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Mini Instructional Project

Title: Technological Teaching at the University of Guyana in Education


By:
Kara Lord

A paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements of EDID 6505


Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials.
Trimester I
Academic Year: 2016/2017

UNIVERSITY of the WEST INDIES


Cave Hill | Open Campus
MSc. Instructional Design and Technology

Student Name:

Kara Lord

Student ID#:

406003336

E-mail:

Kara.Lord@my.open.uwi.edu

E-Tutor:

Dr. LeRoy Hill

Course Coordinator: Dr. LeRoy Hill


Due Date:

19th November, 2016

Table of Content

Page #.
Executive Summary

.. 4

1.0. Needs Assessment

.. 5-8

1.1. Topic

. 5

1.2. Target Audience

. 5

1.3. Format

. 5-8

1.3.1. Optimals

. 6

1.3.2. Actuals

. 6-7

1.3.3. Feelings

. 7

1.3.4. Causes

. 7-8

1.3.5. Solutions

. 8

1.4. Justification

. 8

2.0. Performance Objectives &


Task Analysis

.. 9-13

2.1. Goal

. 9

2.2. Performance Objectives

. 9

2.3. Procedural Analysis

. 10-12

2.4. Prerequisite Analysis

. 13

3.0. Learner and Contextual Analysis

.. 13-14

3.1. Learner Analysis

. 13

3.1.1. General Characteristics

13

3.1.2. Education and Experience

13-14

3.1.3. Learning styles

14

4.0. Instructional Strategies

.. 14-17

4.1. Problem

. 14-15

4.2. Activation Strategies

. 15

4.3. Demonstration Strategies

. 15-16

4.4. Application Strategies

. 17

4.5. Integration Strategies

. 16-17

5.0. Performance Assessment

.. 17-20

5.1. Terminal Objective

. 17

5.2. Assessment Questions

. 17-19

5.3. Practical Assessment

. 19-20

Reflection

......... 20

References

. 21-22

Appendices

Executive Summary
In the age of technology, particularly with regard to the use of same in the teachinglearning process, lecturers at the University of Guyana are frequently offered verbal
encouragement by the administrative body to utilize various forms of technology in the
classroom to aid the teaching-learning process. In addition to this, lecturers are also encouraged
to offer, in part, courses online in some form or the other and access has openly been made
available to lecturers at the University to facilitate the training and use of the moodle platform.
This is with the intention to ensure that lecturers are provided with the information they need in
order to use the online forum and furthermore to better teach their classes and reach out to their
students.
However, it is evident that there are some limitations which have been demonstrated by
lecturers who display a preference to only utilize power point/video presentations during
instructional periods and perhaps furthermore limit the creativity of their students who undertake
same when instructed to carry out tutorial presentations. This surely demonstrates an inadequate
use of many other forms of media which can be implemented or practiced by lecturers to further
connect with their students in the face to face setting as well as to encourage meaningful and
engaged learning.
The two day workshop provided sessions of training with particular focus on enabling in
a learner centered manner, the lecturers to make practical and constructive use of new and
innovative media with the intention of applying their practice to the classroom. The application
of Merrills first principles aided in designing instruction in a systematic manner while
considerations were given to factors such as needs, the learner and context, in an effort to ensure
a successful outcome.

1.0. Needs Assessment


Technological Teaching at the University of Guyana in Education

1.1. Topic
The topic is technology in teaching; the overall goal here is to enable lecturers to infuse the use
of technology in their teaching strategies. It will explore the use of both software (teaching tools,
instructional/ educational games and activities, online learning forums, and the like), as well as
hardware (for example: 3D printing, holography, and virtual reality learning).
1.2. Target Audience
The target audience of this needs assessment are seven (7) full time lecturers within the Faculty
of Education and Humanities, more specifically, within the Department of Foundation and
Education Management. It should be noted that this audience was particularly selected as they
are not only trained teachers but lecturers who specialize in teaching teachers (from nursery to
secondary levels) the essentials in the theory and practice of teaching. As a result, there is a high
expectancy that these trained professionals who range in ages from 38 to 65 years would have
both an individual and combined knowledge pool which allows them to set a precedence for the
highest standards of the teaching and learning practice; this should then be an example to the
wider university teaching community. It is also thoughtful to note, that each member of the target
audience all have (approximately) at least ten (10) years and at most forty (40) years of
experience in the Education sector (whether it is specialized in teaching, assessment and
evaluation, curriculum development or administration). Finally, all participants present
exceptionally qualified backgrounds with no less than a Masters Degree in their field of
experience/expertise while two (2) others also possess certification at the Doctoral level.

