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# 1D Ground Response Analysis

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## 1. Dynamic behavior of soils is quite complex and requires models which

characterize the important aspects of cyclic behavior, but need to be simple,
rational models.
2. Three classes of dynamic soil models:
a) equivalent linear (SHAKE and DEEPSOIL)
b) cyclic nonlinear (DEEPSOIL)
c) advanced constitutive (DEEPSOIL and FLAC)
3. The equivalent linear (EQL) method has been developed in the computer
program SHAKE at the UC Berkeley. The EQL method is also available in
DEEPSOIL.
a. Vertically 1-D propagation of shear waves in a multi-layered system is
assumed in EQL method.
b. EQL method produces an approximation to the nonlinear response of soils
under earthquake loading, but is very efficient computationally.
c. In the EQL method, the nonlinear stress strain loop is approximated by a
single equivalent linear secant shear modulus that is a function of the
amount of shear strain.
d. Iteration is required to determine the appropriate equivalent secant shear
modulus Geq that is compatible with the amount of strain that develops
during the modeling process.
e. The equivalent damping is determined from strain-controlled laboratory
tests and is defined as a function of the shear strain level and such
damping is used in the modeling process.
f. Because the EQL method is fundamentally a damped linear elastic method
using strain compatible secant shear modulus and the associated damping,
it cannot be used directly to solve problems involving permanent shear
deformation because it does not calculate permanent strain. Because the
EQL model does not follow the actual hysteresis loops, the final shear
strain is zero after cycling has stopped with no residual permanent shear
strain.
g. Also, because it is a linear elastic model, there is no limiting value for the
shear strength of the soil (no failure criterion required), so failure, or
yielding, is not allowed in the model.

## Comparison of 1D Equivalent Liner vs. 1D Nonlinear Methods

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EQL Method

Nonlinear Methods

## Equivalent Linear Method (EQL) and Shear Modulus and Damping

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## Equivalent liner approximation to the viscoelastic model

Gmax = Vs2
Definition of Damping

## Note that the

equivalent
linear method does not
follow the actual
hysteresis loops.

Note:
Gma x is calculated from geophysical tests
Geq is the equivalent strain-compatible secant modulus that decreases as
the level of strain increases.
Damping is calculated from W (area of triangle) and W (area of hysteresis
loop) (see above)
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - Shear Modulus and Damping (cont)

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## Shear Modulus Degradation Curve

Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - Shear Modulus Degradation Curves (Sands)

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Typical Shear Modulus Degradation Curve for Sand - Note that the shear
modulus has been normalized on the y-axis by dividing by Gma x

## Effects of Confining Stress on Shear Modulus Degradation

Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - Shear Modulus Degradation Curves (Clays)

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## EQL - Damping Curves for Sands

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## EQL - Damping Curves for Clays

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Soils dissipate (damp) elastic energy by slippage of grains with respect to each other.
The width (i.e., area) of the hysteresis loops shown by a cyclic loaded soil increases with
the level of cyclic shear strain, hence, damping increase with increasing cyclic shear strain.
Like the modulus reduction behavior, damping is influenced by the plasticity of the soil.
Damping ratios of highly plastic soils are lower than those of low plastic soils.
Damping is also influenced by the effective confining stress, especially for low plastic
soils.
Damping decreases with increasing effective confining stress
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - Iterating to Obtain Strain-Compatible Properties

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The magnitude of the shear stress time history shown above is dependent on
the strain-compatible modulus and damping values selected. However, the
shear stresses and strains are unknown for each layer at the beginning of the
analysis. Hence an initial guess of the strain-compatible moduli and damping
properties is made for each layer and these values are kept constant during
each individual run (i.e., moduli and damping do not change during each
iteration). Subsequently, the EQL method solves for the shear stresses and
strains in each layer using the assumed strain-compatible modulus and
damping values. At the end of each run, the difference between the assumed
modulus and damping values are compared with the values realized from the
analyses. This process is repeated until the differences become small between
the assumed and realized values.
The EQL method iterates toward strain-compatible soil properties until the
tolerance criterion is satisfied for all layers, or until the maximum number of
iterations is reached, as specified by the user. Experience has shown that the
results of many ground response analyses do not change much at tolerance
levels below about 5% and this value is typically used for the convergence
error. It is important to note the effective, or average shear stress and strain
values achieved in each layer is used to calculate the strain-compatible
properties for the next iteration. The effective values are taken to be some
percentage of the maximum value. Often a factor of 0.65 is applied to the
maximum value to represent the effective, or average shear strain value. This
0.65 factor was determined from statistical analyses of many shear stress time
histories.
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - Iterating to Obtain Strain-Compatible Properties (cont.)

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Note that for each successive iteration the error for the shear modulus and
damping decreases.

## EQL Method and Transfer Functions

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1. Express the input (rock outcrop) motion in the frequency domain as a Fourier
series (as the sum of a series of sine waves of different amplitudes, frequencies,
and phase angles). For an earthquake motion, this Fourier series will have both
real and imaginary parts.
2. Define the transfer function (Eq. 10). The transfer function will have both real
and imaginary parts.
3. Compute the Fourier series of the output (ground surface) motion as the
product of the Fourier series of the input (bedrock) motion and the transfer
function. This Fourier series will also have both real and imaginary parts.
4. Express the output motion in the time domain by means of an inverse Fourier
transform.

