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Kesha,rarn N. Iengar and Ran1a P. C c>omaraswamy

A later.try ,v,>r k h111lc "I'\\ 1th pa1.1ll,l 111.1111111,

1s apt co grow in dH l'1lntp.1,, 111 dte ,Hl!lio,

him~1.lf. lr1l111 hi, 1' rh' \ 1 l11p.hd11 ,, la, 1l,11,l11p.

Thi~ rc"i,cd edi1i,1n ul 11111 ,it<. i111111.11.,,\\ 11n, \
most ~ignili1,;~nr ,, , iri,1~, i~ 11,,,, h1i111,: i,,u,d hr
incorporating hi, 11,v11 .1,fdici1111, t11 the r111111d
ftr\t edition of 194.?.
The Indi.tn rhcor, 1lf go, 1111111('111 i,
expounded on the b.1,1, nl d11 tl'\tu.11 ,,1u1,1,.
mainly of thc Brihn1J1.1,1, .1nd th1 ~!,:' 1d.1 l'h1
mantra in the Air.1rcv.1 llr.1h1n,111.1 ,111, 2' br
which thc Pr1e,t .1ddrc,,e, thl l\.1ng. ~p11l~ our
the relacion bctwcen tht.' ~p1ricu.1l .1nd thl
temporal power. This 'n1.1rri.1gt lnrrnul.1' h.,s it-.
analogous applications in t hc 1.,1s1n ir, p11li lie ,11,
family and 1ndi,1du.1l :.phcrl'S ol np11.1t1on, in
each by
. the conjunction of con1pl1.n'\1.'nt.1ry
The welfare of the corn111unitv
, in c.1ch c.1sc
depends upon a succession of obediences and
loyalties; chat of the subjects co th1 du.ii conlrol
of King and Priest, that of the King to the Priest,
and that of all to the principle of an External Law
(D harma) as King of Kings. The King is such by
Divine Righr, but by no mc:ins :in absolute
monarch. H e may do only wh,tt is correct under
the Law. Self-control is the sine qua non for the
successfu l government of others; the pri111ary
victory is that of the Inner Man.
"The application is to the 'King', the 'man of
action ' and 'artist' in any domain whatever.
There is nothing that can be truly and well done
or made except by the n1an in ,vhom chc 1narriagc
of the Sacerdotium (brahrna) .ind the Regnum
(k!atra ) has been consummated, nor can any
peace be made except by those \vho have m;idc
their peace with themselves."
This is the fifth volume in the series of Indira
Gandhi National Centre fo r the Arts
programme of reprinting the 'Collected Works
of A. K . C oon1.1ras'<l.an1v.'


Spiritual Autlzority arid Te111poral

Power in the Indian Th eory of
Edited by





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Edut.d by

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fhm.a P Coomaruwuny

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Sp,nCU4/ Authority and Tnnpural Pow~ n tht Indian ~ ef

Govrolfflfflt written tn 1942 ma rks the fuul cr:anstnon of
Coomaraswamy from the art-lustonan to the philosopher md
mcuph ysirun . It heralds the last phase of A. K. Coomar:aswamy's writings o n a vast nu1nbcr of subjects r.nging from
figures of speech or figures of tho ught to Symplcgades co that
final quintessence of m aturity ' Time & Eterruty'.
C oomaraswam y's preoccu pation with the inte rdependence
of the sacred and the profane, the transcendcnul and the
mundane, the spin tual an d the te1npo ral, however, is no t ne w.
H e had explo red this in many essays, sur h as, Margi md D esi,
now included in the volume entitled M edieval and O rinital
Thtories of Art. He pursued this concern in his ~tudies in art
history, specially in the context o [ Buddhist Art and Jaina
Iconography. Spiritual Authority and T emporal Powtr in tht Indian
ThLory of Covmrmcit explo res yet another di1ncns1on of this
inter-play m the context of poUocal theorio.
T o contemporary scholars o f political theory, the very first
smlffl(lt of the: book, iumely, 'the whole of lndu.n polwol
t:beory is implied and subsumed tn the words of the mamage
formula., " I am Tiut, thou an This, I am Sky, thou art E.rth" '
w ould come u a thunderbolt and yet, 2S the reader peruses the
doscly argued, densely wnncn text , nchly supported with
rcfcreous from primary m.atcrul, Coomaraswamy's assertion
becomes a revelation. H e draws attention to the relation of the
authorizing mind o r the reason to the efficient power-tlut of
the inner tO the outer nun as enuncuted in the earliest text of
the Indian tradition. the Rgvtda. The juxuposirion o[ M.itra ,
Agni and Brahma as Divine archetypes of spiritw.l authority



and Varuna and Indra of the temporal (Regnum) as also the

analogy of me marri~~e of ~e Pu~olrita to -~e king unf~Jds the
implicit as also expliot relanonship of spmtual authon ty and
temporal power. Each section also provides opportunity for
comparison with other traditions, especially the Greek, thereby underlining the fact that the relationship between the
spirirual authority and the temporal power was not restricted to
the Indian tradition although there were many significant
dilferences in approach.
With sharpness, Coon1araswam y identified the series of
correspondences between the Sacerdotium and the Regnum.
The Sacerdotium corresponds to the Afabda Brailman and the
Regnum to the Sabda Brahman. As is well known, the role of
Vac (speech) is primary and fundamental in the earl y lndian
speculative thought: primacy is given to the silent and silence;
the articulated So11nd is secondary. Anahata and l,ata sound are
the musical counterparts. In this context, king is the voice that
gives clfcct to the purposes of silent, inarticulated spirirual
authority. Logically. the royal voice or what is done vocally, is
almost the Will of God.
As one reads and reflects on the deep insight of Coomaras,varny. it is clear that what is extracted out of these texts are
essennals of a theory of governance, which transcends histo rical
time and locale. Perunently, he points out that the King is not a
consutucional ruler whose actions merely reflect the wishes of a
n1.1Jority of the subJects or those of a secular M inister; nor is he
the king by vi rtue ofsooal contract but a ruler by D ivine Right.
1owever, this does not imply that he is an 'absolute ruler'. O n
the contrary, the King himself is the subj ect of another King
(we may add, 'a higher kmg'). This is law (D harma), the very
pnnoplc of royalty and JUSttce. T his notion differs fro m the
theory of divine nght of Kingship or of the King representing
or rt-phcaung God. Pertinently thro ugh a circuitous argument,
Coont.iraswamy returns to the o riginal marriage-hymns. H e
rernind~ us of the Sky and the Earth, the universal parents upon
"hose harn101uous cooperation the prosperity and the fertility
of the universe depends; they are to be taken to be the norms




and archetype of all marriages. Thus, the analogy of marriage

bet\veen the P11rohit and the King beco111es clear, for the P11rohi1
here represents the Sacerdocium and the King, the Rcgnum.
The priest and the Agn_i are representatives of the Sky and the
King of the Earth and their n1arriage is an insurance against
privation and death of the Kin gdon1. The t,vo are co111plen1entary and interdependent and not one representing the ocher.
Coon1araswan1y's vo lun1e drew response fron1 the
contemporaries-both positive and negative. His long-tin1e
associate, Professor George Sarton responded: 1 have received
your excessively scholarly work and have profited by it'.
Others, such as, Walter She,vring con1111ented on the relevance
of Coon1araswamy's work to conten1porary political theory of
governance. The relationship of the Goven1n1ent and the
governed, the majority to the minority, of plutocracy and
democracy, and the dangers of a final divorce of temporal
power or political power fron1 spiritual authority or a higher
111oral order, are issues of today and not yesterday only.
Coo1naraswamy underpins the perennial questions of an outer
social order and an inner psychical order or 'He' or those
en1powercd to govern. Through a series of analogies of ritual
n1arriage of the pries t and the King and the di.n1ensions of the
Sacerdotiun1 and the Regnum, we are renunded that a te1nporal
order can be sustained only if the centre of authority has its
centre in a sacred-n1oral order.
Has this not contemporary relevance for the world today? A
state of disorder, if not a chaos, is evident. These are not the
consequences n1erely of economic imbalances, of socio-political
ideologies, but, perhaps they have emerged from the man
having cut asunder his inner and outer selves and his inability to
relate spiritual authority or vision and the skills and structures of
wielding temporal (today, political) power.
Professor Norman Brown-a most eminent lndologist-was
no follower of Coomaraswamy, but, on reading this work he
com~ented: 'Order prevails only where all authority finally
vests m God. If it is though t to spring from the people, then
cosmic principles arc reversed'.

Kesh.i,nm N . lengar. a schobr, ;ilmost a devorcc of

Coom:u,1.sy,,1n1y, has .1ccomplished the very difficuJr job of
c:d.inng thlS work, \vruch 15 fuU of quotations, references from
Sansknt.. Greek, Lacin, C hinese sources. The lndira Gandhi
Naoon1I Centre for the Arts is grateful to him for luving
undm.tken thJS ;ilong with the illustrious son of A. K.
Coom.1rasw.amy. Dr R.ln,a P. Coomarasw;imy. This is the
6fth volume m the scncs oflGNC A's programme of'Collected
Worh of A. K. Coomaraswamy'.


. - RV - RRveda Samhita;
Av == Atharvavtda Sa,nI1110;
- -
. S
. I . - VS - Va1asa,iey 1 am a,
TS. == Tai11iriya Sain uta ;
MS == Maitrtiya'.li Samhita.
B ih
A B. == A itareya Bral11nal}O; GB. == Gopat~ . _,a ma!J4Up ,
. . _ Bra-i arnal)O,. JUB = Ja1m1r11yaP _ an'-f""
JB == Ja,m1111ya
. ,
Brtil1111a11a; KB. = l(auritaki Brahma11a; PB. = anai_v.~
Brahma~aa; SB. = Satapatl1a Bral1mal}O; TB. = Ta1tt1nya
AA. == Aitareya Ara,.1yaka; SA. = .:,afikhayana
ra']ya ;
TA. == Taittiriya Aral}yaka.
BU. == Brltadara,1yaka Upa11iiad; C U . = C hiindogya _ .
Upa11i~ad; iU. = iiavtisya Upa~irad; Ka~~ Up., -:- Kaur1~k1.
Upani~ad; KU .= Ka(l,a Upa111iad; MU.-Matln Upan1$ad,
Mun9. Up. = Mu,ujaka Upan4ad; Svet. Up. = Sveliisvatara
Upat1i~ad; TU. = Taittiriya Upaniiad.
Arthasasrra = Kautilya's Artl1aitistra; BD. = Brhad Devata;
BG. = Bha~avad Citii; Br.S. = Brahma Sutras;
Mbh. = Maltabhtirata ; Manu. = Manu Smrti or Manava
Dltam,a Sastra; VP. = Vi$1JU Pura,,a; VyP. = Vayu Pura1.14 .




A. = Anguttara Nikaya; D. = Digha Nikaya;

M: - Majjhima Nikaya; S. = Samyutta Nikaya; Sn. :; S Htta

N,pata; Dh. = Dhammapada; J. = )atDka;

M_h~:-:- Mahavamsa; Mv. = Mahavagga ; OA. :::c S umai1gala
V1/as1111 .


~~6'nLUS: Suppl. = Supplices; Prom. = T>rorr,etht:Us.
E: Eth. = Ethics; Met. = Metaphysics
_Pol. = Politics.

A 111111 LVI /I110 NS

(:on\ol. =. D~ Co11so/atione Pl,ifosophie.

Cl<: EHC.) J)c d,v. = l)r l) 111111nt1011e; l)c ofT. = De officiis.
l)ANl E: Par. = Paradiso.
1::UHll'll)ES J lcr. = 1-lf'rar/,,s; Hi p. = l-lippolyt11s.
J IERA(:LEITUS. Fr. = Hcraditici Eplrcsii Reliq11ia,.
I IERME~ rRISMECISTUS: Lib. = Libel/11s.
C)LO l "EST AM ENT: Cant. = Canticle of Cantides or So11R of
PI-IILO JUl)A EUS: Abr. =.De Abral,~1,.10; Fug. = De F11ga et
J1111e111io11e; Hercs. = Qu,s ren11n d111111ar11111 heres sit;
Mosrs. = De Vita Mosis; Op. = De Opificio Mundi;
Prob. = Q11od 011111is prob11s liber sit; Sac. = De Sacrif,ciis
Abe/is et Cai11i; Somn. = De So111niis; Spee. = De Specialibus
PHILOSTRATUS: Vit. Ap. = De Vita Appolonius.
PINDAR: Nen,. = Nemeonikai.
PLATO: Rep. = Tire Republic.
SEXTUS: Emp. = Sext11s Empirici1s.
ST. THOMAS AQUINAS: Sum. Theo!. = S11111111a Tlreolo,Rica.
Liber de i11tcllige11tiis.
l:l()El"J II US:


13,b. Ind. = Bibliarl,eca Indira.
1-IJAS. = Har,,ard Jo11n10/ of Asiatic St11dies; HOS .. = Harvard
()n"l'l11,1/ S<ries; JA OS. = j,u1n10/ of 1/,e A,ner,ca11
()rit-1110/ Scciety; }BORS. = Jo11n1al of 1/,e Bil,ar and Orissa
Rrseard1 Sooety; JISOA. = Jo11n10/ of tl,e J11dia11 Societ~ of
Ori,111,1/ Art; )RAS. = j()l1n1al of 1/,e Royal Asiatic Society;
1rrs. = Pali Text Society rra11slatio11 series.;
SB E. = Sacred Books of rl,e East.

Noce: Works not in the Lise of Abbreviations appear in d1c 'Text'

and 'Notes' in fuU.

horit and Temporal
Spiritual ~ut I d~ Theory of
Power m the n ian

11 n adhvare
s1411r.kti1n prayall. yay'iie aon
Puro vo ,nandram d111yam
dadhidl111am. RV Vl. l 0.1.
. bralnna rajani purva eti
Tasmai viia~, svayameva namante, yas1n111

RV. IV.50.8.
- astu T S. lll. 1. 1.4.
Bhadrad abhi sreya~, preh,, brhaspat,-'1 puraeta te
. AB V lll I
- tram avyathya,n
Brahma p11rasta11 ma ugram rat
ks asat.h
. , ry i
Preda,n bral1111a preda1i1 ~atran1. .. bral1111a , .atrayo . samsn a .
AD.Ill. t 1.

Brahma sat ksatra,n ucyate AV.X .2.23.

Ra"an satyam. paratn bral1111a-satya1n sa1gata1n astii te . Mbh. I.
~9.25 (Poona ed.) 1 See also Mbh. Santi Parva, Chaps. 56 to
130-Bhi~n,a's discourses on Rajadharma.

It n1ay be said that the whole of Indian political theory is

i1nplied and subsu1ned in the words of the marriage formula 'l
am That, thou art This, I am Sky, thou art Earth,' etc.
addressed by the Ilrahman Priest, the Purohita, to the King in
AB. VIII.27. This being so, and as it has been pretended that
these words were addressed by the King to the Priest, 2 it
becomes desirable, if the theory is to be understood, to establish
once ~or all that, as is explicitly stated by Sayai;ia, it is the
Purohita th~t utters t~em. A comparative study of many other
contexts will show, indeed, that it is inconceivable that they
should have been spoken by the King, who is w1questionably



the 'feminine' party in the 'marriage' of the Sacerd

(brahma) and the Regnum (~atra).
We must premise that Mitravanu:iau, and likewise lndri or Indra-brhaspati, are syzygies or progenitive pairs (mithuna~
Mitra, Agni and Brhaspati being on the one hand the di;
archetypes of the Sacerdotium or Spiritual authority (brahma)
and Varur:ia and lndra those of the Regnum (k$atra). We shall
for the most part, make use of the Brahmal)_as, but it must no~
be overlooked that the institutions therein more fully described
and explained arc often referred to in the ~gveda. Thus in
RV.X.52.5-'lnto thy hands, 0 Indra, I (Agni) commit the
bolt,' c( RV.II.11.4-'We have laid the bolt in thy hands3_
corresponding co the Accipe sceptn11n (the acceptance of the
sceptre) of Western rices-is the making of the King i11 divinis.
The relation of authorizing Mind or Reason (kratu) co the
efficient Power (da~a), that of the inner to the outer man, is
explicit in RV. Vfll.13.1, 'Indra, at the Soma pressings, cleanses
(p11111te, Sa yal)_a sodhayati-JwtJzareitai, cf. MU. VI. 34. 5() the
enunciative Counsel (kratu,n. . . ukthyam); the Mighty wins
increase of Powe~ (vide vrdJzasya da~asa~,)'; c( RV. X. 31. 2 and
SB.IV.4.4.1 discussed below. In RV.X.124.4 Agni, the Sacrificial Priest (ag,1ir braJzma . .. vidharta, RV. VII. 7.5), is described
as 'choosing' (vr,:ia,ra/J) lndra: it is interesting to observe that
already the Commons play a part in this election (viio na rajanam
vr,uinah, ib.8, cf. AV.ill.4.2). The 'marriage' of the Purohita
(Saptagu, Brhaspati) co the King is referred to in RV.X.47.1'We have taken thee by the right hand, spoken reproachfully
with reference to lndra's arrogmce and breach of the loyalty
demanded by the marital relation of the Regnum to the
Sacerdotium; as in BD. VII.54( That the Purohita, as the
designation itself implies, takes precedence of the King is
explicit in RV.IV.SO. 7-9, 'To him the people of them.selves pay
homage, in whose realm the Brahnu goeth first.' (yasmin
brahma rajani purva etz), quoted in AB. VIU.27. 5 The feudal
relanonship of the Regnurn to the Sacerdotium is explicit in
Agni's words addressed to Indra, 'I in person go before thee..
and if thou givcst me my share (or due), then shalt thou

h c deeds' (a""m ta e,ni tanva
I dr perorm ero1
ithrough me, 0 n a, d-dl aro bhagatn indradin rnaya kr~avo
purast~d-yada ma;;m)6 ~ RV.1.18.6 Sadasaspati. (wh~ must
v1,ya,;i1. RV.VIII.! d
C. dragni) is called lndra s dear
be Agni, cf ~V.1; 1.~ :rn~::;,~;a karnyam) : in RV.1.80.1 it is
and lovable fnend (p y hi (b hrna cakara vardhanarn). Cf.
the Brahma that 'prospers m ra .

Buddhist S~kyavardha,ra . ill b ,.,.B IV I 4 where the Mixta

omt w
e ;::, '
Our startm~ ~
. h 'Counsel and the Power'
Persona of MitravafUJ)_au is t e
- d 'th
(kratudaksau, and TS.II.5.2.4 dakS,akratu [prat.JOpanau ]) an
are his7 t~o selves', (asyaitav atmatJOl!)s ... ~tra is the Couns~
and Varuna the Power, Mitra the Sacerdonum (br~hrna) an
Vanll)a th~ Regnum (kS,atra), Mitra the Know~r (abh1gantr) and
Varuna the Executive (kartr). 9 Now at the beg1nrung these two
were distinct (ogre nano), 0 the Sacerdotium and the Regnum:
then Mitra the Sacerdotium could subsist apart from Varw;ta the
Regnum, but Varui:ia the Regnum could not subsist apart fro~
Mitra the Sacerdotium. 11 Whatever deed (kanna) V a.rw:ia did
that was not quickened (aprasuta,n) by Mitra the Sacerdotium,
was unsuccessful (na ... sarnanrdhe). So Varul)_a the Regnum
called upon Mitra the Sacerdotium, saying: 'Tum thou unto me
(upa ,navartasva) that we may unite (satns,javaha1); I assign to you
the precedence (,puras Iva karavai) 12; quickened by thee (tvat
prasutah) l shall do deeds.' That is, therefore, the origin of the
Purohita's office.... Whatever deed, quickened by Mitra the
Sacerdo~um, Varul)_a did t~enceforth, succeeded (sam---anrdhe).
The choice is mutual; tf e1ther the Purohita or the King be ill
chosen by the other it is called a commingling of right and
wrong (suki-tam ea dufkrtam ea). 13
Th~ expressions pu~as tva kiiravai and tvat prasutah imply the
techni:al te~s Purohita, Purodharr, Rajasu and Rajasuya. The
Purohi.ta'. hterall.y 'one put in front.' 'one who takes preceden~, like Agru.o'. Brhaspati in divinis, is the King's Brahman
adVtser and m1ruster _(br~hrna khalu vai ~atrat purvam,
~.B. VUI.1 >: The Purodhatr is the King himself, who appoints
~ e Purohita or, mo~e. literally, 'puts him in front. The
evasval} are the de1nes-Savitr Agni Soma B h

. r aspan,



Indra, Rudra, Mitra and V anu:ia-by whom the .Kin .

'quickened' through the Priest who invokes them as ~ IS
quickene~' (rajasvah),_ so that 'It i~ these Gods that now quick!
(suvate) him, and havmg been qwckened (sutah) by them, he
henceforth quickened' (svah suyate, SB. V.3.3. 11, 13). 14 He rulesis
then by 'Divine Right.' The Rajasiiya, or alternatively Yaruna:
sava is, then, the sacrificial and initiatory ritual of the 'King's
Quickening'; the most essential pan of this rite is an
'aspersion' (abh4eka, abhi$ecaniya), cf. A V.IV.8.1, and this
corresponds to what would now be called a 'Coronation. 16
The 'Quickening' refers to the fact that the rite is both initiatory
and sacrificial; the King is brought forth, new-born from the
initiatory death, hy the officiating Priests who are, in this
respect, his 'fathers. ' 17
'The Counsel and the Power' are the equivalents of Plato's
essentials of good government, philosophia and dynamis 18, of the
Islamic 'Mercy and Majesry' (jala1 and }Jla1), in Christian
theology of the spirit that giveth life and the letter that killeth (II
Cor. lll 6), and of our 'Right and Might.' 'Counsel' (kratu,
krau,s) might have been rendered as 'Will,' in accordance with
the definition in our ten, SB.IV. 1.4.1, 'Whenever with one's

mind lmatl4I4J one v.'ills (kamayau) anything, such as "This I

warn:' or 'Tins 1 would do', that is the 'Counsel",' cf.
R V.X.129. 4 ktima.s ... manaso r&ah prathamam, A V.XIX.52,
M . 1.3.2 mana.sa hi sarvan k.aman dhyayati ... vaai hi sarvan
~man vadat,, and JB.I.68 mano ha vai prajapatir devata, so
ltamayata: or by 'Authoriry,' what we have a mind to do being
the authority for what we actually do. The act expresses what
was willed. This being so, we see that 'the Counsel and the
Power' _co":espond to Philo's poetic and ordaining 'God' and
con~o~g. Lord (see note 7), or in other words to 'his will'
~d him m Eph. I.II 'the purpose of him who worketh all
things after the counsel of his will., In TS V 2 3 5 h
el' th
. w ere e
. ouns. IS . e beginning of th~ Sacrifice' (yajiia-mukham) and
is deposited In the East (the place of origin of the brahma) K .th
renders kratu by 'inspiranon,, which is certain! a l : . e1
v~uc when the application is to the individuai -1~tuna~
r...uu1, as Ill


RV X 31 2 uta sve11a kratuna sa1i1 vadeta, kra/11 here. rephresben,nng

. . . .
I Savitr Brhaspan, t e ra ima
the Syntcres,s(i~ ~ jr~~:int~:: y'inspir:s ~ur contemp~at!ons
or Brahma

the Ga atn or Sav1tnl:
(dhiyo yo nalJ pracodayc:it, RV.Ill. 62.l.'
h KinY
When the

ts and inspires t c
the Pnest at once inspm
h both possess
Sacerdotiun:1 and the ~~gn~ ;~ t~ge;orer~x~:;,le, Agni and
the counselmg power, 1.0 , '
ust also be understood
Soma are 'ofjoint cou~el' (s.akratii) , as mum (Varuna or lndra)
in the many contexts in which the Re~
I' or 'counsels powers.
f '
are possesse d o c~llll;e
h ,. U ct,19-regularly equThus Manas ' Mu1 d , or rat er tnte e
. h p raJapan
.: . (TS and SB. passi,n), and often with t e
ated wit

Breath--corresponds to krat11, the 'Counsel and to a ,gantr,
the 'Knower': and Vac, the 'Voice'-the daug_hter, messenger,
ro erty and bride of Manas-Prajapao (SB. Vlll. l.2.8,
TS.~l.~.li.s, PB.XX.14.2, AB.V.23, etc.>:---<;orresponds 'to
daksa the 'Power' and kar1r, the ' Execuove or Agent--:
. 1s
. the S pin
. rual power Vac the Royal'
'Br h.aspao
_ (bral1111a
. . va1
b,I atir . . . vag vai rt41ri. AB.l.19, Cf. _Vac as ':'i(n m
R~.100.10 and X.125.3). The Sacerdonum as Director
co;esponds to the asabda Brahma, and the R~um as Factor to
' bda Brahma It is with reference to the sabda Brahma (the
th esa

, - th
poken Word') that it is said in JUB.II.9.6 that Yac IS _ e
:,aJ1111 a (,11a11tra), and chat this air' (i.e. a vibration), and ,vith
reference to the asabda Brahma that it is said~ JUB.1.43.3 ti:-3c
'Vac is whatever is on this side of Brahm.a (1.c. under the Sun),
and it is taught that what is othenvhere is Brahn:ia.' Brhaspao,
Brahmanaspari, the silent Brahma, is to Vac as IS the silent t?
the audible Brahma. ('Brahmai:iaspati i~ the ~rahma_,
PB.XVI.5.8). She exists in him ~ore enunent~y (silen;e 1s
golden, speech is silver); but without her support no
enunciation of his Will is possible.
ln a traditional society, whatever is said by who~ver. has the
say-so' is 'no sooner said than do~e.20 It is ~ot w!th ~ hai:1~
b t b his fiatlt or edicts that a King works. He 1s the. Voice
~ t Jves effect to the purposes of the Spiritual authonry, an~
thus does the will of God on earth. 22 'What is done vocally is




donl' 111dted' (1,frt1 krtc11i1 k,1n11a krtc1111, J\1a11a11araya1ta U

hht .1, 111 .ii1i111, 'lndrJ, the H.cgnun1 is the Voice::' a dP-_1 7),
tI11, Vt'lt'<' th.u Agni pertonns

(karoty c,,an vtica
it 1s h)'
tht Sacnficc
-~""')'''. 111.111,l<,1. JUE.I. 33.-1-). so it is at the Royal Sacrifi~;.~
\\ t)rd _,)f (Ollllll.llld _th.lt t~e \\'~rk (kctnna, the Sacrificia] \\'Ork
l"'-.,cnt1ll to thl' ,,eltarl' of the kingdorn) 1s done (SB. I. 9. t.2 3)
'n is ,,1th the Y01cc that he says 'Do this', and there,vith the aita;
1s built' 1SB.X.:i. l. l).
The dual government 'knov,s aU
purposes 1ntellecrually (111anasa Iii sarvan ka111ti11 dliyayat,) and
announces then1 verbally' (Paca Iii sarva11 ka111a11 vadati, AA.l.3.2).
Just as the Purohica is 'preferred', so lntellea cakes precedence of
Voice (p111asrad vacas . . . carat1) . . . and ,vere it not for Intellect,
the Voice would only babble' 24 (SB. III.2.4.11, where for ma11as
and vac could be substituted bral11na and ~atra; c( SB. 1):
even 1n the ritual, whatever is uttered by a Horr that has not
been prompted by the Mitravarui:ia (Brahma) is as11rya
(AB.11.5). iX'e have seen that what the Purohita 'knows'
(abl1(~anrr) the King perforn1s (kartr): in other words 'the Voice
speaks not but what is "known" (abhigatam) by Intellect'
(SB IV.6.7.10), and of this filial and wifely obedience we can
say truly that 'the discipline of Logos, caught up with the vision
of Mythos, 1s a royal marriage' (L.F. Kinney, in Joun,al of
f>l1ilo:s<>pl1)', XXXIV, 1937, p. 358).
Whcn thc royal 'Voice' is thus infonned, 'what is done
vowlly 1s done indeed' (yad vciva vaca karoti rad etad evasya kr,am
blra1t1t1, JUU.ll.2.8) s, Pnest and King speak 'with one voice',
and JUSt as It lS Only when instigated (prasiitab) by the
Sa~crdot1u1n that the King is clTective (SB.IV. J.4.5), so in the
samc way 'whatever the subject does uninstigatcd (aprasiitab) by
these two, th<' Sacerdot1un1 and the Regnum, is misdone
(akrtam) and n1en belittle rt, saying: "Even what he does is
un-<lone" (akrta,n)' (AU II.38)u'. It follows from the foregoing
~ha.t it is not for the King to say (comn1and) or do anything or
cvcrythu1g he likes, but only what 1s 'ordered to the end' and
thus 'correct' (scidlr11, Sn. V 4.4 5) 27. The King, in other words,
~\ .i. s~dlraka'. whose 'an' 1s the science of government, the
King' liad1ng' or 'policy' (rci;a11111, nit1iastra), in which the



, . for 'science, (vrd ya, j . c. trut as
Purohita has been his ~~ster. s a combination, or ensemble
d. o'nguished from opiruon) I
ds the child of Intellect and
other wor
' .
(sari1!1ita = samdlu), _or m
tial to an enunciaoo~ o tru . '
. both of \Vh1ch are essen
nu c and m1crocosm1c
f the macrocos
. . i) of the player with t c
d . ust as in the case o
aih:rp~ of which the concert (saml'.rt,~s only the skilled speaker
.28 . th c e (rv1~1), so 1 1

1nstrun1en, 1s e ,ore

alue of the 01ce
that 'perfects . the v .
ertinent that it is said ofh1m w_ o
sadl1ayat1), and '.t is espeoallithe wedding of sound and mearung
understands this doctnne o h
en hearken to him when he
that 'His renown fills the eart_ , ~'Let this be done which he
s eaks in the assemblies, saying.
h essentially vocal chardp (SA.Vll.7,Vlll.9.10,XIV). T e
PB Xll.10.4,5
II brought out m

acter of government i:. w~ ( uotin the text of RV. VIII.

:tc ') it is said: At that
where, when in the RaJa_suya fq
1 2 'H who is the King o men,
v- h)
70. '
. of the Voice (rajyam . . . aca.
very point they reach kthc hrc1gn I Sacrificer to his reign' (rajyam
and thereby they beta e t e roya

evairaya yajiina,n gm~ayantr). b !lowed to talk at random. to

Th.is is why the King cannot ea
. . wh the
h I l'kes but only to speak wisely; this is
y .
h like a woman in other respects, 15 said
say "". at ie '.
K~atnya, who is so ~~~
-:;, where she loves orna rnents

to Jove wisdo1n (pa,ma = pra;,ra,,
. '-= A Ill 363) For the King is only a tn1e King 111 so ar

f: as he
. . possession of his royal art or science, in ~o ar
as e 1s 1n
docs not fail of the end (11a l11yatt ar'.hat), an . oes. no: iniss e
mark (sadh11 bliavati, 111iparadl1at1); he lS onlr a nghc, (sa~(111) n;i~r
in so far as he is governed by his art, but c~oo~ed . (119,na) i e
is uided not by the truth but by his own inclinanons: that ars
. g screntra
. . n,1,1
1 is as true of the art of goven1mcnt as of any
If the Oriental and traditional Monarch is not a cons t'I tu tional
I hose actions merely reflect the wishes of a maJonty of
ru er w

b' eas or those of a secular m1JUster, nor King y virtue
~s s~icial' contract, but a ruler by Divine Right, this does n~t
I dut he is an 'absolute' ruler, but on the ~ont_rary that he is
hi~the subject of another Kmg, as is exphot in A.1.109, an






echo ofBU.I.4.14 (tadetat ~alrasya ~atram yaddhannal,) 29

1t 1s affirmed that the Law (dharma), than which th
. Where
. . Ie o f royalty and justi
ere is W
tugher, 1s. th e very pnncip
accordingly, \Vhat ultimate value attaches to thece. e ~ee.
'K1ng of K'1ngs (adi11ra10
- ra1na111,
--- pati11a111 para,na , exprcss10,


pa , Svet
U p. VI .7) , an d th at w hil e the constitutional monarch'

controlled bv his equals, or even his inferiors the rulmay be

er by
D1v111e Right lS controlled by a Superior.
let us consider the m:irriag:e of lndcigni in SB.X.4. t
\,hcre ,\gn IS e~Tn!'SS!v the S:icerdotilu11 (br,1lr111J) and lndra 5
~~--num ,~<:.:::wt:' Th~, say to one anothe-r: 'So long as ,ve ~
~\!.!.. l.~"t. ""t' s..\J.11 b.:- un.1bl<' to bring torth offspring: I us
t1,, l:.."'
sing:k rorm. ~rk.,-;, nfr...rm ub'i.'n


:::...:- . : : ~ ~ . , ; ; . . a

PB.~ : 1\. ie


m _R'B.l.54.o=~ r..n .1.~ru in

Slh."U.IJ s.i, t>e\._"Orue one tlt'Sh'.

:',..:-,-:-...-! " ~ . : ~ " ' ~ ~-ml(' ooe tom1 .;.) vl:.vn riip.:rt
~ .:~.,.-:m), -du~ or the Fu:~ itself. md mereb, brought
ro.-.n O.'ti-f:-tng. Tne Yerscs tollo,,ing (5-8) e..,l)lain that in the
co.,a-ett syrnbolism of the Fire--:\]~, Agni is represented by
the Golden Person {puN.$<2) and lndra by the gold plate (1uk111a)
that "ere deposited.. and \\hich represent the Person in the Sun,
and the Solar Disk icself, respectively (c( BU. H.2.2 for an
an.tlogous disnnction in terms of the 'pupil' and the 'white' of
t::ol~ ~d nucrocosmic eyes); that Agni is represented by the
ed (1.e. mature) material of the Altar and fndra by the
'unbaked' ('half. bak d'

- e , immature) matenal, whereas when the
Fire is bl~m~ thi~ distinction disappears, the whole is 'fired' and
fiery (cf. It is this Agni that he thus kindles by these two the
and the ~atra', SB. Vf.6.3.15 and SB.X.4.1.5-9). Thus
h ; ~ornes of one progenitive form with Agni the form of
t e
ce Itself, from which the Sacrificer is to b~ reborn the
re ucmg a wo b (
the Sa 'fi
m ~gn,r va, de11ayo11ilJ, AB.IL 14) into which
en cer msenunates hin1self GB I 17
\V~ch the Priest brings him to birili (y' ~~] dand fro~
pra1a11ayati, AB.III. l 9).
The - '

-ya~s (h,eros !a,n~s) is effected again in TS. V.2.4

ere ere lS uruon (sam111, samnivapana) of the two A . .
grus, VIZ.