1.3. Format
The workshop session is completely face to face in nature, participants will first be exposed to
technology in a direct instruction manner which will provide them with some basic information
about the use of technological advancements in teaching, it should be noted that this aspect takes
a presentation format but also includes discussion within the method. Additionally, participants
will be exposed to a more constructivists approach to their learning by exploration and discovery
methods where they will have access to computers, and the internet to do their own search for
useful tools which can be incorporated into instruction and used in the classroom. Finally, much
corporative learning will be a part of their engagement as well as opportunities for the
participants to practically display the relevance and usefulness of their learning.
1.3.1. Optimals
Ideally, the participants should be able to:

Demonstrate knowledge of at least five (5) technological teaching tools.

Demonstrate the ability to use at least two (2) of the said technological tools with
efficient display of competence for at least 50% of scheduled delivery.

Demonstrate interest, understanding of the value and importance by being present and on
time for the workshop in addition to actively participating in activities

Display willingness to utilize various forms of technology in the classroom by interacting


with and manipulating the media.

1.3.2. Actuals
Currently, through observation, it is evident that some or all of the participants:

Use at least one primary technology presentation method during teaching sessions (i.e.
lectures through power point presentations). (100%)

Use emailing forums as a means of communicating with students outside of the


classroom. (100%)

Have partially created and implemented the use of moodle to supplement their teaching
and learning activities. (28%)

These actuals indicate that while limited, there is still some amount (however small) of
awareness that technology is available. However, there is still evidence of a gross lack in the use
of various forms within the classroom environment during instructional periods.
1.3.3. Feelings
For the purpose of this needs analysis, it was important to gather the feelings of the lecturers
while considering the effects their teaching practices may have on their students. In this regard,
the following can be summated:
1. Lecturers over the age of forty (40) may have negative feelings about the use of
technology in general. This may cause resulting feelings of apprehension, anxiety and
discomfort when considering its use in public and the lack of ability to successfully
implement same into an instructional session.
2. Lecturers over the age of forty (40) may also be subject to a number of years of teaching
experience which was not nourished and developed during the technological age and
therefore feel more comfortable with in-class practices which have become a natural and
routine preference in their teaching delivery.
3. Students (many of whom are under the age of 35) may feel unmotivated, improperly
occupied and frankly bored with the routine practices they are exposed to in the teachinglearning environment.

1.3.4. Causes
There are a number of factors which perceivably contribute to the deficient use of technology in
the classroom; these are listed in consideration as follows:

Lack of knowledge concerning the existence of advancements.

Lack of training/ability to understand and present content in a manner which incorporates


the use of technology.

Lack of willingness and/or motivation on the part of the lecturers to take advantage of
technology.

Lack of adequate infrastructure, support or tools provided to facilitate the use of


technology/smart devices in the classroom.

1.3.5. Solutions
The proposed solutions based on this needs analysis are as follows:
1. Training (sensitivity and practical).
2. Implementation of infrastructure to ensure viability
3. Monitoring and instructional supervision
1.4. Justification
The information gathered through this needs analysis determined that the efficient use of media
is a key factor which affects the successful practice of the teaching and learning process. It is
crucial to ensure that the University presents quality in their programs and expose students to a
rounded, systematic and competitive educational experience which will allow them to excel and
become leaders in their respective fields. Therefore, the needs assessment addresses the
appropriate and effective use of technology in the classroom which will determined whether
what is currently done is sufficient and or if/how this can be improved if necessary.