The EQL methods uses a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert the input
motion (time domain) into a Fourier series (frequency domain). After computing
the response in the frequency domain, it uses an inverse FFT to transform the
solution back to the time domain. The FFT is a very efficient numerical
procedure, but it requires the total number of acceleration values to be an
integer power of 2 (e.g. 1024, 2048, 4096, etc.). Most computer programs will
add the required number of trailing zero acceleration values to bring the total
length to the number of terms you specify for the Fourier series. Because
the Fourier series implies periodicity (it assumes that the total time history,
including the trailing zeros, repeats itself indefinitely), you need to make sure
you have enough trailing zeros to form a quiet zone sufficiently long to allow the
response to die out before the next motion begins. The best results are usually
obtained when the last third or more of the total time history is quiet.
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - Transfer Functions for Single Layer

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## EQL - Transfer Functions for Multiple Layers

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## (from ProSHAKE user's manual)

Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## EQL - MATLAB EXAMPLE

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## Ground Response Analysis - Flow Chart for Design

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Soil Inputs

Results
EQL Analysis

## Selection of Input Ground Motion

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## This example uses

attenuation relations

pga = 0.65 g
from
attenuation
relation

Example of a design target spectrum for site class B soil (Vs = 2500 ft/s)
developed from and attenuation relation (green and red) or from design
code (i.e., MCEER/ATC-49)
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## Scaling of Input Record to Target Spectrum

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## Note that pga

value has
been changed
to 0.65 g using
Deepsoil.
Rename and
save this
record.

Important question:
Note in the above example we have scaled the Kobe record (input time history) to match the target
spectrum at pga. Is this appropriate, or is there some other spectral value that could be used to scale the
input time history?
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## Lecture 8 - Ground Response Analyses Page 17

Soil Inputs
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## Soil total unit weight

Soil type
Plastic index (for
cohesive soils)
Vs measurement in
layer
Appropriate shear
modulus reduction
curve
Appropriate damping
curve

fo = Vs /4H
Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## Soil Inputs - Calculation of the Fundamental Period of Soil Column

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## Calculate the total travel time through the layered system

t = H1/Vs 1 + H2/Vs 2 + H3/Vs 3
t = 10/1000 + 30/1500 + 40/2000
t = 0.05 s
Vs = H/t
Vs = (10+30+40)/0.05s
Vs = 1600 ft/s
fo = Vs /4H
fo = 1600/[4[(10+30+40)]
fo = 5 Hz
To = 1 / fo
To = 0.2 s (compare with previous page)

## Soil Inputs (cont.)

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## Use total unit weight for EQL method

Damping ratio only required for elastic
analyses

for EQL method

## Soil Inputs (cont.)

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## Lecture 8 - Ground Response Analyses Page 21

Analysis Results
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## Analysis Results (cont.)

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Surface soil

(blue)

## Shear strain time history

Steven F. Bartlett, 2011

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 2a

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## To see the shear modulus and

damping properties for each layer,
select the Materials Properties
button

## Hmax = Vs/(4 * Cut off frequency)

Hmax = maximum sublayer thickness
Cut off frequency = max. frequency of
propagated wave (use about 20 Hz).

## Fill out soil properties in spreadsheet box in upper right

Include layer name
Unit weight should be total unit weight for total stress analysis
Set the water table location
Use the Material Properties Button to further define dynamic properties for each soil layer

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 2a - Material Properties

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## To exit, select the last damping value,

then strike the tab key followed by the enter
key

## Select the Material Type for Each Layer

Select the Target Curve for Each Layer
Select Use Discrete Points
Select Calculate Curves

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 2a - Shear Strength

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## The information on this screen

is not needed for the EQL method
and is ignored during the analysis.

Nothing to do on this screen, the EQL method does not require shear strength

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 2b - Bedrock Properties

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## NEHRP Site Class B

Define the rock properties in this screen, usually elastic half-space selection is most appropriate.
The shear wave velocity used in on this screen (2500 ft/s) should be consistent with the value used in
developing the target design spectrum.

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 3 - Analysis Type

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## This means that the average shear strain

is about 65 percent of the peak shear strain.
This value was determined from statistical
analyses of several time histories, but is an
approximation. Some research have showed
that this ratio is also a function of earthquake
magnitude. However, for the purposes of this
class, we will use 0.65.

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 4 - Selection of Time History

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Select the layers for where output is desired. Layer 1 is the surface and should always be selected.
Select the time history used for the analysis. This will be placed in the base as an outcropping rock motion.
Press the analysis button to start the computer run.

## DEEP SOIL HELP - Step 5 - Analysis

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## DEEP SOIL HELP -Step 6 - Results

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## DEEP SOIL HELP -Step 6 - Results

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## Lecture 8 - Ground Response Analyses Page 32

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