'A ni that was before and the one (now kindled) in the
. ~ an , who hate one another' (sa1na11asa11 sacetasa11 arcapasau,
SB.; vi ... avi~ate), incidentally a vc.ry ~r~m _,cant
statement of the natural opposition of the ConJ01nt [ nnClples.
Their union is effected with the n1arital formula ofTS.IV.2.5.1
'Be ye united, of one 1ntent1on, loving one another (san'.itam
sa,i,kalpetham sa111priya11) ... I have confo~med _yo~r m~:i-5,
operat:ions31 and ,vills (sa,i1 1a111 11ra11ii11si sa111 1rat11 sa111 11 c111a11~
,'i'kar,1111) ... Be ye unanirnous. sharing one home, for our sake
(bh,11at.1ri1 11,11.1 s,ima,111$,111 s,11i1t>J.:asa11), c RV. V .3.2 b. X.65.8
s,1111,J.:J.S.i dy.i1,iprtl1i 11 1.in11111y,1 s11Pn1tr, RV. X. 19 l.2 4. and
/\ \' .lll.8.Sx:. Th<' las1 \\ords 'Be ye unanin1ous, etc. occur also
in TS.1.3. 7 ,vht'~ 1hcy -lrt' used for the union of the Fire-s_?cks.
t.'qUJted \\;th Pun1n,as :ind Ur,.1si as pa!\.'nis of Agni-A yu~.
\'i:lith this n1;irriage of thost' ,vho hate one another .
ct:R\1.X.19\,;ind ;\V.111..30 'Let not brother h:ite brother (11r.i
~hr,itJ bl1n11,11u1i1 J.,4,.11 . .. an iuautJcion (111,1/1111.1) in virtue of
\,hich the Gods arc neither sundered fron1 nor hltC one
another' (1111 11i)'<111ti 11.i c,, 111'd11{1He 111itl1<1/_1) of ,vhich the
application is also to 'husb:ind and wife' (p,11i,j,1yii), i.e. Sky and
Earth, the Flther \vho separates fron1 his Daughter (llV .X.61.6
viyii,11,i), these 'Two worlds' that go apart fron1 one another
(AV.Hl.31.4 11i111t! dytI11tiprtl1i11i ita/_1; TS.V. 1.5.8 i111111, loka,i vy
aitti111, V.2.3.3 dya11tiprtlii111 ... viyati; AB.IV.27 ta11 11yai((i111;
PB. VIl.10. l tau viya11t1111, etc.).
This union of mutually antagonistic prinoplcs, the 'former'
and the 'latter', i.e. cider and younger, is essentially that of
Varur:ia with Mitra, for 'Thou, Agni, art born as Varui, and it
is as Mitra that thou art kindled (RV.V.3.1) 33 . It is the former,
chthonic (puri~ya-budl111ya) 34 Agni that is Varur:ia, and 'not
Mitra', which is as much as to say amitra, 'unfriend': 'that which
is of Mitra is not of Varur:ia' (SB., 'the Regnum
takes no delight in the Sacerdorium' (SB.Xlll.1.5.2). The 'two
Agnis' (cf. Philo, creative and destructive ('useful') fires) are
the same as those of TS.V.2.7.6, AB.111.4 and SB.,
one whose form is that of Varui:ia and deadly to be touched',
and the other 'whom one approaches, making him Mitra'




(mitrakrtyevoptisate). 35 They are the Agni 'tied u ,

i '.

who as
Varw:ia may attack the Sacrificer, and the
'unloosing' d1Sperses the wrath (men,) of Varuna fi:1s Vwh05c

,. .1.59
. .
e two grus correspond not only to Ind

Agru, Regnum and Sacerdoriurn, but to the two possibili~ and

the Slcerdorium itself: for 'the Purohita is (originally) ~ '.
Vaisvanara of the five ,vraths' (paiuamen,), 36 and if he be gm
'offered to, pacified and endeared' he repels the Sacrificer 'fr not
the world of Heaven, from the Regnum, might, realm :~
subjecr!;', so that the King is well advised to make a Mitra a
'Friend', of him,-'He that is friendly with such a one, that
King routs him who hates him' (tasya rajii 1nitra1n bl,avati
dv1sa11ta111 apabiidliatc) (AB. VIIl.24, 25 and 27). 37
The mamage in JUB.1.53-55 is not explicitly one of the
Sacerdooum and Regnum, but of principles that are their
equivalents 111 other contexts. The marriage is of the Two
Worlds, referred to as 'abodes' (iiyatanii111): 'In the beginning
Tlus (all) was two-fold, Being (sat) and Non-being (asat) both.
O~ these two, the Being is the Chant, the Intellect, Spiration
(sa111a11, 111a11as, pra,.,a); the Non-being is the V crse, the Voice,
Exp1raoon (re, viic apii11a) . ... She, this Verse, desired intercourse ,v1th (111itl11111am) with lum, the Chant. He asked her: "Who
art thou?" She answered: "I am She" (siiham asm,). "Then,
indeed. a1n I He (aha,n a111o's1n1)," he replied. What "She" (so)
is and what "He" (a111a), that makes "Chant" (sii,nan) and
thb is the qu1dd1ty of the "Chant". 38 "Nay", said he, "fo; thou
art 1ny sister. forsooth".' She then continues to woo her brother,
who at ldst conse~ts (which is, of course, the 'happy ending' to
the abortive wooing of Yan1a by Yami in RV.X. 10).39 When
the consun1n1aoon is about to take place, the well-known
,vo~'.15 o:, the n1arriage formula arc uttered, 'I am "He" thou
art She ; thou art "She" I an1 "He" She
Me (sa111a111 a11uvrata bl1111va ) let us tw.am cooperanng WJ

,~ ._1
generate progeny
V'ra;!.1 pr1ya11ayavalia1), con1e, let us consort' (ehi sambhavavalia,). They became the Viraj ('Who knoweth h
AV VIII 9 I 0) d 'b
er mu unatva. ,
rought forth (priija11ayattim) "Him who
glows yonder (the Sun. the Sama, the "Golden Person" of



JUB.1.48.8)/ 1 they ra~ apart (vyadra11a1tit11-~B.IV.6.7.9 ~y eva

drava1a), (she) saying: He hath come uno being from me (mad
adl,y abl11i1),42-,vhence the expression 'Honey-son' (madhuputra).'J In the preceding version of JUB.1.50.1-2, the :,vo
Worlds' are explicitly Sky and Earth, and 1t 1s the Gods ,vho call
upon them to unite (sa111e1a111, cf. RV. X.24. 5 abn1va11 dc1 1al.1punar
a val,attid ,11), and the reluctance of the Sky is his 'horror' of her
(so'stiv asyti abibl1atsa1a). and it is only after elaborate purifionons
that they unite (sa111e1ya, converse of 11iya111a, etc., else,vhere),
and engender the Solar Chant.
That the marriage of the two Agnis, the former and the
latter, 'who hate one another', should be that of Mitra and
Varui:ia is in perfect agreement with the common doctrine
that Mitravarui:iau form a progenitive pair (111itlrurra,11, as in
SB.IX.5.1.54), a syzygy of conjoint principles, in which
Mitra is the n1ale and Varui:ia the female partner, an
'opposition' or 'polarity' which is that of Day to Night, of
Light to Darkness (TB. maitra,ii vii al,ah varu1.1i ratril.1,
etc.). References to Mitr:ivarui:iau as pra1.1apiinau (or prti,.1oda,rau) and as brahmak~atrau are too n1any for separate citation.
More explicitly in PB.XXV .10.10 and SB. I4a,
maitrtivan11Ji, as also SB. 'Mitra inseminates (retal.r
si,icati) Varui:ia', and in SB.IV.1.4.4 Mitra and Varui:ia
'united', in SB.Xll.9.1.17 Varu,~a is the womb (yon,), lndra
the seed (retas), and Savitr the progenitor (retasalJ prajanayitf),
an obvious allusion to the Varu1~asava and the birth of lndra;
Varut;ta, in other words, being Savitri, and as such the
mother of the solar lndra .44 In Mbh.XIl.319.39 Mitra is
purufa and Varui:ia prakrti45 . The same relations subsist when
the names of Mitravarui:iau are replaced by the tcrn1s apara
and para brah,na (1nahad-bral11na, bral,ma-yon,) 41' as in
BG.Vll.5-6 and XIV. 3-4 where Kr~i:ia sets the embryo
(garbham) in the Great Brahman, his own higher Nature
(prakr1i1n pariim, i.e. 'Natura Naturans, Creatrix Universalis,
Deus'), the womb (yon,) of all and whence is the becoming of
all things, saying also that 'I am the father that bestows the
seed' (bijapradah pita). It is accordingly quite 1n order that so


Au 11101111 v

51'11111 UAI

AND 1 'rM POllAL


111.111y of the: tl'r111, cxprl's~nl{ the rclauc,n, of Mit r,v 1

' run;1u
,liuuld h:tVl' ., ,txu.tl ronnot.1tuH1 /\hhiR''"'t . (or ex ,IJ11 J) c'

likr l ,1t111

"'.t:ll<Hll'fl' ,Ill( I


"fl"fVW(TK(d (,,;,,,,()\(()) <

k '
\\: .,
' .1,111\ nt

111,1 .111d I nl{h,h know ( Jar11h knew hi\ w1ft'). h.1, ,111 t'rotit


~B.IV.(, 7.1(1 whtrl.' wh,1t

har.11ly ., 't lHl('t'pt1011' f.1th1.rl.'d by M 1

d1.1t "tv1.11 llHHt' tv1dl.'t1I 111

llllt'rt'd by v.,r


,. . .


i1bl11i:,1t,1111). l hi.' 111v1t.1tH111 11p11 111111111rt11s1111 s,1,;,.,;11 ,,,1111,,

(~Li , 11,,d .tbll\'t') ro1 n.spond, to th, 1n.1ri1.li 111,1111 ,,',,,11,,111,i
/.l111rr-.1 . . ,,1111/,/i,11,11,1/,ui of JUU.1.54.6 ,111d the n1.1rriJgc
k1n11ul.1 ,if.,\\' '\.IV 2 71. 'I .1111 H,., thou Jrt She: l .1n1 the
H.1rn1,,nv. thou the \X1ords: l Jiil Skv. thou art E.1rth. Let us
t\\ .un hert' be.::on1e one; let us bring forth ofl'spring (,imo
'h.in, iJ:,'UU, .S: (l'.J1;1, S.J111J '/a.ir,1 '1S711)' (k n.i1i1, dy111ir a/1.i111, p[t/1i1i
n ~; l.i1 th.i s.irn bh.i1J1.i. pr'!j.i,11 J j,111.1y.i1aluu), echoed in that
for chC' marriage ofS;accrdocium and Regnum in AB.VIII. 27,
discussed be)o\\ In the s;ame "av, in SB.X.4.1.8 in
connecoon "-ich chC' union ofSacerdorium and Regnum, here
represented by Indrigni, ika,n riipam abhavatam . . . pra1anarara~ corresponds to tau virti4 bluitva prajanayatam with
referencC' to the union of the T v1:o Worlds.
Amongst the syzygies to which we have referred it is that
of the Two Worlds, Sky and Earth (dytivaprthivi, Zeus and
Gm), the universal parents upon whose harmony depend the
prospcnty and fertility of the entire universe, which is chiefly
taken to be the norm and archetype of all marriage. Thus the
samiti or sa'!ISrI(i of brahma and ~atra is, in the sense in which
the Brahm3.1_1as demand in every ritual operation, a conjunction (mithunam) of contrasted forms, apart from which
contrast there would be no effective and productive coupling. The spark of life is only evoked, the sacrificial fire is
only kindled, the music only illuminated when contact has
been established between two oppositely charged poles, the
two ends of the 'Pole' that connects the Altar with the Sun, a
pole that is 'fired' from above and 'lit' from below.
The relative femininity of VaruIJa will be all the more
apparent if. in accordance with 'the generally received
opinion' (Macdonell) that Mitra is the Sun and VanllJa the

!)Pflll I U/d.

A Ul 110111 J Y



Jll!Wf 11

(dark) sky. the ,ol,r 'don1a1n', we ,011~1dcr the rcla11on of the

<; 1111 (Adi1ya) to the Sky (l) yat1\) ' for there :trl' 111any text\
that rcftr to the ~un a\ th e hu,band oithc Sky, ,,arir di11til1, a\
j 11 AV. Vll.21 I and Xlll .3 .4 . 1, a11d dyn11rrvt1111 ,1di1yal1 oma/1
111 15,111111, c: U.1.6.3. whtrc ' I le' (,111111) is the ~un .,nd 'She' (.111)
the Sky. rh.ll rhl.' Sun insc1ni11ate~ llH: Sky' (re111l1 kr1.101i ...
,ulityo di1i, JU.11.241), th,1t I le 'for111s his likeness 111 the

,vo1nb of the Sky' (s1ir11yo n1pa1i1 kriJ1He liyi>r11/J1isrhr,

RV .1. 115.5), arc no 111ore than paraphrased 111 the words
'Mitra i11scn1i11atcs Varu1,1a', cited above fro1n PB. and SB. It
is :is the Sun that Praj5p:iti unites \vith the Sky (adirye11a diva111
11 ,i1l11111ti111 sa111obl1a11nf, SB. Vl. l.2.4, and for Mitr:ivaru1:i.:iu:
111i1/11111a111 . . ye11a prajayare, SB., 18). Dyaus is
conspicuously feminine in JUB.111.4.Sf. ,vhcrc 'The Great
,vith the Great, the God with the Goddess, Brahn1a ,vith the
Brahmai;ii united' (11,a/11111 111nl1ya sa111adl1arca, devo devya
sa111adharta, bral11na brtil1111a11yti sa111adl1a11a), the text (as in
SA.l.6) going on to explain that the reference is to the union
of Agni, Vayu, and Aditya with Earth (iyam eva 111al1i), Air
(a111ari~a) and Sky (dyaus; brtil1ma1.1i implying, of course,
'daughter of Brahma'), and that Agni, Vayu and Aditya are
the ' Threefold Brahma' (verse 11, tad bran,na vai trivrt, cf.
MU.IV.6). To this 'Threefold Sovereign' correspond the
'Threefold' (trivrtam) World of RV .X. 114.1 , the 'Three
Bright' Realms (usra . . . tisrah) that B,haspati reveals in
RV.X.67. 4=u~as tisrdh in Vlll.41.3, and the 'One-syllabled'
Voice whose three parts, distinguished by Prajapati, are these
worlds, as explained in PB.XX.14.2-5.
Dyaus is feminine in some twenty Vedic contexts: the
apposition dyaur aditih (Grassmann, 'dcr Himmel bildlich als
Mutter' { ='heaven figured as mother'}) n1ay be noted in
X.63.3, where Aditi is the 'Vac, Aditi by name, in whom
may Savit, quicken the Law (dhtinna savi~at) for us' of
TS.1. 7. 7.1. This implied equation of Dyaus with Savitri (the
form again implying 'daughter of,' cf. the relation of Varui;ia
to Savit, in SB.XII. 9.1. l 7 cited above) is explicit in
JUB. IV.27.11, 12 'The Sun is Savitr, the Sky his daughter ...







l'ow , 11
<;i,1111 1 UA I

!111, 1, ont ,ouplin~ (,11/11y11 r1 ,1 sa1111a, dy11as savitrr . lad

rJ..,1111 1:111/11111,1111), .1, likl"Wl\e 111 ~~ 1. 5. Savnri, 'daughtc.:r of
\.i, 111 " tht ,.111H " tht \urya S,1v1tn, th1: l)aughtc.:r of the
\1111. g1\'t'll to \1,1111 tht K1ng 111 AB IV.7. and the Sury~ of
R\ '\ 83 <1 "h,, 1' thtrt Jnd 111 AV .XIV.2 tht type.: of all
hn,I,, In AH Ill 48 'ur,.1 1, ()h,1tr (1n) .1nd l )yau, Anuniat,
((;.I\ .1111, t \ , .,, u, ,, ..1~.1111. I', .1_1.,p.111 (bli11111111Hy11 l'r11jap,uila
R\1 I\ ' 5J ~. 1t, ). th, 11n1, ,r,.11 Prt1g1:111t~1r, .1nd n 1, .1, ,ud~
th.1t hC' 111111,, "1th h,, ''" n danght,r '" ho 11, ,01111 c.dl Sk v and
,,rh,~ l).n,11' 1,/11.:111 1,,.1.""'' , , , SU 1.7 -1 \ , AB.111.J.3). 111
"l11k,h :\l.111.1, \I ~ \ ' I 1, 10 1. t't<) h1 un1tt, \\'1th V.1c (p,i,si11,),
"h,i ,, .1g.1111 th, d.111!!htc1 (\ S.-:-. V..\8, $ B. \fll l. l.2.8) .1s " 'd i
;i, the n1,>th1r ,,f" h,1111 he:.,~ born (PH. Vll.6) ~ The Su111i. thus
bc,onJ :inv qu1~t1011 n1ak to the Skv {Uerg.1111gnc's 'Avant
tOUt fe, ;JUlfC!> f)c111cnt\ n1ik~ j) faut placer )e c1el )u1- meme' IS
on!\ true ""Ith the rl,c.:r,.anon 'Le mile du ciel est le soletl'
~cl,guni 1cd1q11c, 1.4 and 6).} {Berga1gne's 'Before all the
oilier m:1.!e demen3. \\'e musr place me sky itself'is ~nly true
~,:.h me Tt:Se~\'.UOD 'The male of the sky is the sun'. (La
! .md 6 J cf SB I 7 2 .7. :,IJ


ANI> 1tMPOllAl.

Orr -:-=..-.::.:= ?::=t Jo:: m......:il .dcooo of S>ca-ciocium to

P,:, :car; BI 5 cw.es~ ior: ~ 5 ~ :n;;mg,e of :!lie
~ \1iD ~ . i! ,:..:.:::z- 'S::.-"'i ~ is ~.r;.:--..: ~ P7"ci=
. . ;.ns .........-.::i
ZI, ~ ... 0 : Si:'J'
'4!!!:. -di -- S-"!!'lofb-::-.11. a:=-.:

.. I ., -
c:x: c::i: "F.,: c:,; c:::a:, ~ r ,7 .::-:i.;: .r..:=

R\- X.. - o.r 15 rrla.:-.i to .1S 5.i,.u,..i. Ct:\.-ogil-~

!I: Pnppac s c.tuoc ~tl 'h:~ own d.mghrer ,> .Im Juhit.zr.:ffl}.
'1.-nom some: c~ Sb; dw..zm md ochcrs Ih"wn' in AB.III.33; a
.-faughrer 61at 1S abo 'iiic, Pr.Jipari's 'own' (,-vJ111.
PB.XX.14 2\. of\\-hom he begcts the Brh,at as tus eldest son m
PB \ 'II.6, 51 he being Ma= (fS. ll.2. 11 .5, SB.IX.4. l.12.
JB.I.68, JUB.1.33.2) md Vi c the daughter of ~
(SB Vlll.1.2.8). 5 ~ This 1s likewise the story ofYama and YaDll
(RV.X.10). Heaven and Earth o r as in SB. Vll.2. l.10 Agni and
~rth, of which the 'happy ending' is related in JUB.I.S?-:-54;
to r the relationship of 'father to daughter' is more intdligtbly
that of 'twin bro ther and sister,' the conjoint principle of an

l'OWl ll



I ,yzy"Y thal of the Atrnan. Puru5a, yathii stri-pumansau

" ( d


011 roiyn01
sampar1iva.:ra11 111

. i) wa' chcn a un ity in for111 no Jes<. than na,ne,
' lly ,,1 ll<>t h the ,exc, male an d r,cma Il" {l'Iato,
part1cip.1t1ng cqu..

'I I

JU <.t bccau<.c ,he rellcct~ that 1e 1:i,
,, Y"'J'(IIII 1I 11


i) h
Jll't prOdllCl'cl 11ll' frtl lll l,1111,dr (111111111111 ('VII JIIIIIJIIVQ ?' t at S l~
protc~,~ ' I low now c.111 he h.1vc.: 11111:rcourst "".1rh n1c. (ko'.l,11111
. !jU J 4 ,, ) 11,.. ,cp 1r3u:d fen11n1nc nature 1s no
trU ., .Sfllll I1I''"''' I, .
\ l , , 1,
Iung,r 111nocc11t.
rhe rd.11iu11ship of 51111 co Sky~ (,11/,tyo 1111 lirll/111111 dymir
i,r,1/1111111.11 , JULl.111.4.9), cl1~cussc:d above 1s the san,c: as chat of
Vayu to Air and Agni to Earth (which l.1st is :ibo that ofY:in1:1
to Yan1i, So. Vll.2. 1. 10): the r.1tio is by 110 means pecuJJar to
the ' upper world', but 10 aU'Three Worlds', and co all the pairs
in any of these worlds; the relations hip 1s 'u.ruvcrsal'. As was
also 1mpl11:d 10 JUB.Lll.4.5(, cited above, the Three Gandharvas or Lights, Agru, Vayu, Ad1tya (the ' Persons' ofme Vedic
'Trinity' (PB. VI. 7.2.3), and the 'Uruversal Lights' of the
Fire-altar) form wtch mcir respecnve domains, 'lots' or
'puricifl'oons' (hhaki,). Earth. AJr and Sky three forms of
Dawn ( i..<as,. d:utt progcmc.i\'e pau-s or s,zygies lrowJturi.ini,
PB.X:X.15.2-9. lne i:t..'{l ofR\'.\'ll.33.7 (foOo,,ed m PB. ib.
m.:! JB.!l-241 is c-.eo moce aplicic 'Tlutt torttnOS:. Ll~hts
:futt .\n-m dtl.:.."ffl. insancoJ~ chc ,vodds fq!a=n :..;Dh~:~
ri-..:.:r. thrtt He.us (;~;;h.:n,.,..;. du. - :\liCL-ii,--.m in
R \ '.X l l L 1 = rl'i7! gh...~1 m .-\\'.IX.. l. ensue chc D.1,,n
s.:run:<'): th~ me \ f~~as kno,v full \\'ell'; cf.
RY.III.56.3 'The mighty th.ree-faced {rryanilwlJ) Bull is the
husband (patyate), he the mseminator of the Everlasting Da,,'ll.S
(ret~ . .. ia.svatinan,), 55 the 'Three Gre3ts' (rasr6 mahil,1) of the
preceding verse (= I!a, Sarasvati, and M ahi, lll.5.8);
RV. Vll.101.6 'He (Parjanya), the Bull, the inseminator of the
Everl3:>~g-Dawns (sa retodlui vr~abhti~1 sasvatiniim), in whom is
the ~Pu:1t of all that is in motion or at rest' (ttis,ninn a1,11ti jtigatas
tast~u!as ea): an~. RV.l.115.1 where 'Earth, Air and Sky'
(dyavap~h1v1 antan~am) are filled by the Solar Spirit of all that
moves or is at rest' (surya at,na jtigatas tasthufas ea). The King of

origin. . . .., ,




Kings is thus the pr9g~nve Solar Spiri~ who ~es the forms
of Agni. \ ' ayu and .i\d.it\, . (~ B.IX.3_. t.3} m relanon to the triple
Dominion or Three Donuruons which are so often spoken of as
Da'"'n or Da\\ns, and arc the Three Worlds of Earth, Air and
Sky, che Toree E.a.rths' \Prtl11vis tisrah) of which Savitar is the
,\iovtt (invan) m R\'.IV.53.5, Saviq-'s 'Three bright realms
(mnr . .. ranan,) dut his, the Asura's (asya ... <isurasya, cf
RV. llJ.53. t), three Hero-sons (trayo . . . virah. = Vll.33.7, praja
aryalJ = 1.105.5 a.mi ye devil).) govern in RV.ill.56.7, 8.56
fhe knowledge of the Three Worlds and their Ruler:s is the
'Triple Soencc' (trayi vidya) of JUB. ll. 9. 7. Of the logoi
(vya7,rayah., JUB.1.23.6 and II.9.3; SA.1.5.6; MU.VI.6, etc.) in
which It is expressed, the briefest form is that of the
well-known formula bhur bhuvas suvah.. It is precisely this
knowledge of the relations of the Three World-Overlords to
their Domains that fits the Purohita for his office (AB. Vlll.27};
the Vas1$fhas, its Comprehensors (RV. Vll .33. 7) are the 'wellindoctrinatcd' (suinvansal,) Brahmar;ias GB.11.241), and Vasisfha~ (i.e. Agni, Brhaspati) having been Indra's Purohita in the
beginning, one Qn say with TS. llf.5.2. 1 'it is, therefore, a
Va~1~fha that should be made the brahma,' and JU B.111.15. 1 that
"fhe ltrahma pertains to Vas1~fha . . . he 1s the brahma who is a
comprehen~or thert."Of; and assuredly, to have understood this
doctrine of the Thrc:e World-Overlords fully would have been
to have grasped the whole theory of government. Furthermo~e,
the Kmg who has for a Purohita to guard his kingdom (as us
Pastor. TQ.!{ralopa') 57 a .Brahmai:ia possessed of this knowledge
'dies no more' 511 (na punar mriyate) but lives out his life to old age

(AB.VUI.25), 5" also PB.XXIV.19.2, XXIU.12.3, XXIl.12.2.

We have seen that the triple relation of the Lights to thelf
RC2lms 60 is really the single relationship of the Light to ~e
Cosmos, and since the Lights and their Realms, of which s~VItr
is the Pnme Mover, are spoken of as 'Three Skies' (tisro d,va~)
and 'Three Eanhs' (pr,h,vis tisra~. RV.IV.53.5) it is clear that the
relationship of the Sacerdotium to the Regnum, or that of Man
can be
to Woman, or that of any Dtrector to any Execunve,
more briefly expressed as that of Sky to Earth. Thus from one



. .
the Sun but from another

. E
th E th (Zeus to Gaia, uropa,
p0int o f vtew
the Sky is no less ~al:.Jio {or;r and Master' of Earth.Danae, etc.) and _lire y
ti and Vastospati. 61 Thus
Adhipaci, Bhiipao, K~.etr~pa . - 'Ye .Micravarur:iau,
RV.V .63.3.(divaspati prtl~:dah;:::~~~:C'sky 'and Earth' is as
are (respecovely) Lords
L d of Dyaus (=Varur:ia),
much as to say,
L d f Earth It is in just the
. kand thou, Varur:ia (=Dyaus), art or o
th t while 'the Regnum is dependent upon (anun,yu
same way a
dent on the
tam) the Sacerdotium, the Commons are . epen
Regnum' (AB.11.33 and Aristotle, Metaphysics) and that while
the Sacerdotium is virile to the King and Comm~ns (PB..H.8.2),
the King, whose v,rya is analogous . to In1ra s, . and is only
properly to be regarded as a Dominion (ra~!ra) insofar as he
generates (prajayate, SB.IX.4. 1.5; cf. J. V .279 where because the
King has no son the people complain that the Kingdom w.ill
utterly perish), is preeminently virile to the Realm; so that while
the virility (vrrya) pertains more eminently to the brahma, both
brahtna and ksatra arc 'virilities' (SB. In the same way,
too, the dcl~gation of the sceptre, the vajra, as the token of
dominion (SB.Xlll.4.4.1), by the Priest co the King, though it
Mrengthens him with respect to his enemies, weakens him with
rc~pect to the Sacerdotium, ju~t as wht'n the Kin g himself
delegate~ authority to other~ they become his vas~als
(RV. IV.4.15). The people are subject to the King, but not so
the Brahmai:ias, 'whose King i~ Soma' (SB. V.4.2.3); the people
arc 'food' for the King, but the King is 'food' for the Brahmai:ia
(Kall$ Up.11.9); while there is another for whom the Regnum
and the Sacerdotium both are 'food' (KU.11.25). There is one,
Bhaga {=Aditya), 'to whom even the King says: "Apportion
me a portion"'(AV.111.16.2). The Regnum is not its own
principle, but is controlled by another, the Eternal Law, the
Truth (dharma, satyam), the 'Kingship of the Kingship' (k.!atrasya
~atram, BU.1.4.14). This, incidentally, provides the sanction
for the well-known Cambodian doctrine of the Dharmaraja, as
the re:il and persistent Royalty, to be clearly distinguished from
the King's own temporal personality: cf. 'le roi est mort, vive

1 '-

'll'lllll t \I

At, l llllRII \' :\NI) ft-MPORAI. P O\V[R

It rn1 [\'l'll .1 n~htcou, cniplror " not without an over-lord

,11 1J '\Vho 1~ rh1, K111g Jhovc the King? The Etenial Law' (k~
. r.11111
1,11,1) ,//1,1111111<1, A.1.109), a Law that equally rules
tl1t '1.1gt (,1111u/h,1111111,uc1n lltl l11ya1, sa<caparakka,no 1ntt11i, A.l.149).
.1nd .1, " tlit K 1ng to h1, vas,ab, so arc these to their own
fl1llo,vtr,, ,o 1s the p.1tron to thl' arn~t and the man to the wife

l',ll Ii 111 turn ;1 ,trv.111c and a n1aster in a feudal hierarchy

,tt1111111ng fron1 the King of King,. That the King is feminine to
1hl' l'rt l'~l h111 rn,le to ht\ own Realm is thus nothing strange,
hut only .1 'J>l'C1,1l ca,e of ()rdcr In any Hierarchy, the
111d1v1du.1I I\ 111.:(e\~Jnly related 1n one way to what 1s above
h1111 , Jnd in another to h1, own domain.
An1ong tht.: \y1yg1c\ to which we have referred it is, then,
th.it of Sky .1nd E.irth (dya11ap,:thivi), the universal parents upon
who\l' harrnon1ou~ coopcra11on the prosperity and the fertility
of the Un1vcr,t depend, that 1s chiefly taken to be the norm and
archetype of all marnage, so that in the marriage rite the man
addre5~L'!> the woman ,v1th the words: 'I am He, thou art She, I
.101 the Harmony, thou the Words; I am Sky, thou art Earth. 62
Let u~ twain here becon1t one; let us bring forth offspring' (amo
'ha,na11n1 SQ fl'QJ, SQ/110 'Jia111as1111 (k tva1n, dyattraham p(thivi tvam;
ta,,,lta sa,n blta11a11a pra1ti1i1 ti ;a11aytivahai, AV .XIV. 2. 71 ). 63 In the
same way 111 C:h1na, Sky and Earth represent respectively the
m.ile, light .1nd active, and female, dark and passive principl~,
yanl and y111. and 1t 1s from this existence of the macrocosm1c
mall and fc:1nale principles chat the distinction of husband and
wife 1~ derivLd frorn the marnage of Sky and Earth 'trans(/
forn1.1c1on 111 all its vanous forms abundantly proceeds
C:11111.'<, Appendix, IJl.43.45 and Vf.31). In the same I Chinx,
Appendix I (as cited by Fung Yu-Ian, History of Cl1111ese
J>Juh,,ophy, 1.p.387) we find 'Because of their union, Heaven
(Sk>') and Earth, though ~cparatc, h.ive their common wo_;:
just is man and woman, though separate, have a common Wt
corresponding very closely to RV.111.54.6 where Sky and Earth
are nana . . samane,1a kratuna samvidane. ,,,.
We are now at last in a better position to understand c
mutu~ choice or wooing (vara~1a) of one another by the



d the King, and to understand

the marriage
. ,
, . er

form u1 a Wit
G d'
AO Vlll.27. The Purohita has been chosen as uar 1an, or
p asror, of the Realm (rtistragopa),
and . now addressed
ak hi the

eh the following 1nantram, wherewith he t es m to

wife: 'I am That (a111a, 'He') thou art T h'1s (sa) ;65 t hou art Thi
_ s, I
am That, f am Sky, thou art Earth. I am the Ha:mony (sa,nan),
thou the Words (re). 66 Let us twain here urute our houses
(sa,nvaluival,ai p11rtir.11). 67 Th~u art _the bo_dy, ~roteet thou my
r. om this Great Dread
(asrnan 1nahabl1ayal ... lanvam me
bo d y ,r
ptihi... tanvah soma gopah, RV.VIII.48.9). 68
-That these words, to which Sayai:ia refers as the raJnal,
purol,itavarall-mantram, 69 could only have been spoken by the
Purohita to the King may be said to have been proved by the
already accun1ulated evidence of the masculinity .of the Sacerdotium with respect to the Regnum. That a,no ha,n as1111 must
have been spoken by the Priest is further confirmed by the fact
that in CU. V.2.6 the would-be Kin g addresses the Fire (the
archetype of the Purohita) with the words amo 11tin1a'si, 'Thy
name is "That" (or "He"),' cf.AV.XJV.2.71 'Sa is This (Ea.rth),
ama is Agni.' That it is the Purohita that utters the words 'I am
That (or He)' is stated explicity by Sayai:ia (AB. VUI.27,
Commentary, Bib.Ind., 1896, IV.288, line 8, puroliitq alia111
amalJ). Sayai:ia also makes it clear that the whole of the rest of
this section, beginning ya o~adhi ... , is likewise spoken by the
Purohita, who thus consecrates the seat given to him by the
King and at the same time blesses the realm. The Purohita is the
'man' and the King the 'woman'. Observe that it is to the King
that the words 'Bear thou rule' (tvatn vi raja) are addressed in
AV.111.4.1, and that it is with reference to a wife that the words
'let her bear rule' (vi rajatu) arc spoken in AV.11.36.3. 7"
!he essent(al purpose of the Divine Marriage, in which the
Pnest and King are the representatives of Sky and Earth is
a tr
~o _o~a1c o Death, and especially Famine (cf.BU.1.2.1
asa11aya hi mrty h) 11 Th
d f h
~ ks .
. _u .
e wor s o t e text reflect the refrain
; atatti Prtlrrv, no abl1vtit ofRV.I.185, addressed to Sky and
anh, Day and Night. It is by means of the Divine Marriage
Hrgh- Pnest an


$l'1Rt1 t _\ I

'\\ '1 lHH\11 \

ANO l'r~ll'Ol\AI

N I)
A UT II O Rl1' t\

P ti\VliR

t-, , 'H ., n~IH,'<'th t111rcr-,,r is ntl! ,,..i,htiut .111 over-lord

.1n,I '\\ h,, 1, d11, 1-. 111~ .1b,,'l't' th, K111~? T he Etcnul L,1,v' (k,;
r,q,,J .f/1.1111111<. A.I. Ill')), J L1,v th:1t t.'qually rules
rh, SJg, t.n111,f/1.11111U,lolll ' ':' 111 )'<Ill l ,/((,lp<11, ,kk,11110 I/Ill/I i, A.I. 149).
,111 J .l, 1, tht' K111g to lus v.1~als, so arc these to their o,v
toll,),~cr:.. \ O ,~ the patron to the artist and the n1an to the wife
cJch u1 tun1 a ~crvjnt and a 111aster in a feudal hierarchy
,rcn1n11ng fro n1 the King of Kings. That the King is fen1inine to
the Pncst bur male to his own Realm is thus nothing strange,
but only a special case of Order. In any Hierarchy, the
1nd1v1dual JS necessaril y related in one way to what is above
him. and 1n another to his own domain_
Among the syzygies to which we have referred it is, then,
that of Sky and Earth (dya11tiprtl1ivi,, the universal parents upon
v,hose ha nnonious cooperation the prosperity and the fertiliry
of the Universe depend, that is chiefly taken to be the norm and
archetype of aJJ marriage, so that in the marriage rite the man
addresses the woman with the words: 'I am He, thou an She, I
am the Harmony. thou the Words; I am Sky, thou art Eanh. 62
Let us twain here become one; let us bring forth offspring' (amo
'ha1nas111i sa 1110111, sa111a 'l,a,11as111i rk 111a,i1, dyauraham prthiv, tvam;
1av1ha sa111 bl,avaia praja,i1 a ja11aya11ahai, AV. XIV .2_ 71). 63 In the
same \vay in China, -Sky and Earth represent respecri~ely the
male, light and active, and fen1ale, dark and passive pnnoples,
yani and yi11. and it is fron1 this existence of the macrocosnuc
male and femaJe principles that the distinction of husba~d and
\\,;fe IS deri\'ed from the marriage of Sky and Earth rrans. its various forms abundantly proceeds ' (/
forn1aaon in all
Chin,e. Appendix. III.43.45 and VI.31)- In th~ same I Cl'.i11g;
Appendix I (as cited by Fung Yu-lan, History of Clunes

Pl11i1Js1Jphy. I. p.387) we find 'Because oft he,r
(Sky) and Earth, though separate, have their common w~rk:
just ~s man and \voman, though separate, have a common willrth
corresponding very closely to RV.lll.54.6 where Sky and Ea
are ruina . . . sa,nanena kraturui sa1n11idane. 6-4
We are now at last in a better position to understand the
murual choice or wooing (vara,.ia) of one another by the
1,, l'\'I '

(' t,M PO U t\ l


\' oWE U

d the 111:irn agc

' .:inci to u11. < 'I ouscs ' is e fl'ectc<.
:l in
i -I th, K .inp,.
lligh-Pncs.1tl;1\:,hich du: :illi:111c, of d1<'lt <)"~'11 . :i~ C u:irdi:in , or
lorn1nl.1 ~~ rhc Purohi1.1 h.1S bccn <' 1 ~ , lll~:w .1dd rC)SCd the
AU. VIII.- . o ( ih.: ll.:~hn (r,1$rr,1_~111'1i). :i11( . I l1A t1kcs hin1 to
I -r 1':1stor.
whcrcw1t 1 "
'ith the followi11g ,n1111lri11II , 1' 1 , (Sil) ''~ lh Oll :irl 'J'h1~. I
11 ,') thou art '"

"-"'g w
wife 'I an11'b:1t (m11t1, - c E I I a1n the I larn1 0 11y (so111on
Sk thou art art l . ,

an, That. I an, y. "'' Let us twain here u111tc o ur ,ou~c\

h body protect tho u my
th ou the Words

- ) <>7 Thou art t e

(sa,i1va/11i11al1m .P"""-" . Dread' (as,nan n1aliabl1ayat .. . tanvam me

bod.y fro1n this Great o ah RV . VIIl.48.9).<,K
pa/11 _ . - ta11 va~1 soma g p . h- h Sayana refers as the ra;nah
to w 1c

Th at t hcse words ' 69
Jd nJ have been spoken by trre
p11rohita11ara\1a-ma11tra111, cou ? y
ved by the
p ohita to the King may be said to have een pro
al~;ady accumulated evidence of the masculiniry,of the Sa~erd(rrium with respect to the Regnum. That 01110 ham asrn1 m ust
have been spoken by the Priest is further confirmed b y ~ e fact
that in CU.V.2.6 the would-be King addresses the Fire (the
archerype of the Purohita) with the words amo na,na'si, 'T hy
name is "That" (or "He"),' cf.AV.XIV.2.71 'Sa is This (Earth),
ama is Agni.' That it is the Purohita that utters the words 'l am
That (or He)' is stated expIicity by Sayat,1a (AB. VIIL 27,
Commentary, Bib.Ind., 18%, IV.288, line 8, purohitq aha,n
amal,1). Sayai;ia also makes it clear that the whole of the rest of
this se~on, beginning ya O-fadhi . _ . , is likewise spoken by the
~rohita, who thus consecrates the seat given to him by the
King and at the same time blesses the realm. The Purohita is the
'man' and the King the 'woman'_ Observe that it is to the King
that the words ' Bear thou rule' (tvam vi raja) are addressed in
~ V.ffi.4.1, and that it is with reference to a wife that the words
le~er bear . rule' (vi rajatu) are spoken in AV. U.36.3. 70
Prieste ;sen~al purpose of the Divine Marriage, in which the
~ King are the representatives
of Sky and Earth is
apotropa.1c of D th



asa,1aya 111 1nrtyulr) 7 1 Th
raksata,n prtl . - . . bi : words of the text reflect the refrain
. 11111 no a ivat of RV I 185 dd
Earth Day an d Night
It - b - , a ressed
. . to Sky and
is Y means of the D1v1nc Marri,igc



and the Sacnfice that Death is averted fro
h .
t e kingd
~7 . .
0 rn, aswe
sa\v m note::> CJtingJB.Il.419. Them .
arnage is an .
against t h e P nvation (abhva) ofRV.L 185 'th G
' e ofreat
up l'..fited b oIt ' (1nahadbl1aya1n vajram udyatam)
KUDread , the
uphfted bolt (the millstone), dreaded by Sky and VI.2, the, the Great Fear of BG lI 40 th 'f; , anh, SB.
Taitt. Up.II. 7,c( Sn.1033 'the Gr~at. DreaJ t~ar (bhayam) of
e woe dof thi5
world' (du kkha m assa mahabbhayam): just 'as Sk
(where they have been reconciled) are not afraid y an Earth
, nor are hurt
d '
so t h e braI11na and the ~atra are not afraid nor are h
fr .d
urt, an one
says: e not a a1 .'
thou b reath_-o!-my~life' (AV. II.15.I, ).
The con~ress of M1travarw:iau, Dyavaprthivi, brah,na-ksatrau is
an aversion of the 'wrath' (manyu) of Varuna or ra. th
. ,
er a
convers10~ y \vhich ~e is made a Friend (M itra). 12
The pnmary ~xpress1on of the 'wrath' is in drought, the
precursor of famme. Prior to the marital reunion of Sky and
Earth 'there ,,as no rain, no warmth, the Five Folk were at
variance (na sa1naja11ara, AB.IV.27); it is a consequence of the
ntamage of the Purohita and the King that the people are
unarumous (111sab sa1t,janare, AB. VIII. 27). So when the
separanon ofSk, and Earth, the act of'creation' essential to life
bu~ also involvmg death, had first been effected, 'The Gods all
,vailed. and called upon the Asvins to 'Reunite them ' (punar a
l'al1aia1. R\".X.24.5): so 'the Gods led them together (samanaya11, as the Queen is led' m the Asvamedha), and coming
toget~e~. they performed this Divine Marriage'(sa,nya,uav etam
deia11 1aliJ1n 1ya1aheta.in, AB.IV.27) and as in VS.II.16 'Consent
ye rog~ther (sam.1a11acliam). Sky and Earth; aid ye us "'"1th rain.'
For if\'arur is, in himself, a god of drought and p rivation
(~ note ~). on the other hand Mitrivarw:iau Jointl y are
n'P1cal.lv '
. R V. V.63, 68, and 69; and if their
. rau1-g ods' . as m
cos~c an~ ea~y equivalents, Sky and Earth, Priest and King,
are like\\'1Se _Jointly rain-givers, dus too depends u pon the
n1m~ ass_ooaoon and cooper.anon of the contrasted principles:
the King. m other words, is directly responsible for the fertility
of the land, the fill of ram in due season depends u n his
nghreousnt.-ss or default.





