war are beginning to
reach nere now.
It was learned to-day that a
French aviator, scouting in Lorraine, was sighted
by two German aeroplanes, each containing three
men armed with repeating rifles, winch ^ave
chase. After a long chase the Frenchman escaped.

X 5-inch pitch Paragon propeller of the same


design used on 90-100 h.p. motors and this with
the throttle half open and spark little more than

advanced.
an indication of the demand for aeroplanes
will in all probability be created by the
European war, the Maximillian Schmitt .Aeroplane
and Motor Works of Paterson, N. J., are receiving a great many inquiries from all over
the world and their special .Armored Military
Monoplane, wliich carries a rapid firing gun, is
half

.-\s

which

T do not want to think of fighting in t''e air:


means death to every man engaged. Think of
Army News
going after a chap 2,000 feet in the air.
When
The
of six aviators, forty-two men and
yon get him \ou get yourself. It is all very well
three tractors from Galveston, Texas, on July
It is officially announced to-day that a German
to sit and speculate about battles with guns and
17
to
North
Island brings the United States
bomb throwing and all that sort of thing, but it aviator dropped a bomb onto the station at Vesoul,
is
only a dream.
All that anyone is doing is capital of the Department of Haute-Saone, and government force up to seventeen officers and
developing the aeroplane for scouting purposes, two other infernal machines in the town of Lure, ninety-four men at the local aviation camp. The
and they have a big job on hand in doing that. fifteen miles northeast of Vesoul.
The airman corps will soon be well equipped with tractor
The aeroplane, for some time at least, is going was finally put to flight by sentinels with re- convertable biplanes and now has three Burgess,
two Curtiss and one Martin, all new machines.
to be nothing more nor less than the eyes of an peating rifles.
army. It is true they are testing guns, but that
For the last few days, say despatches, a Ger- En route to the camp are two Burgess, one CurGlenn Martin is building
is all in tlie experimental stage.
.\nd as matters man aviator has been flying over the Belgian tiss and one Wright.
stand the most the scouts can do is to try to positions without any apparent danger. On Thurs- two more biplanes and one Burgess-Dunne has
keep their armies informed as to what was doing day, however, he was surprised by two Belgian been ordered.
Captain A. S. Cowan, commander of the aero
The German turned
and keep out of one another's way. I am confi- biplanes that gave chase.
dent that the main work is the development of his aeroplane quickly and at a high rate of speed corps at North Island, deplores .the stories that
In a moment Iiave been printed about the biplanes used in
headed toward Huv and Liege.
the aeroplane as a scout.'
"We have never had
That is all very well, Tommy, on condition that all three machines were lost on the sky line and the government service.
the other fellow looks at it in the same light that the ultimate end of the chase has not been old worn out machines," said Captain Cowan.
"Some of the crafts we had in the past were
you do, but what are you going to do about it if learned."
old models, but all were new and in good conhe is bent on getting rid of you and goes after
The statement that officers flew in planes
Chas. Mills, the Niagara Falls flier, has estab- dition.
you with guns? To be plain, suppose that your
English army has 500 aeroplane scouts and believed lished an aerial ferry at Erie Beach, Ont., using that were not fit for service is untrue and is
as you do and did not arm, and supi-ose that the two-passenger hydro, powered with a 60-h.p. Maxi- a reflection on the common sense of the men
who risked their lives in time of peace for
German who does not believe as you do arms the motor.
Bud Gary, flying a Maximotored Thomas hydro- their country. No officer or man is obliged to
same number of scouts.
Naturally the Germans
want to give their army in the field as complete aeroplane, for the Sunny South Floating Theater, fly and none would take chances in a faulty
.All
of the machines at North Island
information as possible and naturally the Ger- has flown every day, with one exception, since machine.
man Army in the field does not want their tactics Memorial dav. His flying is all one day stands and those to be delivered are of the latest types
reported to the English Army.
Don't you think at the towns along the Ohio and Illinois riv- and our equijiment is the best that money can
that the first command to the German airscouts ers, and in the three months he has missed but buy."
will be to clear the air as quickly as possible of one
engagement.
the unarmed English airscouts?
A new 120-h.p., S cyl. V-type Maximotor,
It surely would,
Western Notes
and in order for the English airscouts to stay in being built by the Maximotor makers, for BarBv Dr. E. R. Gary.
the air and do any scout work at all, would lie in ton L. Peck, the well known sportsman-aviator,
their capability of fighting back at their opponents, is fast nearing completion in their factory at
Peterson, the Wright pilot had quite a spill
would it not? If so, why is not that a battle in Detroit.
This motor follows general Maximotor during a preliminary trvoul at Denver, prev'ous
the air or a skirmish or a fight or w'hatever you practice, and will be made a standard model to flights during the National Convention of Elks,
wish to call it? And then isn't it a fact that the for 1915.
July 12-16. the machine was a Waggoner-Hallcountry which had the most efficient fighting air
The water-proof liquid glue manufactured by S. Scott "60," built by Waggoner and Co. of Denforce would defeat and put out of existence its W. Ferdinand iv Co., of 201 South street, Bos- ver.
Peterson has been carrying passengers and
opponent and thereby hold the key to the whole ton, Mass., is used exclusively by most of the giving exhibitions all spring and summer at
situation?
So there will be fighting in the air. aeroplane manufacturers, as it is recognized as Denver with it and this was his first trouble.
Tommy, and there will be fighting just as soon the very best glue the market afi'ords.
He is reported as saying tiiat he was most
as two such nations as France and Germany or
-After tlirce months of testing and experimental too scared to fight for his life, but
got her
Germany and England, or France and England work, the Kemp Machine Works of Muncie, In- under partial control, he jumped clear and
plane
decide to go to war."
diana, announce their new J-8, 75-h.p. motor was demolished.
ready for the market.
This motor is of the
Negotiations are being carried on for C. LivPeople were surprised that we dared make such eight cylinder V type, cooled by a blower, and ingstone Wiggins to do a cross-country
predictions.
Of course it is impossible for the weighs 3S5 lbs. complete. While rated at 75-h.p. Colorado Springs on Tuesday to Pueblo andfrom
do
newspapers to secure much news of what is going it has proven its ability to turn up to 1.J60 two exhibitions each dav at Colorado State
fair
on at the front but the few extracts appearing R.P.M. on the testing stand an 8-inch diameter September 16th to 20th at Pueblo.
it

AIRCRAFT

366

September, 1914

SEATTLE AND PUGET SOUND NEWS


By PAUL
SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON

proved to be the "star" feature of the


Seattle Tilikum Potlatch held in Seattip frnm July 14th to ISth inclusive.

R.

Chr
day

xhibi-

offe
flights

aay

each

"doings," and two night flights. The


were made with pyrotechnical disnight
scintillatIn these
plays from the aeroplane.
ing evolutions" he was assisted by Mr. R. E.
On the last night
French, his chief mechanic.
flight he flew within two hundred feet of the
Smith building tower, which is the highest outflights

New York City, and which numerous


have described as "treacherous," and that

of

side
fliers

numerous

currents

made

vortex of
the boat

"horrible

Si never even "rocked


air swirls."
White fire was flashed on the
in going by.
plane as it passed by, making a very pretty
On Saturday, the last day of the fessight
he carried the Hon. fiiram C. Gill.
tivities,
Seattle's

mayor,

for

skylark.

Mr.

Gill

was

much enthused over his experience.


The machine Mr. Christofferson used is his
standard five passenger Curtiss 0-X motored biThe workmanship was beauplane flying boat.

very

behold, and she flew as steady as "a


The airboat was christened on the opentop "
ing day of the Potlatch the "Tilikum" by the
young daughter of Mr. Howard Joslyn, the chairman of the Aviation committee of the festivito

tiful

dn

the last day of the Potlatch Mr.

Christof-

J.

