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Facilitation Technique Category: Therapeutic Use of Exercise

Activity Title: Yoga for the Mind and Body


Equipment: Yoga mat, comfortable clothes that is easy to move in, and yoga belt or
straps.
Activity Description: Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice that includes
physical exercise. The purpose of this activity is to improve flexibility, strength, balance,
and stamina. Not only does yoga have physical benefits but it also can reduce anxiety and
stress. When conducting a yoga class the instructor should always see who has
participated in yoga before and who is there for the first time. Those who are new and
have never done yoga before should be put in the back of the room so they can see how
the poses are done properly. They should also instruct that one should not perform an
exercise more than their body can and to work at their own pace. The instructor should
start off with breathing exercises to relax the body. Than they can go into some gentle
stretches such as the seated spinal twist, seated forward bend, bridge pose, cat stretch, and
the cow face pose. The instructor should always direct when they are switching positions.
Next they should go into some more challenging poses to work the body a little more.
Beginning with standing poses such as a mountain pose, holding for 10-30 breathes, than
staying in the same pose but bringing the arms up with palms together while inhaling and
exhaling by bring the body into a forward fold. Inhale again and lift into an upward
forward fold and exhale back into a forward fold. For beginners and all participants the
instructor should explain the pose while demonstrating and how many breathes they
should be holding it for. The remainder of the class can be on the floor seated on the mat
and should begin in easy pose. Some poses that can be used for seated exercises are head
to knee, one leg boat, bound angle, forward bend, wind relieving pose, bridge, etc. Every
yoga class should end with savasana (corpse pose), which is just lying down on your back
with your eyes closed to clear your mind and relax the body. When complete the
instructor should give some words of wisdom and dismiss the class.
Leadership Considerations: A CTRS would work as the instructor/ leader in this
activity. The instructor should also be a registered yoga teacher by completing certain
training hours. They would be demonstrating the different poses and also observing the
participants to make sure they are not overdoing a pose that could injure them. They
should also be able to teach proper breathing techniques and the proper way to go from
standing to sitting poses or vice versa.
Adaptations: Cerebral Palsy: Individuals with CP have many different symptoms while
some can have mild or severe effects. CP can affect ones coordination, balance, posture,
muscle tone, oral motor functions, gross motor functions, and/or fine motor functions.
Yoga can have many benefits for individuals with CP such as improving muscle tone and
reducing tension in muscles and joints. Yoga is a very relaxing stretching exercise activity
that will take off the stresses on the body. This activity can also stretch and realign the
spine, as there are many poses that require you to twist your body. Yoga can be adapted
for these individuals as they can perform the poses in their wheelchair. The instructor will

have to use yoga poses that can be done in the wheelchair such as: cat pose, cow pose,
side stretch, twists, eagle pose, and leg stretches. Yoga straps and belts can be used to
have a deeper stretch and pose for those that their muscles are very tight.
Autism: Yoga for individuals with Autism can be very beneficial. It can develop motor
skills, improve confidence and social skills, provide sensory stimulation, and selfawareness. Yoga can relax these individuals who are always seeking stimulations that can
be aggressive. Some ways to modify yoga for individuals with autism is to fully explain
the pose while demonstrating how its done. Also if the individual is having difficulties
help should be provided. A quiet area with no distractions around should be provided.
Poses that focus on balance should be used so the individual can gain a sense of selfawareness. Yoga can even be made into a game for kids with autism participating. Such
as creating fun pictures with the yoga pose on the card they can learn the pose from card.
This will keep them from getting bored since they are kids and like to be moving around.
References:
H. (2012). 7 Benefits of Yoga for Kids with Autism. Retrieved September 16,
2016, from http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-3817/7-Benefits-of-Yoga-for-Kidswith-Autism.html
Wheelchair Yoga | May All Be Happy. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from
http://mayallbehappy.org/wheelchair-yoga/
What to expect during class. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from
http://www.yogadistrict.com/the-yoga/what-to-expect-during-class/
Yoga for Individuals with Disabilities : NCHPAD - Building Inclusive
Communities. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from
http://www.nchpad.org/295/1845/Yoga~for~Individuals~with~Disabilities