2.0. Performance Objectives and Task Analysis


2.1. Goal
By the end of this training program, participants will be able to practically plan, design, develop
and demonstrate the integrative use of at least two (2) technological teaching tools (software
and/or hardware) to be implemented during their respective teaching module delivery.
2.2. Performance Objectives
By the end of the training sessions, participants will be able to undertake these specific tasks:
2.2.1. Enabling Objectives:
-

Clearly define the term educational technology and state its usefulness in the teaching act
without assistance (Knowledge/Remember). [Written assessment)

Independently Identify and Select appropriate technologies (software and/or hardware) to


be used based on content/topic or subject area to be taught
(Comprehension/Understanding). [Written and performance assessment]

Critically examine and explain the impact of using technology in the classroom on
teaching-learning using a main idea along with supporting details (Analyze and
Comprehend/Understand). [Written assessment]

Develop and Design a teaching plan for a session which utilizes at least two (2) forms of
education technology lasting no longer than forty (40) minutes in duration
(Create/Synthesis). [Performance assessment]

2.2.2. Terminal Objective:


-

Demonstrate the use of at least two (2) different kinds of technology for the purpose of
teaching in a module of instruction with a small group (Apply). [Performance
assessment]

10

2.3. Procedural Analysis


Based on the tasks outlined in the task selection worksheet (See Appendix B), the task with the
highest priority (based on difficulty as well) was elected to carry out the procedural analysis.
This procedural analysis outlines in detail the task as well as any subtasks in objective,
observable and descriptive terms to give a clear idea of the steps involved in successfully
undertaking and completing the task.
Demonstrate Teaching Using Technology
Level 1
1. Conduct research on the meaning of educational technology
2. Identify and list types of educational technology
3. Select appropriate kinds of technology based on topic or subject matter
4. Discuss the importance and relevance of educational technology
5. Plan a lesson using at least two (2) kinds of educational technology
6. Develop the lesson plan
7. Demonstrate the lesson
8. Evaluate the session
Level 2
1. Conduct research on the meaning of educational technology
1.1. Listening to presentation of educational technology during small group seminar
1.2. Conduct a webquest activity on educational technology
1.3. Discussing findings, assumptions and/or conclusions with colleagues/participants
2. Identify and list types of educational technology
2.1. State the difference between hardware (facilities and devices) and software (programs)

11

2.2. Write a list of as many types of educational technology you can remember
2.3. Categorize the list based on their nature (hardware or software)
2.4. Compile a final list after discussion with colleagues adding any new forms of technology
previously missed
3. Select appropriate kinds of technology based on topic or subject matter
3.1. Identify subject matter and topic area to be covered
3.2. Select the most appropriate forms of technology based on the list
4. Discuss the importance and relevance of educational technology
4.1. Speak with colleagues/participants about reasons why technology is the classroom is
important using peer discussion
4.2. Make notes of three (3) points for and against the use of technology in the classroom
based on collaborative contribution
5. Plan a lesson using at least two (2) kinds of educational technology
5.1. Review the lesson plan for a lesson currently being taught in a module
5.2. Identify specific aspects of the lesson where technology can be used
5.3. Rewrite the current lesson plan, substituting aspects with the appropriate educational
technology
5.4. Review lesson plan once again to ensure consistency, accuracy and efficiency.
6. Develop the lesson plan
6.1. Compose content necessary for the lesson
6.2. Create teaching aids needed for the lesson
6.3. Request facilities needed for implementation
7. Demonstrate the lesson

12

7.1. Present the lesson to colleagues in a small group setting using technology and including
all lesson activities in allotted time of 40 minutes (maximum).
8. Evaluate the lesson
8.1. Find evaluation tools/surveys which may be applicable
8.2. Ask students questions
8.3. Conduct formative or summative assessments to monitor or measure learning
Level 3
1. Conduct research on the meaning of educational technology
1.2. Conduct a webquest activity on educational technology
1.2.1. Find information on what is educational technology and types, including examples
1.2.2. Write information in the note pad provided
5. Plan a lesson using at least two (2) kinds of educational technology
5.1. Review the lesson plan for a lesson currently being taught in a module
5.1.1. Identify lesson
5.1.2. Examine contents, techniques, activities and resources
5.4. Review lesson plan once again to ensure consistency, accuracy and efficiency
5.4.1. Identify content, techniques, activities and resources which have been introduced
5.4.2. Assess the practicality of conducting the lesson
5.4.3. Review objectives of the lesson to ensure these are being met
6. Develop the lesson plan
6.2 Create teaching aids needed for the lesson
6.2.1. Design the materials to be used in the lesson

13

2.4. Prerequisite Analysis


The prerequisite analysis is based on the task identified in the procedural analysis and will help
to bring clarity about lower level skills which are necessary to achieving the terminal objective.
In this regard, the terminal objective is the demonstrating of teaching based on the knowledge
and skills acquired concerning the practical integration of technology in the teaching practice
(See Appendix C).