PALMER

up Mr. John Evans, the aeronaut


He
of the Seattle Times for a "military" flight.
carried with him some "bums" (a "bum" is a
ferson

took

He sucsmall sack of Pillsbury's best flour).


ceeded in making 20 per cent, of hits. He struck
die postofiice, armory, several large docks and
iffice buildings with remarkable precision for an
inexperienced bomb dropper.
On Sunday after the Potlatch Mr. Christofferson carried passengers on Lake Washington,
while returning from one of these flights
he participated in the rescue of several persons who had been run down by the Kirkland
This "rescue" was not faked in any
ferryboat.
Mr. Christofferson pulled
manner whatsoever.
out three persons and brought them ashore.
On July 19 Mr. T. T. Maroney, who had
been filling exhibition dates at Everett flew down
He stated that he
and "dropped in" on Si.
had made the flight just to see Mr. ChristofHe had with him Miss Ruby Rutledge,
ferson.
carnival
queens, as passenone of the Everett
ger.
The trip of 33 miles was made in 29%
minutes, and is a record for the northwest. The
machine used was a standard Curtiss-type hydrobi, equipped with Curtiss motor.
and

dates
Mr. Herbert Munter
Sedro Wooley on the
Miss Alys McKey was to make flights, but
she had a sudden attack of peritonitis and was
unable to do so.
Mr. George Tarada, the Japanese who smashed
filled exhibition
4th of July.

In a case before the United States District


Court concerning the libel of an aeroplane for
salvage or admiralty liens, the following decision
has been handed down by Hon. E. E. Cushman, judge of the Federal Court for the Western District of Washington, Southern Division:
"In view of the novelty and complexity of the
questions that must, necessarily, arise out of this
new engine of transportation and commerce, it
appears to the court that, in the absence of
legislation conferring jurisdiction, none would obtain in this court, and that questions such as
those raised by the libelant must be relegated
to
the common law courts, courts of general
jurisdiction.

The

action of the Juridic Committee on

Avia-

tion
manifests a recognition of the fact that
legislation is necessary for the regulation of air
craft.
They are neither of the land nor sea
and, not being of the sea or restricted in their
activities to navigable waters, they are not mari-

time."

To

at

Raviate

Hangaround: "Say, Mr, Airman, what wuz the


fall you ever
had?"
Airman:
"Why, let's see oh, yes, when I
fell
in love and busted every darned bone I

worst

had in the bank."

AN ESSAY ON WINGS
By VINCENT BURANELLI
Applying this formula to the popular Bleriot
it,
that is, giving it a curvature, .08.
three essential principles of an aero- by cambering
Span
a high aspect ratio, which in- monoplane type IX, the particulars being:
plane are surface, power and speed, and giving it
As the tail
These subjects will be of wings i2 It., span of tail S It.
and since any variation of the latter creases its perimeter.
lifts a
portion of the total weight, that is, it
two act through the former, we might dealt with later.
effect that m9- is of the lifting variety, its span must be added
laws
to
the
Newtonian
The
aeroplane
an
of
say that the wings
generated in a mass in unit time is to the wing span which in this case will sum
constitute its most important part, and mentum
40 feet.
The velocity of the machine equals
to the force acted upon it, the equathat a general knowledge of the the- proportional
The lift or total weight
56 feet per second.
X V,
ory governing same in conjunction with a few
the of machine is 715 pounds.
The ratio of the
F being the force,
F
tion being:
simple formulae are most necessary m designbase to the perpendicular of triangle of planes
T
; , efficient and stable machine, as well as in
Then first:
Area swept equals
enacted upon, V velocity, and T time in is 6 to 1.2.
mass
aeroof
an
working
the
nderstanding
thoroughly
seconds, and if E equals the energy expended spread of wings times forward velocity equals
plane in flight.
energy is inversely as the mass of 40 times 56 equals 2,240 sq. ft. area swept.
Although the theoretical aspect of m. chanical per second, the per second, then E y2MV=, or for Second:
Velocity downward V equals S, speed
and aerodynamics have received consid- fluid dealt with
flight
constant. The forward divided by AC over BC equals 56 dienturies any given weight to be sustained
erable attention during the past few
vided by 6 over 1.5 or 11 feet per second.
fact alone that Newton considered air as he did
nothing definite was ascertained until recent
equals V times A times
noncontinued rare medium, consisting Weight acted upon:
The books published on the subject were an elastic particles
years.
freely disposed at equal dis- BC times .08 equals 11 x 2,240 x 1.2 x .08 equals
of equal
entirely overmathematical and much confused,
tances from each other clearly shows that the 2,345 pounds of air set in motion per second.
especially in regard to lift and efficiency of an
x
V over G equals 2,365
else than incor- Then lift L equals
nothing
been
could
have
result
aviation
being
to
aerofoil surface, due, of course,
11
over 32.2 equals SOO lbs. of lift.
The
rect, and that Newton's error was not one of X
the first line of endeavor to demand such a
mathematics, wherein he was supreme, but one excess being due to not allowing for leakage
course of study to necessitate the exposure of
which
is
not
taken
into
account
in this formula.
The error of the earlier of physics.

^HE

_.

these strange blunders.


writers consists in too readily

from hypothesis

insufficiently

deducing formulae
by experi-

verified

'They comfortably ignored the fact that


the great task of the scientist is not in assumFormulae
ing an hypothesis, but in proving it.
based on mistaken hypothesis are considerably
worse than useless to the practical aerotechnician,
who is frequently painfully perplexed by the
contradictory theories advanced by some of the

ment.

The

common

formula

given

engineering

in

surface inclined to its


lift of a
is to take into account the weight
cubic foot .OS, the area ol surface
square feet represented by F, the velocity
feet per second represented by S, then the

works for the


bne of motion
of
,n
in

air

per

equals

.08
lift

F x

S=

X sine A.

We

can can-

32

32 by dividing .08 by it and get L equals


.0025 X F X S= X sine A.
Applying this to an actual machine, the Deperdussin Monoplane, for instance, the following
Surface 220 sq.
are the particulars obtainable:
ft. aspect ratio 6 to
1, forward speed 64 ft. per
.015.
Then we get the lift. L
second, sine
This formula is not
.0025 X 220 X 64= x .015.
correct, although it was considered so until re-

most important workers in this field of science,


as well as by the numerous pages of formulae
purporting to govern the same phenomena, no
two of which give the same results.

eel

that scientists of the highest


with the
rank deduced that mechanical flight was imThe fact that Newton and his followpossible.
ers came to grief on this subject indicates very
well that its solution was by no means an easy
one and that the science of aerodynamics on a
rigorous and practical basis, as well as aviation,
came into being with the aeroplane.
In the following it is the writer's intention
to treat each subject pertaining to wings separately
and deduce what has been proven rigorous.

cently.
radically different formula which gives fairly
correct results for normal is to take into account the mass of air deflected downward by
multiplied by V, the
the wing per second
velocity at which the air moves downward per
second divided by 32.2 gravity, which reduces

When Newton enunciated his universal laws,


he laid a theory and a formula, (Principia, Sec.
Book 11) which Chanute, after conducting a
7,
few experiments found to be as correct as 1 is
Many physicists advanced this theory
20.
to
result

-LIFT:

^
J
Dynamic support can only be obtained
,.

in

air

putting in motion a mass of


respect to a given medium,
Thence, any variation in
which medium is air.
w^ill
cause a variation in
upon
mass
acted
the
That is, a mass of air
the lift, or vice versa.
deflected downward by a surface incbned to its
This can be
line of motion varies with the lift.
brought about by a change in any of the folSpeed, surface, angle of incidence and
lowing:
the density of the medium through which the
Thus the present aeroplane
body is moved.
varies its up and down direction by varying its
angle of incidence, this being accomplished by
the manipulation of the elevator, as well as by
warping the wings to obtain lateral equilibrium.
The lifting efficiency of a wing can be increased
as

the

some

result

support

of

with

the

problem

to

pounds.