Facilitation Technique Category: Therapeutic use of Sports


Activity Title: Pass the Ball
Equipment: Soccer ball, soccer field, goal post, different color cones.
Activity Description: The object of soccer is to try to get the goal in the opposing teams
goal. Soccer is the most played sport and requires full teamwork with your team. Soccer
can be very competitive but it is not all about winning it is also really fun and a great way
to practice social skills. The purpose of this activity is to have the participants practice
their passing skills and shooting the ball in the goal while learning teamwork skills. The
participants will get into groups of three and stand in a wide triangle and begin passing
the ball to each other, to a different person every time. After this drill the participants will
form two lines behind two lines of cones that lead to the goal. Two players, one from
each side, will start running toward the goal while only one player has the ball. The
participant with the ball has to pass the ball to the other player and the player passing it
back to him. They keep passing to each other till they reach the goal and who ever has the
ball when they are close to the goal will shoot, trying to get the ball past the goalie. The
next set of players will follow the same directions until everyone has gone. Next the
players can have free time where they take turns shooting the ball in the goal. At the end
the coach should give feedback to the players on any improvements they need to work on
or if they excelled in any parts. This activity is not only getting the participants to play in
an actual game against another team, but they are working on their team skills and
learning knew skills to practice on.
Leadership Considerations: A soccer coach with knowledge of the game must be
instructing the activity. If they do not have a CTRS certification there should be someone
with the qualification to insure the safety for anyone with any disabilities. The coach
should respect all the players and offer assistant to any one that needs it. If a participant
needs extra demonstrations on a certain technique he must be able to perform and explain
them well.
Adaptations: Participants with ADHD: Those individuals with ADHD have signs of
inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. Depending on the person they show signs
of being in constant motion, fidgeting, having trouble being quiet, talking excessively,
interrupting others, are easily distracted, and do not finish task. For participants with
ADHD the coach should always have them doing something. While waiting in line, that
might be hard for some people with ADHD, the coach could instruct the player to cheer
on the other teammates or to perform some stretching exercises. The coach should keep
instructions and corrections short and speaking with enthusiasm and positivity.
Participants with Down Syndrome: Individuals with down syndrome have some
symptoms that can affect them when participating in sports. They can have low muscle
tone, lower fitness abilities, may become aggressive or have outburst, and difficulties
with short-term memory. When coaching individuals with down syndrome the coach can
increase the size of the goal giving the participants a greater chance of scoring. Also they

can use a softer ball, like an inflatable ball, to decrease the weight so they wont get tired
out so easily. Some other adaptations can include decrease the size of the field and, when
needed, giving the participants a water break.
References:
(n.d.). Coaching players with ADHD. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from
http://www.footy4kids.co.uk/how-to-coach-youth-soccer/playermanagement/coaching-players-with-adhd/#
ADHD in Kids: Symptoms, Types and Tests for ADD in Children. (n.d.).
Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/addadhd/childhood-adhd/adhd-children#1
@. (n.d.). Disability Sports: Information on Sport for the Disabled. Retrieved
September 16, 2016, from http://www.disabled-world.com/sports/

Facilitation Technique Category: Therapeutic Use of Tai Chi


Activity Title: Tai Chi & Body Coordination
Equipment: Comfortable clothing.
Activity Description: Tai Chi puts an emphasis on relaxation, and is essentially a form
of meditation in motion (Dattilo & McKenney,485). This gentle form of exercise can help
maintain strength, flexibility, and balance. The movements are usually circular and never
forced, the muscles are relaxed rather than tensed, the joints are not fully extended or
bent, and connective tissues are not stretched. This activity will focus on body
coordination with the use of tai chi movements in a warm up. The circling hands exercise
will be focused in this session. The participants will gather in a park, in a field where
there arent many stand byers, to keep the outside noises limited. The instructor will be in
the front of the group and will ask everyone to stand behind them wherever they feel
comfortable. The instructor should make sure all participants could see them as they
teach the movements. First the instructor will begin with the beginning posture to prepare
the body and mind to continue. Participants will stand with legs shoulder-width apart,
knees slightly bent, relax the neck; shoulders; arms; and back, and clear the mind of
everything except for what they are doing. The beginning pose will be performed for
about 2 minutes with the eyes closed so participants can clear their mind. Than the
instructor will go into the circling hands exercise and explain it is a simple warm- up to
better feel the energy cycles in the tai chi form. Also it will allow your movements to be
smoother, fuller, and rounder. From standing position your palms are facing each other, in
front of your chest, fingers outward. The participant may choose the distance for the
space between their hands, but they shouldnt let their hands come in closer or spread
further apart when making circles. Following they should make small, vertical circles.
The hands move up and out, away from the body. Then bringing their hands back down
and inward. The same steady rate of movement should be maintained. As the hands move
inward they must be contracted, by closing joints. After about 2 minutes the direction of
the circle will be changed, as if going counter-clockwise now. When performing this
exercise the participant should feel the movement in their entire body. Also the group
should have fun with the exercise and the instructor may have conversations with the
group to help relax.
Leadership Considerations: A CTRS must be the instructor of this activity. The
instructor must be educated on the topic of Tai Chi and have training in order to perform
the exercises correctly. It is also recommended they be certified by the American Tai Chi
and Qigong Association (ATCQA) to offer strong proof of their qualifications.
Adaptations: Participants with Arthritis: Arthritis is inflammation of one or more
joints, causing pain and stiffness that can worsen with age. Increased muscular strength
supports and protects joints, which will reduce pain. Flexibility exercises also help to
reduce pain and stiffness, thus improving mobility. Tai Chi for Arthritis helps people with
arthritis to improve all these and more. It improves balance both mentally and physically

