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Powers & Duties of Officials

Cabinet Secretary

Role and Functions of Cabinet Secretary

by Nitisha India

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The Cabinet Secretary is the senior-most civil servant of the country who heads the cabinet secretariat. He is the principal adviser to the Prime Minister and his office combines an articulate interaction of politics and
administration at the top echelons of the Union government.

He is not the chief secretary of the Union government but has an enormous amount of semblance with the chief secretary of the state government. The debate about his bureaucratic position and functioning has political overtones.
He has emerged as a very powerful executive working as the pivot of the cabinet system. He is the head of civil service and an advisor, who can be called the conscience keeper to all the officials.

As an administrative leader of bureaucracy he commands the confidence of the Prime Minister and his cabinet colleagues. As a respectable official, he heads the private department of the Prime Minister. Naturally, there exists a
great overlap of functions between the activities of the PMs office and the Cabinet Secretarys secretariat. He works as secretary to the head of the cabinet, i.e., Prime Minister, who alter ego he represents. The PM highly values
mature advise of this experienced and venerable civil servant. It is a spring board to several key appointments which speaks volumes about its status and criticality.

Unlike his British counterpart the Cabinet Secretary in India has a shorter tenure. His senior- most position renders him an occupant for few months or years because of the army of juniors. The average tenure in UK has been about
ten years. There have been only four cabinet secretaries in Britain, over a span of fifty years since Maurice Hankey was appointed in 1916; the fifth one took over in September 1973. Hankey himself served as Cabinet Secretary for
twenty-two years while in India, there have been nine cabinet secretaries in twenty-five years, an average of well under three years.

The evolution of the office of CS has followed the ups and downs of his secretariat which the leadership styles of Indian Prime Ministers has influenced decisively. The history has provided the base but the Secretary of the Executive
Council of the Governor-General could not settled down the model. As early as 1935, M.N. Malhotra put up a note about his recruitment position role but the government observed an evasive silence.

The main qualifications insisted upon were an intimate knowledge of the systems of cabinet government and a personality which will make for the smooth working of the new procedure. Another time when a debate took place
about the position of E.G. Melville as Cabinet Secretary, a fear was expressed that the Cabinet Secretary would be a kind of super-secretary.

The Government repudiated the criticism up till 1950, the Cabinet Secretary was of the joint secretarys rank. The Ayyangar Committee examined his position vis-vis his colleagues and recommended He should be an
administrative officer of the highest rank and he should be entrusted, as head of the cabinet secretariat , with the positive function of securing coordination as well as timely and effective action by all departments of the
Government of India in all matters in which the cabinet as a whole or the Prime Minister is interested . While not laying on the Cabinet Secretary any specific functions which would impair the initiative and responsibility of heads
of departments, I think it would be desirable to establish the convention that he should be the ex-officio president of the committee of secretaries set up to advise the Prime Minister and other ministers on selection for
administrative appointments.

The report made a plea for conventions and further recommended that he should be an ex officio president or the committee of secretaries set up to advise the Prime Ministers and other ministers on selections for administrative
appointments. His status in the service should be such as to entitle him to be regarded as the first member of the public services and one is whose judgement and impartiality the government, as well as the services, could rely
implicitly.

The Ayyangar recommendation was accepted and since 1950 the Cabinet Secretary has been the senior-most civil servant of the land. The Administrative Reforms Commission (1966-70), fixed his term for three years so that the
functionary may provide effective leadership to the civil service.

Accordingly, the principal functions assigned to the Cabinet Secretary today are to serve as:

(a) The link between the Prime Ministers office and various administrative ministries.

(b) The principal adviser to the Prime Minister.

(c) The link between the political system and the civil services of the country.

(d) The head of the cabinet secretariat, providing an umbrella organisation for various news agencies which cannot be located in any particular ministry or department.

(e) The head of the civil service its conscience keeper.

(f) The principal adviser to the cabinet and the cabinet committees.

(g) A monitor and coordinator of activities of various ministries and departments.

The Deshmukh Study Team of the ARC and later the ARC report on the machinery of government eloquently pleaded for the empowerment of this office. The Deshmukh Study Team opined that none of the tenure provisions
should stand in the way of a deserving person becoming Cabinet Secretary. The Cabinet Secretary should be selected from amongst outstanding secretaries who have at least two years to go for normal superannuation, without
seniority coming into the picture.

On selection, he should be appointed for a four-year term. If this takes him beyond the date of his normal superannuation, his service should be deemed as automatically extended. If not, he should compulsorily retire strictly at the
close of his four-year term. The ARC report supported the suggestions and in commissions judgement the Cabinet Secretary should stay in his job for a period of three to four years.

In order to bring out the pre-eminent position of the Cabinet Secretary vis-a-vis other secretaries to government, the Deshmukh Study Team suggested that he be given a higher salary. The Administrative Reforms Commission,
however, thought that it was likely to affect the present cordial feeling among his colleagues that he is one of them and did not agree to the Teams recommendation.

Recommendation_To facilitate senior management at apex level the chief of the cabinet secretariat should not be handicapped. He should manage his house with competence. His role and relevance vis-a-vis his juniors and senior
political functionaries can be effective if his position is improved by taking the following measures.

(1) The Cabinet Secretary should meet other secretaries periodically by rotation.

(2) The position of the Cabinet Secretary should be recognized in the Government of India Transaction of Business Rules.

(3) The Cabinet Secretary should be given a salary which puts him in a pre-eminent position vis-a-vis other secretaries.

(4) Cases involving differences of opinion between two or more ministers should be reported by the secretary concerned to the Cabinet Secretary, who should decide the question after obtaining the orders of the Prime Minister.

The Administrative Reforms Commission recognized that the Cabinet Secretary is the principal staff adviser of the Prime Minister, the cabinet and the cabinet committees. Hence, the advice should be tendered by him at his own
level. This implies that the role of the Cabinet Secretary in policy matters should be restricted to cases with which he can deal personally.

The Cabinet Secretary provides the eyes and ears for the Prime Minister to keep in touch with the process of official business in the Central government. But he is not a watchdog or an invigilator on behalf of the Prime Minister. The
Cabinet Secretary is a staff and he has no line functions in relation to the ministries. His role is to help, not to oversee. He acts on his own authority and responsi bility.

He may be called upon to serve on occasions as a sort of general multipurpose official. His influence must inevitably grow with the passing of time during which he is seen to work m close proximity to the Prime Minister. But then
he is a transient officials, of short duration. The CS deals with cabinet affairs and keeps contact with the ministers. He remains in touch with the secretaries in charge of the different ministries.