3 12 adds to VS.11.16 cited above, 'fo~ when .s ky .an~


( 'kn one another) then mdeed 1t rams,

rth LS.
consent or
- _
Ea I g that M.1trav
- arunau as pra11apanau are the same as at

. , ,
, , )
al , h the ruler in the rain (yo var~asye~!e .
exp a.uun
the G e, w O IS

h ')
f Sk
. ayu, rl AA.111.1.2 where 'the conjunction (sa'.nd 1 _o _ Y
s1m1la y h . rain ParJanya the conjoiner (sa,ndhatr);
and Eart is

.h h
cfRV. VU.101.6 where Parjanya, ideno~ed wit. t e so a~
. the mseminator of the (three) Everlasting-Dawns
Arman, IS
vayu 1S. the

h p
. .
( amdhai) of Sky and Earth; just as t e nest, Y
conJOtner s
. . ' ( . d dh - ~ E rth
satn a a11, a ,
means o f the S
hi h
c IS
V ayu,
( '
'a coupIing o f three with three for progeny tisras tnvr 11,
,nitlu,nal., prajatyai, TB. With refe~en.c: ~o all these
es , and their reflection here (tas,nad 1da1111n
. . _ pun~asya
sanra11i pratisa,nhitani, JUB.lll.4.6; pravasiyan SQ III viva1IQIII ap,1011
ya ev~1i, veda, PB. VII.10.4), one may well sa y 'What God hath
joined together, let not man pur, asunder.
Thus while 'there was no ram so long as Sky and Earth
were es~anged, the text goes on to say that, when the marriage
has been made (c(SA. VII.3), 'they enliven (iinvanti) one
another; with the smoke (of the Sacrifice) this world enlivens
that (world), with rain that (world) enlivens this' (AB.~V.27);
the seminal union is effected with RV. l.159. wherewith the
Priest fertilizes Sky and Earth (dycivaprtliivyo rasa,i, dadlzaci, cf.
rasa in RV.I.105.2) and 'it is upon these two, thus saturated
(rasava1yal1) that these children live (11pajiva1111) as means of
subsistence' (11pajiva11iye, SB.IV .3.2.12). 73 So in TS. fll.5.2.1
'"Quicken the Sky", he says; . verily, . to ~es~ ~vo.rlds ~e
announces the Sacrifice . . . verily he v.-u1s rain. S1n1ilarly in
PB. VIl.10.3; and inJB.1.145 where because of the separation of
Sky and Earth 'Gods and men hungered7~ (t1fa11ay1111): for. the
Gods live by what is given hence, and 11\l' n by what 1~ given
thence. 7S . " Let us be wedded" (vi1 1t1l1a1 1aha0, they said ...
Yonder world thence gave the l).1wn to tin~ world a~ a
n1amagl gift, and this world hcnrl' the Sn1oke7" (uf thl'
1110 n 1 in~ Sacrifice): vonder world thence ~ave the ll.un to th1'

( 'I'S/SSS


Sr11ur u A1



r, Ml'<>llAI



and rhc S 1cr1li, , th.11 I >c.,rh 15 .ivlrrc:J (i

ro111 t I1c: ki d
_ .
~ " Ill lllltt' :,7 ( ltlng JB.11 .4!1) rJi,.
ng Oil), a~ ...

" n1arnagc I\ . 1
~g.1111st 1h1 l'riv.1t1011 (11bl11a) ofHV. I 185 , . C an 11\urancc
t 11c ,rcat J) d
up 1111:, x, 1 (111,1/,,1rfl,l,,1y.i,i1 11111, 0,,, ,idyata,n) of KU n:a , the
\l j'hft1d bolt (the 1111lhront"), drc.idcd b Sk
VJ 2. the
Ill 'J.1.1 ii. th( c;rl .u Fl,1r of IJC~ II io ~h , an~ E.inh, Sa

e ,car (bl,ay,1 )
I ,11tt. LJp. Il. 7 cl \n IIIJJ 'thl Grl'Jt l)rcad tl .
'" of
. d
' le woe or h
\\ or Id ( 11kklia,11 11ss,1 rnahabbhaya,n) Just as Sky and t IS
(,,ht'r<' they h.1\'t' bcrn rcconalcd) arc not afra d

, o t I1c I,,.,I1111.J and the ~,llr,1 arr not afraid nor are h
urt, and one
,.1,s: l' not :.i r.11d, 0 thou brcath-of-1n}'-hfe' (A V.11 IS.I
1'ht ct,ngrl-ss o.f l\1itravarunau, l)yavaprth1vi, brt1/1111a.k.fatra::t
.111 J\'t'f',Jo n ol rhc ,l.'rath' (111a11}'11) of Varui:ia. or rather a
con, tr,1t111 by \\'hich he i, n1adc a Fnl'11d (Mitra). "'2
The pnn1_:1~y rxprrss1on of the 'wrath' 1s u1 drought, the
prC'('ur~vr ot lam1nc Pnor ro the marital reunion of Sky and
E:inh thl'rl' "as no ram, no ,.,arn1th, the Ftve Folk were at
'.n.1nrc' (,~ s,1111,11.i11,11a._ AB. IV 27). 1t 1s a consequence of the
1narn.igc of thl l'urohita ;i,nd the K111g that the people are
una111111ou~ (l'isali J,111!ia11arc, AB VIII. 27). So when the
scp.1ratK111 ofSkv and Earth, the act of 'crcaaon' l..'SScnnal to lire
bu'. .il~o 111\'olY1ng drath, had fi~t bl'en rffened. 'The Gods all
\\ailro, :1.nd called upon the Asvms to 'Reunite them' (punar a
aha1.i1 , n\'.X.::?4 5): ,o 'the Cods led them together (samanaya,,, a, tht QUl't"T1 is 'k-d' u1 the Asvan1cdha), and coming
H glthlr. t~('y perti1rn1l<l tlus J)1v1ne Marnage'(sa,11>11111.i,, etam
dri ,1111.,11.1111 1y.,1al1cr.11n, AU. I\' 27) and ~ 111 VS. fl. 16 'Consent
)l' tuglther (.ia1i11a,1111!1a,,,), Sky and Earth; aid ye us \\ith rain.'
For if \ ~ru1_1,1 I), in hun~lf. a god of drought and privation
(:.ec- lllllC ~). 011 .the ~thc:r Jund Mitnva~u Jointly arc
) P~ll) r.un-gods. a~ 111 1~ V V 63, 68, and 69; and if their
ro~n~i~ .i.n~ ~.lrt~ly equi\alc1_1~. ~k}' and Earth. Priest and King.
an: like..., 1S(' .J~u1tly rau1-g1vers, this too depends upon the
nun~J :issoa.1non .ind coopc:ration of the contT.istcd principles:
the King. u1 other ...,ord~. I!> d1rCt.'tlv resn.,ns1blc Ii th .---.:i:
ror c 1crunty
01- the J d th
an ; e till. of rain in due ~~ dcpcnds u
nghteousn~s or dctault.



l'OV.I M


I 8 312 ~dds to VS 11.16 Cited above, 'for w~cn _

Sky an~
( 'k ow' one another). then indeed 1t rain~.
c_ h consent or
th M I t varunau as pra1,1apa11a11 arc t lC' sanic a, at
Ja1n111g at

G I 'who is the ruler 1n the r:11n (yo 111n~1uye~rc :

v.,yu.r~ ,cA: ~i'1.1.2 where 'the conJunct1011 (s"'.'""'0 _of Sky

. rain, PrJanya
the cono1ncr
d Earth
.. '
. ,
. (s,1111dlia1r);
Jtl y VII I 01 6 whcre P:irjanya, ident1!icd with the ,ollr
. tlu: u1scmmator or the (three) 'Evcrl:isung-()awns'

U p....
l 3 '>~ ,vI1erc
, , Vaylt 1s, the
(retoi ra

. er (sa1i1dliai) of Sky and Earth; JUSt as the nest, y
, sacnfiCtal ritual 'co11101ns
(,0111' d"'II rat,,:\ EartJ1.
111eans o
. ,
Va U, and Ad1tya with E~rth, Air, and Sky (~A-~.s~. w_11c 1 I~
'a ~oupling of three witl, three for progeny (llsras tnvrdbl11r
mitlu1tuil_1 prajatyai, TB.1.2. 1.8). With refercn_c : ~o all these
ges. and their reflection here (tas111ad 1do111111
. . . pun1~asya
iarrr,frii pra1isa,iiliita11i, JUB.111.4.6; pra11as1ya11 sa111 111va11a1n ap11ot1
yo ev~,ii veda, PB. Vll.10.4), one may well sa.y 'What God hach
joined together, let not man put, asunder.
Thus while 'there was no ram so long :is Sky and Earth
were es;ranged, the text goes on to say that, when the n1arriage
has been made (cf.SA. Vll.3), 'they en.liven (jirr11a1111) one
anotl1er; with the smoke (of the Sacrifice) this world en.livens
that (world}, wtth rain that (world) enlivens this' (All. lV .27);
the seminal uruon is effected with RV .l.159, wherewith thc
Priest fertilizes Sky and Earth (dyavap,:thivyo rasam dadhati, cf.
rasa 1n H.V.1.105.2) and 'it is upon these two, thus saturated
(rasavatyah) that these childrc."Tl live (upaj111ant1) as meam of
subsistence' (upajivaniye, Sll.lV.3.2.12). 7 ~ So m r~ 111.5.2. 1
'"Quicken the Sky", he says; verily, to the.-:.~ .~orlds he
announces the Sacrifice ... verily he wins rain. S1milarly 1n
PB VIL I 0.3; and m JB.1.145 where because of the separation of
Sky and Earth 'Gods and men hungcred74 (a.sanayan): for the
Gods live by what is given hence, and men by what 1s g1v<..11
thence.'" .. , "Let us be wedded" (vivahavaha,), they sa1d ...
Yonder world thence gave the Dawn to tlus world as a
marruge gift, and this world hence the Smoke76_ (of the
momin~ Sacrifice); vonder world thence gave the llam to this
t'"P,1(;,;, ,





world a~ a marnagc gift, and this world h

ence the I) .
crv1cc (dcvaya1arw1n, t h c .>acnlice to the G d )
So w c:n 1t rains hard all day night me.,, sa . E
h.1ve united' (samadltata,n, AA.111.1.2) .
y. arth and Sky
_We can undcr~tand better now the traditional and
wide doctnne that thi: very life and fertility of the
I }( 1ng, tow om accordingly it is said 'F
upon tit
or our bread
( ury,1 .irt t 1ou, ,or rain unto us art thou f'ior

O ur patcnuty
.. .
off~pnng (pra1a11am . . ad/11patyaya pati here as in 'P - ,
r ii
r3.1apatJ )
. or a th1\ have we aspersed (abhyaiica,naJ11) eh~:
() U IX.3.3. 11 and SB. V.2.1.2 iya,n le rat . .. ). For unless the
King fulfills his pn1nary function as Patron of the Sacrifice
(ya1a1111111a) the circulation of the 'Shower of Wealth (vtisor
dliara'), th~ hn11tless, inexhaustible food of the gods' that falls
fro111 the Sky as Rain and 1s rcrun1ed from the Earth to the Sky
'". the ~tnokc of th<.' burnt-olTering will be interrupted
(Sll IX 13.15, 16): that man's offerings are transmitted to the
gods 111 the s1noke of the Sacrifice is, of course. implied in the
fact that Agni 1s the n11ssal-priest (RV. VII.10.3 and passi,n); it is
1ndt"1:d 111 the same way that the spirit of the deceased, whose
body t\ offered up on the funeral pyre, ascends thence.
It ts, then, only when the Priest and the King, the human
~cpresentanves of Sky and Eanh, God and his Kingdom, are
united 111 the performance of the rite' (savrate etc) only when
'Th } will ts done on Earth as It
is 111 Heaven'
. '(implying a
n11111~~1s of the Heavenly 'forms', c(AB. VJ.27), that there is
both 3 giV1ng and a taking, a taking and a giving, not indeed an
equality but a true reoprocity. Peace and prosperity, and fulness
ofhfe 111 every sense of the words, are the fruit of the 'marriage'
of the Temporal Power to the Spinrual Authority just as they
muse be of the marnage of the 'woman' to the 'man' on
whatever level of reference For 'Veril
elTe td h

Y, w en a manng IS
c e . t en eac a~~1eves the other's desire' (CU.1.1.6); and
m the case of the d1v1ne mating' of the Sacerdotium and the
h des'
Regnum, whether in the outer realm or within
of the cw
you, t e
o panners are tor good' here and hereafter Th need
of the soul and the body are to L. fi d
uc sans 1e togttha.



r he King cooperating with andI assimilated

to the

h I
But, 1 t
ower is thus the Father of his peop e, it 1s none t e ess
hig e~ ~ satanic and deadly possibilities inhere in the Temporal
rpruc t ~ when the Regnum pursues its own devices, when the
feminine half of the Administration asserts its m ~pen en<;e,
when Might presumes to rule without respect for Right'. w.hen
the 'woman' demands her 'rights', then these lethal ~osstbilittes
are realized; the King and the Kingdom, the family and the
house alike are destroyed and disorder (anrta) prevails. It was
by an ,assertion of his independence and a claim to 'equal righ.ts'
that Lucifer (to be distinguished from the Lux, as the solar disc
is distinguished from the ' Person in the Sun') fell headlong fro~
Heaven and became Satan, 'the Enemy': and by a like paranoia
that !ndra, 'when maddened by pride in his own heroic-power'
(svena v1ryet,1a darpital1)19 became their oppressor (devii11 btidliir11111
iirebhe), and could only be reawakened (iitma11a111 b11ddl1vii,
i.e. knew himself, cf. Kau ~ Up.IV .20) frotn his stupor
by the Spiritual-Power, by Saptagu-Brhaspati (BO. Vll.54f.,
RV.X.47). We have also the case of King Soma, who oppressed
Brhaspati but was afterwards reconciled to him (SB. IV. 1.2. 4),
and that of Nahusa, who in the Epic replaces lndra for a time
but is ruined by his arrogance, cf.SB. V. 5. 1.2 where if the King
should be 'intoxicated' (ud vti ha mtidyet) by his ritual exaltation,
'let him fall down headlong' (prti vti pate/). A self-assertion on
the part of the Regnum is at the same time destructive and
suicidal. 80
In a traditional society the oppressor is excomn1unicaced and
legally deposed; this may be followed by a submission and
apokatastasis, as in lndra's case and as forseen in lslan1 for lbhs,
or by the installation of a more regular successor in whom the
Kingship is reborn. In an anti-traditional society, when the
oppressor has been removed by a popular revolution, those
who have been oppressed propose to govern in their own

interests, and become oppressor in their rum. The n1ajonty

oppresses the minority. The rise of a plutocracy undennines
what is still in name a majority rule. The inefficiency and
corruption of the plutocracy prepares the way for the seizure of




po\ver bY a smgle proletarian who becomes a Dictator O L _

, r Wia;it
is c:illed in more tee cal terms a Tyrant, who no longer
even lip-sen,ce
to any power above his own, and even ifhepays
'good intentions' 1s nevcnheless 'unprincipled.' This caricatu:
of monarchy m rum prepares the way for a state of disord
(anrta) such as may well be realised in the world in 0 :
owntimes. It is, indeed, already apparent that 'what we call OUr
civilisation is but a murderous machine with no conscience and
no ideals' (G.La Piana in Harvard Divinity School Bulletin,
X.XXVTI.27). Such is the final consequence of the divorce of the
Temporal Power from the Spiritual Authority, Might from
Right. Action from Contemplation.
We have so far discussed only the cosmic (adhi-daivat4m) and
poliocal (adhirajya,n) aspects of the science of government and
with reference to the individual as a subject. But this doctrine
has also a self-referent (adhyallnam) application; the question is
not only one of a universal and a national or civic order, but also
one of an mtcmal economy. In the last analysis the man himself
1s the 'City of God' (AV.X.2.30, BU.11.5.18) 81 and it can as
well be said oflum as of any other city that 'The city can never
otherwise be happy unless it is drawn by those painters who
copy a divine origmal' (Plato, Rep., SOOE, c( KU. V.1). Here
also. there must exist a government in which the factors of
disorder n1ust be ruled by a prmciple of order, if the goals of
well-being m this \vorld and the other are to be reached. That
man ha~ t\'.o selves 1s a uruversal doctrine; these are respectively
natu_ral and supernatural, the one outer and active, the subject of
passions, the other irmer, contemplative and serene. The
problem of the internal econon1y by which the man's ends
(p11n,~an!ta) c~n all be attained is one of the relationship of the
psych<:-phy~1~l Ego ~~ the spiritual Person, the Outer King to
th~ Pne:.t \,\,,thin you: - for as Plato so often puts it, the welfare
of the ennr~ soul and body' de;iends upon the unanimity of the
mortal and immortal selves within you as to whi h h 11 ruJ 83
th p hi . h
c s a
ut e uro ta 1s t e instigator and the K
reflects the md1vidual coristirution in which the lmg t pc agcn~,
,. ,
nner erson ts
the ,wray,rr
and the elemenul self (the Outer M ) h ,..
an t e rwrtr





aus Up.lil.8, BG.XVIII.16).

f he man who is dvyat,nan (V1rtually at
(MU.IIl.3, K . .
T hese
all b a rebirth), are respectively uman, om o
birth and actu _Y. y b
of the sacrificial fire QB. I. 17' see
and divine, om

116 AB. III.1 9 yajiiad devayonya, pra;anaya 1,,
sel~es correspond co (are the trace_of) ~hose of
dotium and Regnun1 (tav at,nariah,
Mirravarunau, , acer
h B h
SB IV.1.4.-1), and to the two natures of t e. ra ma,
I mortal concrete and vocal, and immortal,
respecuve y
22 36)
discrete and silent. etc. (BU.11.3.1, MU.Vl.3.15,

whereby he is dvaiffbhava ('of one essence and two natures ,
MU. VJl.11.8). That the inner and the outer man are thr trace
of the two natures, Sacerdotal and Royal, _in divinis can be
shown as follows: it is as the Truth or Reality (satra) and as
Untruth or Unreality (anrta) that Brahma enters into these
worlds nominally (namna) and phenomenally (rupetJa,
SB.XI.2.3-6),85 in other words both as Affirmation (om) and
as Negation (na, AA.11.3.6); the distinction of satya from
a11rta is that of the D evas from the Asuras (SB. Ill. 9.4.1,
cf..lX.5.1.12), that of
from na is that of the Devas from
others, whether men or Asuras (AB. l.1 and 11.2) , as, for
example in RV.I. 164.19, cf. BG.ll.61 and Sn.724f.; the
distinction of satya from anrta is also precisely that of the
temporarily superhuman (deified) and priestly person of
the initiated Sacrificer from the secular So-and-so to which
he returns when the sacred operation is relinquished
(SB. I. 9.3.23 with VS. l.S and 11.28, cf.AB. Vll.24 where the
King is similarly desecrated at the conclusion of the rite
where he calls upon the Trinity to witness that now once
more 'I am who I am'); and this is the distinction between the
two selves of the Sacrificer, one the natural man and the other
the second and divine Self to which he is sacrificially reborn
OB.l.17, AB.111.19, etc.); while finally, just as it is by a
marriage of Mitra and Varur:ia, the Deva and the Asura,
brahma and k{atra, that the Kingdom is maintained, so it is by
a marriage of Truth (satya) to Untruth (anrta) that man
himself is propagated and increased (tayor mithunat prajayate





bliiiyti11 bliavati, AA. II.3.6, M U . VII. 11.8) . T hat the rel _

tionship is thought of as tha t of O uter King and Inner Sag a
also clear from the actual wo rdin g of the te:~s
e.g.RV. X .31.2 where 'one should spea k according to one'~
own Counsel, and by th e Intellect ha ndle th e m o re gloriou
Po wer (sve11a krat1111ti sa1i1 vadeta sreytii1sati1 dak.fa1i1 manas;
Ja,l!rbliytit) and it is obvious th at k rat11 and 1nanas are the
in terior bral11na and the sa1i1vada11a and dak.ra the externa l k.fatra
(we say ' handle' to suggest ' h andfas ting', because the
wo rding could also be app lied to t he ' tak ing' o r ' n1 arriage' of
krat,1 to vtic, 1na11as to dak.fa, co nte mplatio n to action) , and
C U . VII.25. 2 where the applicat ion o f th e political terms
svartij and a11yaraj is to the man himself.
Of the two selves, one is the psych o-ph ysical individuality
(bhiitti11na11, sarira tit111a11, deh ika al/nan, Jivat1na11 , etc.), this man
So-and-so , the other the spiritual Person (paramtit,nan,
praj,ititn1a11 , j 1iti11a11nan1 asarrra al/nan, sarvabhuttinti,n titman,
vaifvtinara atman, atmti sarvtintaral.1, antartit,nan, mahtitman,
etc.) . the solar Atman of RV. I. 115. 1 and related texts, the
pn euma tic D aim on (titmanvat yak.fa) of A V . X .2 .32 and
X.8.43, the 'contemplative, unjnveterated , ever-youthful
Sp irit, k nowing whom none is afraid of D eath ' of
A V. X.8. 44: 1n Buddhism , the one t he G reat o r Fair (,nahatta,
kalya~1attaj, th e o th er th e petty o r fou l self (appatun1a, ptipattaj ,
A .1.149, 249 . The form er is 'this self, the latter 'that',
' yond er', or ' rh e o th er ' self (AA . II.3 . 7 , aya,n a1111ii . .. asav
ahna; AA.IL S and PB . V. 1.4 itara arma; SB . I.8. 3. 17 an d 19
it.1,a at,1111, an d SB. IV.3 . 4.5 a,1yam armanam; D . 1. 34 anno aita).
That 'Self of (this n1o r cal) self (a1111a110 '111111) is ca!Jed i~s
ln1n1o n.1l Guide' (11eraa1111:1ah, MU . V I.7, cf. R V. V .50. 1~; this
self b rlssible, "ics immortal Self (0111,:to 'sya 'tma) as is the
d rop o r \\acer on che Jorus leaf (MU. Ill.2), i. e. unattached,

7h2.t.m moo' (ia1 ivam asi, CU. VI.8.6, ete.). Cn other ~ords,
c:ris oorer. a_ai~e. feminine and mortal selfofours su~ cno~
cm!11CDtf;- in and 45 chat i.noec, COJ}templarive, masculine an.
immorral self of ours, co which it can and should be 'reduced '



i.e. 'led back' or 'wedded ' (nita, upanita). 86 O ur existence (esse,

Werden) is contingent, our consciousness of essence (essentia,
Wesen) is valid and indefeasible, extempore. But our awareness
of our own essence is obscured by our conviction (abhibhutatva
as in M V. Ill.2) of being essentially, and not merely accidentally, 'this man', So-and-so, our fond belief'that "I" am the doer'
(BG. etc., passi,n). That other, Inner M an, the Self 'that has
never become anyone' (KU.Il. 18, cf. Hermes, Asclepius II.
14b, De11s . . . 11ec nasci potest, 11ec potuit), meanwhile remains
unknown and incredible to us so long as this outer man assens
its independence, so long as ' thou knowest not thyself' (Cant.
1.8, si ignoras te): the stupified bhutatman ' fails to see the generous
author of existence (bhaga vantam prabhum-mahtitmanam), the
(real) cause of actions (ktirayitdram, cf. JUB.1.5.2, BU .l.6.3,
John VIII. 28, etc.), within himself (atmastham, MU.111.2, cf.
BG. XVlil. 16). Thus to have forgotten what one is, 'know
oneself only as a 'reasoning and mortal animal' (Boethius, De
Consol., prose VI) is the greatest of all privations. The
distinction is sharply drawn in Kaus. U.IV.20 (c( CU. VIII.7 f.)
where 'so long as lndra knew not this spiritual-Self (atman) , so
long the Asuras {the extroverted powers of the soul, cf. Sankara
on BU. I.3.1) overcam e him . . . When he knew it, then striking
down and conquering the Asuras, he compassed the chieftaincy, autocracy and overlordship of all Gods and all beings, as
may he likewise do who is a Comprehensor thereof.'87
T o 'want' and to 'will' are incom patible, the one implies a
privation, the other implies an abundance: the Spirit is wissing,
but the Oesh is weak (Math.XXVl. 41, S. Th.1.20. 1 adl~ stinction of passions from will); so that, as Riinu says,
Whoso lutb not surrendered will (self-will), no Will (free will)
hath ~e ~~de XIII in Nicholson, Sh4ms-i-Tabnz). The mirage
of an mdivtdml 'liberty' is the direct antithesis of the dognuric
~ bonum, w hich 'highest good' is indeed a liberty. but a
liberty from onese1 not of oocself (the So-md-5o), the
frccd_om o f those who can say \\i1h the Co mptthcmor "f ' do

nothing' (BG. V.8), with Christ that 'I do nothing of mysdf

Oohn VllI.28), with the Buddha that 'I wander in tht world. a




veritable Nemo' (Sn. 455-6) and are 'free as the G dh

non-existence' (Eckhart); 'Were it not for the s~ c{;d 111 its
would say "I am I"?' (Rumi, Matla1U11v,, 1.2449) a e, \vho
To 'do as one likes' is by no means synon
'liberty', but much ra th er a sub.~ecnon
to the 'rulin
Yrnous .With
(indriyan,) that one calls 'one's own'. 88 Those g P~ssions
dom.iiutcd by their own inclinations are 'free menwo: are
rume' (Plato, Republic, 431c). We are much more the
y 1It
of our thoughts than their authors. The man who ;earures
I . ks' w h at h e likes to think . Where we oughtoes
know, 'tun
t lik
what we know, we actu;i.lJy 'know what we like', which . e
say that liking and disliking are our masters, rather than::~
servants. There is accordingly no g reater lesson to be learnt th
not to think for oneself, but by the Self, titmatas (CU. VU.26.1~
KaTa AO"(OV, (kata logon) analogic;i.lJy.
What, then, is meant by 'autonomy'? In the case of a King, to
rule and not be ruled by the multitude of those who should be
vassals and subjects; at home, to rule and not be ruled by one's
family; and within you, to rule and not be ruled by one's
desires. 'He whose pleasure is in the (spiritual) Self, whose
love-sports are with the Self, he whose bride-groom is the Self,
and whose bliss is in the Self (at,naratir atma-kr,cja atma,nithuna
tittnana11da~) becomes autonomous (svarOJ) and a mover-at-will
(ka,nacan'n) in every world: but those whose knowledge is
heterogeneous become heteronomous (anyarlJ)), and do not
become movers-at- will in any world' (C U . Vll .25.2) 89: for
'Here on earth the children of men dwell in subjection to
command, since whatever it be that they desire, whether a
lcingdom or field (i.e. whether it be a Kmg or any other man), it
is on that very thing that they base their life' (CU. vm.1.5),
and 'Why then', as St. Augustine exclaims, 'should men
venture to pride themselves on their freewill before they are set
free? For by whom a man is overcome, to him he is
iSSigned in slavery' (De Spir. et. Lit, 52, cf. MU. II.1-2).
When this mystical union (atmamithunam) of the inner and the
outer man has been consummated when the two fires that

hated one another (TS. V.2.4.1-2) have been made one (tkaltl



this affectionate, unanin1ous, and cooperative

bha"~""). thin it can be said that' Tl,is self offers itself (at111a1111,i1
mamage. en~ 92 to that Self, and that Setf to this seIf. T h ey
I ,a111

I) B hi
'th one another (tav a11yo11ya111 abl11sa,11 1avata .I . y t s

earthly, feminine) form, he (the aforesaid Compr~ ens_or ~
~dra as Overlord) unites W1th yonder world (a~enah~ n1pe,1. I ka abhisa,nbhavati193 and by the form Wlth this world
o m thus both worlds
are gained for boID; s:Iv~, this,
world without and that other with.i n you. We say within you
h ere, because it is at 'World's end' that Sky and Earth
d hi h th
(samf/4Yatah, JUB.1.5.5); that World's en d, beyor_i w c
is no more grieving, is at the core of our o wn bemg, and that ts
the Waytarer
s go al .94
On the other hand, we are naturally at w ar with o urselves,
and often not merely at war with 'what is divine in us,' but
ignorant of it because of our 'notion that " I" am the doer '
(ahamkara), and so effectively 'one-selfed ' (ekatman) and 'Selfless' (anatman), although potentially possessed of both natures
(dvytitman), this born of the flesh and that bo rn of the spirit. Our
house is divided against itsel( In this state o f ~~sorder ' M an 's
self (the T yrant) has no other foe than the Self (the legitimate
King having authority): that Self is a frien d to the self that hath
of itself vanquished itself, but a foe at war w ith o ne who lacks
the Self (ariatmana~ ... satruvat, BG. Vl.5,6). 95 Su ch a privation
of Self, and corresponding m o rtality, w as the original condition
of both the Gods and T itans: Devas and Asuras were in the
beginning equall y anatman, and only Agni am~ (SB .ll.2.2 .8,
cf. Xl.1.2.12 and Xl.2 .3.6), and ' A s are m en no w (i.e. Self-less
and m ortal), so w ere the Gods in the beginning'
(TS.VTI.4.2.1.). The Gods, h owever, 'desired: " Let us do away
with the privation (avartim), the evil (papmanam), death
(mityum)"' (TS.Vll.4.2 .1.), 'They longed for the world of
heavenly-light' OUB.I.15. 1.), the Sun himsclf'dcsired: "Let
me, indeed, cut off all the evil, so that l may ascend to the world
ofheav.enly light"; h e saw the sacrifice, grasped it and sacrificed
therewuh; thus he cut o ff all the evil and ascended to the world
of heavenly light, and he it is that having put off the evil, now





stunes' QB. 11.82): it ~vas, in fact, only 'by qualification' (arha

'by Agni's counse~' (kratublii~1). by the_ Sacerdotium (brahni,;~
that the Gods atta1J1ed their llTlmortality (RV.X .63.4, v1.
SB . X A nd as did th~ Sun, so m ay no w the man wh~ ~
a Comprehensor of the sacnfice, cut off alJ evil and rise abo
himself QB. U.82): it is only in finding hi m-Self that a man ve
beatified. for All that is other than the Interio r Self of All, oth
than chy _ Self, is an a~ction' (e~a ta atma sarvantarah a~;
a11yadart.a111, BU. ITl. 4.2).
The ans wer, then, to the question ' Who is worthy (arhati) to
enter into union with (pass throug h the midst of) that Sun?'
QUB.1.6.1), i.e. 'to break out of the universe, ' 97 is that he is
able, he is an arhat, who can answer to th e question 'who an
thou?' 'I am thyself QUB.IIl:1.6, Kau~ Up. l.2, etc.): it is to
him that the welcome is addressed, 'Com e in, 0 myself (Runu
Math11a1v1, 1.3063). Bu r ifhe has n ot verified the words 'That an
thou', ifhe does no r kn ow who he is, bur speaks ofhimselfby
his own or a family name, he is d riven o r dragged away from
the Door and excluded from the Marriage QUB .fll.14.2 JB.
1.18, Riimi, 1.3057, Cant. I.8, M ath. V ll.2 1, 23, XXV.10, Rev.
X IX. 9, etc.). ' Woe u nto him w ho dep arts from this world, not
having known that Imperish able' (BU.fll.8. 10).
Thus the first and last o f all man's needs is to 'know himself
(111 sciat seips111n, A ven cebrol, Fons Vitae, 1.2): the 'science of the
Self (a1111avidya1 is the final term of all d o ctrine (CU. IV. 14. l,
Svec. Up. 1.16, etc.). T he ancient and timeless oracle, 'Know
thyself' (-yJJW8t UavroJJ) g noJ/, j sea11tot1 , reechoes thro':1-ghout
the Philosophia Perennis. 98 The doctrine of the Self is_ thus
ap propriately introduced by such questions as: 'Which is the
Self?' (katara~1 sa at,,,a, AA.ll.6, kata,na attna, BU. IV.}-~
M U. ll.J), ' Who is our "Self', what is " Brahma"?' (ko tl4 a:
ki,n brahma, CU. V. 11. 1), an d ' ln whom, when I go f~
hence:, shall I be going forth?' (kastninn aham utkranta utkrant~
bhavisyami, Prasna U . Vl. 3), i.e. When I 'give up the ~h:t
(Sancrus Spiritus), shall I be in that immortal Spirit, or, in e
w o rds o f Blake, 'seiz'd and giv'n into the hands of my ow;
seHh ood?' What the answer to this last question shall be depen






Se)f- kno.,vledge no w : 'Whoever departs

th degree o f our
upon ~ world without having found the Spirit, there 1s no
frorn dus r hinl' (C U . Vlll. l.6). but 'The Comprehensor of
(reedon1 fo p
of all the Comprehensor of the logos
"th h
t c co.
t e
'That 1s my 5e
al S I( and leaves behind him the ot er an corpore
incorpore - e b,I -,1anii111 a11taral1 p11n1~a(, sa ,na at,neti' vidyal sa
If (sar11esa111 u

J - se _
. a,1a,11 asarira,n praynat,11aria,n ablusa,npa yate vya ,a1111tkrama1111 ev
fi hi

or m
taram a, 1 am , ;,
ured of this that " this Self of mine in the heart, is

Brahma; coessential with him am I (ta,n . .. abh1sa111 ,av,tas_m,,
when I go forth hence"' (CU .ll~.14.4);_ '~ho knoweth Him,
knoweth himself, and is not afraid to die (AV.X.8.44~. Thus
the dust returns to earth and the spirit to him who gave 1t (Eccl.
XJI.7). We need only add that these ?octri~es of man's two
selves and of their composure (samdh1, sa1nadl11) are as much
Buddhist as Brahmanical, and as much Platonic and Christian
as either of these.
The 'composure' of the yogin in whom the habit of samadhi
persists is in fact the same as his 'self-possession ,' the possession
of and by one's Self in that deathlike 'sleep' that is the entelechy
of the beatific conjugation of the conjoint principles, lndra and
lndrai;u, described in SB.X.5.2 . 11-17 in explanation of the
notions 'one and n1any, far and near': 'So let the Comprehensor
"sleep" (tas,nad evamvft svapyat): He who with love leadeth forth
(pra,.uiyati, cf. MU. Vl.7 khalv atmano atma neta amrtakhya~: V nf,
"to lead, control, ma_rry") all his children, He is verily the
Breath (prti,ih , i.e. Atman, Vayu, Prajapati, Surya, Agni,
Brahma, and here in particular Mrtyu) and these breaths or lives
(pra~iah, i.e. sense-powers) are his own 'subjects' (svah, cf. VS.
XII. 82, BU.I~. 4.37: etc.), and when one sleeps (svapit1), then
these breaths, his subjects, go in unto him (mam ... tipiyanti, cf.
-!DB. ~-15. 8 pra'1!1m apyeti . . . sarvam prar,am abhisamet1); this
sleep (svapna) is

ve Y conung mto one s own (svapyaya =
sva-ap1-aya cf CU VI 7 8
. . . svam ap,ta), as it is expr
:etaphys1cally (ity acaJe.rate pa,6/qam) .... Thus it is t
ot merely 'One' (ekah) but also "Several'" (ekah}--'





011e 1n the whole ' and ,nany in

. its
111a11y accidentally' (St T ho
A ~arts-One abso)
mas quin S
~nd .thus _bot(1 aka/a and kala (M ~s, um. Theo/., I. I j ~nd
English coming into' is 'cak
VI.IS). N ow ad
play o~ the words ap, (api-01?t:oss~sion o':, so her~u:~e:s i_n
possession or, suggested by the lif~ in un to ~nd ap 'to
(whether su-api-'loyal . .
ness of svapyaya t
o svap;
. .
1nomate or all ,
1nomate or aUy') in AB III 16 ' h
Y , or sva-api ,

t e Maru rs h
, own
b eclbre~ths' (pralJa vai inarutah svapayalr)' \ o;e ~ood_allies, are
ar e Wlth V rtra when all other Gods d . ' n_ ra ~ allies in the
and by such expressions as - ta,;:en him (,b. and lll.16)
CU.1.1.6), ka,nasyapti(KU 1111) ap - ,na (BU.IV.3.21,
bral1111a~rapu~1 atha111rta 0.Sll~I .(S.B.XJ~;~a~,, (Ka~$ U. l~.3),
the loyal breaths to the B th th . 6. ) . This relaoonship of
rea err rst J
stated as that of the
prina p e, can also be
sens1t1ve selves (th
ca~11sap11n1Ja, CU. VIII.12.4 the 'hearin
~ seeing man',
ly che man himself.
g man ' etc.; collective-p,a11a U ta VOV
, a, ra;a11, 111a11uiyasya
sa,r1bl11itil,, JUB IV 7 4 1.,
I ,

a~ara sa1111na11as caks

cI1a11do111ayo tnano,nayo -_ _
.urn1aya I srotramayai
Lib. XI 2 J?
va11111aya at111a, AA.lll.2.2; cf Hennes

. . a) to U!e cen tral Self. as in Kau< U IV 20 h

. _ Y . w ere on
t e one hand the forek.ii .
bod) a11d o h th owing-Self (pra;11at111an) enters into the
n t e o er 'th

Self as retainer~ on th , h~~ ~e~siove) selves depend on that

'nvavasyanti yatha i re$f:r c_ ie ~ 111
). h(ta111 eta111 <itm<ina111 ete atmano
'For iliou art ours
' ;'" sva.I ~ for them and they for him,
when a man is 'asl~ea~ inw; arc t~e (RV. VIII. 92.32). 99 It is
briefly in CU. VJ P h c ~ense ~ltcnded above, and more
rt<ally 'com;"g ' ~ ere what IS called " being asleep" is
.. .,,, into ones own" ' (
.- h
bhavatr), and it is
svap,tay aca~ate svaim hy apilo
cIcar t at svapna
means the mastery of th
as a tee cal term really
BU.11. 1.17 where Gust e s~nses and effe~vely dhyana, as also in
man is said to be ..aslee; ~ in hHer;:ies T nsmegistus, Lib. r. 1) a
are curbed) ioo and 0 n1
hw en . c curbs the senses' (as horses
Y w en he IS th I ,
e'.11powcred and really free. 'When h ~ as eer, that he is reall y
~ sleeps these worlds are
his, then he becomes as
a great Kin
. eW1Se ~e a~ins to the high and thg or a great Brahman;
e low. Even as a great
King, taking with him his
peop e, so also "this man" , reuung
. . m






s about in (the chariot of) his own body at will'

hi senses d nve

U. t. is). The onl y royal road to powerfi1sllto ecThi

o~ e _on_~ s

. the n1astery of whatever else o ows.