3.0 Learner & Contextual Analysis

3.1. Learner Analysis


Participants possess the following conditions which have been taken into consideration for the
purposes of planning and implementation of the face to face instructional initiative to improve
their ability to incorporate technology in teaching. While these conditions are specifically
focused on the participant, a contextual analysis (See Appendix D) was completed to provide
insight and considerations for all other surrounding factors.
3.1.1. General Characteristics
-

Ages range from 38 65 years, therefore, all participants are adult learners;

7 participants altogether, males: 2; females: 5.

3.1.2. Education and Experience


-

5 participants possess masters level qualification while 2 are qualified at doctoral level;

All participants have been certified through the teachers training college

14

Teaching experience of participants at the tertiary level range from 10 to 40 years; this
signifies that all participants have at least 10 years of experience teaching at the
appropriate level.

3.1.3. Learning Styles


While general learning orientations can be considered as visual, auditory, and
tactile/kinesthetic, it is greatly appreciated that the learners in this context are not only adult
learners who carry differences and similarities for consideration. It is important to note that adult
learners are expected to engage in self-directed learner and possess the capacity and motivation
for independent thinking and need for development, particularly with regard to matters that
influence their careers or personal lives.
Evidently, while the participants have mainly been conducting their teaching sessions to
appeal primarily to the visual learner, considerations have been made to incorporate an
instructional approach which reaches out to the varying needs of the participants; these include
but are not limited to active, intuitive, visual, verbal and sequential learners. It is important to
note that emphasis for the development of instructional strategies and assessments have been
based on these key types of learners.

4.0. Instructional Strategies

4.1. Problem
The instructional strategies have been developed based on Merrills First principles which has
empirically supported evidence for how learning takes place. Each principle is supported by
practical learning strategies which will promote and facilitate successful completion.

15

The problem for the purposes of this module of instruction is the lack of use of various forms of
technology in the classroom by lecturers. The notion of this engagement being problem oriented
is more appropriate since participants are all adult learners who learn best in a problem oriented
rather than content oriented manner.
4.2. Activation Strategies
Presentation an interactive power point presentation will be used to introduce the topic, this
presentation will serve to highlight the significance and prevalence of technology in teaching.
The presentation will also be used to outline (for the purposes of description) some basic tool
which can be used in the classroom. This strategy is deemed to be activation based in nature
because its purpose is to illustrate to the participants their primary current teaching style while
drawing on what can be added.
Analogy participants will be asked to take part in an activity which requires them to use
analogies; the activity requires them to name and claim an animal which represents them and use
the qualities of their chosen animal to describe their way of teaching.
Role play based on the descriptions provided by each participant using their animals,
participants will take turns role playing the in class practices of their colleagues. This ideally will
be done in a professional and non-judgmental manner to give participants a better vantage point
to assess themselves, reflect on their practices (perceived practices) and its effectiveness.
4.3. Demonstration Strategies
Webquest a major part of the learning experience relies of constructivism, the participants are
expected as adult learner to make meaning of new information and will therefore play a
constructively active role. The webquest is designed to allow participants an opportunity to find
as many ideas for software/hardware (including games) which may be helpful to promote