He keeps his vigilant eye on the smooth working of the system of communication and consultation of the Central government but is not expected to control or supervise it. The Cabinet Secretary, has no administrative authority to
interfere but being the senior-most civil servant, he is looked up to offer leadership guidance and consultation to the entire system.

His relationship with public servants, makes him a guardian of all the permanent officials. He resolves interdepartmental difficulties. He ensures the high morale of the civil servants and protects the interests of civil servants vis-avis political leaders. The personality of the Cabinet Secretary is reflected in his role as a visionary leader and a motivator.

The Cabinet Secretary prepares the minutes of the decisions of the cabinet. He maintains secrecy and the differences of opinion among ministers are kept secret. The Cabinet Secretary ensures a proper implementation of the
decisions and contacts the ministry concerned to ask what they have done about a certain matter. The PM is in direct charge of the cabinet secretariat and the Cabinet Secretary being respon sible to him plays a variety of roles.

The Cabinet Secretary advises the PM on matters such as the classification of subjects, their grouping into suitable portfolios, allocation of particular portfolios amongst the ministers or transferring a subject or a department from
one ministry to another. While tendering this advice he may consult other secretaries or the Committee of Secretaries on Administration which he heads to advises the PM. He also acts as the chairman of the Chief Secretaries
committee and provides stability and continuity to government.

He advises and assists the President, the caretaker PM and the new PM and his cabinet as per provisions of the Constitution. The law prescribes that the sanction of the Cabinet Secretary needs to be obtained before the
prosecution can be launched. Several judicial rulings agree with the personal judgements of the Cabinet Secretary. He may consult the legal experts in the government or some senior ministers or the Prime Minister but no appeal
can be made against his decisions.

Union Council of Ministers: Organisation, Power and Position of the Council of Ministers

by K.K Ghai Constitution

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Union Council of Ministers: Organisation, Power and Position of the Council of Ministers!

Article 74 of the Constitution of India provides for the real executive i.e. the Union Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head. Theoretically the Council of Ministers and Prime Minister are to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his powers.
However in actual practice, in reality all powers of the President are used by the PM and his ministry The President is bound by the advice of the PM and his Council of Ministers.

(A) Organisation of the Council of Ministers:

Art. 75 of the Constitution lays down following basic rules regarding the organisation of the Union Council of Ministers:

(a) The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. All other ministers are appointed by the President upon the advice of the Prime Minister.

(b) The ministers hold office during the pleasure of the President.

(c) The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha).

(d) Before a minister takes over his office, the President administers to him the oath of office and secrecy.

(e) The salaries and allowances of ministers are such as the Parliament determines by law.

(i) Process of Formation of the Union Council of Ministers:

The process of formation of the Council of Ministers begins with the appointment of the Prime Minister by the President. After the election of each new Lok Sabha, the President appoints the leader of the majority in Lok Sabha, as the Prime Minister.

After his appointment, the Prime Minister prepares the list of the persons whom he recommends for appointment as ministers. The President appoints all other ministers upon his recommendation. The President always accepts the advice of the Prime Minister.

Further, acting upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the President distributes portfolios among the ministers. The Prime Minister is the sole judge to decide who shall be a minister? Which portfolio a minister will hold? and Who will be a Cabinet Minister, or a
Minister of State or a Deputy Minister ?

The Constitution gives a free hand to the Prime Minister to constitute the Council Ministers. Normally only a member of either House of the Parliament is appointed as a minister. However, the Prime Minister can also appoint a non-member as a minister, but such
a minister has to get the membership of either house, (through an election or a nomination) within six months of his appointment. In case of failure to do so within 6 months, the concerned minister has to quit his minister-ship after the expiry of six months.

(ii) Size and Composition of the Council of Ministers:

To begin with there was no formal rule regarding the size of the Council of Ministers. The decision in this respect used to rest with the Prime Minister. But now the number of ministers cannot be more than 15% of the total membership of the Lok Sabha. It now a
clear rule.

(iii) Categories of Ministers:

(a) Cabinet Ministers:

Their number is between 15- 20. They are important ministers hold key portfolios. They constitute the Cabinet i.e. the powerful policymaking and decision-making part of the Council of Ministers.

(b) Ministers of State:

They constitute the second category of ministers. They are not the members of the Cabinet. A minister of state either holds an independent charge of a small department or is attached to a Cabinet Minister. While some departments like Home, External Affairs,
Defence, Finance, Agriculture have 2 or 3 Ministers of State, the departments like Civil Aviation, Information and Broadcasting, Labour Welfare, Surface Transport and Textiles; each is headed by a Minister of State.

(c) Deputy Ministers:

They are helping ministers attached to the Cabinet Ministers or the Ministers of State. No Deputy Minister holds an independent charge of any department. The present Union Council of Ministers has no Deputy Minister as its member.

Parliamentary Secretaries:

They are neither minister nor are they assigned any administrative work. Their sole function is to help the ministers in the Parliament. They do not draw any salary.

Office of Deputy Prime Minister:

The Constitution does not provide for the office of the Deputy Prime Minister. As such it is the sweet will of the Prime Minister to have or not to have a Deputy Prime Minister in his Council of Ministers. In 2002 P.M. Vajpayee decided to make Mr. L.K. Advani as
Deputy Prime Minister. However in 2004 and again in 2009 PM Manmohan Singh decided not to have a deputy prime minister in his cabinet.

(iv) Term of Office:

Theoretically ministers hold office during the pleasure of the President. It really means so long as they continue to enjoy the confidence of the majority in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister can, at any time demand a resignation from any minister and the latter has
to comply.

Prime Minister can recommend to the President the dismissal of any minister and the President always acts upon his advice. The resignation of the Prime Minister means the resignation of the entire Council of Ministers.

Thus, the tenure of the ministry or a minister is not fixed. A ministry/each minister remains in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the majority in Lok Sabha, or so long as the Prime Minister does not resign. The maximum term for which a ministry can
remain in office in 5 years, i.e., for one full term of the Lok Sabha. After every new general election to the Lok Sabha, a new ministry has to be constituted even if the same party which enjoyed the majority in the previous Lok Sabha, may return with a majority in
the new Lok Sabha.

(v) Oath of Office and Secrecy:

Every new minister has to undertake the Oath of Office and Secrecy before entering into his office. The oath is administered to him by the President of India.

(vi) Salary:

The constitution declares that the salaries and allowances of ministers shall be determined by the Parliament by law. Accordingly the Parliament by a law passed in 1985 had laid down that each minister shall receive the same salary and allowances which are
being paid to a member of the Parliament. In addition to it, the Prime Minister and other ministers receive some allowances and other parks.