s is u,e
own n1aster,
d PI
al 'secret of government ,
nese an
atoruc as
inuch as it is Indian.
. .
. ,
The whole point of the 1nJunct1on Let the <?ompreh~nsor
I (ttismad eva,i1vit svapyat) in SB. X .5.2.12 will be lost 1f we
::: it is opposed to ilie 'Let him fight' (tas1nad yuddhyasva) or
'Act' (kartum arhas,) of BG.II.18 and IIl.21. These ar~ no longer
conflicting, but coincident imperatives for what 1s now the
mixta perso1ia of Kr$i:iarjunau rather than the single and hesitant
person of Arj una onl y. The 'sleep' intended is having the
sense powers in hand and under one's control and thus really
possessed (as is explicit in BU.11. 1.1 7), and this is the
'autonomy' of the King who is free to move-at-will in his own
realrn (ib . 18): while the 'action' intended is the activity of one
whose actions are not reactions to pleasure and pain but only
such as are 'correct'. To combine and paraphrase BG. II. 69 and
IV .18, 'He who sees inaction in action, ancf action in inaction,
sleep in waking and waking in sleep, he is wise, he is awake, he
is all in act.' 'Yoga is skilJ in works' (kannasu kauia/am, BG.
11.50,-it will be recalled that the original value of CTCX/,o&
(sophos), 'wise', is precisely that of kusala, 'expert'); the kingly
art is precisely kanna yoga, 'and it need but linle of this lore to
save from the great fear' (BG.11.40). The dhara,,a, dhyONJ,
samadh i of yoga (Christian consideratio, conttmplatio, and txussus
or raptus) are so many degrees of self-possession, consummated
in a going out of or being emptied of oneself and a finding of
one's real Self, which is also the 'Self of the immanent Spirit:
'When the rider in the (psycho-physical) vehicle is liberated
from all these things with which he has been stuffed (paripiin,a)
and by which (sense perceptions) he has been overcome, that
indeed he proceeds to w1ion with himself (dllndnn ffil siyvjy"1fl
upaiti, MU.IV.4; cf Plato, Phaedo 66 C, 67 A). We are thus
brought back to the deepest values of 'self-possession': 'When
thou art rid of self, then an thou self-controlled (tlina s,11,a
gewaltic / your over-riding self7-svarijan, rrJC/1Gffl ia1'ffW /e,r,,Jis





Juaurou]), and self-<ontrolled art self-possessed (dines selbes ei en

[your own se!/l), and self- possessed possessed of God (isr gor~
ogen [God is yo11r very se/Jl) and all that he has ever m d ,


Pfeiffer, p. 598!, a passage that reads like a lit: r~

tranSlaooo from an Uparusad: prasannarmac,nani srhitva, sukham
avyayam a..<nUte, MU. VI.20! By the same token a deeper sens
emerges in the expression 'All alone by himself, in the conf]j;
with Death. in which the issue is literally one of 'victory or
~eath', _we are 'all alone', b~t 'by _oneself, that means side by
side with our very Self, atmana1va sahayena (Manu, VI.49;
atmasakf; of Supar11adhyaya in M und. U p. Ill. 1. 1-lO), the
'Inseparable Companion' of BU.11.1.11 an d Ka~. U p. IV.12).
There remains then to be effected in Everyman, w ho is srill a
kingdom or house divided against itself, such a marriage of
selves as we have spoken of, and as in C U . Vll.25 and
AA.Il.3. 7. We have already alluded to the consummation of
this divine m arriage (daivam mithunam, upo,; ya,-ws) described
in SB.X.5.2. 11 - 16 as the beatific union of lndra and lndrani

'the Persons in the right and left eyes'. 101 These two are
respectively the King and Q ueen on the right and on the left;
what we have elsewhere called the Inner Sage and Outer King
are here, then, thought of in accordan ce with the functional
symbolism with which we are now familiar, the King and the
Queen; they represent in fact the brahma and ~afro, and just as
we saw in SB. IV.1.4. lf tha t the success of whatever is
undertaken by either depends upon a marital consent of
wills-a special case of the general principle enunciated in
C U .1. 1. 6-8--so here the union of lndra with lndrani 'makes
them successful' (samardl,ayall). T he holy ma rriage, the synthesis (sa1i1dl11) of the conjoint princi ples, i,nmortal and n1ortal
'selves' implied in CU. Vll.25.2, is even more poignantly
described in BU.IV.3.21: 'That is his hypermetrical fo rm , 102
from which all evil has been struck away, free of all fear. As a
?"1an em?raced by a darling bride (priyayti striya sampari~vakta~)
IS consa ous neither of a within or without, so this man
em braced by the forekno wing-spiritual-Self (prajnetinatmana"')
knows naught of a within or a without; that is verily his (real)



. which he is possessed of his. d~ires, _th~ S_pirit b~g ~is

for~ ,
that he is undesirous (a11naktimam aptaktimam aktimam)
desir.c, so
d from sorrow.' This is manifestly a rerum to the
d ,s excepte
) ,
dial state of the Spiritual Person (atman , puru~a a_s tt
f a man and a woman embraced' (ytitha stripumansau
,vere t at o
~ r.
h. h
, kt u BU.1.4.4): 'In dem unbegruen er o en
sampansva a

d eh
k d. alle dinge vemihter m JI selbes eit sun er s1 ISt
e111e elt, 1u

di liuh
sinde ein ane underscheit. . . E~ und , em veremet .
bl6z. . . . Also wire diu sele got m gote. (Eckhart, Pfetffer, pp.
51 7, 531).103 The man is no longer this man 5?-and-so, but
dissolved in himSel( The outer man has been crowned an~
mitred above himself (Dante, Purgatorio XX:Vll. 182). It IS
precisely such a crownin~ ~~ ~te~g tha~ ~ ri~y ena~
in the Rajasiiya: the King s d1vuuty IS not his o~ , ~ot this
man's w ho sits upon the throne, but that of the pnnaple that
overrules him and of which he is, not the reality, but the living
image, instrument and puppet. In this experience, the _Outer
King is merged in the life and being of the Inner Sage, ~ man
in the real Self, geworden was er ist (become what he 15): the
words 'That are thou' have been verified; the longing, 'What
thou art, that may. I be' has been satisfied.
Like the King's attainment ofBrahmanhood (AB.VU.23) and
like all the sacrificial Himmelfahrten this is, of course, an
experience inevitably followed by a return to oneself, the man
So-and-so. But like any other marriage, the nuptial coronation
rite n1arks the beginning of a new order, it is a new man that
ascends the throne: an outer man in operation, but now the
legitin1ate agent of a higher than his own will. As the indi~dual
is assin1ilated to the Self, the woman to the man. so IS the
Regnum to the Sacerdotium: the consorts are un~~~us, ~
that what the one enjoins the other performs. The mdivtdual JS
no lo~ger enslaved by his own desires, but has f~und an
infallible guide and mentor in the person ?fthe Dwnon or
Indwelling Spirit (atmanvat yale$a, antaratman), Hege~oo
(a111aryamin, nctr), SynteresisHl-4 as Sheph~rd and G~~
(rti~tra~opti, goptr, arakkha devata) and ' corrccnon du savoir-r::.
(pr~ma,,a);'os 'the Inner Sage who may be called the Chap




withrn you, and to w ho m the Purohita

h .
thc K1ng
. s ho use, corres po nds in the ci ii, w o is the Chaplin of
v rea1m The
Ia nger ' ex pressing
hi m self, but can say with Da
artis.t is no
. c n te that l take
no te, and even as H e dictates wi thin n,e 1
?) Th
, set 1t ,orth' (Pu
XXlv 5- .
e m ar ned w o man is no lo
. eh
f kin
nger at Iarge but
m arge o a
gdom , that o f her househo ld. And ;ill of now
ag reem ents ar e analogous to the agreement o f
an mperor h
es a treat y of peace _with a rebellious vassal or wou];..~
md ~pendent_ ~er who, m accordance w ith customary Indian
policy, ex'Pliot m the Anhasastra is now restored to h. th
:in empo,vered to govern, b ut no,v as the Emperor's friend. It
is the same for the Inner and O uter Man.
1?ere is nO\.\' a state of peace, w here there had been o ne of
aruaety. The composure (samad/11) of the outer rebel and inner
leader enables the v.hole m an to rise above the battle even while
participating in 1t. The King is no w in reality a ' Highness', his
acnons are no long er d etermined b y the likes and dislikes of his
sensitive pan (necessitas coactio11is), but inwardly instig ated, and
being thus strictl y speaking 'inspired', participate in the
'infullibility' of whate ver proceeds ex cathedra, 'from the tripod
of truth'; the burden of responsibility transferred to other
shoulders (BG.III.30 ,nayi san1tirJi kanna~1i sa,nnyasya) no longer
adds to the sun1 o f his mortality and ,ve can sa y: 'O King live
fo r ever.' When ,ve speak of a King as 'His Serene Highness' we
are spealang p recisely o f the truly royal quality of self~ by ,vhich a King, if he be really a King, is indeed
Thus from the standpoint of Indian sociological theory and
that of all traditional politics, an individual tyranny, whether
chat o f a despot, that of m emmcipated arrist, or chat of the
sclf~ ressive man or self- sufficien t woman, effects in the long
run o nly what IS ineffectual (akr,ani, ' misdeeds'): all selfimporunce leads to the disintegration and finally the death o f
the body politic, collective o r individuaJ. The essence of the
tnditio nal politics amounts to this, that 'Self-government'
(svara.,) depends upon self-control (atmasamyama), Rule o n
ruliness. One may say that this conception of government





even in modem India, since the political victory
,J y be ach.1cvcd b y
forseen by
. .
The Kin g is such by Divine Right and Appomtment, _and by
the sanic token the Executive of a _higher th_an his _own w ill; or 1f
he rules only by might and does his ?wn will, _h e ~s a T yrant an~
must be disciplined. The same applied to the 1nd1vidual who, 1f
,Jy concen1ed with the _g ood of ~he \.Vork to be done and not
with himself, and ifhe th1nks of himself only as an msrrument
governed by his an, is worthy of all honour, but if he asserts
and seeks to express himself, worthy of all dishonour and
The Kingship envisaged by the Indian and tr.idirional
doctrine is thus as far removed as could be from what we mean
when we speak. of an ' Absolute Monarchy' or of 'individualism'. The supposedly ' Machiavellian' Arthasiistra flatly asserts
(Bk.I. Ch. Vl) that only a ruler who rules himself can long rule
others: 'Whatever Sovereign, even one whose dominion
extends to the ends of the earth, is of perverted disposition and
ungoverned senses (viruddhir vrttir avasyendriya~) 106 must quickly perish,' going on to say that
'The Whole of this Science has to do with a Victoty
Over the Powers of Perception and Action.'
The application is to the ' King', the ' man of action' and
'artist' in any domain whatever; there is nothing dut can be
trul y and well done or made except by the man in whom the
marriage of the Sacerdotium and the Rcgnum lus been
corISummated, nor can any peace be made except by those who
have made their peace wt"th thcmseIves. i<M


N o tes and R e cterences


'Make ye chc d1vu1c, adorable, perfect AGNI

at t c progrcs.
un1ntcrruptc d sacn ice, your Foreman, (P h "
2 'T I
uro 1ta)
o 1101 in w o~c realm the High Priest goeth fi .
f h
oremost the
pcop c o t emse vcs do homage'
3. 'Go on thy way from good to b'ctter, Brhaspati be th ,
4. 'Th e Spiritual-authority foremost, be my do1nin1on dread and

5. 'Forword the Spintual-authonty, forwa rd the Tcn1poral-powcr'

unro their unJon';
6. 'K~atra (rhe Temporal-power) is vindicated through Brahma
(the Spintual-auchority)';
7. -rruth, 0 King, is the Supreme Brahma; be the Truth thy
Other references to Kingship and Goven1n1ent:
'May we a~ Purohitas watch over the kingship. ' TS. 1.7.10
For Puroh1ta a~ guardian against wrong doing. sec Jl3. lll. 94
'Kings arc the thcatn: for the manifestation of God's kJngsh1p;
clena. the rrurror~ for God's \visdom'. ,\101/,11011'1 Vl. 3 174
'Kmgsrup is at once t he g reatest of hu man aclucven1ents, and not
co be uught' ApoUon1u.s of 1"yana, Epl!tle XXXVI.
'The Jrt of kingship, a kmg crnincnd} connl'Cted \\"J.th J uso cc'.

Plu.lostrarus, ~-,,.AP Vl.21

'The govcmmt.'flt of one man 1f it pro\1dc-s all round for the \vclfarc of
the communuy. is popubr government' Philo,rran1s. i 'it A.p .V.35
the idea of~ Icing!} govcm1ncnr wb1ch respcru n1ost of all the

frttdom oi chc govrn,ed M.ucus Aurcl.ru,, Tire .\.led1touo,1,; 1.1-t

'I'm for 1\-1orurch) to kccp us equal'. 01.r\'er Goldsrrurh
"'Tiu, \\hich now o.lkth IC)('lf the ~'Opie b unwo rthy of K.mgs'.




'The authoncy of kmgs is dcscend<'d from Anu ' ungdo 1 S

Myths, p. 294
'The concept of the kingdom of God on eanh depends (as Professor
Jjucklcr often re'.'unds us) for ,is revclanon of the mncr m~mng of
eascem kingship
In the Old T estan1cnt, Psalons 87-93, lauds the 'CiVltas Dci', the City
of God .
Philo, in De11i1~ Mo~is '.'- 4 speaks of 'the King as the living u w'.
TI1c: true Cyrnc ,s a king who parnc,patt'S in the rule of Zeus'. Epiaetus
111.22.34, 95; Homeric Hy11111s XXX.5. 4
'Our customary designation for a monarchy that airns ac the common
advantage is "k.ingship"--(but) "tyranny" is monarchy ruling in the
interc~st of the 111onacch'. Aristotle, Politics. Bks. lll, V.
' T yra1111y is the rule of one seeking his own mtcrcst. Ol~~arcl1y seeks the
interests of the rich. Democracy seeks the interests of the poor'. St.
Thomas' com111cntary on Aristotle's Politics, Bk.111-7.
'God is not a tyrant . . . but a king governing with justice
(dikaiosyni) . .. and for a king there is no fitter name than father'.
Philo, Prob. 2.2.
' . .. ill lordship, \vhich doth ever cut the heart of subject peoples'.
Dante, Paradiso, VIll. 73.
See Plato's Republic 562, for the 'origin of tyranny', and his Statt1m<1n
276, for a king that is di.~tinguishcd from the tyrant; and Kepublic 4550
fo r Royalty defined.
H rres 258 on Genesis XX-7 'Restore the wornan to the ,nan, because
he i.s a prophet, and shall pray for thee; and thou shale live'. I Cor. XJ .7
'. . . the wornan is the )?lory of the man' .
2. Evola, J., Rivoltll co11rra ii mo11do moden10, Milan, 1934, p. 105.
Evola's thesis, in hrs discussion of the Regnun1, fora.-s him to
nusi.nterprct AB. VIII.Z7. Had it not been for this. hi!. adnnrablc
chapter ' Uomo c Donna' (of which an Eng.lhh version \Y;is published
in Visvablrarari, Fcb.-April 1940). applied to the tn1c rclation, lups of
rhc Sacerdotium and the Rcgnum (approXJIDatdy 'Church and !>tate'),
would have acquired a greater s1gmfioncc. As It ,s, Evola's argument
for the supcrionry of the Rcgnu1n , the acnvc pnnoplc, to the
Saccrdorium. the contcmpbovc pnnoplc, rs a conct~sion to that very
' mondo modemo' against which hi~ polcnuc ~ directed .
His argument 15 as much a pcrv=ion of the Greek as JC is of the
Indian doetrinc. In the Greek tradition the heroic kmd OT caste ( gttWs
= jatr), alike in the soul and the communiry,-'that pa.rt of our 5oOUI





v,rhich is endowed with br.ivery (andreia =:. Skr _

(thumos, Skr. Ydhu'), and which is the l
f _v,rya ) and co11r,~
r~ . . -"6c
S kr. J~IJ") {Plato, Timaeus 70 A) _;. th bes vtcto ry , ll'h
1l0t1ikos _

~ e
t Pa.rt of th
animal soul. supenor to the appetitive and in" .
e ITlortaJ or
_ _,
,enor to the sp
lffimo u..,.., pare that I.a ys down the law. As such its scat . . IIltual artd
between _the ~wcls ~d ~e he~d; it is the defender:~: e hean,
commuruty; its funcoon is to listen to the Vo. (I
e whole
ogos) from th
po_ s, to serve ~peretein) and cooperate in battle (
l!'ltJa1) with the sacred prmaple against the mob of the ap
. sy ( cl,os
pctnes within
us) or o f moneye d men (in the city). The three parts of th
bod y poIio c
us CV! ently correspond in hierarchy to the bra/ ~tra, and vis, respectively the Saccrdotium, Rcgnum, and Com~""'
of the Vedic tradition (in :-"'hich the i,~dra is represented by the Asur:~:
and there can be no possible doubt of the superiority of the sacred to
the royal character.
That the Spiritual Authority, Plato's hieron, etc., is also the Ruler,
Plato's arc/1011, etc. , just as the brah,na is 'both the bral,ma and the ~atra',
means indeed that the Supreme Power is a royal as well as a priestly
power, but quite certainly docs t10/ mean that the ~atra considered
apart from the brah,na is itself the supreme authority or anything more
than its agent and servant.
A.M . H ocart, in Les Castes, Paris, 1938, p. 65, repeats Evola's error,
saying 'The man and his wife are heaven and earth, j ust as are the king
and the priest' where he should have said '.just as are the priest and the
3. The Bolt (vajra) being the most essential sym bol of the kingship
as a delegated power (RV. as cited, and TS. fl . 1.3.4, SB. 1.2.4. 1,
V.4.4.15, XIIl. If we also find the royal 'virility' (vi,ya)
equated with the bov,r (SB. V.3.50.30), no antinomy is involved, the
bow being clearly analogous co the vajra (both are held upright and
grasped in the nuddle), and the arrows discharged from it corresponding to those which are actually the penetrating points of the vaj ra, fro m
which they arc derived in TS. Vl.1.3 and SB.1.2. 4. 1. The bow is as
n1uch as the vajra a solar weapon; the bolt is a 'shaft' of light, the
arrows that the sun discharges are 'shafts' o f light.
4. Perhaps as a disciple; cf SB.XI. 5.4.2 (liastam g,:htJOll) . Also
SB.lX.2.3.3 where lndra rmkes Brahman, that is, Brhaspati, who is
che Brahma, his ally.
5. Brhaspati, whose identity with Agni, Priest and King, is
unquestioned, is 'seven-mouthed' and 'seven-rayed ' in verse 4 of the



same hymn. He is regularly the Divine Sacerdotium (brah 1114"). and

High Priest (brahma) of the Gods, as lndra is the Regnum (kiatra).
JB.U. tZS...30 cites lndra's appointment of Brhaspati as Puroh.ica.
'Agni-Brhaspaci' is the answer to the question asked in RV.VIIl.64.7
braJ1111,i kasra,i, (i11dra,n) saparyati; supponed by AV.111.21.3 ya indre,_ra
saratham. . . ag11ibhyo hura,i, asru. The verses of our hymn are quoted
in AB. VIII.26, describing Brhaspati as the archerype of the human
Purohira and Brahma, who 'takes after' h.in,. [SB. XIll.6.2. 16
'Brahaspati truly is the Brihman(n)]. The Brahma is, of course, the
infallible Brahn,an priest who docs not take any active part in the
Sacrifice, at \vh.ich his presence is nevertheless indispensable. Himself
re,naining silent, h.is relation to the three other Brahman officiants
\Vhosc operation is active and vocal is precisely that of Director to
Executive, he is thus Brahma,:iaspati and Viicaspati (the brahma, as r<
being precisely the vocalised bral,ma), and proteccs the kingdom
(A V.XIX .30.3 bral1ma11aspatim tva,n indrasyalrnr van11a tvam r411l1ra11i
ra~as,). T his is the explanation of 'the very close connection of
brahma11 with vac' (cf. AA.1.1.1 and 1.3.8 with Keith's notes); as a/qara
is brahma, so a~arii' (RV. Vll. 15.9 and 36.7) is Vac; this connection is
nothing o ther than that of Manas = Prajapati with Vic, or than th.it of
Brahma with Sarasvati-Vac in the 'later mythology'. It is not
altogether easy to understand why Brahma, the God, h2s been
regarded as the creation of the 'later mythology' (Macdonell, Vedic
Mythology, p.118). It would rather appear that the Buddhists were
essentially right in referring co Brahma Sanamkumiira as the supreme
deity of the Brihmans and to lndra Sujampati as_ his vassal. F~r
Brhaspati, who is at once the brahma and the brahma of the Go_ds, IS
certainly himself a God, and why not, then, the God Brahma, ~
person of Brahma? 'Yonder Gods assuredly knew that Brahn_ia of ol~
(AV. Xlll.2.13). * The most that could be said is that brahmo tn RV . ~
more a title than a name, and only later on becomes a name; but this
changes nothing in the nature of the Person to whom the name
. ,_
It is only che acrual iconography of Brahma tha_t IS ...cc, as IS . e
Buddha's. Jn being 'lotus-born' and therefor padmasatia, Br~aspao.:
till h Agni sprung from the 'lotus' in RV .Vl. 16. 13, and Vas~ \
~e ;til;d of Mitravaru,:i.au. the Sacerdotium (brahma) bon, of Manas

*puri brh""' dt vi mi vid,,~






an d Urvas1, who m che Visve D e "h

va . supported i I h
VII . 33 . 11 , ~vhere che equatio n o( Mir
n c lotus' ..,
ra w 1r M anas and
, ,,v
U rva\1- ( f.) m ay be re marked . Vasis rha
chc S
Varuna With
the Urha\pan who 1n RV. VIII 96 1i-i s', . acer O CJum , 1\ 3\~urcdl

a,sun1cs a bod 111
. h
o f A m,uman (J>\ychc) and cnabk-., lndra 1
Y t <: Worn!,
witI1 I-',rh aspau a~ yok e-fel low' (hrhaspdt o -ove. rcome
hi s godit">s fot\

V ~<,Jst h~ ' hould be lr1dra \ 1nstrucror (in th . Y"Ja)- We
( '>CC now why
C lllra), O whi, h 'h .
get, rhc m,,.,c bccomt'!. the ch u:fta1n' irestl,ah)
d h Ii
c wh.,

but a V ;is1,~ha lde,c,.-ndan c o f Va.,1stha) becom
_ Y noll(:

I irn,up.it1 (:)U XII J, I 3~1 ) HV. VII 33 14 yuddl
dd ' 1 c ~
1ya Ia a rcs~ t

In d ra Jn d h ~ , Uu ll\ , (M arut\) corre<,pond~

to BG II 18 ddh O
addrt"i,cd to A r_Jun.i In RV V. 48.5 v 'a runa 'ending .the f: Y" yasoa
arr garment
.111u ,:,pcra11 vc with h1s rongue' (J1h11dya.
ni]ate din, 1,astina/ )
V:ru~ ~ro,ccdmg as Agni the Priest 'with his purifying
(pavaka!a. 111hva, ~ V._VI 11.2), 1s alread y, hkc the iconogra phJC
Hrahma fourfaccd fratura11ika~1), Agn1, th e bra/11110 of RV . IV.9.4 and
VJ/.7 5, rum>Clf cxpl,atly 'fo ur-sighted' (tat11rak~d~1) 1n RV. 1.31.13,
wluch 1s nghtly understood by Sayar:ia to mean ' facing towards the
four direcoons'. (Herrnias on Pliaedn,s, 'He of the four-fold eyes facing
way, chat wa y')



The l'ancbvas incarnate deities. Arjun a, wearer of the crov.n or

diadem 1s kiri1111 and Draupadi is Sri. Also, bearing in mind that
'Ar.Juna' JS lndra (VS. X .21, SB. 11. 1.2. 12 and V.4.3.7), o r, ,vhat
amounts to the same thing, lndra's son (M bh . Parva--ch. 199), that
K~r:ia and Arjuna, lik e lndragni (RV . Vl. 59. 5) and like Matali
(=Vayu-Macarisvan) and lndra (Mbh.), share a common car (prmi

rtijabhyah purol11ta eva ra1lui11 sa111i rl11_1a11ty a11padraityiiya 11edayam papam

karavad), and that ' where these arc, Kr~r:ia the Lord of Yoga and
Arjuna the Archer, there arc forrune, v1crory, security of being and
govem,ncntal-science' (11i1i, BG. XVJ!I. 78)-it is clear that Kr~i:ia is the
Sacerdorium (bralima), as is Arjuna the Rcgnum (~arra), and K~i:ia
therfore to be equa ted with the Ag n1-Brhaspati- Vasi~rha, bra/1111a etc.
of RV. It 1s jw.t because Arjuna is lnd ra- that fndra who is ida111-dra
because he alone saw l:lrahn1a (AA. II. 4= AIT. up. I. I, sirnila rl y
JB. 111.203, cf. JU B. JV. 20-21= Kena Up. 14f.)-that he alone is abk
ro sec Kr~r:ia's 'suprc n1e fo rm '(BG.Xl.47-8). The BG is an
ArthJia,rra; its burden o f the contro l of the :.cnscs and conquest of self
1s 1denocal wirh chat ,vhich Kauril ya .descnbcs as ' the ,vholc of this
saencr' of govenuncnt (sec p . 45 11ifra).
Why then JS K~r:ia 'black ', as the 11an1c implies, or 'blue-black ', and



as again the name implies, ' white'? In the first place, the
~IJ~ that in RV. Vlll. 96. 13-1 5 takes birth (ava1iHha1i, the regular
rop n used of the atma11 when it mounts the bodily vehicle) as

lodra's fellow, and for _w~1ch h _has b<.-cn long111g, ,s lack (ler~):
ccording to Sayai:ia, thlS K~i:ia IS the name of an Asura, prcsunubly
~Visvariipa, the son ofTv~ir: a stste_r's son of rh~ Asuras, who was the
Purohita of the Gods' (TS. II.:>. I. I), 1.c Brhaspan, asurya son ofTv~~.
RV. 11.23.2 and 17, and/or that ' Usa~ Kav~a of the Asur3:5'
(TS. with whom Kr~a 1d?'1nlies himself 111 BG. X._37. Ag:un
because Agni and lndra arc rcspecn~ely rhc Golden Person ID the S~n
(Dcarh in SB.X .5.2. 13) and the bnghc Sun itself (.SB.X.4.1.5), as m
the eye, where the black (ler!~ ) represents Agni and the white (suit/a)
lndra (BU.11.2.2); 'the blue, the deep black' ("ilam para/! ~1)4111), i.e.
the pupil, of the solar and the microco~mi: eyes _co_rn:s~nding t~ the
masculine, spirirual power (a,na, Agru, Vayu, Aditya, atman, saman,
etc.) and 'the shining white' (suklam bl,as) to the feminine temporal
Dominion (sa, Earth, Air, Sky, vision, re, etc.), CU.1.6 ~d .1. C(
TS.ITl.1.1 'dark colour (11ili) and his beauty do not leave him, when
nila is the proper colour of the initiate, ~ho would by_n~ means tum
pale. It is clear chat Kr~l)a's as_urya va'1)0 IS that of the D1~c Darkness.
and does not imply a local ong111 from any swarthy abo.ng~ pcorlc,
except in the ontological sense that the Asuras a~e abon~es
6. T he reference is to the performance of the sacnfice, "".~eh 1s ~c

wo r k' of the King . above (lndra as V1svakarma,

. .
RV .Vlll.98.2) as it is of earthly K111gs. Inasmuch as t~e ~g_ 1S, the
Exerurive (kartr), his is essentially the kannamarga, the a~v~ life , as
distinguished from the jna11amarga, the :con~c'.'1plauve_life', of .the
Brahmana. Further, it will be seen that 1n g1v111g A_gn1 h_!s due ~r
'share' (bhaga}-from Agni's point of view Mmasyan~ ea'""'" bhaluya
. BG IX 14-lndra becomes a bhaktr, Just as Ill RV.X.51.~
as h1n c A~ni demands his 'share of the oblation' (l10vi~o darta bl1iiJ1am)
:ce;ods who grant it arc bl,aktrs. The like is i":'plied for the hu;;"
sacrificcr who gives his 'portion' (b/Jaga) to Agru ~V.11. ~0.6)_an ~
. .
heir share endears the Gods (yatllO bhaJla"' ta
appomnng to each t
'. f. SB l 9 3 8 for bhakti as a share in
devatal.1 ~ri1.1ati, AB.111.4 ~nd
where the generous
the sacnficc to the go an
Th (pri 0 ,;1 va tva
the oblation, cndcareth
Y . , S
Sacn fiiccr ,.I~ offcnng

. o
kn1ava1e /iav1p11a11) an_d ib. l
c. , d ed b the gift of his own
en car
5 . vil'
I ,n

th sacn cers e
. (svtt1'1 bL'ioadh"'ena
nu., ,
bums away e

J ~VJV.i.s.io.




(p,ip,na11a111 api dahat,); cf TS. 11 1
h h
w ere I 11 d
1~ own share' and Agni th en b
ra approaches A .
Vrtra in which Jndra is wrapped
du_rns . away the sixteen coisgn,
' an in 1ikc m
, of
whoever approaches him with his ow h
anncr 111 the c.i.sc

n S are (svena bi of
ta J ' Agru b~ms up his evil', and 'ap proaches'
rcndcred by takes refuge with' the p
mig ht luve ~
h d
rcce mg texts from Ts
OC Ill
. I. . 1 bha~adheyam juhomi t'tc
d h
., an . (t e_Gods L'"'Ying

bec:n th U!, 'd cIig h tcd , (trptah), 'may they delight

tu, and a rcoprocity is implied as much as it is in mthc m-,.~ b "1rpayan.
e O1ucr l1akti tcx .
lt is never ,or nothing that a rrun dcvott'S himself Th ,
. ~
, (y . -.
bh _

e sacrifiCl.!]
a;n'.yam . agam) to which Agni moves in RV. X . 12 _3 in
the same way lITI plies a bhaktr, hcre a gain doubtless Lndra. That
ours :311d we ar e thine' (RV. V CTI. 92.32) im plies no less a
loyalty, like that of thane and earl or wife and h usband (cf the oaths in
AB. VIII.15), that belongs co the very essen ce o f 'Bh.akti'.
The bhakti 'cone' of R V . V.46. 1 (hayo ,ia vidvan ayuji svayam.
. . nasya . .. vasmi, etc., correspo nding to I. 190. 4 atyo ,ia yairsad
ya~abhrd vicetalJ) and that of VII.86. 7 (ara,i, daso na mi!ahu~e karii1.1y
aham) as in BG.IX. 14-15 is unmistakable. The Sacrificer is identified
with the oblation (havir vai d~it.alJ, TS. VI.1.4.5); it is himself that he
d evotes (SB.passim); the Sacrifice is a symbolic suicide (iitmiinam
alabl1ate, AB. 11.3; cf. E ggeling's note on SB. and the designation of the Sacrificer as atmayaji in M aitri U p. VI.1 0). AB.111.8
combines the notions of the contemplation (dh yana) o f a deity, the
offering of an oblation and that of sacrifice with an 'endearment'
(yasyai devatayai havir grhitam syat ta,n dh yayed. . . sa~ad eva lad devatam
prinati, pratya~ad devata,n yajatr), an d AB.III.20 yatha blragam devatiil1
pri,iti . There is no real d ifference between the implicatio ns of these
Vedic and Brahmai;ia texts and that of, for example, BG. XII. 19 'He
that hath devo't ion is dear to m e' (bhaktiman me priyo naralJ). It would
be nai've to maintain that the Vedic Sacrificer, who certainly
performed 'devotions' was not also d evoted ', or that he never loved
the 'Friend' (Mitra).
7. N ote the singular. The Mixta Persona of Mitrivarui;i.au, Supreme
Identity of Conjoint Principles, is the same as that of the 'One Ak$ara
that is both A gni the Sacerdo tum and Jndra the Regnum'
(SB.X .4. 1.9); cf.RV .1. 108.7 'Whether ye, Indragni, take your pleasure
at home (svt duro~, i.e. guhyam, ab intra) o r in the Sacerdotium and the
Regnum' bralrn,atJi raja11i va, i.e. pradur, ab extra, in active adminsitration). With sve duro~ h ere cf JB.1.146 yathagrham ... yathajnaati va,






d KU.fl.25. The Vedic 'dual' diyinities im ply, for the most part at
~t. a biunity (s~zy gy) of conjoint rnncipk s, active and passive in
utual relarionsh.ip or both acnve U1 relaoon to things externally
:::ministered . The names of such dual divinities cannot always be
adequatel y rendered by the simple use of an adjunctive particle. The
resources of language and iconograph y are inadequate to the
representation o f an identity o f contraries, such as duiyatapau or yin and
yang: we cannot think of contraries as coincident, but only as
associ.arcd, and it may be, reconciled; in other words, the truth of this
cruth (satyasya satyam) is paradoxical, satyena channam. Thus Mitrivarui:,au is not an aggregate or mere composition of an essence and a
nature, but the one Mixt.a Persona of both: while at the same time they
are Mitra and Varui:,a, and whatever is born os such a pair procccd.s a
principio ,onjunaivo. The dvaifibhava of MU. VTI.D is by no means a
contradiction of advaita, for just as in Christian doarine, essence and
nature, being and existence, metcy and majesty arc one in God. (cf.
Philo. Sac. 59--God's majesty and goodness, himself sis iig's mtSos
tripas). Monophysitism would have been as much a heresy from the
Indian as from the Christian point of view.
The priority of the Counsel (kra111) to the Power (dalqa), i.e. of the
contemplative to the active life, is already explicit in RV. VUI. 13.1
where lndra purifies the former and so gains the laner.
It should be here noted that the order in which the component parts
of a dual appear is purely grammatical (cf. Caland on PB. VII.6.9, and
Pai;iini 11.2.34 where iiidraryau means 'an iirya and a iil4ro'): the form
lndragru, for exmaplc, if taken literally to be 'Indra and Agni' would
be ineffective, it is 'Agni and lndra' (RV. 111.25.4) dut is to be
understood, for as AB.11.37 remarks, 'These two as lndragru were not
victorious, but as Agnendrau they won'.
'Regarded as paramount Lord, Agni is lndu' )i11dra~ paramaiivaryo
'gni~, Sayai:ia on RV. V.2.3.); 'Agni is lndra co the moctal wors~1ppcr'
(RV. V.3.1 and SB.XIV.2.2.42 'Agni, the greatest of lndra~ ).
8. Literally, 'these two arc of himself, i.e. 'these arc his tw~
natures'. 'For we must distinguish two things. the will and t~c power
(St. Augustine, De spir. et lit., 53). 'Two powers arc ~rst d1Snng_u1Shcd
(schizonta1) from the Logos, a poetic (kiivya), according to which the
ord ains
aU things nd which is called God (=bra/111,a);
al ower (=ksatra) of him called the Lord (=isvara) by which_ e
:~~trJs all thing~' (Philo as cited by Brchicr, Lts idies . .' . de p/11/011
d'Alexa11drt, 1925,pp. 1l 3-l 4) 'God was not Lord unul he had a




subject co himself (St Th

o m as Aquinas

ad 6). .
um . Ti,eo/
Thc ~vo selves are the ... . .,
'-1 3.7.
'd I
, ,, o ,onns o f 13 h
ua. narun : (d1a11i1,J.,1,,a) of th 'G
ra m a (13 U. II 3
\\'Ith \vhich he partici
c rcat Self (111aliar111 a 11) ' etc.). the
,n accord
pates u1 bo th eh .
e true' and the anc?
( 'ilf)'<lll(TOpabl,o,~,ir,l,,1~1. MU. Vll. 11.8)
~thcn v1sc e :-'Prcssed. in virtue of ,vhici~ , as ~lus ni..ight have ~sc_
c is tic corr, n1on source en
cvas and Asuras, that is , partici at
expencncc, the G o ds being the T ph csd both in divine and h of
rue an n1e U
c trace of the divine biunicy ap
n ntruth (SB.111.9 4 I)
pears 1n t he tw
d w h o is ,,yar,11011 OB. I. I 7 c
o sc vcs of the
,c., sec note 84)
us th? Purohita is 'the half of t he sel f of .
. .
va e~a ~atnyasya, AB . Vl l.26) as arc Sk
d ~ e K ~a tnya (ardl,atmo ha
IS the man of the woman (S.B.X .5.2 8 y and
arch (AA . 111.1.2) and as
con1plete without
the other . (S~n VI~U .1.4. 4), and neither is
XIV. l .3.25) as also holds "o K
d . . .6. 1.12, V.2. 1. 10 and

10 r
rsna an Al) u (Mbh II
H ence the use of sardl,am, literally p lus a h alf na
. -~0. 3 and 14).
complementary union , as in JUB I 48
. m conne~on _with any
samait, i.e. 'coupled with. Vac It .
li. 7 w here PraJapaa sardl,a,i,
was in reli ion and . .
. . is t us tcrally true that ' the Purohita
AB. Vil! 2!- ( A avil ~ffa1rs the alter ego of the king' (SB.IV. 1.4.~
th, Rei. a11d Pl,i/. of tl,e Veda a11d Upa11ishads'
1925 p .292)c . .B. Kc1h
or as vve s ould rathe s
h k'

Purohita. For eh d
r ay, t e 1ng the alter ego of the


eq ual; on the con~ra ; t~ot ~ean that the two 'halves' arc reciprocally
\Vhok (cf.A A Ill I I h c re anon o f one to the o ther is that o f pare to
w ere 111a11as and vtic a
h I

their sand/11) . The 'onl Vrac .

re t wo a vcs with satyam
KU V 3) t h
ya (Bral,ma, bral1111a prti11a Vtima11o
e .source of t h c braI11110 and the ~ atra (AV.X
' 23 and
XV 10 3.2.22.

as nghtly understood b A Ii h
brol,ma is the
f ks
Y u r~c t, pace Whuncy,-where
O ngm o
(Brahma) is both eh b
atro' so also SB X II 7 3. 12), the brohma
where Parna=braltte ra ,dma abnd/ chc ~ atra (SB.X.4. 1.9 and T .S. lll.5.7
na an
ro itna+ks I ) A ..
Varui:ia (RV. Vlll. 12.3 SB V
:a ra gru JS both Mitra and
IX.{ 1.16 ' chi~ Agni is 'both . 1. , VI. 7.4.6 Agni= ln dragni.

v .chhe plnesthood and the nobility'). In the

ac JS t e csser 'for M
b f:
rrutcd (apanmitataran,) a d v b i
anas is y ar the more
o f Manas and Vac

tarti. SB.I 4.4. 7, cf.1. 4. _1 ) nand :

5 1



Y ar the more limited' (parimita,vho is both the lirnit~d

d cs:arc the_ ~o aspects of Prajipati,
SB. Vrl .2 2. 14. ecc.) The lnfini an. ; unlimited' (parimitapannita,
Ftrute as 'ir:s o v.11 ', of wluch it ~~:t ~ er words, always includes the
rcall} (cf A V X 8.29 and BU V I) I . dj;nv~.' w hether logically o r
. . . r IS e Fuutc nature that can be




'f t reall y. ,solarcd from the Infinite, and therefore stands
logicallY ,f 11 ~co ni plcrion'. Cf.RV.111.31.2 ,vhcre. of Agni's pa ren ts,
,n need o avcrs (r,1d/w11), chc other .,s the agent , ('"arrtai) .
'one cmpo\
. o r _.in the
. The relation.. .in o ther ,vords. .,s. thac o f patro n to arast,
9. I . t of art to operation actus pn11111s to actus sec111id11s. And JUSt as
arusc c la