thus significantly reduces the rate of fall for older adults (Tai Chi For
Arthritis). Additional benefits include improving relaxation, energy, posture, and
immunity. If participants experience any pain during the activity they may take a break,
sit down, and drink some water until they are ready to return to the group. If the pain is
severe they may be dismissed as well.
Participants with ADHD: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic condition
including attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Tai Chi can help to
improve concentration and relieve the stress that is often acquired (Tai Chi for the
Management). It can provide a mean for people to take control of their own lives and feel
empowered. Instructors should start off with beginning posture and incorporate breathing
exercises to calm them down and gain their focus. They may work into the exercise
normally and if the participant needs a break, due to not being able to stay still, they may
take a walk to get water for about a minute and return to the group.
Resources:
Arthritis and Joint Pain Center: Symptoms, Causes ... (n.d.). Retrieved October
20, 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/arthritis/default.htm
Dattilo, J., & McKenney, A. (2000). Facilitation techniques in therapeutic
recreation. State College, PA: Venture.
Tai Chi Certification - Accreditation for Instructors ... (n.d.). Retrieved October
20, 2016, from http://www.americantaichi.org/TaiChiCertificationBenefits.asp
Tai Chi Exercises: Warm Ups for Your Tai Chi Workout. (n.d.). Retrieved October
20, 2016, from http://www.beginnerstaichi.com/tai-chi-exercises-forbeginners.html#circling hands
Tai Chi for Arthritis | Tai Chi for Health Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20,
2016, from http://taichiforhealthinstitute.org/programs/tai-chi-for-arthritis/
Tai Chi for the Management of ADD and ADHD. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20,
2016, from http://taichifitness.info/tai-chi-for-the-management-of-add-and-adhd/

Facilitation Technique Category: Assistive Technology


Activity Title: Fun with the WII
Equipment: WII console, two controllers, and television to connect console.
Activity Description: Using the WII and the games it provides, as a therapeutic approach
can be fun for the participants while still reaching their treatment goals. This activity can
be used to reach the different goals and needs of the participants such as physical
improvements, cognitive improvements, and psychosocial improvements. Depending on
the participants and whether they are working alone or with a partner, the instructor will
choose a game or activity that fits their needs. If a participant is working on physical
improvements the instructor might choose games such as balance activities, dance games,
yoga, sports (tennis, boxing, bowling), or strength training. When working on cognitive
improvements the instructor might choose dance games, sports games, puzzle and
strategy games, or I spy. For psychosocial improvements any game may be chosen that
the participant is interested in. Games for these treatment goals also work best for two
players as the participants may be working on social engagement and social skills. Once
the game is chosen by the instructor they will then demonstrate how to play if the
individual has never used the Wii console. They will explain how all the buttons work on
the control and what the goal of the game is. The participant will then engage in the
activity for 30-40 minutes, during the session the actual game may be changed since
playing the same game for this time frame may get boring. Thus, the instructor must have
different games picked out for the participant ready just incase they are uninterested or
become bored.
Leadership Considerations: A certified therapeutic recreation specialist (CTRS),
certified by the NCTRC, should be the instructor of this activity. The instructor to
participant ratio will be 1:1 or 1:2, as participants may compete or play against each
other. The instructor must have knowledge on how to connect the console to the
television and how to properly work it; such as turning it on and setting up the game. The
instructor must also know how to properly play the games on the Wii, as they will have to
demonstrate to the participants.
Adaptations: Participants Recovering from a Stroke: WII video games can bring
some fun for those participants recovering from a stroke, helping them regain strength
and motor skills as well. Due to weakness in the arms of the participant a Velcro strap can
be used to attach the controller to their hand (Laino, C.). Most Wii games can even be
performed in a wheelchair or in a chair if there is weakness or paralysis in the legs. Such
games such as tennis, bowling, yoga in the wheelchair, puzzle and strategy games can be
used for these participants.
Participants with Autism: Using Wii games as a therapeutic technique for individuals
with autism can help develop verbal and social skills. They may learn to take turns,
playing with another participant with or without a disability, sharing, and expressing