(vii) Committees of the Cabinet:

The Cabinet carries out its work through its several Standing Committees Political Affairs Committee, Defence Committee, Planning Committee, Economic Policy Committee, Foreign Affairs Committee, Parliamentary Affairs Committee and some other such
committees. The Prime Minister heads some of these committees, while others are headed by some senior ministers.

These committees help the Cabinet in its task of policy-making. Now Prime Ministers Office (PMO) works as a coordinating office. It coordinates the working of all other ministries. PMO is now a centre of power and importance.

Powers of the Union Council of Ministers:

(a) Executive Powers:

(i) Real Executive:

The Council of Ministers is the real executive. All executive powers of the President of India are really used by the Council of Ministers.

(ii) Policy-Making:

The Cabinet formulates the policies which are to be submitted to the Parliament for approval. It gets these policies approved from the Parliament and then implements these. It runs the administration of the Union in accordance with the approved policies. The
Cabinet/ PM coordinate and control the working of all departments of the government. The Cabinet formulates the foreign policy as well as all domestic policies deemed necessary for all round development of the country.

(iii) Running of Administration:

The Cabinet runs the administration in accordance with the laws and policies. It has the responsibility to maintain law and order in the country. Every minister heads one or more departments. It is under his headship that the administration of a department is run.
The day to day decisions are taken by the departments in accordance with the policies of the Cabinet.

For all its policies and decisions the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible before the Lok Sabha. Any failure on any front can cause the fall of the ministry. Likewise, every minister is also individually responsible before Lok Sabha for the functioning of the
department or departments which he heads.

(iv) Functions during as Emergency:

The exercise of Emergency Powers by the President is always done in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. The President can declare an emergency only under the advice of the Cabinet. He takes all steps for meeting the
emergency in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. The real responsibility to meet an emergency is of the Cabinet.

(v) Appointment-Making Powers:

The President makes all the higher appointmentsGovernors, Ambassadors, Envoys, High Commissioners, Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Military Commanders, members of UPSC, Election Commission, Planning Commission and
others, in accordance with the advice of the prime Minister and the Cabinet.

(v) Treaty-Making and Defence Functions:

All treaties and other international agreements are negotiated and signed by the ministers on behalf of the President. To prepare for the defence of the country through the organisation and modernisation of the Army, Air Force and Navy, and by formulating a
suitable defence and nuclear policy, is a fundamental function of the Cabinet.

Thus the Council of Ministers exercises real executive powers. In its working, it is dominated by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

(ii) Legislative Powers:

Though the legislative powers of the Union are in the hands of the Parliament, the Council of Ministers plays an important role in the sphere of legislation. The ministers are both the heads of government departments as well as members of the Parliament. They
take full and active part in the working of the Parliament.

Most of the bills are introduced and piloted by them. 95 % of the time of the Parliament is utilized for handling governmental business, which is managed by the ministers. A bill not supported by the Council of Ministers cannot get passed from the Parliament
because the ministry enjoys the support of the majority in Parliament.

If the Lok Sabha either passes a bill not supported by the Council of Ministers or rejects a bill supported by it, or rejects the budget of the Cabinet, it is taken to be a vote of no-confidence against the government and the entire Council of Ministers resigns. While
doing so the Prime Minister/Cabinet can advice the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha,

The President summons prorogues or dissolves the Parliament in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister can recommend to the President a dissolution of the Lok Sabha and for the holding of fresh elections. The President always accepts
such an advice. The Cabinet can use the threat of dissolution for getting support from the Lok Sabha.

The Council of Ministers is, undoubtedly, collectively responsible before the Lok Sabha and the latter can remove it by passing a vote of no-confidence. But such an eventuality cannot arise so long as the Cabinet enjoys the support of the majority in the Lok
Sabha. A ministry backed by a majority can have its way in the Parliament. Normally, it is the Cabinet (backed by a majority) which really controls the Working of Parliament.

(iii) Financial Powers:

The Parliament is the custodian of national finances. However, the Cabinet plays a leading role in this sphere also. The budget is prepared by the Cabinet. It lays down the fiscal policies of the government. The Cabinet gets the budget passed from the Parliament.
The Cabinet runs the financial administration in accordance with the provisions of the budget as passed by the Parliament.

All proposals for additional taxes come from the Cabinet. Money Bills can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha and only by the ministers. The Parliament can modify financial bills but only with the consent of the Cabinet. Any action of the Parliament against the
wishes of the Cabinet amounts to a vote of no-confidence against the Government. Such a situation, however, arises only when the ministry loses the support of the majority. Normally, the Cabinet is in a position to get its wishes accepted by the Parliament.

Position of the Union Council of Ministers:

The above account of the powers and functions of the Council of Ministers reveals the strong and central position that it occupies as the real and powerful executive in the Indian political system. All the powers of the President of India are really exercised by the
Council of Ministers.

Within the Council of Ministers, the Cabinet is the most powerful body. It is the central institution which uses all these powers. The Cabinet directs, supervises and controls the formulation of national policies and the running of the administration.

As the maker of all policies, the director of administration and the supreme coordinator of government activity, the Cabinet enjoys an enviable position. It is indeed the steering wheel of the ship of the state. It is the centre of power and the most powerful institution
of the Indian political system.

Staff Agencies Attached to the Office of the Prime Minister of India


by Tasneem India
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Some of the most important staff agencies attached to the prime minister of India are as
follows: (1) National Security Council (2) Planning Commission of India (3) Prime Ministers
Office Secretariat.
1. National Security Council (NSC):
The National Security Council was established on November 19,1997. Its need was felt
because the PM wanted expert and popular advice in defence policies of the government.
After the Pokharan blast, the nuclear security of an atomic power like India with atomic
proliferation around especially in Pakistan, the security of the nation could not be left to the
political whims of the elected leaders and even to the discretion of military chiefs. Hence, a
NSC was conceived of under the chairmanship of the PM to undertake strategic defence
review and decide long-term policy options.
Although the composition of this advisory body is still in an embryonic stage and is shrouded
in confidentiality, yet its functioning marks a new beginning. This six-member body under the
chairmanship of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Bajpai was constituted in 1998 on the
recommendations of a three-member task force under the chairmanship of K.C. Pant.
The other members of task force were Jaswant Singh and Jasjit Singh, Director, IDSA. The
three-tier structure works under the principal secretary or National Security Adviser. He is the
channel for servicing the NSC. Brijesh Mishra was the first adviser. He was followed by late
J.N. Dixit.
The members of the council are:
(1) Minister of Home, Defence, Foreign Affairs and Finance
(2) Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission
(3) Other ministers, if and when invited
Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister is the NSC Adviser and is the channel for servicing
the NSC. The joint intelligence committee serves as the secretariat of the National Security