;he l{ing is onl y k gi ti111at_cly such to the extent th ~t he docs t~c W1ll of
hi her po ,vcr- 'T hy ,vill be done on earth as It is 111 heaven --so the
as an efficient cause is only free to the extent that he agrees with
I '
k '
the, .patron and is govcmed b y h.1s art, or, r
1 not, ,s mere y a wor er, a
'hand ', compelled by ccononi..ic pressure or driven by his own sweet


will or fancy.
tO. Agre: not ante pri11cipium (where there is only the Supreme
Identity, ttid ekam, yatl,a strip11mtiirsau somparirvoktau, BU.1.4.3), but
with reference to the separation of the male and female principles, Sky
and Earth, etc., in prit1Cipio, because of which they are alien to one
another until reunited by marriage: agre here and srftau in SB.X.4. 1.5
in1ply 'before the reign begins' or 'at the beginning of the reign'
(p,irvakale yasya raf(rasya, Sayai:ia on AB. Vill. I. and as in PB. Vll.6.10);
sr~(a1i111a,ui ir, SB.X.4. 1.5 corresponding to ' twofold in the beginning'

(dvaytim . .. tigre).
Agre corresponds to in principio (Gen.1.1 ), now rendered 'in the
beginning'. but which almost all mediaeval commentators. from St.
Augustine (Conf. Xll.20, 27, 29) onwards, have tU1dcrstood to mean
'in the first principle', it1 verbo, in sapientia, etc., without reference to time.
11 . Rte im plies not only a spatial separation, but an opposition.
12. Cf. D .11.259 purakkhatva (purask!)='scrving'.
13. SB.'Surya governs all this (world), now by means of
a good, now by a bad king'; and Par. Xlll.108-'Kings, the which are
many , and the good ones few'.
14. T he root in s1iya, sava, suto, etc., is su. Many schobrs
distinguish two roots sii, (I) to 'impel' or ' instigate' and (2) to
'quicken' or 'generate'. The latter meaning is obvious in RV .VU.101.3
where s,ite (bcger:s) is opposed to stan'I, (sterile), In 1.146.S where Agni,
the 'Sun o f Men' is siil,1 . i.e. prasaviti, utpadayir.i (Sayai,u) i_n relation to
all things, in RV. I. 113. where sovi""1 sovciya is 'for the birth of Saviq-'
himself, and in BU. Vl.4.19 where Savitr. 'He of uue quickening'
(satytiprasava). is invoked in the nurriagc rite, ceruinly as progcniovc
deity, Gandharva and Divine Eros. In our conteXU it is this Savitr ~t
is the prin1ary instigator or quickener (MU. VJ. 7 SIWftl s,n,itd"). If m
~ me contexcs su is rather to 'instigate' than to 'quicken' (cl




O~ R
a e=a11~1na yau, AV. IV.8. I. Comm
fom15 of is or causanvc fo
.}, and may L.

rms o r (as in A B 1
"" rcpj.
o nJ y wh<."11 M anas and Vac arc .
. 1.5), this is be ced by
personified' (
cau.se It .IS
anas <.mg identified wi th p - .
as is usuaJ in
we realise that the consequence ra}apa~, a~d Vic as his daug~ur lCl:ts,
the bral1111a) is an embod1mc t of anh1nsngation' ofVac by Mtcr) tliat
'concept' (BU II 2 3) the ~ o il w at has been 'conceived' andas _(o,

1ntc ccruaJ

an 15
mother of which It is to be bon1 .
. pnnapk inseminating ha
JUSt as m any oth

octnnc. To 'in stigate' or 'set in mor

. . er aspect of a Log0s
ion or move' . h
wca k er va Iuc of quick en. the p
h" .
IS t us only

uro 1ta IS reaUy 'f; th .

o unsc on the Kin g who as the k t .
. .
a enng' his
h f,
A d h"
arr is to give it effect b
is iat. n t is IS o nl y an extension of tl
. y means of
which the King has already bee 'b
ie ~cts(_o_ aspersion , etc., by
b h,

n egottcn suta/1) and 'b
(pras1i10~1)-for thjs distinction cf. K.B 3
_r_?ug t to
apras1i1al1= Avyakt0 U VI I
pra1a . . srsta

pra1a~1 sr~tva 110 jayarrte, and BU 1 4j"1
where the /qatra 1s srstam, but evidently aprasiitam until th R-
has taken place.
e 3Jasuya

Eggc~g discusses ~ s translation of s1i in SBE. XLI, p.2, note 1. We

adopt ~ s usual rendcnng,_ 'quicken'. 1-lis occasional use of 'spiritcr',
altl1o~g~ ~rue to the cssennal values, since here as in John Vl. 63 spiritus
est qu1 11111ifica1, is too awkward to be adop ted . We have no d oubt that
th~ 'two' roors su arc, or were originaUy, one.
Inc ~ d o f Kmg-malung dejncs (Savirr. Agru, Brhaspati, lndra,
Rud.ea. Mjcn and Varu,:ia) who endow the King with a variety of
powers or vuturcs correspond to the 'good fairies' of folklore who
gifts to
nc,vly born solar hero .
15. Budclhas asperse (abhrs1c) Bodhlsarrvas with their own hands.
16. The ~ord abhifrka IS roo often, and especully b y translators
from the Pili, rendered by 'Coronation. It is true that Indn wears a
ao,vn and is kiritn1 accordmgly, chat Rudn is turbaned (UVJ~ n) and
chat tile M ah.apurisa is 111Jl11sosiso. but the putting on o f ao,vn or
~rban ~la~s no important part in the c:itly Indian rites, where it is an
Aspersion rather than a 'Coronation ' that ,nakcs the Kjng.
Not all the ,vater 1n the ro ugh rude sea
Can , vash the b.1,u from an anointed King.
17. For tlle' Pnest as the Sacnficer's ' father in God' see JAOS 60.
1940, PP 50-51. It must be un derstood that chc Rijasuya is a
congruous n te' (tat salonra kn yau, SB . V.3.5.26), so char aU that is said
eJ~,vhecc of the n~~ d eath and rebirth o f the Sacnficer can be applied
to the Kmg, a for11on. Accordingly, 'He who performs the Rajasuya





\)ccOmes the 'chl!d of eh~ Waters . .. ':e (the Priest} brings hin, to
birtli (iauaya1i. delivers . m the medical sense and analogically).
SB. V.3.5. 19-24--a generation that corresponds to that of lndra as
King in RV.Vll l.97. 10 1arakf11r i11dra1i1jajam1~ ea rcijast, con1parabk to
X.61. 7 aja11aya11 bral,ma de11a vaslospa1i1ir vra1apa1ir 11ira1ak4a11, and
X.66. 13 )qetrasya pati,11. And this is ,vhy the Rajasuya is also the
Varunasava , for the ritual c1nploys the text of VS.X. 7 where Varu1)3
enthroned in the d ,vellings of n,en, is called the 'Child of the Water' . If
this is more often an epithet of Agni, it is in place here because the
nascent Agni 'is Varuna' and 'beco1nes Mitra' only when 'kindled'
(RV. V.3. I}, and the Sacrificcr's regeneration is likewise a 'kindling'
(SB.IV.4.5.23). T he intention is to enthrone as King, not a 'Va.ruoa',
but a 'Mitra' .
As Hocart has remarked with reference to rites of royal installation,
'The theory is that the K:ing (I) dies, (2) is reborn, (3) as a god'
(Ki11gship, 1927, p. 70). In this sequence, however, he was unable to
recognize the 'death' in the Indian sources, chiefly SB, although he
recognized that all regeneration necessarily implies an antecedent
death. As to this, it must be remembered that any initiatory rebirth, or
indeed a birth of any kind, implies a previous death; for initiatory
death may be citedJUB.111.9.4 enam etad dilqaya11tl . . . mrtasra vcivaifa
tada n1pa111 blravari. Any Sacrifice is a symbolic suicide; it 1s himself that
the Sacrifice, to the Cods, to Agni (AB.11.3 ci1111ci1111m cilabhate; and SB.
passim); cf. my ' Atmayajiia' tn HJAS. VI. 3SS-98. l942. Moreover, the
installation ofa King parallels not only that ofVaru,:ia, but that ofking
Soma, and although it is for a 'supreme sovereignty' and 'not for
slaying thee' that Soma is bought, nevertllclcss 'when they press him
they slay him (SB. saying: 'Fear not ... it is the evil that IS
slain, not Soma' and 'Thereby he slays aU his evil (sarvam paprruinatir
lranti, VS. Vl. 35 and S.B.111.9.4. 17-18). The bearing of the King wluch
puts lum above the bw, so that he can do no ~rong (~~- V.4.4. 7) is
analogous to the pressing of Soma by wluch lus evil IS removed
(TS. Vl.4.8 slaughter of Soma). In the sam~ way the ~~pi.ato:y bath
with which a Sacn6ce concludes, taken not m flowing ( l.ivmg ) but 1.n
V arunya (stagnant) waters, is a kind of death (cf. CU .111.17.5 mara,,am
evavabhrtha~}. and companbk in ~ respect to a bapusm; the
-immersion is for the sake of a 1.ibcraoon from all that pcrums to
v aruna, i.e. from evil, and by it 'just as a serpent casu t!S slun, w IS the
Sacrificcr freed from all evil (s.irvaJmal papmtitw nlrmucyatt}, there ~
him even so much sin (i,w} as there is tn a child' (yavat
not remain 111





SB. fV.4 .5.23),

words which
Li d
even so muc h evil as there was in him' whc
PP e to. a ku, 1g, Would Ille
n a pru1cc Th .
. 'd' ,
\vays eh e K mg 1es and is reborn; the o ld y us in vafiouan
, arunya rna
d h
n IS Put off
an t c new, M 3.Jtrcya, man put on a change . '

t1lat 1s reOcc d .
mvesnture Wit new ga rments w hich follow h .
tc ui the
AV.XIV.2.44 'Clothing myself anc~, as a b 'sdtfie in1rncrsion. c(
1r rorn a11 egg, I an
freed fron1 all sin'.


Such an absolution is essential. The King is indeed

t h e sense o f I S atn . X . 6. Hocan cites the fourteenth
anor er n1an'
G I . h h Jd 'th th kin .
century Jean
o em w o e
at e
g IS as much cleansed of his
takes orders (K111islup, p. 93). Charles I \Vore ~,hire rob~
. .
... s at ts
Coronanon to declar.e that ~1rg1n purity with which he caine to be
espoused unto his Kingdon1 (Heylin, Cypria1111s A11)!fic11s, 1668, p.
145), 'Espoused to his Kingdom', i.e. as l,h,ipari, 'Husband of the
Earth': for j ust as the King is th e 'wife' of the Priest, so is the Earth in
tum Iris 'wife': just as Soma is united co 'these quarters of space as his
bride (abhir digbhir ,nirln1111i11a), with his dear don1 ain' (pn'yh,1a dl11i11111a,
SB., so is the human king co his own land (de.fo}, the
shooting of arrows to the four quarters in the d(!(vijaya rite being
evidently a symbolic de1nonstration of this relationship. The quarters
are, of course, always feminine in relation to their centre and n1eeting
point; e.g. RV.lX.113.2 where So1na is diiam pari, cf. AV .11. 10.4,
A .A. U.2.3, SB. UL 9.4.21 ,.

18. 'Apart from a coincidence of th ese two, political power and

philosophy, there can be no cessation of evils, whether for the state or
for the individual' (Rep11blic 473 D; Also E. R. Goodeno ug h, Pl1i/o, P
190; sec note 57. p . 109).
19. BU. IV. 1. 6 mano vai sa111ra1 para111a1i1 brahma; 111a11as in all our
texcs and as identified with Prajapati, passi111, is the scholastic i111el/~crus
vel spirir11s (intellect as well as spirit} the d ivine rnind and will , and Jt is
only lacer that 111a11as in the sen se of external mind or reason and
modem 'intellect' is subordinated co b11ddl1i as 'pu re intellect'; our
n1a11as in other words is 11011s, as in H ern1es I. 6, 11 b where 'The Father
is 11011s. the M other plrysis, lo)!OS the Son.' Manas, for SB. X .5.3. 1, is
that Supreme Identity (1adeka111) that was in the beginning when 'this'
universe neither was nor was not (RV .X . 129.1-2). As remarked by
KCJth. ma,,as in the narrower sense of rncncal 'organ ' appears first in
Kau~. Up.Ill (AA., p. 46); this lower and nierdy ratio nal ' 1nind' is the
scat of 'op1n1on' rather than of knowledge (MU. VI.30). The ' two
minds'. pure and 1n1pure, arc distinguis hed in MU. VI. 34.6 and



Plato and Phi lo. The word mera11oei11, 'to change one's
h .
b th
I cwherc. as ,n
y e ,,pure nous.
e s" d' 1.mp1.1cs tile replacc1nent of t c impure
; . Cf. At-schylus, S11ppl. 595f ,ra~on 6 ep-yov ws E 1TOS partsti d'
('1' 0/1 J,o., epios ( fJJ<'S)
. .

g?I Cf. Mord E_~yptia11 C111r/12:arro11, p. 377.

That it is chc King's function b.Y. lus Fiat to. give expression to
I Counsel
the sp1ncua
in1plics the trad1t1onal doctnne that
. human
, h law
reo ects .Oivinc La,v. Thus, for example, the King. w o was
cc hoes or
J d '
'd' c n,an' and so link the people ,v1th t e sp1nrua or er IS
to e a ivm

d al
rcgar e as
him that Lav,, itself unformulated, could ccomc vo
Law. In
f akin u
>.cry,KoS, logikos); that is, the ideal man had the power o t. g a w
~ hich was spirit and divine purpose, and of applying It to hum~
roblcms. Through hin1 the Law, or nature of God, could b.ccomc
Iaws , and true laws for society could
It was
h A.,
universall y believed, be had in any other ,vay (Goo cnoug '
111 rroducrio,, ro Philo Judacus, 1940, PP 38-39).
23. Also SB.IV.6.7.5,6. Nothing is do11e unless Vac voices com d 'Do this' . Mind alone does not aa. cf.MU.111.2
. di and
mand s o f m,n
Hermes XII . I . 2, 4. 11 an
1 13A , froni which vii<, pl1ot1e 1s stu1ct


from logos.
.. II 2'"
24. n unregu a e

?S Comparable co Sankaras commentary on BU.I.-4. 14, th
sa'.y~, the

atha sastrarthara SQ evatt~(}uyamano
fact of being in accordance with the scriptures. The san1e thing. when
it is practised , is called righteousncss ..h.} R
d= (yad dha ki,il
26 Just as in SB.IV:1.4.3 'whatever t e cgnu111
kre) unquickened (apras,itam) by the saccrdouum, therein
, ceeds (iinrdhe). We sec
ea ,... antta ea
r:c :1 (
a at1rdhe) or converse1y sue

. rddha akrta and asa,iu:ddha are
It .ws tta . .. s. m .
fro1n this collanon that
' y :not done' at al.I. .
h t 1s 'mlS one ,s r,.
equivalents: t at w a
d . h s 'unsaid' and misfc.isance 1s
Sec Plato Sop/1isr237; fal~ch~o. ,sl:' at Id Gcr Unchat corresponds
C f. Skr. abl111111vad,, a iar, an ' .
- k "'
non casancc. .
VIII 127 kautasaksyam kr,.am. .. capya !'UI
to 'nithing' . Finally M anu d.
t be .!considered as] undone');
b/1a11er (= 'whatever has been on_c mus
akrta d= not deny an
BU 1.4. IS 'akrtam'. Thus the pnvauvc a in . but a failure to 'ace'.

h . vent \\'3S not an act
onl a ood and positive sense.
event. but asserts t at t c c ,
The verb 'to ace' has ~cnctly sr::ak1ng ,.Y g IS not an 'act' but an
as when we spcak Of God as aU m act a stn
. .

rra .




EM.Poa..u Po~

In TS. VI. 4. 9.5, full vessels r;epr--


contrasted v,,uh dungs ' not done' onl

ne In the Sacrifj
~e Ri~asas. St. Thomas Aq~as
and not Omissions, ~~
s1nner as 'no~xistent' (Sun1. 17ieo/. I 20 2 sarnde way S?eaks of th
. L.
In tb
. . a 4) not m....,ft;_
u.i.at no one sms.
e same ,vay too asa, Ii _,, .
-~..,,g to say
' . '
, teid..lJy nocbe . .
m many contexts naughc-y I e evil n o t a
mg , IS also
. .

mere nothin
mere p o tennality. All these propositions depend on the gn~s. but~
bonurn co11veru111111r (=being and goodnes
Pnnople e,IS et
s meet common
d . . al
tra 1non m etaphysics. In BG. XVII.27-28 sat
to all
an asar arc in all
categon es of w h at the Nominalist would call r thin cases
J U B .1.53. 1 the two worlds-Sky and Earth with all trhea
. gs. In

m as. and fem .- ar e rcspecnvcly sa1 and asat.


~ , t =gs d o

1 ~C:S


The question is o f imponance in connection w ith the so-c lied

Vedantic doctrine o f 'illusion'. It is evident that whatever

- )
appearan ce (n1pa must be an appearance of something and that
whatever 'significance' (na111an) is attached to this appearance muse
involve a correct or an incorrect interpretation of its basis. lt is by
m eans of the intelligible and the sensible, 'name and appearance'
(na111arupa), that which is referred to by Vac and recognized by Manas,
that Brahma, Deus absconditus (brtihmaivti parardhti,n agacclUJI), 'returned
(pratytivait, ' came down again', i.e. descended as avatara) to these
worlds which are coextensive with what can be sensed and named'
(SB.XJ. 2. 3.~ . dBU.1.4. 7, S. IL 10 1, D .Il.63, 64), becoming thus,
and rhus 'enjoying', both whac is 'real' (.sal}'a) and what is ' false' (anrta,
TU.Il.6, d MU. V1L28. 8); it is, indeed, by a marriage of these two,
5tff)'a and atf{fO, a.ffinnacion (om) and negation (na), that nun ~
propag:urd and multiplied (t.ttyor mWruruit projayate bhuyan bl11Jvat1,
A...\..Il..3.6; Our funcrionaJ exi.srence, unlike our being, is logical and
am.:,rriol, dctennmed equally by what we are nor and what we are;
we <hscinguish subjea from object and content from form.
There are, o f course. 'true' and 'ul.se' names of things; the former
correspond to their essences or formative ideas and the latter to our
own thin.lcmg ~B.XI.3.2.5, having in mind the latter and conventional nomendarure, remarks that of these two, 'name and appearance,
die latter IS the ' greater'. From this point of view it is the appearance
that IS ' real' and the name that is 'false'; it is not our senses but our
10terpre~tions that arc at fault; we do see the glitter (c( BU. V. 14.4),
but arc wrong 1n assuming that all that glitters is gold (Arise. Met.
IV.6.23). An ascription of'unreality' to temporalia does nor mean that



co noc appear, but that ,ve are mistaken in describing

appcaran~gs' and noc simply as appearances, and ntisguided in
eh~ as find out ,vhat they are instead of asking 'of what' are they the
crying co ces (cf.SA. V.S=Kau~U .111.8); mistaken in assuming thac
appearane the appearances of any thing, rather chan of a protean
thes~ 'veiled in all things' (BU.11.5. 18). It is remarkable that in
n~ _g .L:
very question of the world Sextus Empiricus
the rope (.)B. IV.4.5.3
f h f: miliar Indian parable of the snake and
'snakes are fike rope'), saying that the Sceptics by n.o me~ 'bolish
henomena' but only 'question whether the underlying obJeet is such
cars our doubt does not ,concern the
. appearance itself but
St. John
eh eacCo unt given of the appearance (Pyrrl10111s111, 1.227-8).
. ; Just as men_lll
Chrysostom, Homilies 011 the Gospds, of Matthew 623
the dark see nothing clearly, taking a rope for a serpent .. . so ~eh
hrink from what is in no way terrible for one who has eyes. So
Iy the
also H eracleitus (Aplr .IV and XII taken togccher) . Thi
, s ,s ~reosc
y edantic position: the rope is not a snake, nor even really a rope, but
'really' a manifestation of Brahma, 'the Real who becomes whate~er
there is here' (TU.11.6 and Arist. Met. IV.5.23 'And as co~ccrrung
truth, that not every appearance is "true", we s~a~ say first). In the
same way as we have repeatedly pointed out, mayo does not mean an
'illusion' as distinct from a real phenomenon, but rather the m_~s of
peacance whatever: that these worlds arc mayomaya
crdeanng anyeana~L.t they do not 'exist', but that they are quantitative.
oes not m
--'" . the sense of the etymologically eqwv..,en1 m111ro,
or mau:::llii,.l ITT
f H

be understood in the sense o

erac c:rrus
measure , to
being kindled and in measures
'ever-living Fire, in measures (mtrro)
d and
t' (-'-numnwr1=11irvata. as applicable to
gomg ou ..,,.,-,-. of Hencleirus (ct. Pb.co, Timaeus 45 BC
passion) to these measures
d ~ omazriih of
where ~ion is a part of the i n ~ fire) c o ~ burn:ckmmals
BU.IV.4.1=prmyignaya/i of Prasna Up.lV.3, LC.
or 'pow:rs_ of the so~- d as denoting the principle of measuremen1
For maya, from Vma an .
'Nirmaniliya' in ]RAS 1938,
of creanon sec

and thus tbe means
d 5 n,in,irilpe alUJni ka~i rnayaya. . . ,vam

81-4 and AV.Xill-2 -3 an '
ad esi
' h. - ea ikvim al,oratre v1m1mano Y

"'- b t
ea surya p~ 1v1m
correctly by speaking as we ..,..e u
27. 'We ~ o t ~peak or dannamc with the ascertained nature of the
b peaking m accor cc
~gs ~e:erred to' Plato, CraJylws 387.



EMPoRAt Pow!\

In TS. VI.4. 9.5, full vessels represent thin

contrasted with things 'not done'. onl
gs done in the Sacri6
the ~asas. St. Thomas Aquu:as . y ahcts and not Omissions ee, c.S

m t e same w
, tC)l(I
sumer as non-eX1Stent (Sum . TI1eol. I 20 2 d
ay S!>Cak.s of th
that no one sins. In the same way too' . . lia 4), not meaning to e
, asat terally ,
U1 many contexts 'naught- y ' i.e evil
not eing', is also


not a mere nothin
ty. All these propositions depend on the gness, but a
bo11um co1111muntur (== being and good
Pnnople e,is er
tra di no
metaphysics. ln BG X VI! 27 28
ion to all
. - sac an asat are in aU
categones o what the Nominalist would caU , I'
JUB. I. 53.1 the two worlds-Sky and Earth with all rhea things. ln

t e1r eqwvalents
mas. an d fcem.-are respectively sat and asat.
mere potcnn

The question is of importance in connection with the so-call d

of 'illusion'. ft is evident that whatever1s
,Vedantic doctrine
, _
appearance (rnpa) must be an appearance of something and th t
~hatever 'significance' (naman) is attached to this appearance mu:t
mvolve a correct or an incorrect interpretation of its basis. It is by
means of the intelligible and the sensible, 'name and appearance'
(namarupa), that which is referred to by Vac and recognized by Manas,
that Brahma, Deus absconditus (brtihmaivti parardlui,n agacchat), 'returned
(pratytivait, 'came down again', i.e. d escended as avatara) to these
worlds which are coextensive with what can be sensed and named'
(SB.XI.2. 3.3-6, cfBU.1.4.7, S.U. 101, D.ll.63, 64). becoming thus,
and thus 'enjoying', both what is 'real' (satya) and what is 'false' (anrta,
TU.11.6, cfMU. VII.28. 8); it is, indeed, by a marriage of these rwo,
satya and an!'(a, affirmation (om) and negation (na), that man is
propagated and multiplied (tayor mithunat prajayate bhuyan bhavoti,
A.A.11.3.6). Our functional existence, unlike our being, is logical and
analytical, determined equally by what we arc not and what we are;
we distinguish subject from object and content from form.
There are, of course, ' true' and 'false' names of things; the former
correspond to their essences or formative ideas and the latter to our
own thinking, SB.Xl.3.2.5, having in mind the latter and conventional nomenclature, remarks that of these two, 'name and appearance',
the latter is the 'greater'. From this point of view it is the appearance
that is 'real' and the name that is 'false'; it is not our senses but our
interpretations that are at fault; we do see the glitter (cf. BU. V.14.4),
but are wrong in assuming that all that glitters is gold (Arise. Met.
IV.6.23). An ascripoon of'unreality' to tcmporalia does not mean that



to not appear. but chat we are mistaken in describing

appcaran~gs and not simply as appeannces, and misguided in
che_m as find out what they are instead of asking 'of what' arc they the
rrymg to ces (cf.SA.V.S=Kau}U.111.8); mistaken in assuming that
appcaran the appearances of any thing, rather than of a protean
thcschinarge 'veiled in all things' (BU. U.5.18). It is remarkable chat in
this very question of che world Sextus Emp1ncus
mak es use
fch familiar Indian parable of the snake and che rope (SB. IV.4.5.3
arc like rope1, saying that the Sceptics by n_o m~ 'abolish
h merut but only 'question whether the underlying object IS such
p eno pears our doubt does not ,concern the
. appearance itself but
the account given of the appearance (Pyrrhomsm, l.227~)- St. John
Chrysostom, Homilies 011 the Gospels, of Matthew 6, 23; Just as men_m
the dark see nothing dearly, taking a rope for a serpent ... so nch
en shrink from what is in no ,vay terrible for one who has eyes.' So
: 0 Hcracleitus (Aph. IV and XU taken together). This is precisely the
Vcdantic position: the rope is not a snake, nor even 'really' a rope, but
'really' a manifcst.ition of Brahma, 'che Real who becomes whate~er
there is here' (TU.ll.6 and Arist. Met. IV.S.23 'And as co~cenung
truth that not every appearance is " true", we shall say 6rst ). In the
same' way, as we have repeatedly pointed out, maya does not mean an
'ill USIOn
as distinct from a real phenomenon, but rather
Ids the means
. of
creating any appearance whatever: that these wor
arc maya,".'1ya
d oes not mean that t hey do not 'exist', but that they arc quanntanvc,
- ,
or matena m e

, to be understood in the sense of Herack1tus

measure ,
bcin kindl d d measures
F"ITC, in
measures (metro)
e anfir an wind and
going out' (oposbetmume11011=11irviita, as applicable to e,
'measures' of Heraclcitus (cf. Plato, T11naeus 45 BC
passion);_~o .ese
f the internal fire) correspond chc rejomitrah of

where V1S1on JS a part

the human clemcntals
BU.IV.4.l=priilJ'lgnayol! of Prasna Up.lV.3, i.e.


so;!' as

or 'pow~rs- of the
~nd denoting the principle of measurement
For mayo, from V
. see 'N.irmai;i
- akiya' in )RAS 1938,
and thus th e means
d 5 - rnpe ahoni korsi mayaya. .. d,vom
81-4 and AV.XID.2.3 an , nano
d , .
. -
d im alioriitre vimimi110 yo efr.
ea siiryo pr,h1v1m ea ev
ct1 b speaking as we like but
27. 'We cannot speak or name co;
~rt.lined nature of the
nJ b speaking in accordance WI
o y y fc.___,,. to' Plato Crotylus 387.


things re err=



SPrun-'.U A UTRoIUTy .-\..~o TEMPQ



28. SB.XID.1 .5 .1-6 Concert of '\\o Brilmunica1

one should be a Brabnui;u and the other a ru
lu~ Pky-



c : o ~--

'19. ''Irus righ~usness is the concroller of che Ks.a .

ihcrt: JS nothmg higher dun that'. BU. l.4.14 S : tnya.. ~ore
30. 'Became of one iorm s:uggescs the im
"et. Up.LI 2.
n "' P<>rtant probL-.
c:rrcn; me n.:J2SUy-. endows chc Kmg with a nes~h
'Ul. to " ~
_lmpc~ Rirc m v.tich chc ~ r ~ - as in
?ozx. ~
.iXZf , . _ dma.m magcs as a dcric and
~ d)e

otnrcs as "di
R .v.__ Gm,,-..::no,, Riu:s 191

~- p. 50). Tbr
: .
JS ooc m -~- ooe. ~ a:n:rin!y chr SUtemau by Koth
ttie ror.necoo.i or roy:iliy "'-,th pncsdy rank, if it had ever been
~ of chc growth of the kingship (in India), had long disap~
bdore the ame of the Sam.hitis' ( Veda of the Black Yajus School
CXD-<Xm). JS far too s,vcq,mg. SB. V.1. 1.12, 13 'Unfit for Kingship~
B ~ (,t11 va, bralu1111,;o r<ijyayalam) ... lujasuya for me king,




\ a.r1pcya for cbe Brihm.u:ia; former bcsto\.,, kingship, latter empire'.

(Nevertheless kings do perform VaJapeya). Kingship is not enough for
the Brihm.ai;ia. wbo would not dcsrre iL le must be borne in mind,
agm. chat the Ri1a.suya IS 211 analogous' rite, and that every Saaificer.
bc:ing reborn of chc Sacrifia:, the Spirinul po,ver (brohma), is born a
BrmI1UJ_l2 br-airm..:=, patronymic from IK.m:m.1), and the initiate

~ IS fix dtis Tca5(ll1 co be 2ddr=d as a B ~ w~ec lus

= r :::'.U)' mve bttn (SB.m_2.1 ...:iJ): me 5.iaifice is me 52ettdocium

-~~ . dr L'll=t IS born .gnu of me Sacrificc. .. be =
PntS!i>ooc:f : w ~ "p:nl1, AB. VIl.22- 3. PB. \ '. 3.10).
~B.LJ ~-6 for the pocst (~.ihma,1") IS the cepeDer of the ~
~ v..'lm Eggdmgs note- 'Only a Brilima,:,a on perform
sacrificr. 1( ;is IS pc, mined m c.eruin cercmonic:s, a Ksbamya or
V~ya offia.aces. he. as it v.erc, becomes a Brmrrta.J:1.1 (md is addressed
2S such) for the occ.ision. by means of the dilda. or rite of iniciacion '.
It is ceruJn that lndn. the archetypal King, functions also as Priest
(brol,ma, RV V IU .16.7, SB.IV.6.6.5) md as Cmtor (udgatr,
JUB.l.22 2), that he IS a Prophet fr~,. RV. Vlll.6.41) and that he is
consc.ntly idenufied \v1ch the Sun. King Kcsin (the Kesin Dirbhya of
JB.IJ.53,54;JUB lII.29, and KB. VIJ.4; cf. RV .X.136) functions as the
_a sallTO (SB.XL8.4. l) On the 52crificer ;is grhapati o( a
s.:il:tra, Stt SB.IV. Weber thought tbJS a survival from a former
2gc (lnduche Studtm. X .25, 94), bur dus lS not acc.cptable, since whereas
forrnmr only \ l ~ could funcoon as the brol,rn,i T S. UJ. 5.2.1,




:,-) 11,,u an\'Oll<"

the requisite kno\\lcdgc
be . a
6 (>..
Sl:l.l \ ...
,ddr<'Ssed as Brahma (.)B.I\ 6.6.:,,
Brihn1ai_1a nd niav
, 6 1.10). the Briha1a1_1as and Upanids thus anaapaong tile
XII. -cdh Buddhist di>nncoon oi the 'Brihm~ b" budi' (or.ah,.,,,.
: ~ CU.\ 1. I 1 ) irom the
b, kno" ledge. Brihm.i as
r-"'1=~,. ~e le.un. ,oo. that 'tonncdy. 20 m,-eter,ted lang ~
tu, O"-'" son (Conun.on $B.X11l. .J.19 "here "the 4i:n,._., 2Sf'O'loCS
me ~ 1.,. a: \lbh.1.69..J.4. Poom ed._. "ilctt ~.:nca ih.:>c:.:,,,.
. r='1T;ijr~' blry~..Ti11. a pra<0tt dut sno 10 tu,~
,ved m Stam m connecnoo "'lth che ,cry imporunt n~ of the
~n,-ure of the Heu-apparent io "bich me King. impersomcmg Si,-a.
poured the contents of the great chank shell upon t:hc head of du:
prince' (H.G.Quarirch \Vales, Siam~st Sratt Cera~~"~ 1931, p. 130),
C[AB. V[Tl.13 \\'here lndra is anomtcd by PraJapan. and LS.p. 100
where Buddhas aspcrsc (abl,isic) Bodhis.1ttvas ,vim their own hands.
Jn the t.laha-Govi,ida-sutro the King himself asperses the Purohib
(D. II.232); and it ,vas probably by an aspersion that the King exercised
his O\Vll po,vers of 'quickening' (savo), ,vhen he bestowed _accl'SSJ~nhonours on the eleven members of his court (sn1ar1i, p11rol111a, maJ11.r1
etc.) '"ho arc called the 'Rcapienrs of Decorations (ratni,w~.
SB. V.3.1.12. -not to be confused ,vith the 'Seven Jewels', sopto ra111<1,
of a Cakr:ivarcin. RV.V. 1.5, Vl.74. 1, BD.V.123. .allhough the
atc:gorics partly coincide). Hoart points out mat lhc 'quickening' of
the Ramins is a rirual dcifiocion: n ,...-tll be observed that cxttpcmg the:
Quc..-n there are ten male Ramins. and t:h::SC ,...-,th the King hnnself arc
presumably the 'eleven Gods on earth ofRV.1.139. 11.
Furthermore, m me Act of Homage, the Kmg IS addressed as
Brahma md ,dcnnfied ,vith Saviq, lndra, Mien and VUUl)a. 1.c.
priestly as ,vcU as royal dcincs, thc Brahman taking a ~t below !um
(TS.rll.5.2.1. SB.IV.6.6.5, BU. 1.4.11): while accordmg to Man~
(V ll.2 f.) a Ksatriya ,vho has duly received the 'sacerdotal sacrasnent
has been IJUtlat
ed an d aspcrged
(bral,mom ... somskaram). 1.e.
. ,s a
substmcc compounded in some measure of lndra, Atula (Vayu~,
Candra (Moon), and V1ttcsa
Y ama, Arka (sun) Agni Varu~.