oneself verbally (H). This tool creates a positive connection in the individuals neuropathways with fun and play to real development of their social, motor, and
communication skills (H). Such games that can benefit those individuals with autism
include Wii sports, Mario kart, and puzzle and strategy games. Playing with a another
participant is highly recommended for children with autism so they may learn how to
participate with others and around others. This can also help with their behaviors
tendencies learned due to this disorder.
References:
Borders, R., Kenuk, S., & Palmer, K. (n.d.). Using the WII for Functional
Improvements. Retrieved November 4, 2016, from
https://sites.temple.edu/rtwiseowls/files/2014/12/using-the-wii-for-functionalimprovements-in-individuals-with-brain-injuries.pdf
H. (n.d.). Wii Speak & Wii-Habilitation | Breakthrough Speech & Occupational
Therapy Center - Davie, FL. Retrieved November 04, 2016, from
http://www.breakthroughtherapyservices.com/therapy-services/wii-speak-wiihabilitation/
Laino, C. (n.d.). Wii Games Speed Stroke Rehab. Retrieved November 04, 2016,
from http://www.webmd.com/stroke/news/20100225/wii-games-speed-strokerehab
Wii Fit U Official Site - Activities. (n.d.). Retrieved November 04, 2016, from
http://wiifitu.nintendo.com/training-types/strength-training/

Facilitation Technique Category: Therapeutic Horseback Riding


Activity Title: Round Them Up
Equipment: Different barnyard stuffed animals, horse to ride, saddle, and stirrups.
Activity Description: Before entering the arena the instructor will place the different
stuffed animals on the fence around the arena. Also participants will have taken a quick
introduction class about the safety rules while on the horse. Once the participant is on the
horse they will enter the arena and the instructor will explain that the animals have
escaped from the barn and they must round them up back in. The participant must go
around the arena and catch them one by one. As they catch them the participant must
identify the animal and what kind of sound they make. Then they will place them in a
bucket at the opening of the arena and continue to catch another animal. There will be a
total of 7 animals around the arena including a duck, cow, pig, chicken, horse, dog, and
goat. As the participant brings the animal back to the bucket the instructor should add
steering through obstacles.
Leadership Considerations: The instructor of this activity will be a CTRS with
completed training courses to be a therapeutic riding instructor. The instructor must also
be certified by the Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship International
(PATH Intl.). The instructor should also make sure they choose a horse suitable for the
participant and that the horse isnt scared of stuffed animals. The instructor to participant
ration will be 1:1 and the activity should take about 40 minutes.
Adaptations: Participants with Impaired Vision: The participant will be guided by the
instructor with a lunge line attached to the horses bridle. The bridle will give the
participant a sense of independence and control of the direction the horse is going
(Dattilo, J., & McKenney, A). Hand-holds will be used to support the rider by always
having something in front of them to grab if they feel unbalanced. The instructor should
allow extra time to navigate around the arena. The instructor should also put bold color
duct tape around the location of the stuffed animal, as bright visual aids for the
participant (Adaptations and Teaching Techniques for Riders with Severe Disabilities).
Participants with Spinal Cord Injuries: Participants with a spinal cord injury will use a
saddle pad placed directly on the horses back (Dattilo, J., & McKenney, A). The saddle
pad will provide padding for the participant and make the horse more comfortable. In
addition the peacock safety stirrups will be used to help hold the foot in the correct
position since participants with a spinal cord injury have weakness or no sensation in
their lower limbs.
References:
Adaptations and Teaching Techniques for Riders with Severe Disabilities, Part 2:
Physical Challenges - Lessons In TR. (2015). Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
http://www.lessonsintr.com/2014/12/20/adaptations-and-teaching-techniques-for-

riders-with-severe-disabilities-part-2-physical-challenges/
Annie's Therapeutic Riding Mounted Activities - Lessons In TR. (2015).
Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
http://www.lessonsintr.com/2013/06/15/annies-therapeutic-riding-mountedactivities/
Dattilo, J., & McKenney, A. (1016). Facilitation techniques in therapeutic
recreation. State College, PA: Venture.