Council. The board meets at least once a month or more frequently if need be patterned in
the lines of US National Security Council. Its organs provide a long-term prognosis and
analysis for the NSC so that it may consider policy options and recommend the same to the
Prime Minister.
The matter of giving institutional support to the Indian Prime Minister was discussed by the
ARC. While everyone agreed with the need for such support, there were differences as to the
way in which it should be done. Thus, one school of thought favored using the machinery
already available within ministries and to strengthen it suitably.
The other school of thought, on the contrary, recommended strengthening the prime
ministers office staff by developing new agencies or thinking cells to give direct assistance
to the Prime Minister for providing leadership as administrative head. The Study Team
recommended a middle path and proposed the setting up of such institutional support as will
not duplicate the work of existing ministries and will be concerned only with overall issues.
Such an agency should be located in the cabinet secretariat rather than in the prime ministers office and quality experts alone should be appointed to it. The existing institutional
support structure needs streamlining. Whether the NSC be located in PMs office or in cabinet
secretariat is a debatable issue ultimately determining the nature of the office of the PM.
If located in cabinet secretariat; the NSC will be handicapped by bureaucratic procedures and
rules. But the office of the Prime Minister with NSC located in it acquires a commanding
position yielding enormous discretion to Prime Minister in matters of defence, especially
nuclear inroads. The present NSC is an autonomous body and late J.N. Dixit, a retired
Foreign Secretary had no other office.
The design is fairly loose and leaves a lot of leeway for the Prime Minister to redesign this
advise apparatus of great future potential. Its close relationship with the prime ministers office
is a functional necessity but the Cabinet Secretary and his cabinet secretariat should do the
check and balance for the PM in consultation with the military, intelligence and security wings
of the government.
2. The Planning Commission: (Vice-Chairman-Shri Arvind Panagariya, Economist/ Shri
Nripendra Mishra-Principal Secretary to Prime Minister )
It is an extra-constitutional body created by an executive order in March 1950. As Pandit
Nehru had an obsession for planned development, he created this commission to identify and
mulch the nations resources for planned development. Realizing that its effectively requires
his personal support, he decided to become the Chairman of Planning Commission leaving
the administration of planned development to the case of the deputy chairman.
The ARC study team was extremely critical of this situation which could erode the sovereignty
of Parliament and functioning of parliamentary democracy. To balance the situation, a
National Development Council was created with union ministers as members, Planning
Commission and chief ministers of state which is often criticized as the federal cabinet of the
Prime Minister.
During last several decades, this advisory staff apparatus of the Prime Minister works through
PMG office and has extended its frontiers in varied directions. It is supervised by the PM in
his capacity as chairman and has been kept outside the preview of the cabinet secretariat.

3. PMs Office/Secretariat:
The debate over the term office and secretariat decisively indicates that office is less
powerful than secretariat. The former helps while the latter aids and advised. The office
represents an open, ruleless situation which the PM can use or manipulate the way he or she
needs or wants. The secretariat works as. per procedures prescribed
Both can be linked up with other organs of government, but the Prime Minister may take help
from personal secretaries, experts and staff members in the office but the institutions way of
processing the advise needs a secretariat. Obviously PMs office is the expansion of his
personality but the PM secretariat will imply the objective analysis and legal processing
of the advise tendered to or tendered by the Prime Minister.
Britain established PMs secretariat in 1939 when Sir Winston Churchill was heading the War
Cabinet. In India, it was created as a secretariat in September 1946 when Nehru was
heading the interim government. Viceroy Lord Wavell in his note of September 10, 1946
writes: Although 0awaharlal) Nehru is not Prime Minister or Chief Minister, it is inevitable that
he should have all sorts of miscellaneous correspondence to deal with as head of the popular
part of the Government. I have arranged for him to be given as his principal private secretary
one of the cabinet secretariat staff, who will also continue to be joint secretary to the cabinet.
His private secretariat will be integrated with the cabinet secretariat, and I think this will
be easier for Nehru and also limit the occasions on which he goes off at a tangent.
The Prime Ministers Secretariat was not designed to be the residuary legatee of the
Government of India. Nehru began with principal private secretary. Later, M.O. Mathai joined
as a special assistant. In 1954, it consisted of one principal private secretary and three
assistant private secretaries. Nehru largely operated through the cabinet secretariat and
the departmental ministers. Shastri needed a strong institutional prop to gain national
credence, particularly at a time when India was passing through a period of severe economic
strain.
He inducted L.K. Jha into the Prime Ministers office and conferred on him a high status to
strengthen the body. Jha played a crucial role in the Shastri-era and the importance of the
Prime Ministers office increased. In 1969, the Prime Ministers secretariat underwent a sea
change when Indira Gandhi concentrated all powers unto herself.
The PM office became the real seat of power. She introduced P.N. Haksar who gave the
Prime Ministers office a status which aroused fear in the government. In 1974, P.N. Haksar
was replaced by P.N. Dhar and he converted the PM Office into a super secretariat. The
Janata Government (1977) under Morarji Desai curbed the powers and functions of this
all powerful office. Its staff was curtailed and it was renamed as the Prime Ministers office.
Indira Gandhi brought P.C. Alexander as her Principal Secretary and the Prime
Ministers office became a very powerful institution of policy and decision-making in
the government.
Rajiv Gandhi strengthened the office further (1984) and included three
full-time secretaries, three additional secretaries, five joint secretaries and an army of OSDs
and directors. There were, besides, a large number of advisers and the Prime Ministers
office became the nerve centre of Union Government.
Under a coalitional arrangement, the Prime Minister functions more as a chairman than as a
leader of a single party. There are many in the ministry with different loyalties. Indeed, a pre-