(Ku bera) and is like the bwning sun, so that no one on ea ~,


h a great God m uman
at ,um w o 15

. . . 1111rarupt1JA .



ana.logous functio~.
escrves the Saccrdo1
On the other hand PB.XVlll.10.8 express y r I . disrin uish the
oum from the Regnum, and ,nnumcnble texts sharp }




SB.XIIl.1.5. !~



Concert 0 f
h Jd L .
two Brah

ones OU I.JC a Brahma,:ia and the oth

_maruca] lute Ll
er a RaJanya co~- P Yers,_

' ''Pondir,
29. 'This righteousness is the controller f h
g to
there is nothing higher than that' B U
t e K~atriya . The f,
30 'B

. 1.4.14 S
ecame o one form' suggests th .
vet. p. I. 12.

extent the Rajasuya endows the Ki

e_1mh portant problem, to wh
ng Wit a pnestl h
t e Roman Imperial Rite in which th E
Y c aractcr, as ,n
(makes as e cleric)
mpcror kneels b ,r
ope, w h o fiacrt eum der,cu,n
and m.
c,ore the
crowns lum (Wooley, It M ., Coronation Rites 191 ;rrcs as well as
rroblem LS not an easy one, but certainly the sta~mcni' bp. SO). The
the connccoon of royalty with priestly rank r . h d Y Kenh th.1
f ( h
' I It a CVer been
1not1 o t c growr of the kingship (in India), had Ion disa
before: the ume of the Samhicas' (Veda 0 r the Black gY. . PS~hrcd

a;us , oo/
''.1-cx111, '.\ ar too s~cc:.~ing. ~u::'~I._J. 12, IJ ~nlit for Kingship~
the_ Urahm~i;ia (na va, brah111a1J1J ra;yaya/0111) ... ll:iJasuya for the king
VaJapcya for the Drahmai;ia; former bestows kingship, latter empire'.
(Ncvt~thek~s longs do pcrforrn V:iJapeya). Kingship is not enough for
the Urahr11a~1a, who would not desire it. It must be borne in mind
.igain, that the Rajasuya 1s an 'analogous' rite, and that every Sacrificcr:
being reborn of the Sacnfice, the Spiritual power (brahma), is born a
Brahmai;ia (brti/i111a,;11, patronymic fron1 brahma), and the initiate
(dilqita) is for th15 reason to be addressed as a Brahmana
whatever his

caste ,nay have b<.-cn (S.B.111.2. 1.40): 'the Sacrifice is the Sacerdotium
(bra/11110), the lninate is born again of the Sacrifice... he attains to
Prit'Sthood' (bralin1a~1atti111 upaiti, AB. Vll.22-J, PB. V .J. 10).
SB.l.1.4.6 'For the priest (bralima~ra) is the repcllcr of the Rak$asas... . with .Eggcling's not~ 'Only a Brahmai:ia can perform
sacrifice. If, as is perm.itted iJJ certain ceremonies, a Kshatriya or
V 31$ya officiates, he, as it were, becomes a Brahma,:ia (and is addressed
as such) for the occasion, by means of the dikia, or rite of initiation'.
It is certain that lndra, the archetypal King, funcrions also as Priest
(brah,na, RV. Vlll.16.7, SB. IV.6.6.5) and as Cantor (11dgatr,
JUB 1.22.2), that he is a Prophet frii, RV. Vlll.6.41) and that he is
constantly identified wich the Sun. Kmg Kcsin (the Kcsin Darbhya of
JB.lL53,54;JUB.Ul.~, and KB. Vrt.4; cf.RV.X.136) functions as the
x,hapat, o~ _a S1Jltra (SB.X l.8.4. l). On the Sacrificcr as grl,apati of a
SIJUra, see SB. N.6.8.J,5. Weber thought elm a survival from a fonner
age (lnd1S<.ht Studim, X.25,94), but t1us is not acceptable, since whereas
formerly onJy Vas~ias could function as the brahma TS.,



SJ:l JV.6.6.5). 110111 anyone having the requisite knowledge can be a

J:lr5hnrni.i> and may be addressed :15 J:lrahm:i ($8. IV.6.6.5,
Xll. u.1.10}. the l:lriihn1,1)>S and Upam~ads thus anticipating the
suppO scdly J3uddhisc disnnction .of the 'lldhmana
by birth' (bra/,1110
'"'"d/rr,, CU. VI. I. I ) fro,n the llrahmar.ia by knowledge, llrah n1ai:ia as
/,ra/1111011;1 . We lea n, , coo, that 'formerly, an 1nvctcraced king aspcrscd
hi!. own son (Co mn1 .on SJ3.Xlll.8.3. 19 where 'the kfa1riya aspcrses
the kfatriya', cf. Mbh. 1.69.44, Poona ed., where Du}yanta blUJr
a/am . . . yalivarajye' b/iy~ecayat), a pr.iaice that seems to have
survived 1n Siam in connection with the very ,m porunt rite of the
Ton~ure of rhe f-[e,r-apparent in which the King, impcrsonanng Siva,
'poured the contents of che great chank sheU upon che head of the
prince' (H.G.Quaritch Wales, Siamest State Ceremo11ie.s, 1931, p. 130),
Cf.AB. VIII. IJ where lndra is anointed by l'raJapati, and LS.p.100
where lluddhas aspcrsc (abhisic) Bodhisattvas wich their own hands.
In the Malia-Govinda-sutta the King himself aspcrses the Purohita
(D.11.232); and it was probably by an aspersion that the King exercised
his own powers of 'quickening' (sava), when he bestowed accession
honours on the eleven members of his court (serrani, purol,ita, mahi!i
etc.) who arc called the 'Recipients of Decorations' (ramirra~.
SB. V .J.1. 12. -not to be confused with the 'Seven Jewels', sapta ra11ra,
of a Cakravartin, RV.V. 1.5, Vl.74.1, BD.V.12J, although the
categories partly coincide). Hocart points out that the 'quickening' of
the Ran1ins is a ritual deification: it will be observed that excepting the
Queen there arc ten male Ratnins, and these with the King himself are
presumably the 'eleven Gods on earth' of RV.1.139.11.
Furthermore in the Act of Homage, the King is addressed as

Brahma and idennfied with Savitr, lndra, Mitra and Varui:ia, :c.
priestly as well as royal deities, the Brahman takmg a scat below him
(TS.IIl.5.2.1, SB.IV .6.6.5, BU.1.4.11): while accordmg to Man~
(Vll.2 f.) a ~atriya \vho has duly received t~c 'sacerdotal saCTam~t
(bral, 111 a111 sa,hska,a111), i.e. has been 1runatcd and as~rged._ is a
substance compounded in some measure of lndra, Anila (Vayu?,
Yama, Arka (Sun), Agni, Varui;ta, Candra (Moon), and V1ttcsa
(Kubera), and is like the burning suo, so that 'no one ?n earth ~an loo~
at him who is a great God in human form (maha11 devata
). M anu IX 30}.12 shows in what way a King exercises
. . . nararupelJll

analogous functio~.
On the o th er h and

1 distin uish the
aum from the Regnum, and innun1erablc texts sharp y



Sacerdotal &o m rhe R oya l fu


. .


ncno ns; 1r 1s n1 h
t ac cx erases bo th (Brhaspati
h .
uc rather the S
as 6 g tmg pri
egn um. It is evident chat the install .
CSt, "V. passim) h ~ulll
h his or t h c ki ng dom's need of anon

d <>es not, d'

r an the
. o f a I(ing
Sacrificcr (yaja111tina) and Lo rd of athpneSsth ood . That the l<.in ISPense

g 1s the
n1can th ac h e no rmall y pe rforms or c e d acnfice .(yap1apat1)
. t1tutes,
on ucts
L .
pa tron w h o 111s
p ays fo r and defc
d the
h nee . but t,iat
he is no,

en s t e Sacnfi
us peop c. He is 'the Supporter of Rites' (di
cc on behalf of
1rravrata) and as. such he
may not say o r d o an y thing or cvcrythin b
(stidhu); he and the Srouiya (indoctrina t!d ;t. ohnly w
) hat IS correct
f h n:
ra man arc the
uppo rrers o t e t'-lte (dhr,avratau, SB. V.4.4.5) lndra is
. two
vratapti, 'Fidei D efensor' cf. RV X 61 7 wh
: h ,.. .typicaUy
. .
ere t e euecove ods
pro duced the Sacerdorium (bral1111a) , and made the L d' log
( .
.. ) h
an s
vas1of!J.at1111 , t c G uardi~n of the Rite (vrataptim) .' C( RV.11. lJ.S
where genera ted lndca with lauds and waters' refers to his birth r, '
. th e RaJasiiya.
th e Scrifi
ce 1n

The difficulties are best resolved by recalling that the Priesthood and
th e Kingship correspond to Sky and Eanh, who were originall y One,
but departed from one another as soon as their unity had been
cons ummated (RV. passin,, TS. V. 1. 5.8, V.2.4. 1, BU. lll.8.9, etc.). In
the same wa y the King is assimilated co and identified with the Priest
(as Arjuna IS sometimes identified with Kf~~a in M bb.) for the
duration of the nu ptial Sacrifice, bu t, just as in any o ther Sacrifice,
'becomes again what he really is' w hen the rite is relinquished, thus
returning from divinity to humanity, satya to an!fa (VS.J.5 and 11.28,
SB.l.l.l.4-6, I. 9.3.23, lll. 6.3.21, IU.9. 4. l , IX.5.1.12). It is, in fact,
explicit, that having put off his Royalty and become a Brahman, the
K.mg m tum abandons this Priestly character: 'when he concludes, he
assumes his K~atriya characte r, calling to w imess Agni, Vayu, an~
Aditya (the cosmic Puro lu tas) tha t 'N o w I am he w ho I am
(Ali. VU.22): It is then 'no t actually and evidently' (na . . . pratyaksam)
bur only sym bolically and in an occult n1anncr (paro~am) that 'the
~atriya assumes the form of the Sacerdorium' (brah111a~10 nipam
upa11(~acd1a11) an d there fore only rransubstantially that he can partake
of Soma (AB. VU.31); cf. J U ll.1.40.3, where, not withstanding chat
the Voice (vtic) JS the indispensable support o f the Siiman, 'It is by no
means by the Vo ice that the priestl y o ffice is perfom1ed, but in an
occult way' (paro~e~ia), i.e. n1entaUy, ,n : ccordancc with rhe
mjuncoon ytijad/11,a . .. 111a11asti, RV. Vlll.2.37, cf. TS. Vl.1.4.5,
KB. Vll.4. In any case, that the Ki ng does assume the Sacerdotal



r hov,ever temporarily and in whatever manner, makes it

charact~ j
say that 'the connection of royalty wnh priestly rank had
unpos~,b e to red .' All we can say is that hardly any trace of any actual
long disa Op~~riihmanical functions survives in the Brahma,:,as.
exerose the King assuines a Priestly character which he again
Just -~
so 'In that he is aspersed (abl1i1icyatt) in the Rajasiiya, he
relinqdws t<.-Sthe world of heaven, (but) if he did not descend again he
(.1.e. he wouldd',c)
ulds toh .r depart thither beyond human bemgs
wo ~; gco mad' (PB.XVlll.10. 10), a condition of equal application
or wo ther Sacrificer (TS.Vll.3. 10. 3, Vll.4. 4.2, AB.IV.21, etc.); the
to any o
fli . d '6 .
al deification which prefigures an c ccove e1 canon post mortemHariaCArita 215, devabl1iiyali1 gate narendre, 'Now that the ~g has
as~umed his Godhead'. i.e. has died , and the represcntanon of~gs as
d funerary chapels- would be presently fatal, as IS mdced
. eioliesdmb the rule: 'No one becomes immortal in the Oesh'
imp e
Y The royal Sacrificer's Himme

If:ahn IS ncvcnheIess o f
rofound significance: for the descent, a son of avalarat1 companble
~o the Buddha's at Sank.isa, and to Plato's return of the Philosopher to
the Cave, is 'by that stairway which, save to reascend, no o~e
d~-scendeth ' (Dante, Paradiso, X.86-7). It cannot be wondered at ~a~ in
D.11.227, where Brahma Sanat kumin ('The Ete~al youth';;~~
A -Brhas ati, dt'llti11tim bral,mti, cf. AV.X.8.44 a1ma1111m di,
yuvf.,a111) appears in the Tivatirhsa heaven a_mongst the
flurry-three Dcvas beside whom he takes his scat (and. with wh~m h_e




thus 'consorts'), each of them ~xpcri~ces ha r~~:~

compared to that of 'a K~atriy.a ~ng w osch cah d ~B IX 4 1 15

begmrung from t e ea d, (adhuntibhisirto)

d h as soon as he has been aspcrse
etc. _an ces~ :ublimc enthusiasm and sublime contentn1cnt': for th~
his human brahmti is precisely that of the ~ver
B h - cf note 4. That the Regnum is only
IGng s rclaaon to
the Act of Homage
Devas to their common ra ma, d.
ril set above the Sacer ouum m
I 4 11
tempora y d SB V.4.4.9-13) is also apparent fro~ BU.: .
(fS.1.6.16 an

d . m was one simply m the

where we are told that the Sacer on:,
mnipotcncc (vibhu and
beginning, and as such did n_oc
o~ vibhava in the sense of
tadekam .sanna vyabhavat, wi~h ~".1~)j G X 40). That (One) rrunifcstcd
'dominion', cf. note 41 and v""!"tJom: a~ . c( RV .X.31.2 sreyansam
a more resplendent form (srey f hp R , u.m even the Devas who
i ')thatotcegn

dak$am, 'power an d g ~~ '

S II 3 1 4 ,i114nam vai r<iftrm), vu.
cf. T v
are Donuruons




EMPOR.At Po wEll

lndra, Vanu:ia, Soma, Rudra, Pal)anya., Yarn.a

some changes of rt.me, tlus ocud is doubdcs.s t~ ~ - ~11>.. (""1tJi
ocud of long-male.mg denies mentioned N dentificd "-1th ...

above 11)
the Ote
R 14.)
laa1ra1 JJ4'<Dn nasn): m the IU_jasuya the Btibmana cgJlum (BU.t~
Y...s.mya from a lo~,cr pos100n; he: OCpTcs.slv - ~bornagt to tile,
batr.i n,.: t.:Id Y~ aadh.in) But the Sacer~ die die ~


Rcg;-.urn. so ~ n-a:; though a ruling Kmg ~ SOlnq of~

.;=:zm.-&n. &.e \'a:r~s in SB ','.J.J.9, be fuulh la,u,~..zsup.~.
;:iie Rr....-::,--a ~ ended" ~ L . ~ u.p,:niirJ)@j ~ ~ wht:,
soc:-ae. z:Jd u :ic :ir iGag) Cl]'..:res 1mn {the B ~J. he is ~ his
..is own so:ucr, md be becomes the "orsc v,api)~ bha .:it ~

qt.ucd ms sapc:rior' (itiyansa,r.). For brahm.a as the SOUr~ o f ~ 'lllg

-".\' X.2. _'l2... ~ md xv.1.0.J. ~ is dearly righc in sa)~:~
DX glory and supremacy are rt>rcrences to the Aa of Homage at the
ouhroncment, but dut when the rite is relinqwsh<"d it is the King who
gives pTecedencc' to.the Purohita, w ho~ designation itself putportS
' Praeposirus' (Gr,-rrpoLTO<; prouos, Praeiror= Spartan Zeus, 'Aw,wp
hagetor, Agetor).
TextS, o f course, abound, in which the relative inferiority of the
King to the Priest is affirmed (rtijyam sifrnrtij SB. V. I. 1. 12). The
Brahm~as arc not his subjeccs, 'their King is Soma' (the Sacrificer has
Soma for King, AB.l. 14, SB. V.4.2.3, TS. 1.8. lOd); everything here is
'food ' for the King, but he himself is 'food ' for the Brahmai;ias
(SB. V.4.2.3, Sn.619; Kau~.Up.11.9); Soma's throne is borne by four
men, bu t the human King's only by n vo, since Soma rules absolutely
al.I (asya sokrt san,asre!!e) buc not so the other (SB.; the
Brahm31).as are not commi tted co the ~a tra, whose 'rod' (doiu!o ) is no'.
for them, w hile they on the other hand have a 'counter-rod
(prar,doiuJa) that can be used against !um or any of his subjects
(Pll. XVJIJ. 10.8) 1.e the pov.cr ofthc curse o r excomm unica non, the
of Nahl15a. w ho ,vas for a time me King of the Gods, providrng
an example (H opkins, Epic ,Wythology, p . 130). S<.-c F"t -111- 'The
king ly du dem , the syrnbol not of absolute sovercgrnty but o ( an
admirable vtceroyalty': and ~'Thc BtShops arc superior in that they
consecrate kmgs, buc cannot be consecrated b y them ' (Letter of
H.mcmar. Archb1Shop of Rhcin1s, co C h arles the Bald, AD 868).
That the King as mfenor u1 hitrarchy to me Priest is emphasized b y
Oldcnberg (D,e Relig1011 des Veda, 1894, pp.375, 376) and by Weber
(Ind~ Srud1m, X . 160 and ' Ober den Raja.suya'. Koni_R/id~ Akiuinnis



1 ,fi Pl,i/.-Hist. Kain. 1893, p. 118). Sc<: Philoscrarus 111. 10.

thL ll'iss"isc"' ~- 376) speaks of the 'sacerdotal prtStige which far
o~berg=k!y developed royal indi,'idualiries," while Weber
, ---' that 'the sharp emphasis on the subordination of
o;;,=)'a ."' rt:IJJ.aHC>
('~ - ~-...hidi is e,-,dcnt throughout the v.holc of the Airarey11
~ is absent m the Epics'. and refers to the absolute nc:ssit)
~ 2 ~ to luve a Purohita (= domesnc duphin}--otherv.--isc the
tor -illgnot accqx his ofkrings--IDd to be submissive and obedient
Se-e Note 56 and SB.XJ.4.2.17- 18. XLS.3.9 on Grr..:ipon.
to_,.._. '2hsmt in the Epics' reminds us that the Ten1por.tl Power m
s in Europe. gnduilly freed itself " oa mn,ll

uum 1rs
6 ~ )' ~ 5 ,nmatc
sca~ of agent (~ ) of the Spiritml Authority, ~d that as remarked
b Rhys Davids in Dialog11es 2.Y:,7, note ~- \VI~ reference .co ~e
ysirion of the King as described in the M~a-CoVInda-S~tta, a king
was o fl O\Ver rank then than now ' This last 1s the same as 1t wouldth
that Satan was of lower nnk before his fall than after c
to say
assertion of his independence. How diueren~ ,rom our o,vn are
lr.tdirional values of feudalism may be seen _m the faa that the slave
was once regarded as the superior of the hired man: .a colleague of

hiJc livm
g in Persia remarked to a messenger, I suppose you
'N J
nune, w
arc lhe Sheikh's servant,' and received the proud answer, o SII, ~m
his slave.' We have learnt to confuse scrvilitr wi_th loyalii: a~d rebellion
~ d om. ('For the slave is a partner m his masters life,
. h iree
'H but
cdi the
artisan is more remote.' Aristotle, Pol. 1.5.10). In faa_,
er . liwy
service (serfdom) is entirely incompatible with m~dcm mdustna s~,
and tlrar ,s wiry it is always paimed in sud1 dark colours (AbeM. ~I~; h~
C astes, 1938 , P 238 (italics mine], and. 'We must
d not 70)rrus c y t c
E o n equivalents for some Indian wor s p.
u~r: is 'operation' (vratam iti kan11a "'''"". Sayai;,a on ~V.(X(5~~)
h ry reference to sacnfioal opcraoon c

and l.9.3.23 where

Ii . SB
and hkt konna Wlt pnma
111 1
operari = s~:ra fo<ere) ~s e :
'in;eri~r; ; 11 1,ya) and 'exterior'
vrato = ya}',a. Opcraoon ,

those of the Saccrdotium

cf .
(d . ) Th two 'opcraoons are cssenna11 Y
v,r : csc
. . . .
That One the dciry tS ',die. (avrata, . tlO
and the Rcgnum "'d,vm,s. As
CU Ill 12 9 and Kaus U.
BU I 4 11 and apravanm

.. . vyiibl10va1 in .
Ill TS.1.S. .5, 'The opcranons _are_
IV.8), or, as t1us IS cxpres~ h
orsc lie down together' (sam h,
mingloo at night, the better ~n, ,t ~ ":'
- - -iti aisatt) but when
4 3)
11,il,10111 vrata111 s'}yan
, (y ,_,
l,h,ja.i,n (llli RV.X.1 2 .
'fioal part a1n1yam
'proceeding to th e _sac:1
R V V III.44.21).
'supremely opcranvc (11ratata1110,







lndra, Varui;ia, Soma, Rudra Pal]anya y

, an1a, M""
som e ch angcs o f name this o ctad is d b
,.,u. lsa.na ( .
. '
OU t1CSS to be id

. With
octa o . g-making deities n1entioned . N
cntified With L
Th ere 1s, aceordin gly, nothing above inh Otc 14)
~ atriit para,il 11iis11): in the Raj asuya the B ah t e Regnum (13lJ.1
4 11
. fi
r m ana pa ys ho
~atn ya ro m a lower pos ition; he expressly
rn agc to the
(~atra e11a tad yaio dadhat,). But the Saccrdo,.; g on cs the Rcgnum
Rcgnu,n , so that e ven tho ugh a ruling ..Kiun1 is the. sourcc of the
ng attams sup
(para111ata1n, hkc Varui;,a's in SB . V .3.3.9), he fin al! (
t hc R3J asuya is en e ) leans upo n (11pa11iiraya1,) the Sac, d '
source, an d I he (the King) 1nJures h im (the tlr:i hmana) h
.k 5
. , C IS Stn 111g
at 1s o w .n sourc~, ~n~ ~1 c-~econ1cs the w o rse (ptipiyii11 bha,,ar,), ha von,
tfl.)Urcd his supcnor (sreya,,sam). For brahma as the source ofksat
Av x ? 22 23
. -
an d XV1
. 03
. . S an' kara 1s clea rly n ght m saying
h I d'supre,n acy arc rc1crenccs
t c g o ry an
to the Act ofH 01nagc at the
cnthrone1ncn1, b ut d1at wh en the rite is rclinqui~hed 1t is the Kmg who
gives precedence' to the Pu roh1ta, wh ose designati on itself purports
' l'r.icpo~irus' (G r, 1Tpo~T0<; pro 1to\, Praritor= S pa nan Zci1s, A'(T)Twp
l1ag11or, Agcto r).
Texts, of course, abo und . iu which the relative infen oriry of the
King to the Priest is affirn1 cd (rtijyam ~timriij Stl. V. 1.1. 12). The
Br.ih111ai;,as arc no t his subjects, 'their King is Soma' (the Sacriliccr has
Sonia fo r King, AB.1.14, SB. V .4.2.3, TS. 1.8. IOd); everything here is
' food ' for the King, but he hirnsclf is 'food' for the Urahn1a(laS
(SB. V .4.2 .3, Sn.619; Kau~. Up. !I. 9); Sonia's dlronc is bon1e by four
men, but the hun1an King's only by two, since Sonia rules absolutely
all (asya sakrt sari,asrerre) but not so d,e other (S.8.; the
Br:ihn1ai;,as arc not com1n1ttcd to the K$atra, whose 'rod' (dai14a) is not
for them, while they on the other hand have a 'counter-rod'
(pra1idai1da ) that can be used against him or any of his subjects
(PB. XVlll.10.8). i.e d,e power of the curse or excommunication, the
case of Nahu$a, who was for a on1e the King of the Gods, providing
an example (Hopkins, Epic Mytlrology, p. 130). Sec Fug.111- 'The
kingly diadem. the syrnbol not of absolute sovcregnity but of an
adnurable viccroyalty'; and- 'Thc Bishops arc superior in chat they
consecrate kings , but cannot be consecrated by them' (Lener of
Hmcma.r. Archbishop of Rhein1s, to Charles the Bald, AD 868).
That the King is infcnor m hierarchy to the Priest is emphasized by
Oldcnbcrg (Die Relig,011 des !'.'eda, 1894, pp.375, 376) and by Weber
(Jrufucl,e Studier,, X. 160 and ' Uber den Rajasuya'. KOtJ~liche Akademis




,ft p/,il.-Hist. Kii/11, 1893, p. 118). See Philostrarus Ill. JO.

,V1.rsl'IIS~1ra I

376) speaks of the sacerdotal prcsogc w 1ch ar
Oldcnbcrg ~ y developed royal individualities," while Weber
on th e subo rd'maoon
. .wca
J .
' ,h.ch
is evident throughout the whole of the Aitareya

' absent in the Epics', and refers totheabso Iutc necessity
. h
Brahmana, rs
. h I . )-oh
t e

for a k mg

d beJ:
11 t accept his offerings--and to be submissive an o went
gods w i no


Webcr's 'absent in the Epics' reminds us that t. e ~~~:a I o_~c-r m

Eu rope graduall y freed itself from rts ongina.uy egiomate

k d
Ind ,a as m
status o agcn
b Rhys Davids in Dialogues 2.267, note 1_. wit~ reference 10 ~ e
f the King as described in the Maha-Covmda-Sutta, a king
pos1uon o
. th

ld be
was of lower rank then than now.' This last 1s : same as 11 wou
chat Satan was of lower rank before his fall than after the
to say
11,erent ,rom
our own are the
. tion of his independence. How d'tr
:::~~tional values of feudalism ,nay be ~ecn _in the fact that the slave
c regarded as the superior of the lured man : a c0Ue2guc of
-son C
h'ilc living in Persia remarked to a rnessenger, 1 supp
mmc, w
'N I m
arc the Sheikh's servant, and received the proud answer, o sir, ~
loyalty and rebellion
Ius. sIave..' We have learnt to confuse servility. with
lif. b t the
with freedom. ('For the slave is a partner m JS masters e, u .
artisan is n1orc remote.' Aristotle, P?I. 1.5: 10). In fact.' Hcr~d1.tary
. ( 'dom) is entirely i.ncompaublc with modem mdustnalism.
k I , (A M Hocart Ln
service scn,
a11d tltat is wlty it is always painted i11 sue!, dar co <>urs be. . . led b the
, 1.,38 238 [italics mine], and 'We must not mJS
, , P
European equivalents for some Indian '!'or
. RV X 57 6)
Vrata is 'operation' (vraram iii kam,a nama,. Sayar:,a on . ( ( ~t
. h . ry reference to sacnfioal opcranon c .
Ii . . ~B
and where
and like kan11a Wit pnm_a
11 1 1
oprrari = sacra facere) as 15 ~'Xp ':,1 d ,. .' ; ;uhya) and 'exterior'
.. O
is two,o1 , mtcnor ~
vrata = yap1a. pcra . ,
tially those of the Saccrdotium
(dvir), These rwo.'opc~a?ons ~a~;:c the deity is 'idle' (avrata, cf. mi
and the Regnum "'dwm,s. As
. CU Ill 12 9 and Kaut U.
BU I 4 It and apravartm

d . TS
'The operations arc
. . . vytib/10110/ tn
159 5
IV.8). or, as this is exprcsse d ~,e w~r~ Ii~ down together' (.sJ,i, h,
nunglcd at night, the better an, ,t -,
- iw ciisiite) but when
1uik1a1n 1ratti11i srjya,uc, salui srera(yru-~ par;;..aam e,ni RV.X.124.3)
ficial part
ll)lllyam "

'proceeding to u,e sacn

RV VUl 44 21).
'supre,ncly operative' (vratatama,







V, -



vata r~a. implies the potenciali

. ya11, puts Soma to work' . ry .of operation
IS then the 'One and only V~ i.: ,drinks Soma.) Bra~B.ll.233 so....,,
proper to Brhaspati and l.i d ty ' the source of th b rna, the brah
whom aJJ ~ings attend, and1 ar~who_ becomes th: ~~;; an~ ki,,";;;
up the hostile brotherhood' (4 . g himself wi th Ind . b. (sana on
hates' (dvifantam) AV XV rpnyam bhrat,:vyam) and , r~ s ow 'cov~

1 5--6 XV 3
pierces hi
t crwisestated, the 'onJ
. 10, XV.lQ.3-6
that blows from the four yq atya IS Vayu,' is the Gale off IV. 1.3_
and Soma and from ab uarters as the Kings lndra Is t c Spirit it

v;- . :



Prajap~ti, the Breath

P7)raj~ti OUB.111.2i .3):n:r
enters into the worlds as p .
us the unmanifcsted B ariah h
nest and }(jng as A . B
c IS t c archetypal 'Guest and }(j
gJU~ rhaspati and Ind .
with the cry 'H
ng whom his sat lli
k ' d f - - ere comes Brahma!' (BU IV 3 37)
~ rcs welcome
in o Ra1asuya. It is natural then
. . . . His welcome is a
for the Vratya in AV.XV 3 h, Jd , that the throne (asand,) prepared
, .
s ou resemble B h
an d In d ra ~ in AB. Vlll.12, and likew
_ra mas in Kau~. U.1.5
early iconography, for aU these arc 'Gu~; ~he Buddha's throne in the
Vratya in the plural is th
ts to be welcomed as Kings.
applied to any Brahman '
edn, dy analogy an epithet that can be
cons1 ere as a mani.fc

equ all y to any alien guest who .
estanon o Brahma, or
d '.s q u
ed by nature to be received into
the Aryan fold and . d
in ucte into the Ary

RV.X .65.11): \Ve see that for the

an operanons (arya vratd,
address the stranger as , V ra ,
Aryan householder or King to
to pay him the hi h h
tya (AV.X V. 10. 1-2, J l. 1- 2. 12 1-2) is
g est o nour and to sa rr. ,
your servants Th
Y m euect: We are altogether

e tradinon o f h
metaphysical principl
h . . .
. osp1 ty IS ased on
symbol of the d . cs(B. ;spitality IS a nte, the guest is a living
also why it is th eicy
r ma=Guest). It becomes understandable,

at a guest may be feared

U h
. .
enemy that comes t b
as we as onorcd: 1t JS an
o ,e received, .as. a fri en d , a V aru,:ia w h om one
receives as a Mitra th
, e we come JS 10 an y
, ci1i . , ('- .
LFOm sam) and is a 'qui . 1
case a pa canon sa11t1;
the quietus co the sa~::J v:::go ~s to that of the iamitr who gives
the proceed.mg deity . . "

should no t be overlooked that

X 81 . :>,
- ~a
the Sacrificc (RV . X . 13.4,
~ pa.ssim ece)



Brahman gues~ is ~eda-'Fire'

cl~~ ~-KU.1.7 where the
: san~,m refers at the same
ome to the extinction of the 'Fir ,
e an the p~ci.ficaoon ofche 'Guest,' as
m TS. V. 1.6.1 where 'the
waters are pacilicati
d .
. , _ons, -~ wi~ these
cifi~o~ h~ quietS Agni's bumin.
evasya sua:m """""O': ,
g mgwsh (apo va, sanuih san1abh,r
- - , .u, SllC4m cocresponding to the 'sharpness
' of the



firc--Oash' contrasted with the 'meekness and light' in Bchmen Thru

Pritrfiples, XIV.69-77) ; cf. the extinction or pacification {siinlr)' of the
Fire in PB. Vlll. 7 .8, and the value of sa111i in Pali Buddhism where the
extinction or pacification of the fire of life is the same as Nibbana.
Sa,i1fa111 in Mbh. is both to 'kill' and to 'make peace with,' since in
'making peace' we put an end to the enen1y and generate a friend; it is
logically impossible to n1ake 'peace with an enen1y,' whom like
Varui:> we can only approach when we have 'made him a friend'
(111itrak,:tya), and this passage from enmity to friendship (c( the double
encendre of hostis), like all other transitions, is the death of what was
and a birth of what is. ln BG.Vl.7 where the empirical self has been
'overcome and pacified' (jita prafanta), prasanta has all the values of
'sacrificed,' 'made sacred,' 'made holy,' as in the ritual Sacrifice
itself, where the Sacrificcr is identified with the victim and called a
'self-sacrificcr' (atmayiiji, ~B.XJ.2.6.13, cf., ccc., and Manu,
This digression has been necessary to an understanding of vrata, a
word that can only be rendered correctly by 'operation,' and equated
with karma; it should be added that all occupations arc traditionally
sacrificial rites, cf. RV .IX. 112. 1.2 where the vocations of the priest,
the carpenter, doctor, and fletcher arc all equally vrata11i. We can now
understand the full meaning of samvrata which is quite literally that of
'cooperative', and chat of pativrata, a 'devoted wife'; co use a later
word, the 'wife', the 'royal' partner, is to act as sahadluirmi11i, a partner
in the fulfilment of the Eternal Law, which as svadlianna becomes the
Law of one's own Vocation; the analogous a11uvarata in AV.XN.1.42,
TS.1.1.10, and JUB.1.54.6, and implied in the Arlhaiastra l, adhy. 9,
"The !Gng should obey (a11uvarteta, i.e. should be anuvrata with
respect to) the Purohita, as is a pupil to his master, a son to a father, or
a serf to his feudal lord" (svamO, and as might have been added, as is a
wife to a husband whom she should "love, honor, and obey."
Conmsted with these coopcrations, the alternative of other and
independent operation (a11yavrata) would be satanic (RV.X.22.8. VS.
XXXVIll.20), cf. AB.11.5, AV.V.18.8, 9, where "instigated by the
Mind the Voice speaks (manasti vii 4ita viig vadall), but what she ~cte_r~
absent mindedly is of the Asuras and not acceptable to the Gvds (yam
hy anyamanii viicam vadati 4514,y,i vai s,i vag adtvafu~ta; the :~,f~d' .~ere
being the sacrificial Maicravarw;ia.. i.e. the brahma, and the Voice the

l,otr, functionally feminine).

_ .
AV.ill.8.5 sam 110 maniiiisi sam .,,-.;; TB., SOllgodihadhvant





sa11,~!adh11a1n . sarn 110

Sa1n;a,1a,1a upiisaia
_manag11rn.s, fti11a1a
- . samano 11UJntrah
. _m. deva bha
.. samana,;, keto bi . . sam,r,/, sarn - '}?a,,, )'a1J,.;
ya;a1t1ah . sa1ntin1 Ila -k, 1 a " sa,irrabltadl, . _a,., sama,ia,,,
yat/i,i 11ah siisaJ,,;, _a Se'' ' san1ti11a hrdaya- ~vam. sarnJiitf,,_:nana~ saJ,,,
e a.ls
'" val,
~"" " ha
V . VT.6-t.1-3.
o RV.X.19) 2 . SOmtillQnias,., 0o
33 Th
. -4 X . 65 8
" "'4,..,,
4 a~ :h~mamagc of the t\vo Ag .
. ' TS.rv.2.5. 1,
on of mun,a]J
rus, ksatra
~arura opposition of Sacerdo . y antagonistic princi :nd brah,na, in
~m of the sexes Wha
_oum and Rcgnu,
p es, rcOccis h
(SB. Ill. . 4.18) 'Th
. L. t pe rtains to Mitra doA, n and natural antagot c

~ KJatra talc
~ not pert
nCS no delight in the b I
a1n to Varuna
braltn1a11arcasa dcligh . .
t Ln the ks
' "
ra ,,,,,, n d
I ectronis radix er causa
. . ._atra c~B.Xlll. I.5.2 '. Or OCli the
Eclchart add E
est s11111/1111do (Eccles .
' 3), amoris si,,
s, <01111erso vero a . . .
iasocus XIII 191
cause of love is lik
iss1111,/1111do est <ausa od .. (- . ,, and as
hatred J Th
cncss. Conversely indeed n1ik " - The root and

e narure
d ti
cness is h
unctio ns of th S
t e cause of
g nu_m, e chose of man and
c accrdotiuni and h
reco cilia
t c
non that relleccs th
' are JStmct: the marriag
Mitra and Varuna' RV vr cir transcendenta l uniry ('Agru' . eblS a
1.12.J; 'Br h
is oth
. a n1a both brahma and ksatra
- .X .4. 1. 9; Christ 'both v .,,_ I lU .31.2 ad 2).
~,g an Pnest ' St Th
' omas Aquinas, Sum.




a, .

That is so many of the oldest fan

oppoSJrc meanings (v.hJch
guagcs the same roots embrace
addition of deten111J1anrs . must be only distinguishable by the
onroJogy of thougJ t I ) _is of_ funda_n1ental significance for the
t is an mdicao
pnnuave thought d d
at t c movement of
d d
e uccs qua lines 1.t .
c ucove.-an indicati

is not abstractive but

adequacy of the symboli~n ~ . nhu111ber. A U that is essential for the

w hich arc cssentiaJJ

f sm ts t . e m uruaJ con tranery
o f rd.atcd forms
Y o one kin d but
be d '
purposes. A good exam I f this'
iv1dcd for practical
from Southern Afi
Thp c
open scsan1e' motif can be cited
e same sv,1th b.
, eoc ias ts to be recog11izcd in
the old duals (e g Mi f

travarunau) that tm
port, n ot a m ere com pos1non
O t,vo persons' but tl
The ve ,
conung of one.
'f.u ,
ry vord ,n11hut1a1;, implit'S a 'clash'
se as being contrary (to th
of contran cs, and 111ir/1yii is
anc.gonisoc principles c( A Vel:~th). For the m am age of mutuall y
I bend together your minds
o perJnons and u1tentions ye h .S
your., l bend togt"ther' (
a~c of con trasted opera oon these of
sa.m vo ,nauaiu1
a,,u y, 1111rata stlwna tan vah sari
~"' 11r<1ta sa,n iikutir ,1a,11amas1'
doubt ~dd.rcssed to Sky ;nd 'r::~1h11~yat11a.si). ThIS IS pnmanly, no
= r t , tn a hym
n 'fcor supre1nacy'



$PJRfT U ~

. Jd be applicable co ch c analogous bra/1111a and ~tra.

II '' ou
- I an d
.J:is closely refaced also to that o f TS .IV _?__::,.

1bc wonu>S
RV x .65-8 and X . 191.2-1.
. .

. me an,e che kindhng of Agru ts the qu,ckcrung and

At {1lC !,J
. uon of Varuna: Agru bcco,ncs h.is fathers augmenter
rcsurrcc ., piwl, RV . I. 1-10.3 and th us Ius
'f:ath er 's f:ath er,' prrus p11a,


( Vl.16.35), chc Son reproducing the F~the~ ,v_hom .he displaces.