The form

is:

32

In this formula there are two factors to be


found:
V, the velocity downward per second
which equals the ratio of the perpendicular of
the wing X figure 2 to the base divided into
machine
of
the
S then V
the velocity
S
^
or S divided bv the tangent of the

Then M, the mass of air


of the wing.
is
in motion per second in pounds which
equal to the area swept over by the machine
per second times the velocity at which the air
moves downward equals V times BC the altitude
of the triangle of plane 2 times .08, the weight
The area swept equals
of air per cubic foot.
times the
the forward speed of the machine
span of wings. Then
equals
x BC x
x
angle
set

Recent Aeronautic Patents

AEROPLANE. Rene ?
Pari!
France. Patented May 5th.
In an aeroplane, a supporting or sustaining
wing presenting a surface at a predetermined angle
to the trajectory of the aeroplane, a pair of planes
adjustably mounted at the rear edge of the wing
1,095,952.

and

at opposite sides of the longitudinal axis


means for limiting the adjustment of said
planes whereby they are always presented to the
trajectory at an angle not greater than that at
which the wing is presented thereto, and means
for adjusting said planes at different relative
angles to steer and balance the aeroplane.

thereof,

AEROPL.^NE.
1,095,782.
Hollingsworth
B.
Barret, Shreveport, La.
Patented May 5th.
The combination with an aeroplane of a frame
mounted thereon; a curved guide bar
mounted concentrically with the pivot of said
frame; a gyroscope mounted on said pivoted frame,
and having a shaft engaging with said curved
guide bar; a device carried by the gyroscope shaft
for securing the same in adjusted positions on
said curved bar; a propeller; a driving shaft having
a universal joint connecting the propeller with the
gyroscope shaft and adapted to be adjusted therewith; and a motor mounted on the pivoted frame
for driving the gyroscope and the propeller, substantially as described.
pivotally

1,096,254.

GYROSCOPIC CONTROL FOR

CRAFT. Tames
ented May 12th.

S.

Lang, Boston, Mass.

AIRPat-

In a gyroscopic apparatus, a gyroscope adapted


to be driven by the application of a gaseous fluid
pressure thereto, a pivoted support bearing said
gyroscope, means whereby gaseous fluid under
pressure may be applied thereto, and means for
controlling the application of such pressure to the
gyroscope for rotating it whereby it may exert
no influence to pivotally disturb the suspended
position thereof, or at other times may exert an
influence to disturb and pivotally move the same
dependent upon the position of its suspension.

AIRCRAFT

September, 1914

367

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
20

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rrOR SALE:
r
cally new.

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AIRCRAFT

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D-M

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John A. Roeblings Sons Co.

DURABILITY

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MAXIMUM POWER

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THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE


The

J.

it

THE BOLAND MOTOR

Equipped with

N.

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making soldering easy.


This wire is specially drawn horn extra
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Also Aviator
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a

is

Now Open.

Address:

WIRE

12,575 Feet

-L nrt: THOMAS SCHOOL

MANUFACTURERS

101

Altitude
Record

plicity in

Boland Control (two

ihe

BOLAND CONTROL
new

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and

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is

ba

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Write

for particulars.

Factory

BROADWAY
NEW YORK

1821

is

system of control, which

FT.

CENTER STREET
NEWARK, N. J.

COXQUETE DE

From LA

L'AIR

Brussels, Belgium

Five or six months ago M. Breguet, of Paris, acquired


a license for France of a system invented by an American,

Mr, Means, and they have not delayed

in

applying

it

to

Underneath there is a reservoir of lamp


their biplanes.
black of a capacity of 20 litres. There is also a reservoir
of compressed air which is kept filled by a small air pump.
In this tube, is a valve
tube connects the two tanks.
pull of one second
which is operated by the observer.
makes a dot a pull of three seconds makes a dash. Thus
is the Morse code revealed against the sky.

From L'lLLUSTRATION.

FOR LICENSE APPLY TO

JAMES MEANS
96 Beacon

BOSTON, MASS.,

Street

FINEST

IN

THE WORLD,

JOSEPH FLEISCHMAN. Founder


When Dr. Thomas Darlington,
l-hvsician-inChief of the New York
Department of Health, attached his
signature to an article in tire dail>press, congratulating the people i-i
this city upon having a man amont;
their midst with sufficient couraL;,.
to spend one-half million dollars to
Bath
establish the finest Turkish
World upoit the top floors
lormous building just the
of
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Turkish Bath he had in mind

process.
I\o one da
that it has been and
advantages
greatest
the
human race has
vere th(
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W<
advantage of the
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hundred
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regular
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days,

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U. S. A.

in

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Superior Training on dual control Hydros and Flyinn;


boats by competent Pilots under the direct supervision
of Walter E. Johnson, endurance record holder with
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Thousands of flights without a hitch.
for reserv.-itions in

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ON THE THREE TOP FLOORS
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UP-TO-DATE METHODS
E.

Winter Season

Paris

.\n American engineer, Mr. Means, has invented for the


service of military scouting on board aeroplanes a system
of optical telegraphy of remarkable simplicity. The Morse
signals are shown against the sky with lamp black.

Summer Season

The Walter

The Walter

Summer

class to

Johnson School

E.
Livingston Inn

::

& Russian Baths

of Aviation
Livonia, N. Y.

SIXTH

TvInue'I^nIw YORK

THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT

THE

1914

THOMAS BOAT FLYING OVER THE HUDSON RIVER

THOMAS BOAT, piloted by Ralph M. Brown, flew over 200 times at Dobbs Ferry during
THE
the last three weeks, carrying a large number of prominent people, amongst whom were Mrs.
S. Whitman, the wife of the District Attorney of New York, Prof. David Todd, the Astronomer
Amherst College, Mr. Louis R. Adams, President of the Aeronautical Society, Mr. Alfred W. Lawson,
Mr. Ernest L. Jones, Mr. Henry Woodhouse, Mr. and Mrs. George K. Turner, Mr. Clifford B. Harmon
and others. They were all satisfied and delighted.
TWO HUNDRED AND TEN FLIGHTS AT

Chas.
of

DOBBS FERRY, WITHOUT A SINGLE ACCIDENT OR TROUBLE OF ANY KIND.


Before you select a Flying Boat, by all means investigate the Thomas. You must see the Thomas
Flying Boat to fully appreciate and understand its points of exceptional value and superiority.

Send

for Booklet "

T"

Today.

Address

THE THOMAS BROTHERS AEROPLANE


BATH, NEW YORK

CO.

OCTOBER

igi4

x^eriTs A cop'ij

10
-ZEPPELIM

PA55mO"ThE fAMOUS CATHEDRAL AT AMTWERP

SLOANE
Aeroplanes, Monoplanes, Biplanes, HydroAeroplanes, Flying Boats, Aero-Skimmers
machines
THE
and comfort
ideal

for military, naval

and sporting

uses.

Speed, safety

unrivaled.

For over three years Sloane Aeroplanes have been used by dozens of
and novices; carrying hundreds of passengers, for thousands of
miles over land, sea, mountains and cities without a single accident.
pilots, pupils

Can Any Other Means of Fast Transportation Show Such a Record for Safety?
Spend an

C L, 1
PIlying OCnOOl
r

ideal

Flying-Boat.

fiy on the new Sloane


course lio breakage charges.

and profitable vacation learning to


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$300 for the

full

Special terms to military and naval officers.

Builders, Fliers-- Attention!


You cannot possibly get the utmost out
your aeroplanes unless you equip them
Why waste
with the finest motors.

of

money on

inferior

power plants

a record-breaking motor and


machine a recoi'd-breaker.

Get

make your

Why

is

it

foreign aeroplanes hold all the world's


Not because they are better
records ?
built and designed but simply because
they use the

"WLJ

Le Rhone, Gnome, AustroDaimler and Anzani Engines


most powerful and highest developed power plants so far produced.
notice that the only two machines to finish in the recent International HydroAeroplane race at Monaco used 100 H. P. Gnomes / that a new
iir
1 1>
r\
r*
J of 16 hours, 28 minutes was recently established by
S
poulet with aCO H. p. Lemone-iust think of itflying for 16 hours non-stop with a 60 H. P. motor in a stock machine and only descending
which

are the lightest,

Did you

World

D
UuratlOn KeCOrd

then on account of darkness.


the

May we send you catalog, giving descriptions, photographs and installation drawings of
Gnome, Le Rhone, A iistro- Daimler and Anzani Motors ? It will pay you to learn more

about them.