determined quota system does bind the coalition and the Prime Minister finds himself
operating within the constraints imposed by it. In fact, the organisation of the office of PM has
not followed a fixed bureaucratic pattern.
As the functions and relevance of functions change so change the number and positions of
the personnel. During Nehru period, it was manned by 129 officials which touched 242 in
1975 when Mrs Gandhi declared national emergency. The Fifth Pay Commission fixed its
sanctioned strength to 483 in four categories, viz., Group A 33, Group B 152, Group C
161 and Group D 137.
The strength explains the increase of functions at higher-level move especially in security
areas. Figure 3 outlines the organisational analysis of this high profile office of the PM.
Then, there are several junior functionaries who belong to all the four classes of various
services. Located at Raisina Hill, New Delhi, the PMO spreads to South and North Blocks of
central secretariat building. It includes anti-corruption unit and a public wing that deals with
public grievances.
The files going to PMO from ministries depends on whether the PM is holding direct charge of
the ministry or whether there is a cabinet minister or minister of state (independent charge) in
charge of the ministry. In the case of the latter, most matters are dealt with by the cabinet
minister/minister of state-in-charge. Only important policy issues, which the minister
concerned feels should be submitted to the Prime Minister for orders or information, are
received in the PMO.
In cases, where the Prime Minister is the minister-in-charge, all matters requiring ministerial
approval not delegated to the minister of state/deputy minister, if any, are submitted for
orders. The Prime Minister has traditionally been the minister-in-charge of the departments of
space, atomic energy, and ministry of personnel, public grievances and pensions.
Since the Prime Minister is Chairman of the National Institute for Transformation of India
(NITI Ayog), relevant files are forwarded to the PMO for his comments and clearance. Some
of the matters that require the Prime Ministers personal attention include defence-related
matters; decorations, both civilian and defence, important policy issues; proposals for
appointment of Indian heads of missions abroad and requests for grant of agreement for
foreign head of missions; important decisions relating to the cabinet secretariat; appointments
to State and Central Administrative Tribunal committees, commissions, policy matters relating
to the administration of the civil services and administrative reforms.
Special packages announced by the Prime Minister for states are monitored in the PMO and
periodical reports submitted to Prime Minister. All judicial appointments for which Presidential
approval is required. Parliament questions relating to the ministries and departments of which
Prime Minister is the minister-in-charge are taken care of by Prime Minister himself. The
Prime Ministers National Relief Fund (PMNRF) and the National Defence Fund (NDF) are
operated directly from the PMO.
The issues that come before PMs office are handled by the Principal Secretary. Bringing a
high profile bureaucrat on this post overshadow the position of Cabinet Secretary. Mrs Gandhi
made it a powerful organisation by inducting stalwarts at different times. They were not
advisers but the extra constitutional centres of power.

The post-Gandhi era maintained the continuity in Rajiv days but Narsimha Rao clipped the
wings. Brijesh Mishra inadvertently rose to power because of Bajpais balanced way of
working. With Manmohan Singh the office has settled down to its normal functions.
Historically, the functions and roles have gone together. Now, it appears that functions have
started deciding the role rather than the vice versa.
The Advise Apparatus has been defused and as an office the primary task of the
functionaries today is to help the Prime Minister in the performance of his functions as the
head of government. It is responsible for assisting him in maintaining, on the official side,
liaison with union ministers, the President, Governors, chief ministers, representatives of
foreign governments in this country, and others, on the public side, in handling various
requests or complaints from members of the public addressed to the Prime Minister. In
general, the jurisdiction of his office extends over all such subjects and activities which are
not specially allotted to any individual ministry/department.
Its major functions are:
(1) To help the Prime Minister in the discharge of his responsibilities as the chairman of the
NITI Ayog.
(2) To provide the Prime Minister assistance in the examination of cases submitted to him for
order under prescribed rules.
(3) To help the Prime Minister in the discharge of his overall responsibilities as the chief
executive. It includes liaison with the union ministries and the state government on matters in
which the Prime Minister may be interested.
(4) To deal with the public relations side of the Prime Ministers office, that is, relations with
the press, public, etc.
(5) To deal with all references which, under the rules of business, have to come to the Prime
Minister.
However, it does not perform functions which devolve on the Prime Minister in his capacity as
the head of the cabinet, except to the extent to which matters are handled in personal
correspondence between him and individual ministers or party policies of domestic nature.
Still, it remains a nerve centre of power which mirrors the incumbents character and style of
functioning. The PM indicates his priorities and the size of the cabinet pushes the PM to lean
on a smaller group which the PM picks up each time.
Thus, the prime ministerial form of government arms the popular leader of masses to conform
his cabinet and Parliament of the nation. His ever-expanding powers tend to make him extra
responsible for which he should be duly informed and systematically assisted by all sorts of
experts advice. This staff help through cabinet secretariat and PMs office along with NSC
keeps him on the track.
His decisions in the realm of policy making or their implementation and revision should be
duly whetted by his advisory apparatus which he should keep in good trim. If the advisers or
secretaries view with each other for power or submit themselves for ulterior motives the PM
will have to bear the responsibility. He should use the advice the way he wants and should

induct these advisers after a careful scrutiny. A sound democratic government needs prime
ministerial leadership much more than the expertise and loyalty of the counselors.

Responsibilities:
Cabinet Secretary, as the topmost civil servant, acts as a secretary to the Council
of Ministers. He assists in coordinating major administrative activities and policies
of the Govt. of India, in resolving difficulties or delays, which may arise in the
administrative field whether between departments of Govt. of India or between
the Govt. of India and State Govts. He keeps watch on the progress of important
administrative measures of the Govt. of India, which affects more than one
Department. He is also responsible for submitting to Cabinet and Cabinet
Committees such matters as require their decision or direction thus functioning as
secretary to the Council of Ministers.

Secretary (Coordination and Public Grievances)


Responsibilities:
Secretary(C&PG) takes up the meetings of Committee of Secretaries (COS), Group
of Ministers (GOMs) which need not be taken by Cabinet Secretary himself and
assist Cabinet Secretary in these meetings and also chairs the Committee of
Secretaries (COS) meetings. He looks after the work relating to administration of
Cabinet Secretariat and those relating to other organizations serviced by Cabinet
Secretariat and other matters of over all coordination.
As the head of the DPG, if he is prima facie satisfied that the matter has not been
dealt with by the concerned Department/Organization in a fair and objective
manner or has been unduly delayed, he shall take up the grievance for
investigation with the concerned Department/Organization.
For general duties of Secretary please refer to the Manual of Office Procedure
(MOP) at Para 5.9(a) of Chapter III.

Secretary (Security)
Responsibilities:
Secretary (Security) is the administrative head of the Special Protection Group
(SPG) and is responsible for closely monitoring the security arrangements for the
Prime Minister, former Prime Ministers and members of their immediate families
in India and abroad. Work relating to preparation and review of Crisis
Management Plan and National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC), review

and updating of Union War Book. He is the Nodal/Sanctioning authority in respect


of policy relating to procurement of jammers by the State Governments and
Central Police Forces. And all operational proposals of SPG are approved and
processed by Secretary (Security).
For general duties of Secretary please refer to the Manual of Office Procedure
(MOP) at Para 5.9(a) of Chapter III.