16

learning in the classroom. They also are required to focus on two (2) particularly useful media
and share same in a collaborative manner through discussion with at least 1 other colleague.
Independent and Guided practice participants will be allowed to interact with and manipulate
online software based on their findings in order to help them learn how to use same more
effectively. This will occur primarily through a trial and error basis with room for participants to
also ask questions or seek assistance when necessary from the facilitator.
Simulation this type of learning will be used not only to continue guided practice but also to
provide feedback for participants as they seek to familiarize themselves with the software and
strive towards mastery. Participant will be asked to simulate the use of their software in practice
while their colleagues choose when to start and stop the simulation to provide comments
throughout.
4.4. Application Strategies
Presentation/Delivery also part of the assessment as it regards completion of the terminal
objective is to have the participants demonstrate the use of technology in a fluid and
preconceived manner which will be reflected in the delivery of a topic determined upon by the
participant. Participants will be asked to create a lesson plan and implement/deliver said plan to
their colleagues using the integrated media to aid their teaching experience.
4.5. Integration Strategies
Reflection participants will be asked in summation of the sessions to conduct reflective
teaching which is an expectation of practicing teachers to highlight areas of strengths,
weaknesses and possible improvements in their teaching practice. This will be done in an effort
to assess their teaching strategies with the inclusion of technology and evaluate/appraise whether
its effectiveness is significant in aiding the learning experience of students.

17

Creation apart from the creation of a lesson plan for teaching with the intention that future
lesson plans will also include diversity in the selection of appropriate media to aid the method
and delivery of teaching; participants are also expected to create a lesson that is fully geared to
the use of a new tool. For example: if they have chosen to utilize a new presentation software
such as prezi then they will be required to create a topic based on a module they are teaching
using said software.

5.0. Performance Assessment

5.1. Terminal Objective


Demonstrate the use of at least two (2) different kinds of technology for the purpose of teaching
in a module of instruction with a small group.
5.2. Assessment Questions
This written assessment will be provided for completion by the participants at the very beginning
and end of the workshop.
Title: Technological Teaching at the University of Guyana in Education
Professional Development Workshop
Written Assessment
Time: 10mins

Name: __________________________________
Instructions:

Date: ___________________

18

The following are four (4) multiple choice questions. Please provide the most appropriate answer
by circling the letter next to the response which you select.
Example:
All of the following are animals EXCEPT:
A. Bird
B. Cat
Chair
D. Fish
Questions:
1. The use of technology in the classroom promotes__________________
A. student engagement
B. passive learning
C. a teacher centered approach
D. positive wellbeing
2. All of the following are examples of appropriate software which can be used in the
physical classroom EXCEPT:
A. Educational games
B. Drill and practice
C. Simulations
D. Blackboard Collaborate
3. Which of the following statements best define educational technology?
A. A paradigm which involves the study of the appropriate practice for using
technology.

19

B. The study of the appropriate use of resources and media to facilitate learning and
improve performance in an ethical and practical manner.
C. A discipline which views the importance of the use of media in the teaching and
learning process to improve student performance.
D. The scientific study of how to include technology in the classroom to improve
learning for the purposes of meetings the needs of students in the 21st century.
4. Educational technology is BEST utilized when _____________________
A. students learn
B. integrated into empirically supported teaching methods
C. teachers and students work together to find solutions
D. it can support the achievement of learning objectives only
5.3. Practical Assessment
In this small group work shop session, participants are expected at the end of the session to
demonstrate their learning by presenting a topic to be covered in one of their modules using what
they have learned about integrating technology/media in their teaching practice so as to add
variety to their methods of teaching and keep students engaged. They will therefore be asked to
analyze, design, develop, implement and evaluate (or in this case reflect) on a lesson which will
be presented within the small group.
To do so, participants will be expected to:
-

select a topic from one of their teaching modules

create a lesson plan

develop the materials to be used throughout the lesson

delivery the lesson

20

reflect on the process and its effectiveness

They will each be allowed 40mins to complete the presentation of their lesson, each participant
will be graded based on the rubrics outlined (See Appendix E).

Reflection
The audience contained a dynamic group of professional who varied in age and areas of
specialization. A major flaw which could have been avoided going into this topic was not
limiting the amount of information available. One great misconception I had concerned their
general willingness to learn and take in new information; in practice, the participants were
excited to see the range of technological options available to them and were open to the
opportunity for training. It therefore indicated to me, that the lack of training was perhaps the
most significant cause behind the problem.
It was my intention to ensure that the workshop was conducted in an open and
collaborative manner, for this reason, I wanted it to be practical and opted to include activities
which promoted cooperative and constructive learning experiences. The use of analogies I
thought was quite appropriate as it allowed the participants have a relatable idea for
consideration before thinking about how we can build on their current teaching practices.
While the webquest was extremely helpful in the exposure it allowed the participants to
have, it was extremely time consuming; for this reason, more needed to be done to gear this
activity to be more focused from the onset instead of general, as there are quite a number of
teaching tools which can be found online. On the other hand, our discussion and demonstration
sessions were quite useful, particularly the simulation session (as this prepared them for their
assessed presentations) which gathered invaluable feedback from participants.