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY


1731

BROADWAY

\AMERICA
I

AGENTS

NEW YORK

CITY

Octohcr.

AIRCRAFT

or.

NEW THOMAS

369

FLYING BOAT MAKING FLIGHTS RECENTLY AT STAMFORD. CONN.

CONTENTS OCTOBER,
Aircraft

the

is

Key

of the

...

War Game
War Interview

General

in

Foreign

News

Alfred

Christoflferson Tractor Biplane

and Aero Yacht Chart

Tractor Biplanes for the United States

371

372

....
.....

............
......

Aero Yacht and Tractor Biplane

Model News

W. Lawson

with Cortlandt F. Bishop

General Reports of the First Aviation Corps

Christofferson

...

...........
............
......

Aviation Echoes from the Seat of

News

1914

George A. Haviland

373

Arthur V. Prescott

374

Mortimer Delano

375

Paul

J.

Palmer

376

Paul

J.

Palmer

377

Chas. V. Obst

377

Army

378

AIRCRAFT
CHA.S. H.

HEITMAN

yresiJcnt and

ERNEST

C.

Published Monthly by The Lawson Publishing

Treasurer

LANDGRAF

37-39

Secretary

28ih STREET. NEW YORK, U.


Telephone, 5017 Madison Square

EAST

solicited.

"Aircraft"

is

Company
A.

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Only high-grade advertisements of thoroughly reliable firms are

In

Entered as "second-class matter" February

S.

18,

CHAS. H HLilTMAN,

PAUL

J.

WALTER

E<lil<,r

PALMER
HOUSE

A.
Contributing

Editors

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registered as a trade-mark by the U. S. Patent Office, under date of August 9th. 1910.

3,

1879.

AIRCRAFT

370

October, ipi^

Hotel Cumberland
NEW YORK
Broadway

at 54th Street

Headquarters

for Avi-

ators and Automobilists.

New and

Fireproof

Strictly first class.

Rates reasonable.

$2.50
With Bath
and up

Send

Ten Minutes' Walk

for Booklet.

to Forty

Theatres

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The

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

NEW WRIGHT
AEROPLANES

We

beg

for sport, exhibition or miliis

tary use, over land or water

now embody
gested
quietly

by the experiments
conducted

during

the past year.

that

now

will

the improve-

ments that have been sug-

announce

to

Mr. Charles B. Kirkham


associated with our company and we
continue the manufacture of the well-known

Kirkham Aviation Motors


designed by Mr. Kirkham, including the famous
Model D motors brought out this season.
Preparations are already under way to produce
a large high powered motor especially adapted
for Flying Boats and Army Aeroplanes.

Kirkham Motors

THE WRIGHT

are

CO.

(THE WRIGHT PATENTS)

DAYTON, OHIO
NEW YORK OFFICE:

11

PINE STREET

furnished

as

standard

equipment on

all

Flying Boats, Tractor Biplanes


manufactured by this company, producing a
combination second to none.
These machines are of the latest approved type
embodying the utmost in aeroplane practice
and are unrivaled for their high class beauty

and design.
tes^-

Write for

full

particulars.

Aeromarine Plane
Avondale,

New

&

Motor Co.

Jersey

!ini!i;sws>i;y;!i;w!fi!i;>Rininf;!inin;s!i;synfnn^

AIRCRAFT
New

No. 8

Vol. 5

York, October, 1914

W!iwii!iiyi!f;w!fni;syi!i;>i;s!i;s;!i;ss!(;xxsss!i;xwxx!i;!i;wy;s!i;s

AIRCRAFT

IS

By ALFRED W.

HE

six weeks of the great European


has demonstrated beyond doubt to the

first

War

engaged therein, that aircraft


the key to the whole situation.
It has
proved that aircraft is the key that unlocks
the door to all the secrets of war strategy
participants
is

and brings out

into the limelight and into


view of the naked eye, all movements of
troops, cannons, warships, etc., of both sides to the frayNot a movement of any large body on land or any of the
ships on the seas lying near the scene of hostilities has taken
place without the opposing forces being made acquainted with
the fact almost immediately thereafter by the air scouts. Furthermore, while aircraft in this, its infant stage, and without previous
big war experience, has actually proved itself "the eye of the
Army and Navy," it has gone further and proved that it also
has a very offensive kick of its own in the shape of bomb
The severity
dropping from both aeroplanes and dirigibles.
of this kick is only limited by the scarcity in numbers of
aeroplanes and dirigibles. Multiply the number of aircraft in
action by one thousand and its kick would then become an
full

exterminator.
It

will

know
great

some considerable time before we will


what part in the offensive operations of this
is taking, owing to the fact that both sides

probably be

exactly

war

aircraft

are necessarily anxious to keep secret as

how they
The few

much

as possible just

are obtaining their victories or sustaining their losses.


reports which have been

that a Zeppelin

made

public,

however, show

has done terribly destructive work by

airship

This great battle


dropping bombs into the City of .\ntwerp.
ship of the air is proving just what we have previously claimed
doing,
it was capable of
e., passing over forts and troops as
if they did not exist at all, and striking at the very heart of
the enemy. The king and his general war staff as well as munitions of war which were formerly immune from danger behind
concrete walls and great guns are now open to attack from above.
Incidentally, it may be stated with truth that the Germans had
just as much right to bombard Antwerp, a fortified city, from
i.

the sky, as they

had

to

bombard Antwerp from either the land


much right to bombard
of a fortified city, as they had to bom-

or water, and also that they had just as


the king's palace inside

bard

private

soldier's

hut,

all

newspaper

WAR GAME

THE KEY OF THE

editorials

to

the

LAWSON

is that the majority of newspaper men, as usual, are trying to throw cold water upon the efficiency of aircraft and only
publish the most absurd and sensational aeronautical stuff.
It

point,

is

came

fact

that

my

to

out of

the

attention,

first

five

newspaper reports, which


from the

concerning the bombardments

sky,

either by aeroplanes or airships, each contained the statement that a hospital had been hit. In fact according to these
reports the only people injured through these air attacks were

wounded
the same

soldiers.

Red Cross nurses and

sick children.

sort of outrageous aeronautical rot that the

newspapers have been feeding a

This

is

American

upon during the


progress, and
which is partially responsible for the complete setback to what
should have been a most important American industry to-day.
It does not seem possible that any right minded individual,
either biased or unbiased regarding the final outcome of the
European 'War, can be made to believe that all the air forces
in this war have accomplished so far from their offensive operations is the killing of wounded soldiers, nurses and children. The
fact is, if the truth were known, that for every wounded soldier
killed by an aircraft bomb, fifty sound soldiers were put hors
de combat and for every hospital damaged by these aircraft
bombs fift" other buildings containing munitions of war were
past

six

gullible public

years to the detriment of aeronautical

And that is the object of the war, is it not?


But while the press may be deluding itself and the public
concerning the value of aircraft in war, you may depend upon it
that army and navy officials, who happen to be in this Eurodestroyed.

pean mixup, and are

in a position to observe carefully the movements and effects of aircraft, appreciate its wonderful utiHty
and now realize the tremendous effect it has produced upon
the whole war game.
During the remarkable march through Belgium and to the
very gates of Paris by the German army, it was aircraft that
showed the German just when and where to strike the most
effective blows.
While on the other hand it showed the smaller
forces of the Allies just when it was necessary to retreat in
order to avoid capture or annihilation, and just the reverse
order of things when the Germans retreated from Paris. Air-

craft

has

German

shown

the

British

battleship behind

-Admiralty

the great

the location of every


Heligoland stronghold and

also shown the German naval officers just where


war vessel is stationed. Each knows the other's
movements and strength, and it is only a matter of tb.
smaller force backing away from the larger force.
aircraft has

every British

That a hospital happened to be hit


contrary notwithstanding.
by a bomb hurled from a sky battleship -vas just as unfor-

position,

tunate and no more so than if the same hospital had been hit
by a shell thrown from a marine dreadnaught or a shell shot
from a land siege gun. Surely the airman is no more anxious
to blow up a hospital than either the seaman or the landsman.
There is nothing to be gained by blowing up hospitals and only
fools believe that airships are used for that sort of work.
The great trouble in .America, from an aeronautical stand-