Additional Secretary
Responsibilities:
Additional Secretary assists Cabinet Secretary in organizing the meetings of the
Cabinet Committees and such Group Of Ministers (GOM) as may be serviced by
the Cabinet Secretary and in functions relating to meetings of Cabinet/Cabinet
Committees: Management of Business Rules (Allocation and Transaction of
Business Rules) and also examination of notes/summaries in the Cabinet and its
Committees, constitution of Cabinet Committees, Rules of procedure in regard to
the proceedings in the Cabinet, follow up of the implementation of
Cabinet/Cabinet Committees. He looks after the work relating to meetings of
Secretaries Committees, Parliament question regard Cabinet matters and
overseeing of general administration of Cabinet Secretariat
For general duties of Additional Secretary please refer to the Manual of Office
Procedure (MOP) at Para 5.9(b) of Chapter III.

Chairperson, National Authority, Chemical Weapons Convention


Responsibilities:
The Chairperson of National Authority, Chemical Weapons Convention, Cabinet
Secretariat, (at the level of Additional Secretary) is responsible for monitoring
compliance with the provisions of the Conventions. National Authority acts as the
national focal point for effective liaison with the Organization for Prohibition of
Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and other State Parties.

Joint Secretary
Responsibilities:
In the Cabinet Secretariat, all Joint Secretaries look after the matters pertaining to
holding High Level Meetings, work pertaining to GOI (AOB) Rules & TOB Rules,
administrative functions, co-coordinating among Ministries/Departments, and
preparation of brief notes on the proposal for Cabinet Meeting received from

various
Ministries/Departments.
Joint Secretary in charge of Administration is also part-time Chief Vigilance Officer
for the Cabinet Secretariat.
For general duties of Joint Secretary please refer to the Manual of Office Procedure
(MOP) at Para 5.9(b) of Chapter III.

Deputy Secretary / Director


Responsibilities:
In the Cabinet Secretariat, all Deputy Secretaries/Directors look after the matters
pertaining to the following:
1. Holding Meetings of Cabinet, Cabinet Committees and Group of Ministers,
coordinating among Ministries/Departments and preparation of brief notes
on the proposals received from various Ministries/Departments.
2. Holding Meetings of Committee of Secretaries, coordinating among
Ministries/Departments and preparation of brief notes on the proposal for
Committee of Secretaries received from various Ministries/Departments.
3. Matters relating to the Appointment Committee Of The Cabinet, coordinating
among Ministries/Departments and DOPT.
4. Holding Meetings of Committee on Disputes. coordinating among
Ministries/Departments/PSUs and examination of notes received from them
before consideration by the Committee.
5. Matters relating to the internal administration of Cabinet Secretariat, Court
cases involving Cabinet Secretary as a respondent.
6. Matters relating to Administration of the Cabinet Secretariat, exercises all
delegated powers of the Head of Office; acts as Welfare officer and Security
Officer of the Cabinet secretariat.
Deputy Secretary, Administration, discharges functions as Security Officer &
Welfare Officer of Cabinet Secretariat. For general duties of Deputy
Secretary/Director refer to the Manual of Office Procedure (MOP) at Para 5.9(c) of
Chapter III.

Under Secretary
Responsibilities:
For general duties of Under Secretary refer to the Manual of Office Procedure
(MOP) at Para 5.9(d) of Chapter III.

Section Officer
Responsibilities:
Please refer to the Manual of Office Procedure (MOP) at Para 5.9(e) of Chapter III.

Assistant / UDC
Responsibilities:
Please refer to the Manual of Office Procedure (MOP) at Para 5.9(f) of Chapter III.

Lower Division Clerk


Responsibilities:
Please For general duties of Lower Division Clerk please refer to the Manual of
Office Procedure (MOP) at Para 5.9(i) of Chapter III.

Assistant Archivist
Responsibilities:
Acquisition of recorded files from Sections dealing Cabinet matters in the Record
Cell and there amalgamation with the existing record series, preparation of
comprehensive subject list, check list, indices of the recorded files, preparation of
review list of files due for review, weeding out of received files marked to weed
out, attending requisition and restoration work files, overall management of
records in the record cell and attending the data entry work of all the existing files
of Record cell.

Cabinet Attendant
Responsibilities:
Assists in the smooth conduct of the meetings of the Cabinet, Council of Ministers,
Cabinet Committees and Groups, arrangement of name plates of the Ministers
attending the meeting, to circulate the relevant papers during the meeting, if and
when required, mark the attendance of the Ministers attending the meeting and

to escort them to their seats and to attend all other miscellaneous work relating
to the meeting of Cabinet.

Official Language related posts:


Deputy Director (Official Language)
Responsibilities:
In the Cabinet Secretariat, Deputy Director (Official Language) is in charge of the
Hindi Unit in the Secretariat. He looks after the work of translation from English to
Hindi and vice versa. Implementation of Official Language Policy of Govt. of India
in Cabinet Secretariat and offices under its control which mainly include Official
Language Act, 1963, Official Language Rules, 1976 and orders regarding use of
Hindi issued by Department of Official Language from time to time. Meetings of
Official Language Implementation Committee/Central Official Language
Committee / Kendriya Hindi Samiti/Committee of Parliament on Official Language.
Quarterly/Annual evaluation reports on progressive use of Hindi. Annual
programme issued by the Department of Official Language. Monitoring & its
implementation of Official Language Policy in subordinate /attached offices.

Senior Hindi Translator/ Junior Hindi Translator


Responsibilities:
They looks after the work of translation from English to Hindi and vice versa and
assists the Deputy Director (Official Language) in Implementation of Official
Language Policy of Govt. of India in Cabinet Secretariat and offices under its
control which mainly include Official Language Act, 1963, Official Language Rules,
1976 and orders regarding use of Hindi issued by Department of Official Language
from time to time.

Personal Staff Posts


Sr. Principal Private Secretary/ Principal Private Secretary/ Private
Secretary/Personal Assistant/Stenographer Gr. 'D'
Responsibilities:
Please refer to the Manual of Office Procedure (MOP) at Para 5.9(g) of Chapter III.

Information Technology related posts

Programmer
Responsibilities:
Work relating to Programming & implementation of Computer Application and
assistance in systems, analysis and designing of computer projects, monitoring of
multi-user computer network operations and data preparation, maintenance of
data base files and ensuring the secrecy and integrity of the data base
files/software in computer hard disks (both Main & PCs) as well as Magnetic Tapes/
Cartridges, etc., attending to the hardware/software problems and coordinating
with maintenance engineers in case of Computer breakdowns, attending to user's
problems in Computer operations of the application programmers as well as
software packages, Maintenance of hardware & software inventory as well as
correspondence and files, conducting computer training to the staff/users,
supervising the work of operational staff.