21

References

Gross, R. (2010) Psychology:The Science of Mind and Behaviour. (6thed) Hodder Education
Publishers.
Hergenhahn, B. R. & Olson, M. H. (2005). An Introduction to Theories of Learning (7th Ed.) NJ:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Knowles, M.S. (1975). Self-Directed Learning. A Guide for Learners and Teachers. Chicago:

Follett.

Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to


andragogy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.

Knowles, M. S., et al. (1984). Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles of adult
education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Knowles, Malcolm; Holton, E. F., III; Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive
classic in adult education and human resource development (6thEd.). Burlington,
MA:Elsevier.
Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational technology research and
development, 50 (3), 43-59.
Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman
(Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base
(Vol. III, pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

22

Morrison, G., Ross, S., & Kemp, J. (2004). Designing effective instruction. Hoboken, NJ: J.
Wiley & Sons.
Pervin, L. A., Cervone, D., and John, O. P. (2004). Personality: Theory and Research (9th Ed.).
Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Rathus, S. A. (2004). Psychology: Concepts and Connections (7th Ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomas
Learning Inc.

Reigeluth, C. M. & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (2009). Instructional Design Theories & Models:


Building a common knowledge Base, Vol. III Chap 3-4.
Santrock, J. (2006). Lifespan Development (10th Ed.). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies
Inc.

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Appendix A

1.5. Source
For the purposes of this needs assessment, information will be directly gathered from the primary
source which is the target audience. This will be done as the relevant and appropriate information
about the feelings, knowledge and skill/ability of the lecturers can be considered in a timely and
efficient manner on a personal level which will be correlated to find any patterns or similarities.
1.6. Data Gathering
This section covers how (through what process) the information will be obtained from the target
audience.
1.6.1. Techniques
-

Telephone Interviews

The use of the telephone interview is deemed appropriate in this case as it will allow a one on
one conversation with each member of the target audience to ask standardized and specific
questions about their personal experiences and background with the use of technology in general
and its implemented use in the classroom. This will also allow a large amount of privacy and is
quite practical because of the small number of members in the target audience.
-

Focus Group

The focus group will be used to allow the members of the target audience to act as a unit sharing
their experiences with the use of technology, in addition to ideas and feelings about the
implemented use of same in and out of the classroom. Additionally, this form of data collection
is appropriate as it will provide the type of information which is needed in a neutral and
professional working environment.

24

1.7. Data Usage


The qualitative information gathered through the use of telephone interviews and the focus group
will be used to generalize about any similarities and differences in responses that participants in
the target audience may have; this will then allow the appropriate assessment of needs which will
determine the most effective solution(s) to be implemented in the short work shop session.

Appendix B
2.3. Task Selection Work Sheet
Criteria for Task Selection Worksheet

Criticality

Universality

Frequency

Standardization

Difficulty

Total

40 pts

10 pts

10 pts

10 pts

30 pts

100 pts

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

Identifying various types and kinds


technologies

28

Examining and explaining the


importance of technology in teaching

30

Listing various kinds of technology in


relation to their purpose and uses

38

Defining and evaluating the broad term


known as educational technology

32

Outlining and developing a teaching plan


which integrates the use of
technological tools
Demonstrating the integrative use of
two (2) types of technology in teaching
Evaluating the effectiveness of the
lesson for improved performance

TASKS

Notes

Priority

#6

#7

#8

43

Low
difficulty

7th

10

53

Low
difficulty

5th

20

62

Fairly
important

3rd

24

60

Fairly
important

4th

40

22

76

Highly critical

2nd

40

30

76

Highly critical

1st

20

30

50

Important
but not the
main focus

6th

Appendix C
The chart below highlights the prerequisite analysis in a hierarchical manner.