And then again, as if aircraft in its present crude stage, and


very few numbers, had not done enough work by its scouting
and bomb dropping to establish itself as a most important
factor in this war, it was actually utilized to hover over the
enemy's forces while in battle and signal to the gunners upon
the ground the exact position and range for artillery fire, and
through this method alone you may depend upon it that more

AIRCRAFT

372

We

knew

and armored aeroplanes

would happen long before the war broke out, but


whenever we mentioned them we were looked upon as extrava-

derful fighting machines.

won by

than one battle was

the forces employing

it.

these things

gant dreamers, now they are facts thoroughly established)


through actual warfare and therefore have become historical
Aircraft
tory

they eventually evolve into wonFurthermore it means that the number


of these fighting machines will be constantly increased until
vast flocks of them travel together as units for fighting as well
as scouting purposes.
Moreover it means that great numbers
until

of these fighting aeroplanes traveling at ten times the speed of

records.
is

war

also being used in this

from above

literature

to

the

to distribute

inflamma-

inhabitants

dissatisfied

of

and having the advantage of shooting


below from great heights while swarming above
horses

more damage

army

various countries, particularly in Austria, where dissensions and

ten times

open revolt by the populace may be worked up against the government through these methods. And aircraft is being used successfully to discover submarines and mines on the high seas.
foregone conclusion, therefore, that from now on
It is a
the country who fails to develop powerful air forces as an
integral part of its war machine, will be considered funda-

than cavalry does at the present time.

mentally

weak

making

the art of warfare and incapable of

in

it comes to blows with a country which


is thoroughly equipped with modern aircraft weapons.
During the first few weeks of the European War the Germans
proved that they possessed the best aircraft for war purposes,
and not only did the German airship demonstrate its superiority
over that of the Allies, but the German aeroplane proved its

good showing

in

case

The reason

during the
past few years the aeroplane manufacturers in Germany have
been giving their best efforts to building and experimenting
with machines for war and were quietly developing those qualities in their machines most essential for war purposes, such as
superiority

as

well.

for this

is

that

lifting, quick climbing and duration flying as well as


While on the other hand the
arming and armoring them.
manufacturers of aeroplanes in France and England were to
a large extent engaged in producing unarmored aeroplanes for

weight

purposes

spectacular

factor to be attained.

with

speed

considered

Of course not

the

all

the

as

greatest

German aeroplanes

armed and armored, but enough of them are constructed


in that way to outnumber the armed and armored aeroplanes
of the Allies at least two to one.
In most of the battles or skirmishes that have taken place
are

October, 1^14

in

the air between aeroplanes of the opposing forces up to the

present time, the


best advantage,

Germans have undoubtedly shown up

man

to

the

for man, and the main facts which stand

out prominently in the apparent advantage that they have attained


was that their machines were armed and armored and had the
ability

to

climb more rapidly to

higher altitude than their

opponents.

This war has proved just what I pointed out two years ago
Aircraft and that is, that aeroplanes must be armed and
armored or they become almost useless even for scouting purposes as long as the enemy's machines are constructed in that
manner. The object of the air scout is to obtain information
concerning the movements of the enemy's troops and the position of his guns, and in order to do so to the best advantage,
he must not only be protected against rifle fire from the ground
and opposing airmen, but he must also be able to rid the air of
opposing air scouts through force of arms in order that he
will not be hampered in his efforts to obtain such information
as well as making it impossible for the opposing air scouts to
secure information concerning the movements of his own troops
in

or warships.

This means then, of course,

a continual

development of armed

more damage

will be

man

than one

as

to the

Field

Bishop,

Vice-President

Aero Club of America, who has


was met on
his arrival by a representative of "Aircraft," to whom he gave some of his interesting experiences in the war zone in
Europe.
While fully realizing the poof the

just returned to this country,

tential value

considers that up to this time

of the aeroplane in war,


it

he

has not justified what was

the

warrior

man

in the field,

do

for man,

Yes, a thousand times


done because the aeroplane can carry more

well

as

quick firing guns.

If

the

Germans

thousand armed and armored aeroplanes in operation


to-day with pilots and gunners trained uo to the highest point
of efficiency in air manoeuvres, all the armies of the world put
together would be unable to withstand them.
The same can
also be said of France, Russia, Great Britain or even America
for that matter.
I predict that within twenty years from now
that there will be at least one nation upon earth who will have
more than fifty thousand fighting aeroplanes in operation in
case of war.
Such a force might be considered as air cavalry

had

in

fifty

every sense of the term.

this statement might seem extravagant at this particustill it is no more extravagant than a remark offered
twenty years ago that there would be more than fifty thousand
automobiles used in the German forces' manoeuvres to-day. It
is
to the rising generation, however, that aircraft must look
to for further progress just as it was the rising generation
which the automobile industry had to depend upon for its impetus
toward its present efficient state.

While

lar time,

Of

war is not the only purpose of constructing aerowar is proving in this case, the great utility of aero-

course

planes but

men

planes as well as airships and thinking


it

out that

vantage

in

if

air

machines can be

war

times of

that these

will eventually reason

utilized

same

to

air

such great ad-

vehicles can also

be utilized for commercial purposes in times of peace, as well,

and when there

is

a sufficiently large

number of thinking men

with capital to back up their ideas along this line, we shall see
the real beginning of useful air transportation.
As that time

may

be a few years hence and as the American aeronautical


is in need of present capital, in order to develop the

industry

manufacturing plants, these


manufacturers must look for immediate results to the governments of the different countries of the world for their orders.
Therefore, I advise the American manufacturers to give their
best energies at the present time to the construction of armed
and armored aircraft for war purposes and offer them for sale
to the different governments of the world who are now purchasing these machines. The fact that the supply from all the
European countries will be needed by their own fighting forces
as well as all that can be purchased from the outside, gives to
the American manufacturer all the neutral countries as exclusive
customers, and, therefore, the American manufacturer should
lose no time in taking advantage of the situation while it is
ripe.
Ten thousand or more armed and armored aeroplanes are
needed in the world to-day and if properly constructed and
able to undergo the severe military tests necessary for acceptance, these ten thousand machines will be purchased as fast
efficiency of aircraft, as well as their

as they can be built.

AVIATION ECHOES FROM THE SEAT OF


(ORTLANDT

at

will naturally

WAR

expected of it as a war craft. The damage done by it has


been greatly exaggerated. When the Germans were sending their scouting machines over Paris day by day, the Parisians would turn out in crowds in the streets every afternoon
about four o'clock, "to see the show." There is no question,
however, that for signalling and reconnaisance the aeroplane
has been of immense value. In point of fact, it has become
a

vital

factor

in

strategy.

Many

offensive

moves which

formerly could have been carried out with probable success

October
are

I9I4

'A

RCRAFT

now

reported by the air scouts to the enemy, who, thus


prepared, is able to make a countermove. But the securing
of such information is attended with great risk.
If the
aviator flies near enough to the ground to be able to make accurate observations, he may come within the range of the
rifles of the enemy, and aviators are so much scarcer than
aeroplanes in the army of the allies that special care is enjoined in the matter of taking bodily risks. The consequence
is

powers was soon indicated


dent Wilson. It was then

to

aviator to learn very much of just the kind of information


he is seeking. Dirigibles, too, have not done much, and the

bomb-throwing accuracy have been to a great


extent romances.
The Zeppelin, of course, has many advantages over the smaller dirigibles, but even it requires favorable conditions for the effective dropping of bombs
The reastories of their