The (\VO Agnis of our texts arc the one that falls (dies) ,vith Soni a and
Varuna (=Cyava na) in RV .X.12-1 (a.~11il.1 somo van11.zas ti cyava11re) and
chc o~e proceeding as God (deval!) fron, the N o-god (tidevtir, i.e. from
the as11ra pitr, now Deus absco11di111s, 1111ira 1/eva, like Prajapati, jiryti
ira(, in PB. X XV.17.3) from the non-sacrificial to the sacrificial part
(ayaj,iiytid yajiiiyam b/1tiga111 e1111) and ,vho with a view to in1mortality
(prapasya111ti110 amrtatvam) abandons (ja/1ti1111) the Titan Father, choosing
( vr!ti11al.1) lndra; cf. RV.IV .26.7 where lndra abandons (aja/101) the
senile deities (111,iral.1, sc. devalJ,), Vl.47. 17 where Jndra rejects his
former friends, w ho do not follow him, and seeks others, VJ.59. 1,
'Your parents, foes of the Gods, lndragni, are smitten down, and ye
survive,' and X.69. 10 ,vhcre Agni , the Youngest, vanquishes the
Ancients, though they ,vere fncndly . The abandonment of the Father
by lndragni corresponds to that ofCyavana inJB.111.'n. The reversal
of the kmgdom (paryavard rtit(ra,n) in RV .X. 124 is reflected in
TS. Vl.6.5 w here Var111Ja 1s the type of the banished king and lndra
that of the one m power, and the offering is to free oneself from what
pertains to Varur.ia, for as in RV .X.124.8 'the people who elect a King
~tand aloof in horror fro1n Vrtra' (vi.io mi rajtinalll vrr,and bibhatsw110iipo
,,rtrad atit(lra11), incidentally an interesting reference to the part of the
people ,n the choice of the King: that the reference of'Vrua' here is to
a nature from which as regards its evil the King i~ to be: purged, but
w hich as regards its force is to rcmam in him (just as the gods retain
the al11111aytil1 of the Asuras), can be seen from l'B.XVl.4.1-5 and
XVIJl .9.6,7, where lndra puts on the lo<us-wmth (pu$lrartU111}11)
w hich his father Prajapan (i.c Varui;ia now succccdcd by his son) had
had made for lumsdf 'for the sake of supremacy' (J,tHhyl}-1t is
'\vrought of the savor of the quartc11 and all his offspnng,' it!> twelve
flowers arc chc months, n is the 'royal force' (indriytUII vi,yanr) of the
Year. Prajipati, Varw;ia-and 'when he put on the lotus wreath. it~
the Rcgnum, the very form (or aspect) of Vrua. dur he puts on
(l'{?ras)'a,.,a rad nipam ~,,- prtllimuitttlk). that_Vr,n whom. as we m:
reminded in 1hc same vcnc. he has already slain. Similarly MS.IV.4.7





whe re the lorus (wr eath) is 'th

e very ,orm f h
rn~a,n): and SB. V.4.5.4 where the lotus w o t e_~egnurn (kJa1, .
(d,vo rnpan,). T h e condusion v'.rt - D reach IS the form .f hasya,va
O t Csk

ra- yaus-Ks
us. Th e Dragon slayer assirnilat~s the D - .atra, will not ast . y
0 1\Jsh
d nh h '
ragon 's po
ce, an ' ents IS treasure so that V
wer ut not hi
now what I was erst' (SB.1.6'. 3 . l 7).
rtra says to lndra: 'Thou a~
Thus mdecd lndr a 's upersedes' the fath (V
er aruna Dy
p .
or V rtra) w h om h e has o verco m
. . . aus, raJ:ipati
.fi d'
e or m ore stnctl
. ,
sacn cc ; the pscudo-histonal legend of hi
Y speaking
s namesake Ai c aoo th er recen sion of the same story. But to think f h. , ,a asatru is
ofVarw:ia by lndra' as the re Oeetion o f some doctnno_tal1~ sup!erscssion

even to say th at Varui:ia was divested o f his supreme p
b ' or

f h
owcrs y the
~e o . t _e AV, (M acdo nell, Vedic Mythology, pp. 65, 66) is a
~ sa?plicaaon of histon cal m ethod ' and only displays the mythologlSt s 1g~orance of theology. Fo r lndragni are liberators above al] else:
they bnng for th thetr p eople from captivity into a promised land. And
every suchsoteriology necessarily transfers the Kingdom, whether by
conq uest o r by a sacrificial atonement, from a 'wrathful Father' to a
milder Son, fro m the G od ab intra to the God ab extra, in so far as a
distinction can be made between them. So Christ says: 'AU power is
given unto me in heaven and in earth ' (Matth. XXVDJ.18). What is
true for the genealogia regni dei is true in every h uman lineage; the
Prince who comes to the thro ne 'supersedes ' his father (whether he has
been ritually 'despatched ' or has died by natural causes) and inherits his
power(SB . V.4 .2.10), but establishes a new o rder. In this co1U1ection it
is highly significant that one of the first acts of a new King, celebrating
his accessio n, is a release of prisoners from jail. It is thus that V~a.
w hen his ferocity has been appeased, releases Suna.tisep a (RV.l.24.1113). It is also true for the 'people' that the son 'supersedes' the father
and inherits his rank, as in Kau~. U .ll. 15 (10) where if the father 9:ho
has made the last bequest' by which the transmission and ddegaoon
of all his powers to his son is effected should recover, he can no m~re
resume these powers than if he were actually dead, but must live
subject to his son, or as a religious mendicant. The 'supersession' of
Varui:ia b y lndra, or rather by the twins (yamau, RV. Vl.59.2)
lndrign.i, is an ontological, not an historial event.
The p roceeding Agni in RV.X .124 leaves ltimst!fbehind at the same
tune that he goes fo rth., as also in RV. III.SS. 7 w here 'he proceeds in
front and still remains within his ground' (anv agra,n ctfrati ksiti
b,ulluuih); 'the So n re,nains within as essence and goes fo rth as Person




t ps forth into relations of otherness... other,
ea]' (E ,.L. cli
this distinction 1s raaona1, not r
... th e
t another' ,or
. th h .
but no
. Nor is there any incons1sten~ m at, avmg
.Evans ed.
, I. Agtu
) . 1nv1
. tes L:s
, !ndra
,u father Varuna to 'Come forth to be the
Kingdom' (R v. X. 124.5), for Varut:,a is lndra (RV .IV.42.
ruler ofniy h . A ru and the Raiasuya is 'Varut:,a's Q uickening,'
eh as e is g

3) as niu .
The tate' king rules in the 'present.
or regcneran~n
Budhnya ab intra and Agni Girhapatya ab extra
34. Agtu IS X VI 7 f VS v 33) RV . abounds with references to
.' . ' c ~ ~ his g round' (budlma, e.g.lV .1.11. sa
(AB.111.36, ~ chthoruc ongms ,r0
- \......Jo
Agru s
I 'I
budhni= V.3.1 tvam ag11e varnQO 1ayase,--.
jdyata P.rat ,ama ! t .
waters-or from the 'rock' (adn), the 'stone'
'ground am ongs

uld be
) o ' mountain' (parvata).
(asman , r
. h h 'fear' and 'love' of Varut:,a it sho
thin bein
35. In connection wit t c
d th t 'N othing prevents one and the same
remem bere
d hated under another' (St. Thomas
loved under one aspect an
S m n,eol 1.20.2.ad 4).
Aquinas, 'fiu . . il . (Keith): to be identified, in the last
36. Or ve nuss CS

d that Love and

"th he 'five arrows' of Kamadeva, beanng m mm
arc one and the same Person.
Death, Kama and .Mrtyu,
but inasmuch as 'God is with him'
37. It is not of his own power,
d' gly 'I destroy the
. et rious he says, accor in .
b' cts with the help of the spiritual
that the J4amya IS V1
-mi svam VS.Xll.82 and
unfriends and lead forth m~ o"'.n ~u ~e
Power' (~inomi bral;:rR;7;or:na~umerab\; instances in the
SB. Vl.6.3.15), of w_ c
. .th lndra against the Asuras. We
cooperation of Agru-Brhasp~n WI f the Unfriend or Unfricnds, so
propose to show that the arc eipe ~ m we hate and who bateth us'
often referred to in the texts9a2s) e v:i : s the 'loveless brotherhood'
TS.Vl.3. an
Vrm-Varuna(- lS a Raksasa

arily and m most cases

(apriyam bhrairvyam) are pnmrail Quite exceptionally bhral\'V}'ata IS
Mtt)'U and ~e. Asuras gene S~ IV.3.3.5 'the evil, hateful brothe~'brotherly aid 10 JB.1.184. In_ _
is ex licitly Vrtra, and 10
i~apmane dvi~te bhratr.vy~ya)
. pp mana. In]UB.l.7.2
h 00d' "'
bh -1M'a 111 IS Namua , ap
Sa.xn.7.3.4 dv4a111an: ,a . xcluded ' mcnully' from any share m
the 'evil brotherhood ' to be e
S tan He has accomplished the
these worlds, can only be, s~.: :~~in ~ Vr;tra" (fS. ~o that
t the Puroh.ita sometimes ass1Sts, or
urpose of the Sacrifice w_ho
~hile it is beyond quesoon tha come human enemies, the funrather enables, . th~ ~g to _ov~tlcsh and blood, but against the
damental conflict IS not agains






prinapahoes, against po,vers, against the rulers f

the darkness of this
\VOrld (Ne,, Test. Eph. VJ . 12). When it is
enemies, these are assimilated to the Adv~
qu~non of hurn,

,rsary un1Sd(
d 11
weapons effcerove agams1 him are rumed again th
an the
. l
f .
s1 cm: ,var fro ,L
tra di oona pom1 o vic,v. being no more than
h '
m u,e
. .
any 01 er vocati al
acoviry,. a mere y p~ofanc cngagcmcn1 (sec Note CX>).
The brotherhood (bhra111,yal1, ,vhich Hume

l call
p. equates
~ : ; _og1 . :d,vic cousm) t at 1s synonymous ,vith enniity (and to
ongws e 6IOm brotherliness blirtitrrva, in a favourable sense
RV. VUI.83.8, c(X.23.7) is, then, the relationship of the Asuras to th'
Devas, of the Varur:ia who is 'not Mitra' but amitra Unfriend c
A .
th f . d (S-B
' to
~ mura.'
e nen . .
. . IV.4.5.3 asti ma111<$ya,lti,i1 ea sarparram
bhrat!1'yam 1va = there 1S as It ,vcre a feud between n1en and snakes.)
V ~ is Agni's 'elder brother' in RV.IV.1.2: 'Turn thou, O Agni,
thine elder brother Varw;ia toward (or possibly, 'tum thyself toward')
the Sun, suppon of men, the King, support of n1en' (sa blirarara,i,

varut_uJm agna a vavrrsva . .. jyeHham .. . adirya1i1 car~ar.11dhrra1i1, rtija11a,i1

car~a~1idhrram, where tidiryan, is the accusative of the person turned to,
like ma in SB.JV.1.4.4 upa mtivarrasva and RV .IV.31.4 abl,, 11a a
vavrrsva cakram 110 vrlta,il arvara~, 'turn hithcrwards... '). This is only
the special case of the general rule tha1 the Asuras arc the elder brothers
of the Devas (BU.1.3. l ka111yasii eva devtilJ, jyayasa asurtilJ;
Mbh.Xll.33.25 asurii blirararo jyq[llti devaf capi yaviyasa/1). and of the
principle that the 'brother-hood' of 'those who hate one another' is
that of the Dcvas and Asuras (TS. VJ.4.10. J). It is significant that the
root mjye~/ha 1sjya, with the primary meaning to 'oppress', distinctly
preserved 1n RV. VU.86.6 asti jyaya11 ka11iyasa upare, 'the cider is at hand
to hun the younger' (the reference being to Varu!)a himself. tirpayitr in
SB. V.5.4.31): it 1s, in fact, the rule in folklore that the cider brothets or
s1Sters oppress the younger brother who 1s always rhe sohir here, or
younger sisccr who is always the bride of a sohir hero.
It will be nooced that RV.IV.1.2 otcd above is rather 'entropaic'
than apotropa1c, and that a vavrrsva, like upa mavarrasva, is essentially
.an U1V1taaon to uruon, samsntyai the opposite of avr,, to 'tum co,' is
vtlf!1, to 'tum apart,' as 1n RV. VU.SO. I vivanaya11tiril rajasi 'divorang
Sk} and .Ea.rth'. and SA. Vll.12 sairdl111i1 vivartayati, 'disjoins rhc
gramrnaocal fusion of syllables' (in a sa1i1lii1a text, the marriage of
words being thought of as an.tlogous to that of Sky and Earth, and
thus IJfe-giviug, ayuiya, ib. V III. II. For vya11rr1i sec TS. VI. J .1.5,
TS V.4. 10.3, AB. VUI.8 and vytivrtya sarire,_,a SB.. X .4.3.9). The




thus annuls the 'divorce' of Sky and Eanh,

our txts

d Nature. that takes place at the 'creation'. or rather
Essen:" an
uttcranct. of the ,vorlds, as in RV.Vil.SO. I where the
11t~-staoon or

d E h
an ,
L' ht o

,gordin to Sayai~a. but also possibly_ Day_ and N1g~u), mak:5

ace . st g the several ,vorlds' (1ivarrayar111 ra;as, sa111a111e a111fkt1wa11111
,na,ufc . ., ai) cf RV. Vl.32.2 and SB. IV.6.7.9. We remark in
/1}111va11a11 1 v,sv

1 b L. h

h . t the separation of the COl1JOtnt pnnctp cs y 1g t, usu Y

passing t a
I 0 f the early- waking or early-kindled Agru, IS e moove m t c
t tat_ al,en t story of Pururavas and U rvasi, SB. XI.5.1.4, and in that of
Eros and Psyche.
A vavrrsva, then, is a prayer for the Asura s convcrs1~n
cf w.N. Brown, 'Proselytising the Asuras', ]AOS 39, 19~9), as m
~V. 1.25 where Varu,.-ia's wrath is deprecate~ and his mercy is lau?ed,
d AB lll 4 ,vherc Agni's Varu1.1ya fom11s deadly to be touched (cf.
a~B.ll. j4 ~nd JB.1.126 lndra to Usanas, asiwiu abl1y1ipa_v".41v) and
approa ch him only having made hin, Mitra (11111,ak{.
'one shouId
h' h
f JUB VIII 74 I 1nirra111 iva priyam), w IC IS poss1 c
ryevopasart, c

, ( I - I te
h as As one approaches hin1, so he becomes yat ia-yat iopasa
s Vrtra'
tad eva 1,/iavari, SB.X.5.2.20). In the same way . oma wa
. (SB.IV.4.3.4 and TS. l.2.10.2 Soma: sida ~a~!O s1 dhruivrato [dh~nnar
. varu11am
was Rohita AV.Xlll.2.39).
as,,. as 'Praiapari
RV 68 Soma
8 d
when tied up (11pa11addl1a) is Varu,.-ia' (as1uipi'.1~ddhmn . . ;
TS VI 1 11-Vanm iva esa yajama11am abl1ya1r1 yar krrtal.1 soma P th
d , .
'Come forth as Mitra' (mitro na elu) he ( c
dl1a . .. ) an saymg,
be fM"tra's' (yad vonmarh
, . )
h t is of Varuna s nature to o

SB Ill 3 3 t O quoting
I n est ma cs w a
sa111a111 maitra,n karoti, TS. Vl.1.11.1-2), as a1sof.m h . ;r; (m,itro ,ia ehi



VS.IV .27, where Soma is besought to come ort as I O Lord In

Ts I 2 7) h3 t 1s to say 'Have mercy upon us,


t-13 III 3 4 25 29 30 where o,na JS now
h , ot 10 slay our 1nen (avira
says somo van1110 bl1avati), he '.s. oug t n I .
of Soma himself.
as in RV.1.91.19) or do evil: the ntual s aymg .


essennal co his kingship, is ~cd ~laug;ter ;~t~::

the tied
(SB.Ill.9.4.1718). The Adab. _yah nu braluof'Praiapatl the Liberator'
r. (h' ) J'bcraoon 1s t c syn1 o
up Som~. or is I
the human Sacnficcr and Con1prchcnsor.
(ari111oks111i) and. by analogy,
f h .
d has ~-cd y.1th Soma as

J t c v1cnm an
who is no less than Sonia mse h
il b othcchood' (ati ptipma,111111
h II 1b
1 rated from t e cv r
such, '1s w o Y .c
blmi1,;vya111 m11ryatt, T~. ~[. ..h h od' docs not refer to any hu1nan
unn1istakeable that the evil brot er o





adversary but to the V rtra- Va runa natu

SJcn ficcr's "old man'. (drnho m~,riCJim i r~a~,:~
~ -~llU and 111 ~
SB IV 5 7. 7; for Varu na as red eemer f,
. Y P<lS4t AV.111 0 0
see SB
Ts 111.4 11 6; Varuna's rope = th
. 111.8.S. to
Sli Ill 7.4 1).

e noose of the sacred o r~





AJtho ug h o ur 1mmcd1a te pro ble m has becn that of the adcntifi

f h ,
o t e cvtl b ro the rhood , , ve canno t refrain fro m pomring o ut here
that thr rc arc the closc.-st possible pa r.allcls be~vccn the Indian and the
C hru.oa11 ucn 6ccs. and that the India n d octnne IS not merely like,
but. , vn h o nl v the , ubsoruoo n o f the 'Agni' fo r 'Christ' (a merely
n o mmaJ dJffe rl'n Ce; a nd, in th,~ connc.-ca o n the crymological equivalence o f (a1101nted=) XPWT<>c; = C /1ns1os and l hria* is not without
unerest), 1dm11cal " '1th tha t ofN. T ll o n1 VI.S-9 'For tfwe have bttn
pb.rucd 1o g cthlr (Gr y111plry101 fo r which Liddell and Scon's first
mcarung IS 'born ,v1th onc', i e. cobom, sajota, sayoni, and of the same
p.ire11L.1gl ,,ah hnn) u, lhc liken= of his death , we shall be also in the
liken~ of !us n ~ urrenno n 'K11ov,1ng th1,. that our old n1an 1s
crualicd (,J cnfit'd) ,v1th lum, th.it the body of ~111 1rught be dcsrrorcd,
eh.ii hc.-ncc forth ,,..l. 11ugh1 not serve sm For he th.u is de.id is freed
fro,n ~JIL N O\\' 1f " 'e be dead with Chnst, we believe tha1 ,ve shall also
h1rn Kno" 1ng tlut Chn~r being r.11~ fron1 die de.id dieth
no 1norc {IID11 11<'1 ,1a>rll11r = ,u p1111.1r mn'ya1t); dcath h.arh no morc
d o nwuon o,cr lu111 ' "Pl.:uncd rogl'thcr' as of ~rocula.r interest here,
and ought better havl' bn rendcrl-d b) 'So\\'n rogethcr'; \\'C:
rcrogni.ze the ~u.al ~vrnbol of ,1gnculturc. u, "tuch the womb is !he
6dd into "h,ch thl' nun. "'h~'thcr u, n.1ru.ral or in supcmaroral
~nu:rJaon. W\\, hi1n-.clf. .u1J frorn ,vhich he ~pnn~ up agam Gohn
X 11 24, Except a corn of" he.at faU uno the ground 1111,J d,r, ir abidcth
al.>rl<' bu1 1f 1t die, 1t brutg.:th forth niuch fru11'). Now, JUSt as the
n.arul'31 ut,cnunation 1> a dc.ath .u,J a rcgcncr anon OUB.ITl.8.10 and


r t n "' d<d.>tt

>l,.,..J it.,

,um.- of gluu,. V:, XVU .,,-} RV IV 58 6-11


I . etc.). 50 1s the ,upcnutural. ~h,re the <acnfio al fire t< th~. womb
,t m ma<niuch as tlw Sacnh~ r 111scn1111atc, h1msclr (a1m,1111Uh.
- , tlicrean tl1at he co mes to birth III yonder Sim and 1> J>Cl"C">,C<I ot
two selves (dPyJ1111a11. JB I 17.6, cf /\B \/\._ ~ and ;,U.V\1 .2 1.6 . o.

9 d

Som a IS not destroyed by his 'd eath' b , d

world of heavenly-hght ' and tn th e s;m ut ma he to go alive to the
d th
c wa y t e Sacnfi b
with So ma goes alive to the world of b ccr Y_his
(TS. VI 6 9.2); furthermore, 'he g ains thro ugh lun, (So ma)~enly-ligh1
there is no sla yer , no d eadl y shaft fo r lum b y who m this AU hAJJ. and
g amed ' (SB 111.3.4 9), that IS to say he ,vans the 'hum
as been
1n1mo n.,Jin,'
h e re a n d 1ncorrupt1blc 11nmo rtality' he reafter as cxplam-..t
N ,


"''hich t.hc :,ccond t!), of course, the 'new m.111 the ju1ym11 dW1e111n,h ot
SB. IV .3 4 .5. And JUSt a, in naniral gcn, rat1on the newborn so: is a
b rth o f the father. so here that 'other self of the 'new man is a
re L. at1on o f the 'old 11130 ' 1hat ,vas ,ar nficcd ('m,1dc holy') 1011,cthcr
with the deity. who 1s the saenficc. II " the 'ol mn \ CVl. , not
hin,self that is slam; the dea th of the ,our ,s not a de,tn1Ct1on of
anything but itS evil. nothing but the a11ml11ln11on of wh ,s already
. the agncultural symbohi.m 11 1s only the husk of the 11um
negaove, m
that is left behind, not the gcrrn that ,pnngs up agJtn
1c new ''.un_
tl,at thus sprmgs up is at once the son of the old 111.111 and l son o~ God,
and it is ,vnh reference to the first of thc,c affiha~mn, (both nnphcd by
St Paul's sympl,yto,) that Eck.hart, disungwshmg the acodcntal
C. tu cs of the natural man from the essence of the other and new
that ' He ,vho sec-; mt S<.'l-S my il1ild' (Evan,,1.4()8; \lfc11Tct, p.
ea r
man says

593 ~nd Rumi, Ma1l111a1vi. 1-3511 'The body. hkc ~ 1not 1er, ,, ,g
the sp1rit~ h1Jd') But to sec tl1M self require<., other CYl.., than tho~c of
the Ol-sh (cf. Hennes, Lib Xlll.3 and ~-1 2J).
To return .to 'VarunJ 3nd what t, Varonya' it" Varun ,hat .,,:111.-.,
- h
( I< II 3 11 I V.2. 1 3; Al3 VII. IS), the \cnfic>
, I
(arl111ar1) t c ~\C ,nan
(f" VI ( - 4 MS 1.10.2 <,u 11 32. HJ) and w utcvcr a,
er , children


~,r 'by cvil'-{yalJ popnrawi ,_ 1110 1ava11,
seized by t h c Ev1J O nc ~
~ ,'
S13 11 7., 17) I c. lndr's mortal cnc,ny, 'the ovcrwe1.'lllllK "':
X _ - f
11 1 ., 5 and RV Ill 51.3 (cf 'ahlti111a110 dcvo van11}IIIJ,
(a~l11ma1~ o RV 1'll'J-3 Agni nd lndn. ptr co11tra, ;re Jtoirarra..
Sayana on
. .
h as he thu~ '<,('ltC\' that he " 'the ')c1zcr
RV. passim). It IS anasmuc an
ithct of i1@ter connouuoo and a
(graha, JUB.IV.1.7, ~ -),. cpd I
'Jkdl to UlJU!C) It I> with the
f /ta a-Juumara an J 111w v .
synonym o 1rra ' -, ) tL -t one buld, (prarrm11~ca11) the
f O dcr' (r1a.sya1va pa,r11a ,,..
. L
noose o
. 'du
d Varuna\' vorunya rsa yad JJU1,
c.cial and
t cor is
h ,
l'V I -,4 I 1 I 25. 1.2 ..bound wu 1,1c
'"B 0174
I) The Vc<m. c.g ' fh1,
- murdtrous


wuth; the w.agC\
fear of Varut:U and the dcprcouon o
~ , In SA.XII 21 and 2!S we
,_ ual Varun.i
. IS death and v,'flgcancc is his, to_ rep ) .
the S nfim 10 order that t c cc~.,,

o f sin
find an a.mulct worn by
RV VII 87 C,J may not
. L
n.,aus ,"'11tul yaur rvo in
, __
(divyo vanirum, 1.e "7
strike fear IJltO tum (11111,uim_ . ..d
he Jftdlrara, or x,oha or snumora
not slay him in !us pndc, neither ocs t










adver;ar, bu1 to the Vrtra- Varuna natu I

Samficcr 's 'old m,n ' (dniho
_ r(' t
was lil Sorn.a and .

tnuncan11 van"J.a.S a






B IV 5 .7 7, fo r Vanu;ia as redeemer from ;iny

AV.n.10.1 8
TS.JII 4 I 1.6; Varuna's rope = the
' sec B.111.8.5.lO
SB III 7 4 l)
noose of the sacred order


So m:i IS not destroyed b) his 'death , b .nude to g . ..

, ut
" 'or Id o f hcavenlv- l1ght' and in th~ s
<Wvc 10 the
' a me way the Sacri6

death Wlth Soma goes alive to the world of h cer by_his

(I'S. VJ 6. 9. 2); furth('rmore, 'he gains thro ugh hun (Sorna)~~~Y-light
there ~ no sbyer, no deadly shaft for him by ,vhorn this All h~ and
gamed (SB.111.3 4.9). that is to say he wu1s the ' human
ere an 1nco rru pt1 e 1n1 mortaliry' hereafter as explained N

Although our in1mediatc problem has been 1hat o f the idcntifi

o th c eviJ bro rherhood ., we cannot rcfr:un from pointing outcanon
that there an : the closest possible parallels between the Indian and the
C hns~
~acnnct-s. and that the Ind ian doctnne is not merely like,
but, w ith only the subsrirution o f the ' Agni ' for 'Christ' (a merely
no nunal differen ce; and, in this connection the crymological equivalence of (anointed=) XP~ = Cliristos and J1l1rta* is not without
interest), 1denncaJ with that of N .T . Rom. Vl.5-9: 'For ifwe h:ive been
planted together (Gr. rymphytoi fo r ,vhich Liddell and Scott's first
meaning is 'born with one', i.e . cobom, sajiita, sayoni, and of the same
puentagc with ru m) in the likeness ofrus death, we shall be also m the
hkencss o f ~ r~ urrcnno n: 'Knowing this, that our old man is
cruci fied (s:icn 6cd) w1th h1111. that d1e body of sin =ght be destroyed,
that hence forth v.c ought no t serve sm. For he that is dead IS freed
from ~Ill. N o,v if we be dead with C hnsr. " 'e believe th:it we shall also
live with rum: Kno wtng that C hnsr being rai~>d from the dead dieth
no n1o re (jam 11011 monlltr = ,,,, pu11ar mriyatt); death hath no more
domimon over !um.' 'Planted together' IS of parocubr interest here,
and ,night better have been rendered by 'Sown together'; we
recoirruze the w.ual symbol of agncukure, ui ,vluch tbe womb is the
field mto which the man. ,vhccher m natural or in supemarunl
~cneraoon, ,ov,s hin1self. and fron1 \\'luch he spnngs up again Qohn
XU.24, ' Except a c-om of "heJt fall into the ground and dit, it abidcth
alo ne but 1f u die, it bnngeth forth n1uch frun'). N ow, just as the
m runl mscmJnanon 1s a death a.nd a regcncr.ioon QUB.11.8.10 and
"'C... uo drdln: >loud the nunc of ghru!' VS XVll 90; RV IV.586-11


so is the supernatural. " here the sacn ficial fire 1s the womb
9 Id. etc.). masnn1ch as the Sacn f,1ccr mst.n1m:n cs Iun1sc1r (-arnumam
. - 0 1~ th rem that he conic-s to birth in yonder Sun and ts po<sc:<Sed o
' "' s
' elv:-s (d,ytirman. J13. L17.6. cf. AB.\11.29 and Sl3.Vll.'.!. l.6), of
- -mam o r
which the second 1s. of course. the new nu n . t1ll' c1u,,nu1cnuu
~B IV.3.4.5. And JUSt as m naniral generanon the newborn so,'. '.s a
._,. f the father so here thar 'other sclr of the new man 1s a


rcgcncr. t
th h deity who is the sacnficc. lt 1s the old man s CVl , nor
t C

hjmself that is slain: the 'death of thC sour IS not 3 esltuCOOll O

of what is already
b ut its evil nothing but the ann1hilanon

. m the agricultural s)rnbohsm it. 1s only the I1usk o f t l,e gram

that is left behind. not the germ that springs up again. T1,e new man_
h thus springs up is at once the son of the old tnan and a son o~ Cud,
t ~ 11 is ,vith reference to the first of these affilianons (both 1mpl.1cd by
;n paul's symphyto,) that Eckhart. distu1guishing the 2ectdental
/ tu cs of the natural man fron1 the essence of the other and new
ea '
that 'He who sees 11,t, sees 111y cloild' (Evans,1.4-08; Pfeiffer. P
;;n~::y;un1i, Matlouawi, 1-3511 'The bo~y. like a mother, \s big w1thf
the spirit-child'). But to sec 11101 self requires other eyes than those o
the flesh (cf. Hermes, Lib. Xlll.3 and ~-I.~).
V na and what is Varunya : It t5 Varui:ia that -.c11es
To_retum to a~ TS II 3. 11 . l; V.2.1:3, Al3.VII. IS). the Sacnfic. ~u
IO) and 'whatever ts
(~rl111ari) the sick ma (.
J ld c (,TS VI 6 :> 4 M!>.1. \IJ.2 :> 11 3 2 '

er s c u r nh E , 0. . c-o'r 'by cvi1'-(yol1 pap1111mci Rrloito bhavato,

seized by t c v1 n
I e lndra's morul enemy. the ovcrwcetung O<'
SB.Xll:7.2.f~S 1i I 2 5 and RV 111.51 3 (cf 'obhmui110 dcvo van111al1 '
(a~/11111011) o
A Ill and Jndu, per ,o,11ro, arc su1tu111as,.
Saya,p on RV .I. .
as he thus ~1l,(.~ that he ,~ 'the Scucr
RV. passim). It IS inasmuc
f mister connouuon and a
(gralia, JUB.IV .1.7, ~-), - an
;,,as to mjurc) It IS Wtth the
synonym ofmakara=s,su1~ara a~ J) ;hat one.bin~ (pra11m111ica1i) the
'noose of Order' (!'faJy,uva p~r1_1a V na's' vonmya vii tfO yod raiJu~.
sacrificial victim, and 'that cor IISV /:11 I 251,2 abound wi1h the
SB.lll.7.4.1). The Vedas. e.g. l . fh~ n;urdcrous wrath; the wage$
fear of Varuip and the dc:prccat1on o
I SA XII 21 and 28 we

of Sill IS cleath and vcng
.Ii .
dcr that the ccl~ual aruna
find an amulet worn by the Sacn icder m or
RV VII 87.6) may n0t
. I) , U\ 1,0 ,,.11., ya11r 1va Ill
~-(dii,yo 1101Unah, 1.e. ):a
l,lutam). . and Varuna """~
strike fear into tum (r1011101N: . .d 1111h . makara, or _Rraha or iiiwmara
not slay him in h!S pnde, nc1thcr ocs t c

.89 3

1'~,111:~ rv





hu rt h1n1.' ()n the o tht:r h d

an .\Vhc11 11l e P<:ace-otre
c, \\' en c c Asura has b ,
then JC is not v aru . b
ccn con"cn ed ' and . dn11g ha, b.:c
na uc eh<.' ,11i n
n1a c a Fr
accep cs the Sacnii ccr (R V ? . " pcr,011a o f M .
1cnd or
. 1...o.6): B v
apix:ascs (s<1111ay,111 slavs sac fi
. nican, o f 1\1\nra he ( h. au iha1
L .

n ices) Va ru
t c pn )
. . ,cts ,un1 free (1111111ca11) from V
. ,:,a or h1111 (the Sa
1osc gone (yadi' ttis11 bh,i,,a,,. ~:;
thac ,ve1;




;~0111111.f/ gone') he \'erily lives. (TS II I ~ ~) is Lft: l,c gone bu1'1~

:fa~~ 'v,roy!l ~acnficer himscJC assun tl~t;d t~ l'~:.~d in t he sa n,c wav
. l.6 ~.-), and by m eans of eh b 1,
~apan (eh, at111mk1111i
children (subjects) fro n1 V
e ar cy o ffenng , 'dch\'crs h.
d h
aru1.1a s noose (pra,a 110
an t ose c tldren of h1s arc bo
d .
n111apasm prd111111icar1)
aki/b 1.fd-1,. pra;a
.rn so un and smless (

.1 pra;ayante) saying . . .
be bo
. 1t IS u1 o rder that m hild
m soun and sinless th at I ' Id b
rcn ma y
SB.V.2 4.2; V. 2.5. 16 If ::? ? 3) "r0U e qu ickened '" (ablris,iye

J-- , c RV X 97 16
yamasya pdrf11iiti1 sdr11as111iid dc1,akd,,uti1
11an111 . Sar ...
Van u., a co Yan1a is unn1Jstakabl
d. .
ic re the ass1n11lanon of
e. an " 'e see also ,vhy 11 i h h
nncc must be rrboru co chc K
s c at t c
domin ion.
ingsI11 P and for " 'hat he aspires co

,vi .. . )

Pr: : to. the ' barley-offeri ng ' ,vc learn fro ,n KU. V 3 chat when
un ~ ~an s, ch 1ldrt:~ - ' have been expressed' (,rHiih) .but art' still
11;:;;1 via~lc. nor. ahvc, ~nborn , cf. 11a jiiym,te in
_. 1
60.34\/) but arc ca ung o f Varuna's barley'
,.w.sya _Yalla,,, cak~III.'), it is Va ru1.1a cha t ' rcscrains thc1~1 w ith his
nooses (van
- , 11 pratyaimmcat),
and that ic is onl y w hen he
, 1110
,,an ,,.,apa,m
h as bccn endeared' (prit /
h ..
a ' ' 1.c. ma d c a Iincnd, mitra) that he frees chem
t csc nooses
, 1 (l'an11.1a-pasebhyalJ
3 ll cv1
papm anal,
-, of_ Varuna
_ and
tsari,asmiic ea

,pra;aJ pramrmcat, ~ll.ll.5.2.2-5). Varuna's barley is the

pasturage (yai,asa) fr0111
h. h h

herdsman ( .
w ic t ey who arc like kin<.' without a
Fncnd (ab/ ~avo ,''0 : ; ii.~<>ptilJ), yet arc intent upon (o r trust) the
111111tra111 ntasa/,) cs.
((- -, R
'kin<:, led forth
f ca~e ')'" 1, V. Vll . 18.>-10): these same
. cat. o the A n s (Ind ra s) bar Icy (~avo
, ya11a111
, aryo c1k;ai,)
, 1 11a vc seen t hem
as t Iicy ca n1c forth, (no\v) in a
H erds,nan 's care' (s
of the unborn,
~e~h~ .27.8). Varu1.1~ 's barley, the food
V pots . of Egypt , a correlation that
corrc,,ponds to that of V
aruna- rtra ,vich ' Ph
rendering of nttisah above b .
area . (M y suggested
v1nk11sa is the contrary of i ydd/":'. ofi trust' depends upon the fact that

ra ta, ron1 which ti 11
m or trow on is a ,nc
it o ows that to 'trust
an,ng t at pertains to Ycit, cf cityalJ in



sug;: ~~<>~~t



We have clse,vherc UA OS 55.409-10) identified Varui:ia and the

Vanu_1ya Agni ,vith Ahi-V rtra- Susna-Namuci , and these with the
Pharoah of Ezekiel XX IX . 3, 'The great dragon that lieth in the midst
of the rivers, which has said. My ri"er tS my own, and I have made it
for m yself.' l'itaraii, jal,ami u, RV.X. 124.4 makes of the Asun Father,
w ho is also the 'cider brother' (p irci, j ye~rlto bliriirii vci, Sayai on
RV. X.20.7). an 'Ahi ' in che sense of Jtl .111.77 yad a/1,yara, rad a/11,uim
a/,iwa11i: and actually. the prior and fiercer form. ,vhich Agni abandons
w hen he is kindled, is an Ahl (Ahi 13udhnya, AB.!Il.36,KB. XVI.7,
Ahi Dhuni, RV.I.79.1 ).
derive alike from Vvr. to 'cover' and 'restrain'
. and Vrcra
( 1\/irnkta, X.3; BD.II.33; Grassmann, Worterinuh; and cf.RV.Vl.75.18
urorvariyo varn,ialJ, VIJ.82.6 w here Varui:ia pra v~ti, Siyai 's gloss on
RV.1.89.3 vr,toti svakiyai~ piisair iivrr,oriti, riitry abhinuino dtvo va,u,,,.J,,'
and GB.1.7, vara,ia as Varw:ia): i.e., inasmuch as Mitra is the Day and
Varui:ia the Night, the D arkness (TS.1.3.11 dluimno dluimno rojannito
varn,ia no muiica, yadiipo aglmiyii varn,itti sapiimaht tato varn,ia no munca=
From every rule of thine, 0 king Varui:ia, set us free; from whatever
oath by the waters, by the kine, by Varw:ia, we have sworn, From
that, 0 Varu1.1a, set us free) i.e. Evil, Death. Cf. also TS.Il.1.7.4;
T B.t.7.10; and Madhava on TS.; TS.V.7.5.1; AB.lV.5.
Mu,ica w ould suggest Varw:ia is by nature na-muci, norHiying.
'We arc thus led to assimilate Varui:ia, not to the vanquishers of the
demons, but to the demons themselves. . . This is the severe aspect
of the Divinity, which his name proclaims in advance' (Bergaignc, La
Religion Vediqut, 111.115): 'The epithet llSllra is . . . specially
applicable to Varui:ia' (Macdonell, Vtdic Mythology, p. 24), as is that of
Deva to Saviq.
It is in connection with the withholding of the watctS by V arw:ia
and their release by lndra that the assimilation of v arw;ia to
Vrtra is most apparent; we must not be confused by the fact that,
when associated with Mitra, Vanu becomes a 'rain-god'. It is to
Varui:ia that stagnant waters peruin, for they arc 'seized' W,1,ita) by
him as their graha, while it is the flowing waters, 'living watcn', divine
and fit for sacrificial use that lndra frees from Vrtra (TS.
seizure by Varui:ia's noose is seizure 'by evil', papmatlli; also
TS.VI.4.2.3; SB.IV.4.5.10, etc.). The opposition oflndra to Varuoa
and the assimilation of the btter to V Jtta arc conspiruous in
AV .111.13.1-2 where the waters 'go fonh together (S11111proyot11,)
when Ahi is smitten ( ahau . .. hak) . . .. When sent fonh by Varw;ia






(yat prisitah varnnena)

then Ind
b .
raou d

va~) and it is evident that Yaruna only line you' (Lad apnod ittd
Ahi h been

re eases the w t
' as
smitten. ( In the very remarkabl
a ers when h
seems co have been actually put in the pi
efsoyng fRY.X. 124.7] v~
Go d . 'E. o1eck e, lndra's Drad1enkanif, Berlin

' th e O id Moon.


rather remarable evidence for the equation y rtra:=c

). Another, and
a correlation ofSB.I.6.4.1~19 (cf KB.lll.S) with s;1;::rrordedby
the fuse of these passages the solar lndra swallows
h 17-l 9. In
f L '
t e rug c o cou.ib1taoon (amavasya, new moon nigh
the ligh M

t n the last
. . t
~n 15 Varw;u, the dark Moon Mitra (so called '
assim.ilao.on, ID accordanc.e with SB.X.6.2.. J where in co
widi Sun and Moon, it is cx~licit chat the eaten is
~ ~ ); and these two being a c.ouplc (mithunam), Mita (the Sun)
IOSC'DIIJ121:CS V ~ (the Moon). from this it follows 300 that
VfiU-VantJ}.2 (Moon) is lndr.i-Mitra's (Sun's) Ville; a cood.usion by ao
mems u v=na ....-uh Varu.va's fem.ininirr elsewhere or with the
eq<WKm of Vftll and km in PB.XVlll. 9.6, and notably in
agrccmcnr with RV.X.85.29 'Potenti.Jiry (~a) bath gotten feet (Le.,
put off ha opltidian narurc; cf l. 152.3 and lllSS.14), and as a wife
inhabits (a. .. viia.1c, cf. ]UB.L33.6 adityam praviiat,) her Lord' (the
Sun). We sec again that marriage is a reconciliation of hostile
principles, involving the death (and regeneration) of the enemy as
such; that there are more ways than one of 'killing' a dragon; and that
the vajra (thunderbolt) being a 'shaft' of light, and 'light the
progenitive power' (TS. Vll.1.1 . 1; principium motus et vitae [=the
beginning of motion and life], Witelo, Lib.de intelligmtiis IX, etc.), the
piercing of V rtra is also a fertilization, to be equated with that of the
'lightning-smitten' Semele by Zeus.
Varw is cq1Uted co Mrt)'U. By cxtncting from the limbs (anga) of
~ " U dieix sap (ra.sa) che 6mJ ~ult, aitgiras, is reached. The origin of
dlig!T;u is from the bitter w= of the ocean. that is, from Va.cw
who ts taken bctt "'-ithour doubt in his ocasional sinister, demonic
srnsc, as of V fCl2.
Abd Bcrg.,igoc: La Religion Vidiquc Ill 144 and
Gddncr Vofisdic SlUdim, 11292.