Data Processing Assistant Grade 'B'/ Grade 'A'


Responsibilities:
Performing Computer operation for multi-user Main Computer Network, taking the
periodical backup's of file systems and daily backup's of the data base files on to
the Magnetic Tapes/Cartridge Tapes etc., in case of power failure or sudden
Computer break-down, taking appropriate steps to re-load the system and ensure
the recovery if Data Files, if any. Assisting the Maintenance Engineers whenever
hardware problem occur, maintaining the security and integrity of the Data base
files as well as software (system/application) stores in the Main Computer,
attending to the Network user problems pertaining to the hardware and software
wherever applicable, maintaining the backup tape registers and other registers
including the generation of Computer log times/audit reports including the
analysis etc., and ensuring the security in the Computer Room etc.

Data Entry Operator Grade-'C'


Responsibilities:
In case of power failure or sudden Computer break-down,, taking appropriate
steps to re-load the system and ensure the recovery if Data Files, if any. Assist the
Maintenance Engineers whenever hardware problem occur, maintaining the
security and integrity of the Data base files as well as software
(system/application) stores in the Main Computer, attending to the Network user
problems pertaining to the hardware and software wherever applicable,
maintaining the backup tape registers and other registers including the
generation of Computer log times/audit reports including the analysis etc., to
assist senior systems personals in computer programming and implementation of

applications, ensuring the security in the Computer Room etc and assisting the
senior officers and any other work assigned by the senior officers.

General support staff posts


Staff Car Driver (Special Grade, Grade-I, Grade-II and Ordinary Grade)
Responsibilities:
Transport of entitled officers of Cabinet Secretariat from residence to office and
vice versa, and all other officers to the places to the destination within Delhi in
connection with the discharge of official duties.

Photostat- Cum-Equipment Operator


Responsibilities:
Taking photo copies and proper maintenance of Photostat equipment and
maintenance of the record of the photocopies taken.

Photocopy Operator
Responsibilities:
Taking photo copies and maintenance of the record of the photocopies taken.

Dispatch Rider
Responsibilities:
Dispatch of urgent dak.

Coupon Clerk
Responsibilities:
Sale of Coupons for various food items available in Cabinet Secretariat's Canteen,
making bookings for lunch and maintenance of proper record of all these.

Daftry/Senior Peons, Peons, Farash, Safai Karamchari


Responsibilities:
Maintenance of guard files, stitching of files etc. Manual assistance in movement
of files and papers in and outside offices, Closing and opening of office rooms,
maintenance of cleanliness of office.

UNION CABINET & UNION CABINET SECRETARIAT & ITS ADMINISTRATIVE


FUNCTIONS:
Union Cabinet ( refer - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabinet_of_India ) is an extra
constitutional arrangement instituted within the Council of Ministers(COM) under
the provisions of Business Rules Act. The Union Cabinet is the term used for a
small group of important (Union cabinet rank) ministers and seniors of the COM
who are exclusively responsible for giving overall policy framework to the country
and decisions relating to the same and the Union Cabinet arrangement helps in
collective decision making in the Union COM. The Union Cabinet portfolios include
ones of extreme importance like Defence Minister,Home Minister,Foreign Affairs
Minister,etc. The Union cabinet takes initiative in legislative matters and directs
the Parliament on the same. The annual budget is prepared by the Union Cabinet.
This term has been used once under article 352 of the Indian Constitution but that
too
with
no
details.
The Union cabinet can issue directives to the State govts under certain
circumstances and under state emergency it can virtually control the working of
the
latter
as
well.
Union Cabinet committees are formed so as to help in a detailed and descriptive
analysis of the subjects that are functions of the Union Cabinet and help in taking
load of these matters from the Union Cabinet ministers. The officials appointed for
this can be civil servants,people of distinguished experience in the subject
matter,civil society and other central services officials,etc. These committees are
appointed by the Prime minister on all such subjects that he feels important.
There are Standing union cabinet committees as well as Ad-Hoc Union Cabinet
committees.
Some examples of Standing Union Cabinet Committee are : Union Cabinet
Commission on Political affairs,Union Cabinet commission on economic
affairs,Union Cabinet commission on appointments,Cabinet commission on
Parliamentary
affairs,infrastructure,security,etc.
The first Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) had recommended that there
should be an appointment of committees on all major subjects like
Agriculture,Civil supplies,Science and Technology,etc. It also recommended for all
Union Cabinet committees to be headed either by PM or deputy PM and
recognition of these committees under the Allocation of Business rules Act. A
recommendation was also given for setting up of committees for all those
Secretaries whose Ministers were part of some Union Cabinet committee so that
the secretarial work is performed simultaneously,smoothly and efficiently.

Secretariat means 'Secretary's Office' . The secretary being the principal adviser
to the Minister needs to be equipped with an office to assist him in discharge of
his
functions.
The Union Cabinet Secretariat(Refer http://cabsec.nic.in/about_origin.php) is an
organisation designed to provide Secretarial assistance to the Union Cabinet in
carrying out its business. It has an important coordinating role in the process of
decision making at the highest level. It submits the cases to the Union cabinet
and its committees,prepares records of decisions taken and follow up action on
their implementation. The political headship of the Union cabinet secretariat rests
with the Prime Minister and the administrative head of the secretariat is the Union
Cabinet Secretary,a very senior civil servant and plays a pivotal role and is the
principal advisor to the Union cabinet, and there is the other secretariat staff.
The Union Cabinet Secretary is the Ex-Officio and Chairman of the Civil Services
Board of the Republic of India; the chief of the Indian Administrative Service and
head of all civil services and Central Secretariat officers under the rules of
business
of
the
Government
of
India.
Functions of the Union Cabinet Secretariat under the Union Cabinet secretary are:
i) To provide secretariat machinery for effectively transacting the routine business
of the Union cabinet and cases which a Minister puts to the Union cabinet for
decision or direction and cases of disagreements between ministers. Proposals to
vary or reverse a decision previously taken by the Union Cabinet. Cases which the
President or Prime Minister may require to put to the Union Cabinet. And,
proposals to withdraw a prosecution instituted by the Govt. of India. Cases
involving
financial
implications.
ii) To work as the secretariat for the various cabinet committees like proposals to
appoint committees of enquiry and consideration of reports of such committees.
iii) To keep the President,the Vice President and all the Ministers in touch with the
major activities of all the ministries of the govt. Cases involving legislation
including ordinances issues,addresses and messages of the President to the
Parliament. Proposals to summon or prorogue the Parliament or dissolve Lok
Sabha.
Cases
involving
foreign
treaties
and
negotiation
issues.
iv) To coordinate the important central-state conferences convened by the various
central
ministries.
v) To prepare agenda for the weekly meetings of the cabinet,keep record of the
discussions in the cabinet,and the decisions taken therein,circulate memorandum
on issues awaiting the cabinet's approval,circulate decisions of the cabinet to
each ministry,prepare and submit monthly summaries on a large number of
specified
subjects
to
the
cabinet.
The Union Cabinet Secretariat
is organised into two departments:
a) Dept. of Cabinet Affairs(permanent department) - Further divided into
three wings - i) Main Civil Secretariat : Which provides all the secretarial
assistance in securing coordination and timely action by the Ministers and
departments of the Govt. of India in all matters in which theUnion cabinet or the
Prime
Minister
is
interested.