Appendix D

Contextual Analysis Worksheet


Orienting Context
Learner Factors
Participants all possess at least a masters level qualification in teaching/education -2 -1 +1 +2
Participants all possess at least 10 years of tertiary teaching experience

-2 -1 +1 +2

90% of the participants are above 40 years of age and demonstrate apprehension about working with
technology

-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors


Participants work in a collaborative department which promotes ease of communication among its
members

-2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Participants are aware of the benefits to the development of their skills and how its impacts their
performance and overall learning outcome

-2 -1 +1 +2

Participants are aware of the usefulness of the workshop for the purposes of both personal,
professional and organizational development

-2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational support is expressly lacking with regard to the procurement of software and/or
hardware needed to facilitate training

-2 -1 +1 +2

28

Instructional Context
Learner Factors
Learners possess varying learning/learner styles which may not be adequately represented
throughout the delivery of instruction

-2 -1 +1 +2

Learners will be allowed to work in an active and collaborative manner

-2 -1 +1 +2

As adult learner, participants will be encouraged to be responsible for the success of their learning
experiences

-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors


Leaners will be working in a familiar learning environment as the venue for the workshop will be on
campus at the university using rooms and equipment already available

-2 -1 +1 +2

Reliability of the internet/broadband connection is not always dependable on campus which may
hinder delivery as planned

-2 -1 +1 +2

The physical environment provides a conducive nature for open discussion as well as individual task
completion

-2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Participants will have a procedural input about the effectiveness of their learning experience
-2 -1 +1 +2
The university administration is open to allowing the undertaking of this workshop at requested
venue

-2 -1 +1 +2

29

Transfer Context
Learner Factors
Independent and collaborative learning is useful for adult learners to make the learning material
and experiences meaningful and useful

-2 -1 +1 +2

More mature participants may tend to cling to their customary ways without consistent
motivation and practice of the new approaches to teaching

-2 -1 +1 +2

Participants will be undertake self-assessment (in addition to more objectively measurable


methods) which will allow for reflective learning

-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors


The familiarity of the working/learning environment allows for practical training and the
appropriate use of the room(s)/equipment available

-2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Successful implementation of the program is expected to lead to more dynamic teaching methods
in the classroom which is intended to engage students

-2 -1 +1 +2

The use of multiple media in the teaching/learning dynamic will allow the university to advance
in its teaching practices thus positively influencing its reputation

-2 -1 +1 +2

Program can be adapted to target lecturers in other faculties and department to consider teaching
disciplines and appropriate teaching methods

-2 -1 +1 +2

Appendix E
5.2. Rubrics
The rubrics outlined below is an objective means of assessing performance during the practical assessment aspect of the performance
assessment phase for this professional development workshop.
Total
Beginner
Developing
Accomplished
Exemplary
0-1
1-2
2-3.5
3.5-5
30 pts
0 = no show; 1 =
>2 = limited
<2 = solid understanding;
<3.5 = Exceptional
complete lack of
demonstration of
3.5 = good demonstration
demonstration of
understanding
understanding
of understanding
understanding; 5 =
above and beyond
Little evidence of
Sufficient evidence of
Substantial evidence of
Planning No evidence of planning
and preparation
planning and
planning and preparation
planning and preparation
preparation
No use of alternative
Partial integration of 1 Partial integration of 2
Complete use of 2
ICT
technology
technology
technological media
technological media
Confusing and difficult to Limited flow and
Sufficient flow and
Substantial flow and easy
Delivery
follow
challenging to follow
understandable
to follow
Limited use of software Satisfactory use of
Exemplary use of
Creativity No integrative design
within the teaching
to enhance the delivery software to enhance
software demonstrating
method
delivery
mastery
Effective- No assessment of learning Assessment of learning Appropriate assessment of Substantial evidence to
is completed
is somewhat completed learning is completed
support the assessment of
ness
learning is completed
Format

Total

No consistency of
delivery in physical
presentation and speech

Limited consistency of Consistency of delivery in


delivery in physical
physical presentation and
presentation and speech speech

Exceptional consistency
of delivery in physical
presentation and speech