NEWS
By

^iVl

IN

GEORGE

"dum-dum"

letter to Presi-

freely stated that his

immediate

with his Zeppelins would be confined not to wanton


destruction of cities with its inevitable attendant sacrifice
of innocent lives, but to the smashing of the English fleet.
How far this explanation accounts for the delay in the land
attack on England it is hard to say, but it is certain that the
fleets of Zeppelins are ready for instant action. On the other
hand, weather conditions are a very vital factor in the operation of the Zeppelin, and the fogs and heavy gales are already
setting in on the English Channel. If these should continue,
as may be expected, the Zeppelins will be heavily handicapped, and their attack may have to be further delayed.
This would be fortunate for the English, whose means of defense against the dirigible are astoundingly inadequate. The
French have regular artillery for attacking dirigibles, but in
London there are very few guns for this purpose, which are
mounted at vantage points throughout the city. In addition,
the manufacture of steel arrows is being rapidly pushed.
These can be dropped from an aeroplane, and are intended to
pierce the gas-bag of the Zeppelin. This device has been in
recent use, and it has been found very effective against bodies

machine has to fly at an elevation of some 6,000


be out of harm's way, and that is too high for the

son it did so inuch damage at Antwerp is that there were spies


down below with electric flash-lights, and the flashing of these
gave the signal to the pilot where the bombs were to be
dropped. As soon as the trick was detected, the spies, of
course, were shot, but the havoc had been wrought.
The onslaught of the Zeppelins on England and the English fleet is now the one overshadowing subject of conjecture
in Europe.
Every one is wondering why it has been so long
deferred, for there are already two large parks of machines
ready for action, one presumably intended for use over land,
and the other for sinking the English ships. One explanation
is that while, when the Kaiser began the war, he was so certain that he could be in Paris in a few days, and thus win the
first trick in his elaborate game of military omnipotence,
he felt himself above any outside criticism that might be
made; and, intending soon to launch his Zeppelins over England and the attack was expected there daily he made his
preliminary raid on Antwerp. But the wave of horror which
swept over the civilized globe at that atrocious reversion to
barbarism, coupled with the audacious resistance to his

in his

activities

that the

feet

373

progress by the allies, caused him to hesitate, and his desire


to put himself in a more favorable light in the eyes of neutral

of troops.

tection of the

recent discussion of the question of the proof the Kaiser against the many dangers to

life

which he may be subjected, especially from air projectiles,


has brought out the fact that the most elaborate precautions
are taken for his safety.

Wherever he

sleeps he is surrounded
through the night a fleet of
aeroplanes is closely patrolling the sky overhead.
On being asked how long the war was likely to last, Mr.
Bishop said that while Lord Kitchener has put its duration at
three years, there were many in Europe who believed that
it would hardly be ended in five years.

by thousands of

soldiers, while

GENERAL
A.

HAVILAND

AIRCRAFT

374

Germany

France
It

two

that

reported

is

of

shells

hit

the

outer line of fortifications are patrolled night and


day bv a fleet of French aeroplanes ready to repel
The_ plan now
assauft by German Zeppelins.
for the French machines to pursue the Geris
man aviators into the open country and attack
them there.
;d that only a plunging fire is effecIt is expla
;roplanes and that over a city a
tive against
attack causes risk to more lives
machine gu
the mark than are enss
from bullets that

dangered by bomb
After a chase of several miles, a French aviator
Troyes succeeded in bringing down a German
aeroplane, which had been dropping bombs on the
The German pilot and two military obtown.
at

servers (a captain and a lieutenant) were killed.

French infantryman on

his

way

to

the hos-

reported that the German aviators


camps at night and when they
can locate a bivouac, thev let fall a rocket that
leaves a long line of sparks behind, thus enabling
Ten minutes
their artillery to get the range.
after this rocket falls, shells begin to burst around
at

over

fly

the

actor

chief

the

in

first

actual

Nice,

their

spot.

"battle

in

Sergeant Werner, of the German Avia-

air."

Corps,
latter's

who

piloted

over

passage

is

remarkable

ie

of

fiction

tale

Lieut. Von Heidsen in


Paris, tells his story.
of adventure, eclipsing

writers.

iwerful British biplane and a


Attacked by
Bleriot. Werner only escaped
through a most fortunate combination of circumstances which led him to pilot his machine inside
the

of

German

lines.

"The men who hold the reserved


but theatre of war, who see the battles

The captain was shot through the heel,


The aeroplane rehe continued taking notes.
turned in safety.
The skies above Paris and extending to the

pital

he

aero-

aeroplane.

the generals can see them,


men," said Werner.

"I had received


forces and to dete

rders

are the

3
;ir

and those of their 1


by Lieut, von He
expert

observer,

locate

exact

pports.

seats in the
as not even

German
the

air-

battle

lines

went

up

in

my monoplane

flew back to our lines that time without being


we were so high the rifle fire did

molested, and
not reach us.

"On this trip to locate the enemy we flew


directly south from Mons, following a broad and
plainly marked road.
En route we passed over
tlie
edge of a magnificent forest in which more
than 40.000 inhabitants of the surrounding counAfter flying for more
try
had taken refuge.
than an hour we passed directly over the English
headquarters and I was able to locate the positions
of the Commander-in-Chief and his stafl^.
accurately mapped this position and then swept
across the French position, paving special attention
to the location of their artillery, much of which
was masked in pieces of woods and behind

We

"It

But the effort was va


for speed.
I could not
him.
Soon the Bristol wa
heads.
My God! man, I wa

me

He landed safely and gave


cerning the German position.

of

con-

correspondent in .Antwerp says that a French


amid
hail
over Brussels
German' bullets twice circled the town, dropping hundreds of pamphlets containing the mes-

appeared
__
biplane
.^
of*^

from the start that he was


than we were.
I tried to climb uping that when he got over me he

evident

pieces.

The aeroplane oscillated violently in the wind,


but the lieutenant succeeded in righting it and
in volplaning into the French lines.
information

was

speedif

was a

my

moment
life.

of

feeling

suspense

was sure the

of

utter

helple

Our
nuch

:ldy

far

tha

figuring on when the


strike, as with their greater
certain finally to get us.

next bullet would


speed they seemed
While this thought
mind the Lieutenant

kept

and headed directly south in the general direction of Paris, although on this trip we did
Previously, on Sunday,
across the city.
we flew across Paris and dropped three bombs.
One failed to explode. Another dropped on the
roof of a house and set fire to it. and the third
But
tell in a boulevard and made a big hole.

far

"There was
far

,\ccompanied

not go

we

could not shoot from that position.


It
was now certain they carried no bombs as thev
veered off some 500 feet to the side at the same
time keeping 150 feet above us.
"All this time we were headed northward again
The plunging of the
toward the German lines.
aeroplanes made accurate shooting difficult, although one shot struck my plane.
It was very
evident that the Englishman was shooting to disable our motor and we were doing the same thing
on our part.
"The noise of the discharge of the automatics
was drowned in the whirr of our propeller.

they

English

The aeroplane factories in the zone of the Paris


intrenchments have transferred the principal part
of the establishments to the south and west to buildings and hedges.
continue the construction of machines to meet
"Lieut, von Heidsen made rough sketches of
present and future requirements of the army.
Each military pilot is furnished with two aero- everything. I was intently watching the country
All the factories in the vicinity of Issy, when suddenly the lieutenant pressed my arm.
planes.
He
pointed upward,
.^t that time we were nearly
and
Bleriot
Voisin
the
including
and
Juvisy,
Buc
5.000 feet in the air.
I looked in the direction
factories, have moved.
in which he was pointing and there, fully 1,000
the
that
estimated
It is
feet higher than we were and coming at full
to
ready
planes within twenty-five
speed directly toward us. was a big Bristol biits defens
plane.

The War Office has officially announced that


Lieutenant Campagne, of the Aviation Corps, while
flying over the German lines at a height of 1,800
A shell
yards, was subject to the enemy's fire.
struck his machine and stopped the motor.