ii) Organisation and Methods Division: It functions directly under the Prime
Minister. Its main functions are to supply leadership and drive,and,build up a
common fund of information by a cooperative effort,experience and competence
in O&M work. For detailed functions of a O&M division refer to O&M topic in this
posthttp://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.in/2012/08/techniques-ofadministrative.html
iii) Military Wing : It provides Secretariat services to the defence committee of the
Cabinet,National Defence Council,Military Affairs Committee,Defence Minister's
Committee,Defence Minister's Production Committee and a host of other
committees
dealing
with
Defence
matters.
iii) Economic Wing: It is responsible for all the Secretarial work connected with the
Economic committee of the Cabinet,Committee of Economic Secretaries and
Supply
Committee.
b) Department Of Statistics - An independent dept. created in April 1961,It is
responsible for bringing coordination between various statistical organisations of
the centre and states,and taking up initiatives for setting up agreed standards and
norms,and for promoting in general the collection and compilation of statistics on
scientific lines. It also provides administrative support to the central statistical
organisation,national sample survey and Indian Statistical institute,the first two
are attached offices of the Union cabinet secretariat and the third is a subordinate
office
of
the
Union cabinet
secretariat).
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PMO AND UNION CABINET SECRETARIAT:
PMO is a conventional office formed for convenience of administration and
secretarial assistance to the PM whereas the Union Cabinet Secretariat is
mentioned
in
the
Constitution
and
is
a
legal
body.
The PM is the head of the Union Cabinet and is a very sensitive post so he needs
an exclusive extra filter and assistance in discharge of his varied and immensely
important
duties.
The Union Cabinet Secretariat on the other hand,though extremely pivotal is
responsible for the overall administration and secretarial assistance to the whole
Cabinet and various functions of the Ministries and departments.

CENTRAL
Refer

SECRETARIAT

&
ITS
ADMINISTRATIVE
FUNCTIONS:
to http://persmin.gov.in/DOPT_CSDivision_Index.asp

The Central Secretariat system in India is governed by Central Secretariat Service


Rules, 1962, which has been issued under the powers of Article 309 of the
Constitution,
is
based
on
two
principles:
(1) The task of policy formulation needs to be separated from policy
implementation.
(2) Maintaining Cadre of Officers operating on the tenure system is a prerequisite

to

the

working

of

the

Secretariat

system.

The Central Secretariat is a policy making body of the government and is not, to
undertake work of execution, unless necessitated by the lack of official agencies
to perform certain tasks. Its head of hierarchy is the Union Cabinet Secretary
whom it is responsible to and reports to. It's recruitment is done through the Staff
Selection Commission's Combined Graduate Level Examination and its main task
is to assist with secretarial support to all the ministries of the Centre and
department heads and ensure smooth coordination between these ministries and
departments and the Union Cabinet Secretariat as well as policy formulation in
their
respective
ministries
and
departments.
The Central
Secretariat
normally
performs
the following
functions:
(1) Assisting the minister in the discharge of his policy making and parliamentary
functions.
(2) Framing
legislation,
rules
and
principles
of
procedure.
(3) Sectoral
planning
and
programme
formulation.
(4) (a) Budgeting and control of expenditure in respect of activities of the
particular
Ministry/department.
(b) Securing administrative and financial approval to operational programme and
their
subsequent
modifications.
(c) Supervision and control over the execution of policies and programmes by the
executive
departments
or
semi-autonomous
field
agencies.
(d) Imitating steps to develop greater personnel and organizational competence
both
in
the
ministry/department
and
its
executive
agencies.
(e) Assisting
in
increasing
coordination
at
the
Central
level.
Structure
of
secretariat
The Central Secretariat is a collection of various ministries and departments
secretaries. A ministry is responsible for the formulation of the policy of
government within its sphere of responsibility as well as for the execution and
review of that policy. A ministry, for the purpose of internal organisation, is
divided into the following subgroups with an officer in charge of each of them.
The lowest of these units is the section in charge of a Section Officer and consists
of a number of assistants, clerks, typists and peons. It deals with the work relating
to the subject allotted to it. It is also referred as the office. Two sections constitute
the branch which is under the charge of an under secretary, also known as the
branch
officer.
Two branches ordinarily form a division which is headed by a deputy secretary.
When the volume of work in a ministry exceeds the manageable charge of a
secretary, one or more wings are established with a joint secretary in charge of
each
wing.
At the top of the hierarchy comes the department which is headed by the
secretary himself or in some case by an additional/special secretary. In some
cases, a department may be as autonomous as a minister and equivalent to it in
rank.

DIFFERENCE AND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE UNION CABINET


SECRETARIAT
AND
CENTRAL
SECRETARIAT:
The Union Cabinet Secretariat ,as already mentioned in detail above, is for
catering secretarial support and assistance exclusively to the Union Cabinet
Ministers( referhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabinet_of_India) and their respective
ministries and departments, and on behalf of the Union Cabinet, it has
to coordinate with the rest of the Central Council Of Ministers' (i.e. Ministers Of
State and Deputy Ministers') ministries and departments as well as their
respective secretariats (which are collectively known as the Central
Secretariat
) and
direct
the
latter
.
The Central Secretariat,which is a collective term used to refer to the collective
secretariat offices of all (excluding the Union Cabinet) remaining Central/Union
Council Of Ministers' Ministries and Departments( i.e. the Ministers Of State &
Deputy
Ministers),
provides
secretarial
services
to
the
respective
Ministry/Dept under Central Union Council Of Ministers(excluding the Union
Cabinet ones). Apart from that,it has to coordinate with and report to the Cabinet
Secretary(Cabinet Secretariat) who heads them and is at the top of the hierarchy
of all Civil services and secretariat offices in order to ensure smooth transaction of
the
administrative
business
and
rules
of
the
Govt.
Of
India.
The Union Cabinet Secretary(head of the Union Cabinet Secretariat) is under
direct charge of the Prime Minister since the PM is the head of the Union
Cabinet,and, a Joint Secretary/Deputy Secretary (who comes under the ambit of
the Central Secretariat by heading an individual secretariat of a Central
Ministry/Department of the Union Council Of Ministers(excluding the Union
Cabinet)) is under direct charge of that respective Central Ministry's Minister or
Department's head of which he has been allocated to for providing his secretariat
services.