"Suddenly I saw a flash alongside of me. For


moment I thought that the expected bomb
had struck.
Then I realized that the lieutenant
was shooting with his automatic pistol. The Englishmen held their propeller in front and so

Taube
were brought
down,

planes, which flew over Paris,


Anone at Chelles and the other at Champigny.
other German Taube, bound for Pans, was brought
down by the French near Vincennes. Most ot
capital have
French
the
over
scouting
aircraft
the
been of the armored type.
The French aviator Poiret, who is in the Ruswith
sian service, relates that while reconnoitering
height of
a captain of the General Staff at a
tire
1,200 metres, he was under rifle and shell
fragtwo
and
bullets
Ten
miles.
for twenty

ments

October, ipi^

was passing through my


again touched me and pointed.

tremendous speed was a


at
monoplane.
It looked for all the
eagle coming to join the attack.
was in sight,
I
felt certain now that the end
as all of the French aviators we have captured
up to the present have carried bombs, and the
speed of the newcomer it was far greater than
the Bristol
gave him still more of an advantage.

coming

"There,

small

world

Bleriot
like

an

"But the Bleriot also failed to have bombs


Swooping
and was forced to depend on pistols.
up and down, encircling us and all the time
firing at us, the Bleriot kept on.
Minutes seemed
like hours to me.
It was certain there could
be only one end of this unequal fight, although
the lieutenant kept firing in return as calmly as
at a rifle range.

"Suddenly, however, German troops appeared


below us.
Thev began firing at the enemy and
the Bleriot and the Bristol, finally exhausting
their ammunition, sailed off to the south unharmed.
We then landed with our reports, which were
especially

valuable because of the location of the

However, I would not


French artillery.
go through such an experience again."

want

to

Werner

an enthusiastic student of aviation


and declares Zeppelins have not yet been really
tested and when they finally get into action they
will do great damage to the enemy.
He is enthusiastic over the German Aviation Corps and
declared it has already been of incalculable benefit
to the German General Staff,
is

AIRCRAFT

October, 1914

"The German saw

375

adversary and attempted


to attack him from above.
Shots are fired but
The
exten- they
miss
mark.
The British aeroplane
the
sive experiments with aeroplanes in its African
sweeps
a semi-circle around the adversary,
colonies.
The first expedition has arrived at mountingin steadily.
The German tried to swoop,
Swakopmund. German Southwest Africa, where in order to
trials are to
take place.
The headquarters of With sudtienopen fire at close range from above.
giddv mananivering both machines
the expedition will be at Karibib, and suitable
exchange
shots and another swift change of posihangars have already been built.
Considerable
importance is attache'd to the trials, as the fliers tion the German and Britisher are almost at the
But they are out of range of one
are not only intended to devote themselves to same altitude.
Each is fighting for a higher place.
military manceuvres but are also to undertake another.
postal service and to carry passengers and ex- Dashing together, the two machines are far up
press goods.
It is assumed that it will be pos- now looking exactly like great birds in combat.
sible to dispatch medical aid in a few hours to There is a distant sound of shooting, then a
Darting hither and
distances which could otherwise be reached only great struggle up and down.
after several days' journey.
This is of much thither, each aviator is determined to win an
The machines advance
importance in many African countries, where the advantage over his foe.
Suddenly the Britisher swings above
while population is scattered over a large terri- and retire.
the German, reels and seems to stagger.
Then,
tory and the number of physicians is small.
If the results of the experiments are successful, traveling more slowly than sight and the sound
of
the
shots
the German descends slowly to the
aviation will probably become an important factor
He is wounded."
in the solution of the rapid-transportation question ground.
in German colonies.
German Southwest Africa
has been chosen as experimental ground owing to
British cavalrymen report they were pestered
favorable climatic conditions.
greatly
by German aernplahes.
WJienever a
German aeroplane appeared over the bivouac the
order was given to change camp and the weary
Great Britain
men and horses had to move further on, for
they knew that the appearance of tlie aeroplane
Accounts fri
meant their position would soon be subjected to
ness and thon
a hail of shrapnel.
of aviation are being utilized.
A dispatch from Rouen states the Germans
Brooklands has been converted in
lililary
work have been able with seemingly uncanny precision.
air station and the various schools
is
proceeding with unabated activity
been by means of aeroplanes, to locate the headquarters of the British General Staff, no matter
placed under tlie supervision of the
litar
where it moves.
thorities.
Throughout ten days, beginning when the fightHendon has been converted Into a naval air
station under the command of Lieut. John C. ing was about Mons, the invaders poured shells
Porte, who abandoned the attempt to cross the close to the meeting point of the king's generals.
Atlantic in the Rodman-Wanamaker Flving Boat It was the same thing when the headquarters were
"AMERICA." in order to return to England to at Donain and Landrecies, whereupon Sir John
The formation of this air French withdrew his position to Lecateau.
serve in the war.

Aviation in German Africa


German government is planning

station at Hendon. is designed firstly, as an ideal


base for the aerial defense of London, and secondly, as a training center for the preliminary
Practically
instruction of pilots and observers.

every

former

pilot

in

England

has

volunteered

acti'

Integral Propeller Works are running at


full capacity at their new factory, and the supply is not likely to give out. for with the war
some weeks old, a large consignment of French
walnut has been received from Chauviere's splendid stock.
The British aeroplanes had splendid opportunities for observing the German dispositions, and
it was due to their excellent work that the British
were enabled to gauge the vulnerable spots in
The airmen state that
the enemy's positions.
they can plainly observe the strong movements
of the German transport columns to the eastward.
Hundreds upon hundreds of wagons are moving
away from behind the German fighting line.
An English eye witness tells the following:
"A German aeroplane, fl ing high, traveled
over the British lines with the object of reconnoitering.
As the machine soared overhead and
well out of reach of fire, a British aviator shot
up to attack it.

The

There

it

his

was the target of a terrific bombardfire to the town and burned it.

ment, which set

The same was

true at St.

French,
France, on

in

the

of

enemy."

the

Japan
IX

THE EAST THE ACTIVITY OF


SHIPS

IS

ALSO REPORTED.

AIR-

despatches received from the commanthe Japanese fleet off Tsing-tao, the German base in the Far East, say that two Japanese
hydroaeroplanes were launched from one of the
warships and reconnoitred the Ge
planes dropped se^ eral bombs, one of
them falling on the Germar wireless plant,
The result of this bomba rdment is not given
in the despatches, which s: y that the aviators
brought back valuable infor; nation regarding the
German defenses.
The guns of the forts v ere directed against
the aeroplanes and one
ol
the machines had
fifteen holes in its planes, tl ,e result of the shell
and rifle fire, when it retu: ned to the warship.
The damage was not serious
der

commander of the English


the part aircraft has taken
forces, reports as follows:
"One
features of the campaign on our
side has been the success obtained by the Royal
Flying Corps.
In regard to the collection of
information it is impossible either to award too
much praise to our aviators for the way they
have carried out their duties or to overestimate
the value of the intelligence collected, more especially during the recent advance.
"In due course certain examples of what has
been effected may be specified and the far-reaching nature of the results fully explained, but that
time has not arrived.
"That the services of our flying corps, which
has really been on trial, are fully appreciated
bv our allies is shown by the following message
ffom the commander in chief of the French
for

fifteen

killed

Official

Quentin.

John

Sir

Army

exactitude and regularity of the news


brought in by its members are evidence of their
perfect organization and also of the perfect training of the pilots and the observers.'
"To give a rough idea of the amount of work
carried out it is sufficient to mention that during
a period of twenty days up to September 10, a
daily average of more than nine reconnaissance
flights of over 100 miles each has been maintained.
"The constant object of our aviators has been
to
effect
an accurate location of the enemy's
forces,
and,
incidentally,
since
operations
the
cover so large an area, of our own units.
"Nevertheless, the tactics adopted for dealing
with hostile aircraft are to attack them instantly
with one or more British machines. This has been
so far successful that in five cases German pilots
or observers have been shot while in the air
and their machines brought to the ground.
As
a consequence the British flying corps has succeeded in establishing an individual ascendancy
which is as serviceable to us as it is damaging
to the enemy.
"How far it is due to this cause it is not
possible at present to ascertain definitely, but the
fact remains that the enemy have recently become
much less enterprising in their flights. Something
in the direction of the mastery of the air already
has been gained in pursue
the
lection of informati(
"Bomb dropping has not been indulged in to
any great extent. On one occasion a petrol bomb
was successfully exploded in a German bivouac
at night, while from a diary found on a dead
German cavalry soldier, it has been discovered
that a high explosive bomb, thrown at a cavalry
column from one of our aeroplanes, struck and
ammunition wagon, resulting in an explosion which
precision,

British
of the

armies, received September 9 by Field Marshal


Earl Kitchener:
" 'Please express most particularly to Marshal
French my thanks for the services rendered on
The
every day by the English flying corps.

of

Sweden
The Swedish government recently tried to buy
twenty aeroplanes in Germany. Russia and Denmark, but only succeeded in buying the 100-h.p.
Mercedes-Albatros biplane on which Wieland and
Pollner made the flight Berlin-Copenhagen-Stockholm for what is now considered a fair price,
2,500, showing the great demand existing in
Europe for aeroplanes.

GENERAL REPORTS OF THE FIRST AVIATION CORPS


By
The

First Aviation Corps, Headquarters Office


Administration at Garden City, L. I.

of

Infantrv
tached

District Field Centre, Hempstead Plains AeroChief of StaflF, Mortimer Delano; Corps
Chief of Administration, W. Lanier Washington;
Assistant Corps Adjutant, J. Wm. Hazleton: Recruiting Department, Wm. V. M. Gerard; Field
Captain, D. S. Houghton, Gar. City 1312.
Notice:
Members serving with this corps are
hereby informed that General Orders and all
notices not "special" will appear in this column
of Aircraft by courtesy of the editor.

ENROLLMENT TO DATE.
officers

(this

includes

.Ad-

Judge

Recruiting,
<

Military

Band

Quartermaster's Department Landing zones


Battalion, non-commissioned officers in 500
zones (recruiting their assistants to 1,200)
In twelve Aero Squadrons Officers, Pilots
and Aviation Students
Naval (Fourth Squadron) and Balloon (Third
Squadron) Infantry Companys (attached,
uniformed and armed, drilling)

Chief of Staff

60

110
100
200
110

tenant-Colonel A. M. Kane, Major James P. Fiske,

in twelve
Battalions attwelve Squadrons.
Unidrill

weekly

mechanicians,
privates,
handlers of Aero, etc.)
ing

dome;

Quartermaster's,
Medical,
Advocates, Ordnance, Inspection.
Construction,
Engineers'
Radio and Aero), Technical and Pilots'
Departments)
Scout Pilot Patrol in twelve patrols for
special service throughout the country....
Radio Engineers
Motorcycle Battalion

sections
to
the

formed and armed,

OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS:

Field and Staff


ministration,

MORTIMER DELANO,

(furnish-

gunners,
3,100

ern-Western Division
in

Total

5,130

The officers now forming the Field and Staff


are as follows:
Mortimer Delano, Chief of Staff
and Colonel-in-Chief of the Regimental Controls;
Major E. Gibert Schermerhorn, Acting Colonel
First Regiment Chief Military Instructor; Colonel
Lawrence

Hill Grahame, Acting Colonel Third


Regiment; Harry L. Follett, Judge Advocate. Acting Lieutenant-CJolonel Second Regiment; William
Fitzhugh Whitehouse, Lieutenant-Colonel Third
Regiment Chief Ins. Field Centres.
LieutenantColonel W. Lanier Washington, Corps Chief of
Administration; Assistant Corps Adjutant, Major
Lieutenant-Colonel Walter
J. William Hazleton.
Lispenard Suydam, Jr., Corps Chief of Material;
Major Edward Kemp, Tr., Assistant Corps Quartermaster;
Lieutenant-Colonel Beckwith Havens.
Chief Pilot; Major Arthur R. Jarrett, Colonel
Surgeon of the Corps; Major Robert A. Fliess.

Chief of Wireless Control; Captain M. N. Liebmann, Commanding Radio Engs. Major Roger B.
Whitman, Chief Aero Engineer; Maior Howard
Huntington, Chief Technical Officer; Major Joseph
500 A. Steinmetz, Chief Ordnance Officer; "Major
Edson F. Gallaudet, Chief Aeroplane Officer;
750 Major Jerome Kingsbury, Chief Balloon Officer.
Regimental Adjutants: Major Paul von Zglinitski,
Major J. S. Stewart Richardson, Major Rafael

200

Major Theodorus Bailey.


These officers form the department chiefs. The
squadron commanders and details of the "South-

L.

Lindell.

Regimental

Chief

Surgeons:

Lieu-

the November
The Technical

now forming,

issue
officers

of
of

will be

given

.\ircraft.
this

corps are unsurthe War Depart-

passed in this department and


ment will gain in the future "volunteers" men
who for this branch in aviation stand on their
merits above

Major

all

Howard

competitors.

Huntington,

Chief

Technical

Officer; Captain Charles M. Manly, .Assistant Chief


Technical Officer.
Squadron Technical Officers:
Captain S. S. Jerwan, First Squadron; Harold
Kantner, Second Squadron; Captain Augustus Post,

Third Squadron; Captain Lawrence B. Sperry,


Fourth Squadron; (Japtain W. M. Southworth,
Eighth Squadron; Captain F. E. Eppelsheimer,
Tenth
Squadron;
Captain
Lyman J. Seeley,
Seventh Squadron.
Others to be assigned.
Major Grover C. Loening, Chief Instructor, has
been appointed to serve two years with the United
,\eronautical Division at San Diego.
the purpose of this corps to take the
as a student and the raw material
and turn out the two as finished
aeroplane
for an
States
It

young

is

civilian

military

pilot

and military aeroplane.

We have the enthusiasm, the expert military


and aeronautical instructors and constructors and
perhaps as important, the "ways and means" accounted for to do all that is aimed at in our
purpose.

376

AIRCRAFT

October, IQ14

AIRCRAFT

October, 1914

377

THE CHRISTOFFERSON AERO- YACHT AND TRACTOR BIPLANE


By
'TMIE

Christofferson
aft rank among
the
best
aeroplanes
produced
by
American and foreign constructors.
Especially so with reference to originality of design, construction and
record-making.
The Tractor biplane
is
the type Mr. Silas Christofferson

in
his
flight
over Mount Whitney, over
16,000 feet in altitude.
The Aeroyacht i's being
used on San Francisco Bay in the Taxi service,
has been making very consistent voyages.
The machines were designed bv Mr. Silas Christofferson and were built by the Christofferson
Aviation Company at their plant in San Francisco.
The Aeroyacht was primarily built for
use in the Roald .Amundsen polar expedition,
but owing to the postponement of that venture
the Aeroyachts were put to other uses.
The
sled-formation of the hull bottom is particularly
adaptable to ice work.
The Tractor plane is
the one which Mr. Christofferson will pilot in
the coming military competition to be held at
San Diego during October.
It has carried five
150-pounders, two passengers to 1,000 feet in
minute 20 seconds, and left the ground with a
1
passenger in forty feet.
If the American builder
and designer would originate as much as Mr.
Christofferson has done, the "game" would be
much better off and .America would be all "to
the good" in the world's aerodynamical progress.

used

and

GENERAL DIMENSIONS.
Aeroyacht: Span, top plane, 47 feet; lower
plane. 35 feet 6 inches; chord of planes, 5 feet
6 inches; gap between planes, 5 feet 6 inches:
length O. A., 29 feet; area of main planes, 375
square feet; seating capacity, five persons, including
pilot;
approximate
weight,
light,
1,800
pounds; horsepower, 100 Curtiss; speed, 55-65
miles per hour.
Tractor Biplane:
Span, top plane, 47 feet:
lower plane, 35 feet 6 inches; chord of planes,
5 feet 6 inches; gap between planes,
5
feet 6
inches; length O. .'\., 28 feet 6 inches; area of
main planes, 375 square feet; seating capacity,
four persons, including pilot; approximate weight,
1,200-1,400
pounds;
horsepower,
100
Curtiss;
speed, 65-75 miles per hour.
It is fitted with
dual control, Christofferson's own arrangement.

PLANES.
The planes are
and construction

identical

dimensions,

in

shape

Aeroyacht and TracBiplane, with the possible exception that in


the Aeroyacht. the trailing edge of the center
section top plane is cut away to allow for the
propeller swing.
The total sp'ead of the upper
surface is 47