The Varw inco whose maw the Seven Rivers flow (yasya It sap14
sindJiavaiJ RV. VIII.69.12 and ' ruler oftbe seven rivers' RV. Vlil.41.9)
is che Varw;ia that lies in wait against the current of the river, co seize
che sacrificer's children (the subjects of the King; TS. VJ.6.5.4), the
"Infanticide' (iiium,iTa or-marin, T A. Il. 19 parabrahma lauded as iiJumara
and iiiukumara), lndn's enemy, w ho lies against the rurrcnc with



yawning jaws ready to seize the Sacrificcr himself, and must be

appeased (PB.Vlll.6.8; ~V .5. 1~; JB.1.17_4; lll.193, and TS.V.1.6.8
where Agni, as Varui:ia, attacks the sacnlicer, and SB.IX.4.2.15-17
where Agni completed = Varui:ia): the dessication of this same
Sisuntira by lndra, who forces him upstream (cf. the apotropaic pu1111~
.1<1ram in AV .IV.17.2 pratikulam in X. 1.7 and prati.1<1ra in SA.XIJ.30)
onto the dry land where he 'is left, as it were' (h,1111 iva, cf. JB. IIL.n
cited above) and his su bsequcnt resurrection .when he praises lndra
who then en.ables him to return 10 the sea QB.l!L 173), as in the 'Flood
Legend' Manu resrues the tiny~ and enables it to rcrum to the sea
(SB. 1.8. 1.6), and as in the Alexanda legend (see Ars lslami<4, l 19~.
pp. Jn-8), narratcS in other words tbc invctttatioo and rejuvenation,
death and rcsurr-eaion, of Cyavana, Prajipati, V uut.
Notable for Varuna's conncaion wid1 death is the faa: due the
creaking of the axle of the bodily vehicle is a sign of dcadJ
(BU.IV.3.35), and when the axle creaks, this 'is v~ of the evil
voice' (durvak, TS.29. 1; d. JUB.L52.8): that be is addr=ed as
'sweet-voiced' (suvak is 'to pacify him' (ianlyoi.ib.) and cocrcspoods to
the 'm.alcing him Mitra' in other contexts. (But 'axle creaks &vonbly,
as Voice of Trees', in PB. V1; and 'Voice of Brahma utters
Damayanti's name in crcalcing of axle', in Naisadruya Carita 0.50; cf.
also 'axle not oiled' TS.ll.6.3.3, and Pa.rmenidcs in Scxtus Emp.
Adv.Doz.lli). It is an Asura that speaks in che creaking axle
(SB.lll.5.3.17 and Vl.8.1.10; AB.IV.7), A Riikp_sa that infests the car
(fS.V.2.2.3), whereas Agoi's car is silent (RV.1.74.7). It is repeatedly
stated that what is 'ill-sounding' (apadhvantam, JUB.1.52.8;
CU.11.22.1) pertains to Varw:ia; and this agrees with the distinction of
ksatra from brahma as that of the toneless (cacophonous) ~ from the
chanted and harmonious s.iman. Whatever is inauspicious, inadequate,
or evil is referred to Varw;ia (I'S. Vl.6. 7.3; cf. VU.3.11. I yo'sm,m dvqfi),
or to Trita (RV.VID.47.13,14) who as Agni ob intro, the Vanu,ya
Agni, is Varw:ia (RV. Vlll.41.6).
If Agni and Sonu 'when constricted' ~wpanaddho) arc o!, Yarw;u s
nacure, this agrees with the close conncct1on of nooses (pa.so), bonds
(baddha, daman), and ~~ts (granui~. ~th. Varur.
the knot (~
bandha) is inausp1aous and disnncovely Varw s (SB.,
~i~S.17; TS.V.2.9.1), the 'untying of Agni' is a dissipati~n of
Varuna's wrath (fS.V.1.6.1): while on the other hand In~ is the
archerype (cf. JISOA., Dec. 1935, pp. S-6) of that Maha~ra, Jana and
Tirthailkara ('Great Hero', 'Conqueror' and ' Ford-finder: for the last





epither cf RV. VI. 18. 5 where i11dro -di ga 1a11y ak"-' , and fu h
W . N. Bro\vn Walk
11e ~Yater) h 01

n er
expressly Ntrgranthas, 'Freed of the v _ .
\V ose foUo,ve~
.J __
"'-''Ot , surcly that 'L_
., are
at lnura resolves' (vi fusnasya samo,ail .
. 'VlOt ofSusna'
v1dar RV
,. s
t e Gordian knot that Soma
: :

-X.61. 13)
R V IX 97 18 X
. in.
then.Joined to un11e
. . . ; .143.2, and all those knots
at are C3lied 'Kn . f
' (h..J-.
,-ra granthih, c:f. Aristotle Met. 01 I I d C
ois o the
Religion aruf 11ieology of the .'\'avaho lrulians .46, an
rooke, Pop"lr
. .
, on cords and kn .
J. Heck. ~ b ach, Dt mid,taie
sacra saaisgue vincu/is, Giessen,
) ois,
"fut IS It ro be freed from the knot? 1n the first pla
be No\\
fro y
. CC.. to
to be born and to receive a name and h
( - - ) B ..... ,_
s ape
namarupa . ut uus IS only a loosening, not an unloosening of the
knoi:; . for names themselves are knots (AA.11. l.6), and 'everything
here IS gnpped by name' (1uimt1J1. .. grhitam, SB.fV.6.5.3). To be
wholly 'freed of the knot' is co be released from 'name and shape', md
to have 'gone home' (Mw;i<,i. Up. lll.2.8 Mmarupad vimukta~, par<itparam
pu~upaiti divyam; Sn. 1074 Mmakaya Vimutto attham pa/et,).
The foregoing is far from exhaustive of the material relative to
Varw's evil nature (PB.XXJV.18 Varur:,a opposed to Deva), i.e. 10
the Divine Majesty, or Wrath of God, considered apart from the
Divine M ercy, to the Divine Darkness considered apart from and as
opposed to the Divine Light, to Nonbeing and Unreality as logically
distinguished from Being and Reality. It has been shown what is the
nature of the 'hostile brotherhood' from which the Regnum in alliance
with the Spiritual Authority redeems itself in the Sacrifice.
We must, at the same time briefly indicate that the whole
conception is reversible, for what is 'night' from the human point of
view is 'day' from that of the sage (BG.11.69), what seems untrue or
unreal to men is true and real to the Gods, the way to heaven is
countercurrent, the via aff,rmativa in which the aspects of deity arc
distinguished must be followed by the via 11egativa in which they are all
one. Love and Death are o ne and the same power, and to one wh_o
knows how to approach him, 'making him a friend ' (tnitrakr,ya), he is
the friend, Mitra as much as he is Varur:,a, and we can ask impatiently:
' When at last shall we come again to be in Varur:,a? ' (RV. Vlf.86.2);
love casting out fear.


38. This is the usual henneneia of stiman. That they (He and She,
Sky and Earth) united (sametya) and brought forth the Chant is the
quiddity of the Chant' (/UB.I.51.2, AB.111. 23, etc.). 'He' (ama) is in
various contexts Agni, V:iyu, A.ditya, Candra, krflJll, prti,i ma11as,




1 saman 3 nd 'she' sa"), lyam (Eanh), Antari4a (Air), Dyaus


'- - - . - kl
'-- ,
Sky),--the three 'domains -na,qatram, su a, apana, vat, taJqUS, srorra
(cf BU.1. 4. !7), asat, re OUB.l. 53, CU.1.6.7, etc.); and all these uc
f the Saccrdotium and Rcgnum respecnvcly.
asj~~J~B. in terms of Sky and ~rth, br~ther and sist~r: supplies the
. din to Yamas aborove woomg by Yaau m RV.X.10,
happy en g
10 rrcsponds
p01m, m verse
co f ~Yanu-.
\V ere, ll


to auyatra mit/u 11 ra111 iuhasva mJUB.1.::,3;6. Y;u~u s rCJectl.Ontho r_, b

On e side of the mutu:a.l horror of one ano er 10.t Y
represents Only
f which 'sh '
the conjoint principles, divided ab vctra, and bcause o
.. __ ._, Ii
'hin1' as often and as much as he from her, at the same
sruu "'-' rom

time that each desires the other. All trus pertains to e ~ . ' s chology of sex'' The panem of 101:lian_ oncology:tlwa ;
-dakam O r srstipratipadakam
. ..
. :
bi less
SB.Xl.5.6.8, i.e. the bluivavr,ta hymns of RV.-ts
multifarious than has been supposed by those who COOSl cernthc; and
names' (S.1.11). In the )ast an:a.lystS, Th~~o~an: !e womb of
the Child arc this All (SA. VU. I~).
. th
f all living'
. (SB IV l 2 8) Eve ,s the mo er o
' .
- th J<umarasambhava,
(G 11 20). The stori<.-s of Siva and Parvan m e _
an:n;ha~ of Pururavas and Urvasi in_the Vikram7:~::!t\:C ':ne
as the legend of Yama and Yam1 verstofnstho Heavens).
Hi mels (- Lovestory o
Liebcsgcschi ch tc
- _?
ro se to show that they arc
Who then are Yama and Yam1. We p pod N . h 1n~-=on, the
not s11i ge11eris, but Sk Y an d Earth ' Day
da an f andig allt, other
Asvins, the Saccrdotium and Rcgnun1, lit mpa , to this argument we
['Twins' (Jami) in RV .1.159.41 As a pre 'runaT_ry, (du) i e. Yarna and
th y
:a.Jone means WUlS
must point out at. ~ma
raa ati nw,ras and vac. Agni born
Yami, just as Sama is San,~ an~ I.le, p ~thp single androgynous Person
d ks I
d pat,parm one m e
bral,ma an . ,.a ~a, an
d I such as pirarau, ,nata1"<111, svasa arc no
before thcu.~c~sn1: .and that ';; necessarily couples of one and th~
more than ;amayalr 111 RV .X. l

'father and mother

san1c sex but ncariy ahvays pairs of oTppohsnc SCRXV, Ill 54.7 where Sky
d " 'etc

(cf.dampah) 'bro'!'~r- ~ 1::;e~herc. they arc svasarJ jamipirror upastlie,
and Earth arc s,,asara, . .
. t1 a Father ,md a Mother, whose
and 1. 159 where they are cxpflict y 'I 1tcllcct' and svatavas-dai.,~,
respective natures arc those o manas.
. b also referred
to as ~11-
'Power', having a prog<.'11~ (pm)'I)~ u ok,isil 'uterine twins. conso~
- 5ay(ll11 1n11hunaSlllll
'parents ' and as ;am,
, and ' jimi can onJ Y be 'twill
ta,nt . it is obvious that svasara
COI13 bI






b rather and sister , d

th y
' an at the same
c ama and Yam, of RV X 10 nmc impossible n
bhe. . . dtin,pati. In RV VII.I 60. .4,5 parama,;, ;"a1111.
to reco""'A

I th
ta,, t1a
gru s mothers' but to his arc. e reference of mat~ 'J u_. . . ga,.
thought of as male and femaJP dnts. th e fircsticks wh ho! IS not to
Urv d .
c an may b dd
ic are al
as1, an similarl y in RV VI 49
ea resscd asp
young mothers' but to Fath . Sk .2 that of yuvaryoh is ururavas and
lndragni arc bhrtitara. .
er . y a_nd M other Earth: In
to 'two
brothers' from one poin; :fama11 wbhich can be taken to ~V. Vl;S9.2
YICW. Ut cq all .
.. ,can iw
w en t c relation of brah,na to ksatra . u y twin brother and sistc~
verse the ihihamatarti are not the u . al IS emphasized; tho in the sa r
;1"d ther~ on whom lndragni arcs~c :t::~nts' but.'two mothers, h:;
mothers' Sayana's Adio a d E h g
by their one Father (th
Ma .
are Eckh ' '
ry tn the flesh'). It is stran e th~t
arts Mary ghostly and
overlooked by H opkins UAbs
~eh of this should have been
always ready to render pitara,, and . - vt) anbd oiliers who, while
bly render svastirti by ' .
n1atara11 y 'p
, (
arents m.and f )
relationship of Sky to Earth . sisters ' regardless of ilie fact mat the
. _
IS never that of SIS. t

111nata and kad -)

b th
er to SISter (except as
father to dau~~;.r
h~s~:~rot!e~~t that of brother to sister,




Yama, who IS regula.r ly identi.tied ,vith Agru may tak A ., as coborn t\vin (y
h .- .

e gru s p..cc
a,no a ;ata 11ulre,_,a saha NinJkta X 21) Indra th
clearJy rcpla
TSIIl383 ~g
~rruA E_arth, as Yam.i's bride (SB.VD.2.1.10;
ama 15 gru, Yanti the .Earth'), quite in agreement
Wl. A-8.111.38 where ' Indra is This (Earth)
th Kin
f B . .
ThtS (Earth)'
g o emg IS
The . aod A V.Xl V.1.48 where the .Earth is Agni 's bride.
two p '."s~s, an~ther pair of twins, ~y be only another form of the
Rao atrs symau 10 RV. and described as 'horse faced ' cf. Gopinath
d Ell'mtnt.s of Hind11 lconograpliy, vol. 4 p 544) already mentioned
an collated. It can hardly be doubted that. the Asvins, twins 'born
and there' o ne of yc, S umakh a ,s 1o rdly conqueror the omcr
son of Sk y' (il,eJ
- - .. )'!""'
- d
,a ;ata,
s,,n, ,vo anya~, s11/,Jra,(lal1 p111ra 11l1t RV I 181
be d. ..:c d . h
the nvins I ,J .
I enuue wit

, must
,, rJgru \V1lOM.' n1othcrs
d h
- H V VI 59 2)
d f h
are ere an c ere (1l,r,l,a1t1ataro,
, ' an
w on) one 111 h_,~ <-,paoty as Mahiivira and Jina is

th '


~ert,uP,ly Good MakJ1a's conqueror' (or Sacnficer Makha being the

lcn J~c. and Sunl1 1111ply,ng M I
JAOS 55 3n-8')
d tl
ag tav~n; see the funer references in

~ ' a.11
ie other :11' the Sun ccrumly 'Good BI
11ut rhc Avu1s nJc m a common -Ii
( h
R v II 30 ?
c anot rat Y<'Va virtijtva yama

-,..~ .ra,na1,oyo;11110 111

vom ratJ,o/1 I.30 IS) agam. suggC$ts lndrigru

_ .



(saratl,a,;, tastl,i vaiisa, RV. I. I 08.1, samaa,ii a ratl,e, VI. 59.5) and likewise
I(rsna and Arjuna (BG., cf. note 5, p. 40). That the Asvins arc referred
to;;. RV.11.39. 1,3 as 'two Br:ihmiis' (brol1111011a) and as 't,vo Sakras'
(fakra, cf. Nirokta XII. I, raja,iau), and in TA. l.10 as 'two horses', day
and night, etc. as a 'pair'. may well be an allusion to lndriigni who arc
both 'priescs' (I,ulro brahma, RV . Vlll.16. 7, cf.SB.lV .6.6.S;JUB.1.45.1)
and both 'kings' (i11dra "" ag11i. .. vajri~a . .. deva, RV .Vl.59.3, etc.):
the emendation cakra for the fakra of RV .11.39.3 is quite unneccsary,
however plausible in view of RV.X.10.7 where Yama and Yarru are
'two wheels' (i.e. Sky and Earth, Day and Night, Manas and Viic, as
wheels of me cosmic and sacrificial chariot, cf.RV.1.30.19; Vlll.89.4;
AB. V.30, 33; JUB.1.20.3:; SB.11.3.3. 12; and BD.Vll.126
Sun and Moon, Pra,ip ana11, Day and Night, or rodasiofRV.Vlll.70.5
and X .65.S). The Asvins are again fakra in RV .X .24.4-5, where
Sayana is absolutely right in referring samici, 'the conjoint' (Sky and
Earm), to the Asvins themselves and in saying that 11iramanthatam, 'ye
churned' has for its object an implied ag,iim; that they thus bring Agni
to birth is 'at me prayer of the Joyless' (vimada), i.e. 'for the sake of
Atri-Vimada' (atraye. . . vimad,iya, RV.1.51.3). cf. Trita's (Agni's, trito
guhyena vralttia, RV.1.163.3) appeals to Sky and Earm in RV.1.105,
and Trita in me womb (RV.X.46.6): mat is to say, men, at the prayer
of Agni himself as yet unborn but longing to be born, eager for me
sacrificial role and choosing lndra for his ally, as in RV .X .124.3,4. In
RV.Vl.11. 1 where Agni is besought to 'rum hitherward' (a no
mitravaru,i tuisatya dyova ho1,ay11 prthivi vav!1)'ah), Mitravarw_u (which
are somraja in RV.X.65.S and hotaro in RV.X.66.13), me Asvins, and
Sky and Earm, these arc not six different cssp1ccs but three aspects of
one pair; mat the same deity may be referred to in one and the same
context by different names, as was observed by Hopkins, Epic
Mythology, p.82, could be amply illustrated from RV., e.g. J.32.5
where v!fra, vyomsa, and ahi arc not three different persons, and
X .62. 11 where the 11111nu of a is the savan,I ofb the reference being to
Vivasvat's son by Sara9yu's .111van,o, and by the same token to the
Manu Vivasvati of RV. Vll.52.. 1. If RV .lll.54.7, speaking of Sky and
Earth as 'bromer and sister' (svostiro-like Zeus and Hera-) goes on to
say mat 'mey call each omer by conjugal names' (brwvatt milhutuini
nama}-DvandvjftWlljl, as Sayai;ia, s a ~ can only be any or all of
me names appropriait to any pm of 'maces' (mi~1111') or any of me
'pairs of opposites' (411-'vinl) such as the two chariot_wheels, or day
and rught, or wcll-<lonc and ilklonc of Ka'. Up.1.4; mother words,




brorher and sister , d

the y
' an at the same

, ama and Yanu of RV X 1 tune trnpossible n

bite .. dampati. In RV VII.I 60. o,.4,5 para,nam)iim; t~t t o ~
Agru's mo eh ers , but to his
the re f,erence of an- 11au ... g4,
thought of as male and fema]parednts', the firesticks wmhia.1roh1., is not t~
e an ma be
c ar al
rvas1, and similarly in RV VI
addressed as p
e ways

Young mo th ers but t F h
. IS not to ,
o at er Sky and M
Indragru are bhratarti. .
other Earth. In
brothers' from one poin~ y;mau w hich can be taken to RV.VI.59.2
o view but eq uall , .
mean ' twin
en t e relation of brahma to
tr .
y tw10 brother and s '
verse the ihilu11niitara are not eh .a;'IS emphasized; tho in the !Ster
and there' on whom lndragru e usu parents' but 'two mothers sahmc
th ,
are begotten b eh
, ere
mo ers' Saya,;ia's Aditi and ~--i.
y eu one Father {th-

...,..,.u., are Eckh 'M

ary m the flesh '). It is strange chat much art~
ary ghostly and
overlooked b y H opkins (JAOS
cxJ . of this should have been
always ready co render pitarau and . 1avi) and others who, while

b ly render svastirti by
, ma rau by 'parents , ( m.and f)
relationship of Sky to "'- - L . SISters , regardless of the bet chat the

v1na1a and kad

b =-rw
th IS never that of s ISter to SISter
(except as
ru, or ro er to brother b t cha f b th
father to daughter and h b d
'. u
t o ro er to sister,

us an to wife
a s ! ~ wh~ is regularly_~de~tified with A.gni. may take Agni 's pbce
clear! re ~ (yamo ~ Ja/a ,ndrerJa salta, Nirukta, X.21 ), lndra then
TSIIi38p3 ~yg YanuA, E_a rth, as Yama's bride (SB.VII.2.1.10;
. . . . ,
ama is gru Yarru the Earth') , qwte
. 10
. agreement
AB.III.38 where 'Indra is This (Earth) th Kin
f B . .
This (E eh) '
. e
g o emg IS
~ . , and A V .XJV.1.48 where the Earth is Agni's bride.
A svms
O f twins,

two eair
, ' anoth
. er pair
may be only another form of the
5 (syenau 10 R V. and described as 'horse faced' cf Gopinath
E~em~ts of Hindu Iconography, vol.4, p. 544) already .mentioned
co ate It can hardly be doubted that the Asvins twins 'bom
h ere and there one of y S
' the other
e umakha's Iordly conqueror
Su bh aga , son of Sky' (ih / -- ..

- . d'
e ,a Ja/a. . J'ff!Ur
sunr. ,vo anya~, subhagah putra uhe RV I 181 4)
b .d '6 d . h
the twins Ind - - h

, must e 1 eno e Wit
RV. vi. _ ), ::~/:hose mo~ers_ are he~e and there' (ihehamatar~.
59 2
certain.I 'G
,0 m one rn his capaaty as Mahavira and Jina is
Sacrific:. an~~u:: sl ~onqueror' (or Sacrificer, Makha being t~e
JAOS 55 377-82) . d phymg M aghavan; sec the fuller references m
That the . Asvins ri: _t c other as the Su_n certainly 'Good Bhaga.'
RV ll 39
. 10 ~ common chanot (rathyeva virtiy'eva yama
2, sa111a11ayo1ano h, va,i, ratltal, I30 IS) aga10
. suggests lndragru
_ _







(sorotl,o,n 1astl1iviiiuii, RV. I. I 08. I , S<11111JJJni ii rorht, Vl.59.5) and likewise

l{nr;ta and Arjuna (BG., cf. noce 5, p. 40). That the Asvins uc referred
to in RV .U.39.1,3 as 'cwo Brahmis' (brahm<il)<I') and as 'rwo Sakras'
(sakrii, cf. N irukta XJl.l, riijiinou), and in TA.LIOas 'cwo horses', day
and night, ccc. as a 'pair', may well be an allusion co lndrigni who uc
both 'priests' (Indro brahmii, RV. Vlll. 16.7, cf.SB.tV.6.6.S;JUB.1.45.1)
and both 'kings' (indrii 1111 iigni. .. vajri,Jii. .. dtvii, RV. Vl.59.3, etc.);
the emendation cakrii for the iakrii of RV.11.39.3 is quite unnecesary,
however plausible in view of RV.X .10.7 where Yama and Yarru :uc
'two wheels' (i.e. Sky and Earth, Day and Night, Manas and Vic, as
wheels of the cosmic and sacrificial chariot, cf.RV.l.30. 19; vrn.89.4;
AB. V.30, 33; JUB.1.20.3; Jll. 16. 1.2; SB.tl.3.3. 12; and BO. VII.126
Sun and Moon, Prii,Jiipiinou, Day and Night, or rodasiofRV.VUl.70.5
and X.65.5). The Asvins are again iokrii in RV.X.24.4-5, where
Saya,p is absolutely right in referring somici, 'the conjoint' (Sky and
Earth), to the Asvins themselves and in saying that niram4111hotam, 'ye
churned' has for its object an implied agnim; that they thus bring Agni
to birth is 'at the prayer of the Joyless' (vimada), i.e. 'for the sake of
Atri- Vimada' (atrayt . .. vimadaya, RV.1.51.3), cf. Trica's (Agni's, trito
gul,yena vratena, RV.1.163.3) appeals to Sky and Earth in RV.L 105,
and Trica in the womb (RV.X.46.6): that is to say, then, at the prayer
of Agni himself as yet unbom but longing to be born, eager for the
sacrificial role and choosing lndra for his ally, as in RV.X.124.3,4. ln
RV.Vl.11.1 where Agni is besought to 'rum hitherward' (ii no
mitravaru,Jii nasatyii dyiiva hotriiya prt}rivi vavftYcih), Mitriv~ (which
are somriijii in RV.X.65.5 and hotJir<i in RV .X.66.13), the Asvins, and
Sky and Earth, these are not six different esspices but three aspects of
one pair; that the same deity may be referred to in one and the same
context by different names, as was observed by Hopkins, Epic
Mythology, p.82, could be amply illustrated from RV., e.g. 1.32.S
where vrtra, vyamsa, and ahi are not three different persom, and
X .62.11 where the manu of a is the s.ivan,u ofb the reference being to
Vivasvat's son by Sarai;iyu's soval"l)ti, and by the same token to the
Manu Vivasvati ofRV.VU.52.. 1. lfRV.111.54.7, speaking of Sky and
Earth as 'brother and sister' (svd.liiroi-lilcc Zeus and Hera-) goes on to
say that 'they call each other by conjugal names' (bruvcilt '"itluwini
,iama)--Dvandlt4llldlll0, u Saya1.1a, sar--thcsc can only be any or all of
the names appropriate to any pair of 'mates' (mithuna') or any of the
'pain of opposites' (dvandvill~ such as the rwo chariot_whcds, or day
and night, or wclMlonc and ill-done of Kall$. Up.I. 4; m odlcr words,






. .
are CScnpov f
names chat are cquaJJy applicable to Sk e o the Asvins in RV
or Sacerdonum and Regn
Y and Earth , Yam
th A. .
un1. or any other h .
a and Ya
svms arc con1pared co
Vln couplc-s. In RV 1111,
(ea k~a va"keva danrpari, c( AV.XIV
'p a.rrs
. . of \Vhich .II39

dual names as

(grti11ti1.ui, a~i [SB.Xn.9. 1 J? 'rw - -64) arc expressly and soh111c

o men 111 the cy "]
Ot ers
ks - - d -
.anJa= yavap,:tlrivi) parabolically of
es va1a 051/1011 , . d
opposite se x $ k ~1
ng an Queen' and 'two Kings' (thi I Id.. a ra can as Well be
RV X 61 23 , w h ere the reference is to Ms 10 s eq uall y c.or 'II.Ja,,,;
... in
w hal] h
itra and Varuna wh
s ow re ated to one another as n1a t
o arc, as

eyes suggest t e un and M oon (the two cu
d . '. two
eyes of the Sacrifice TS. v i. 4 _10 2 3 and ~~; :' an ~ oon arc the
. , left eye
"n NCa,011~1
candras,1rya11 Mu d
U p. lf.1.4,. M oon=VISnus



at~a racanta 22, 89) di

vo . .. a~, in RV. I. 72. l 0, respecti vely the g od-world and rnan-; orl~
OUB.IIl.13; 12), or agam lndra and Indr.i,:ii (SB.X .5.2.11-16). Crtivti,,ti
oHhau, th: upper and the nether millstones' and 'upper and low~,
lip , are some~~<; symb_ols ~f Sk y and Earth; to whjch ~timti in any
~se re~e':. _Vaid, . two wmds o r 'two breaths', corresponds to prti,.rti,
1.e. p ral)(Jpanau , m T S. V l. 4. 9.4, the two breaths that are so often
equated with Mitra and Varu,:ia, Sky and Earth, and considered male
and female; T .A. G . R ao, Ele1nents ofHi11d11 Ico11ography, 11.543, speaks
of a personification o f tbe Asvins as pra~,a and aptin.a. An equation of
the A svins w ith Sk y and Earth, Yama and Yami (i.e. lndra as lndranD,
bralr111a and ~atra, sug gests a sexual diffe rentiation at lease in principle.
In this connection it may well be significant chit the Egyptian Zodiacal
' T wins', w ho correspond to the Greek Dioscuroi wi th whom the
Asvins have o ften been equated, are explicitly and iconographically of
o pposite sex (Wallis Budge, Cods of rhe Egyptians).
T hat the As vins (c(Dioscuroi, Euripides, E/eara 13501) are
regul arly 'saviours' (devana,n baddham11cau, rakJitara, rarake) from
bonds and fetter s (baddha, ptiia)-R V. 11. 39.6; A V. llf. 7.4; JB. Ill. 72,
etc.-is their function as 'physicia ns', because of which th ey arc in
need o f purification (TS. VI.4. 9.12; SB.IV. 1. 5. 13); j ust like the
conjoint principles Sky and Earth, etc., whose elaborate pu rifications are d escribed in J U B.l.50..57 where it is impossi ble no t to
recog nize that the y are Yama and Yami. RV .1. 109. 4 in vokes
lndragni as Asvins', a11d we sec no more reason to explain this
aw ay b y saying that the word means only ' ho rsemen' in this
context than to a~gue that in RV. X .6 1. 14-16, where Agni and
lndra, Pnes t and King are called 11asatya11, anything but the 'Asvins'




s ,ncant. RV.V ll. 72.3 i,n plicd also in 111.58. 1 identifies the Asvins
~vith Sky and Ea rth by apposition (rodasi dl,i~1.1 yrme acl,/,a vipro
- ')'-,t cf V I II I 11asa11a dl,ya,,a /l()rrtiya 11r1l1ivi

Thc;c is a side of the problem connected with the bi rth of the

Asv ins. 10 \vhich ,vc have so far ,nc rcly alluded. We must bea r in
mind that the word Yan1a 111ca11s 'rwins' , and thcrc~orc as Sayar)a
clearly states, n1cans Yama a11d Ya,ni. N o,~ Vania ,s born of th c
Sun (Vivasvat; i,1 Mbh. Xll. 208. 17, Martai)da) and TvaHr_s
daughter Sara,)yii,. who fortlnvith 1nadc off (RV.X. 17: I). This '.s
evidentl y the sa rnc thing as the birth ofYa,na and_Yanu fro m their
'parents' in RV .X.10.5, viz. fron1 'the Gandharva 1n the Water~ and
the Maid of the Waters' (dpyti . . . yotti= Apsaras= Sarai:, yu) of
RV .X .10.4. The Cods concealed the hn ,nortal (bride) fr".rn
inorta ls is another way of sa ying that she disa ppeared, as afor~s~1d;
and they ,nade her 'li ke' or 'double' (savaruti) w~o bore the ~ svins,
and we arc told that Sara,:,yii dese rted both .""'.ates (d_va
111 ;1111111a, RV. X .17.2, an indication I think. of the Asv1n s opposite
f RV . II .39. 2 dcimpativa, but cf. Whttncy on AV.XVlll.2.33
and Griffith's version of RV. X .17.2). In BD.Vl.162 Yama and
Yaini arc twins, Yan1a the 'cider' (j ytiyas): Sara,:,yii bears them, and
then expressing (srHva") a woman 'like' herself, entrusts_thc couple
(mit/111110 11 ) to this pseudo-Sarai;i yii and herself makes off 1n the form
of a mare; unaware of the deception, Vivasvat begets Manu (Manu
Vaivasvata, RV .Vlll.52.1; Manu Siivar,:,i, RV .X .62.9,11) on the
pseudo-Sara,:, yu, and then, rea lizing what ~as hap_pened, p_ursues
the rnare and begcts the Asvins , whose equine designation 1s thus
Arc the Asvins spirit and soul? Sec RV.1.164: Immortal brother
of the mortal'.
, . ,
' We have thus to do with two, or three, pairs of twins ; for
Manu 'Man' is as mu ch as 'Adam' a syzygy. and becorncs the
fa ther of ma:1kind by his ' daughter' Parsu ('Rib,' RV .X.8~.23) o r
Ida (S B. 1.8. 1O. etc.). The other versions of the story arc d1sc~ss~d
b. Bloomfield UAOS 15.172 ff.): the most n~tcworthy point ,n
Oyme of these is the term 'shadow' (chtiyti) used 1nst_ead of the wordf
s' likeness' (savan.ra"); in VP.111.2 aIso, th.is s had ow ' I s the mother o
Manu S:ivar,:ii.
. .
ression 'Shadow' is significant, and enables .us to m
exp . comparisons.
In GB I3 Brahma having express. )

cd the Waters, sees is s a





.ind his seed falls and .

PORAL Po 'Weii

RV. V ll:33.3 I

and :a:up:for~?' th ere; cf. the birth

paryapasyatam correspo d
arnadeva in PB
n s to cha VII 8
a n
aters lS eV1dently th
yam apa fyat Th . .. I, wh
e same as th A

e Shad
accrs . There arc
e psaras 'sh
ow ill th

e w ho
myth ology The E
paraUels in E
. mo ves ill th
the child
gypt1an Zodiacal 'T , gypuan and G e
ren of the solar Su
Wins mention d
who is also Mother-
_or . em (Amen-Ra), wh c .above are
11.315) Th G
arth, is his wife (Bud
_o se Shadow'
ge, op.ci r I 87 f
e reek Centaurs

children of bcion ( h
' w O are certainly 'ho
w ose solar and l"k
rse- men' are h
e 1vasvac's mo 1
t e
is indicated by th e f:
act t at he is b

rta natu
. h '
oun to a revolving wh I re,
bHhava-cakra) by a 'cloud ' in
t c sembla
,( .
ee .- a
era (see citation s in C k
nee simulacrum) of Ju
oo ' e11s II I 7 4f es
no or
3 4 6 'I .
fi . .fi x1on <!J]uno sought the nrarriage bond, 1:tecta y Myth . Vat.

a,r orm, and when l x ion joined with it h; : ie a on ,ed a cloud in her
On Castor and Polyde k
egot the centaurs.'
Euripides-Electra 1342( ; e_s -~or Pollux), sec Pindar N.O .X
Aescl1ylus, Vol.11, p. 410, (L~;:;1 ~s-Helena _690 (leu-kopj,o,)
Hymns, 33 on Dioscuroi.
ass1cal Li brary); also Homeric


Now it can hardly b d b d

mothers , one immortal ean;u h te th at al! t hese births of different
of the first arc reaJJ
o_ther a likeness o r transformation
predicated ii; various wy the divine and human births that arc
Buddha M h - C~y_s of every solar hero, e.g. Heracles, Agni,
a a vira ,
nst; of whorn H e racles son o f Z eus by
Al cmenc was

ddhma ea eg1t1mate son ofJ uno; Agni is dvimiitii (RV.
a was born of M aya wh o had been made 'in the
of e~ ; ~f the other' (Lalita Vistara, Lefma nn p . 27, 1. 12), i. e. born
ya the daughter of M aya' (A V VIII 9 S)
f Ad"1
(Mothe E h) d

, 1., . o
aughrer of Aditi (mother o f Gods), RV. VIII. 55.2,
. . r art
th a t M aya
- - 'lik e every m other o f a Bo dhisattva'
di dd n is to be
h noted
e ear- I Y, t at 1s.' deserte d t h e child , w ho w as fostered by Paj apaci;
Mahakhvira , conceived by a ba111ha~11 was born of a khattiyii111 while.
asI c. art says of Chris t, 'h.is b 1rt
" h o f M ary g hostly wa
's more
~:sa:::!d t~h~im hthan his birth of M ary in the fles h. ' It will be
named alike t ~ e temporal and eter nal m o th ers arc generally
cstabr sh d or in any case arc alike . It is then in agreement wi th an
c pattern chat Saranyu eh d
identified with Surya and h., c aug tcr o fTva~fr and to be
represented to be -L . '
Jcr counte rpart o r transfo rmation , arc
me 1mmorta mother of G 0 ds (Y
mortal mother of the As . ( h
. ama-Yami) and the
vu1s w o were nor ong1nally' C ods) and o f



' Man. Considered from this pomc of view the b1nhs of Y,m.a
(Yama-Yarru1 and that of the Asvms, who arc respectively Sky and
Eanh ab intra and Sky and Eanh ab txtra, arc not r~lly, but only
logicall y, t,vo differcnc births.
The whole story of Vivasvac and Sara,:,yii is thus only a
specialized variant of that of che Spiritual Person (a1man, punf)
whose ' two halves' (pati-patni) are to be equated with Y,maYami = Agni and Earth in SB.Vll. 2.1.10, and with the Egyptian
Zodiacal 'T wins' who arc of opposite sex and are called the ' two
halves' of the one solar deity (Budge, Joe. cit.). of which two halves
the 'wife' after giving birth to 'Men' (111a1111!y<il_1 , patronymic of
Man u and thus ' the children of men') reflects that 'He produced me
fro m himself, forsooth' (mat111a11a eva janayitva, i.e. 'I am his
dau ghter'), conceals hersclf(cf.Cypria 8, where Nemesis 'dislikes to
lie in love with her father Zeus' and flies from him, assun1ing forms
of fish and animals; and Heracleitus Aph.X, 'Nature loves to hide'),
*and becomes a cow, a mare, 'and so on down to the ants,' the
Spiritual Person (atman, puru!a)-whom she cannot elude-assuming corresponding forms and engendering corresponding off
spring (BU.1.4. 1.4). The theme survives in folklore in ballads of
the type of'Thc Twa Magicians' (Child, English and Scorris/1 Popular
Ballads, Boston , 1904, no.44) in which there occur such lines as
'Then she became a duck, And he became a rose-kaimcd drake,'
and there can be no doubt that the 'two magicians' arc ultimately
the M i yini (Sky and Earth , 111iiyin and maya) who couple and bring
forth the Babe (Agni) in RV.X.5 .3, and equally the Mayini
Nasaryau (Asvins) who arc Agni's kindlers in RV.X.24.4.5, cited
It will follow from all that has been said above that SB. IV . 1. 5. 16
is essentially correct in saying that the 'Asvins arc manifestly (or
exotcrically, ab txtra) Sky and Earth.' See TS.V.6.4. 1 'The Asvins
arc these two' and SB.Xll .9. I. 12 'these two men that seem to be in
the eyes pertain to the Asvins'. If Yaska in tum explains chem in
more than one way. as Sky and Earth, Sun and Moon, Oay and
Night, or as Two Good Kings (Nin1k1a XII. I, cf.Xll. 10 and
BU. VII. 126). this by no means implies. what Macdonell sugHence, as Meister Eckhart uys. '10 find Nature .u ~h1.~1s 11l herself.. -,Uher fornu
must be shaucrcd' An 1m111uon of natunt form1 1s 001 au ,muJuoo of
N11urc. -Par"ksl1dpr1yii


hr Jti,il1


PllUTu .u


0 RJTy ANO T E111

a.rid hu $ ~ f.uls a _. - i'ORA.L Po "'""

R\" \l 1.3.., I I .ind
nu IS sup= _ _..
r _:-rh-, ihc-re: cf . L
t lt ot \ ' uu: birth
'1t.:r <-On-esp~ d
,una.dc-,a in PB
of Vas.lSth
,,n s ro rl, \ rll
. a Ill
"i'"S)\JI ,...__
1, ,,h
3 i.. r,; L~ c,,dcncJ, ih
c ~ m e :i- th A
. l ne stud
a.ter.. Therc 'r~
" c pu ras I
ow 111 .L
' r<:n1.uk abl
~ ic \\'ho
in,th<'logy. The E \"
c_ parallels in E
rno ,cs tn the
the child

S. po.1n Z o diaca l T~ . gyptian and C

' 'In s n1cntioncd
rcn ot the solar Su
,vho is also t-v1 o th er-Ea h _or '.e m (An1 cn - Ra). ,vh
_above arc
11.315). The G r- k C
rt . is h is wife ( Budge
_osc Shadow
op.ac. I 87 (


chtldrc n of IJ<ion ( wh
arc certainly 'horse- ' . and
. .
ose so 1ar and lik
men ar h
JS 1nd1cace d b y che f:

e V1vas va c's m
ct c
,. _
act t at h e 1s b
' Ort.a 1 natur
. t h e sembla
oun to, (a . revolving w h eeI.- e,a
bruiva-cakra) by a 'cloud ' l1l
nee s11n11/acrum) ofJ
H e ra (sec atau ons l1l C 0 0 k

l'US Ill 74(

3 4 6 'I
..fi x,on ofJ uno sougltt rht marriagt bond .,hes!,ecully A1yth . Vat.
s e on,td a cloud in htT
fia,r onn' and whffi bc,on ;oined w ith it
On Casror and Pol ydcuk es ( o r P~ll ~got tht . <ffllaurs.'
Eunptdes.-Bcara 1342[. E
we), sec Pineur N.O X.
Anchylus. Vo lL p.-4J(;
_690 (ln1-koppoi)
Hr,1u, 33 oo Dioscur
Ltbru-y); also Homait


n-:;: ~e;;::~01a

~ r car. h2rdl) be doub~d dur all these buths of d.iffi
~ rmmorul and the ocher a u-"Lencss
of the fj
or tn.nsfomuoon
Jnt,, u c reallv che d1,inc and human births . L.t
pre dia ted m va
B uddha Maru~us 1:.1ys o cvery solar hero, e .g . H erades, Agni,

-ua. Chnst; of whom H erades son o f

z- .. by

/\ Icmcnc w as
pa11irn) Budd:a ea eg1t1m.1 te son ofJuno, Agru is dvimcita (RV.
w~ born of M aya who had been made '1n the
of ' M a 0af the other (LA/110 Vistara, Lefmann p . 27, I. I 2). i.e. born
y the daugh ter of M ava' (AV Vlrl 9 S) .
f Ad .

1.e. o
(Mother E h) d
aughter of Ad iti (rn o ther of Gods) RV. VIJl .55.2.

d It IS to th
be noted th at M aya
- - 1J k e e very mother of' a Bodhisattva'
M h-ca -r Iy, at is d cse n ed t h c ch 1Id who was fostered by Pajapari;
a a vira. concc1ved b Y a bamha,11- wa s born of a kl1at1iyci11i while
as E c kha rt says of C h

pleasing to h im h
,n~c . is birth o f Mary ghostly was more
obser ved tha t the an u s b irth of Mary in the flesh. ' It will be
rumcd al k
e te mporal and eternal mothers are generally
1 e, o r in an y case :arc ark
J th
estabhsh cd pct~
h S
e t is en in agreement with an
, rn t ac aranyii th d
identified with 5- e aug tcr ofTva~~r and co be
ur ya, and_ her
co unt crpart or trans,ormation,
,.,.,..resented to L , .L
<><: u1e 1mmo,....., mo th
n iorul mother o f the As . ( h er O
( Yama-Yarru, and the
VlilS w o were not ong1nally' Gods) and of


Po ,vRR


'I\ bn.' Cons1dc~-d fron, this pomt of ,icw the births of Yan

(Y, 11,.,-Y J111i) lnd thlt of the- Asvins, " ho :ire .-spccnvcly Sky and
Earth ab i11trJ and Sky and E.1rth ab exrnr, arc not really, but only
log,c:illy. c,vo different births.
The whole story of Vivasv:u and Sata\1yi'1 is thus 011ly a
specia lized variant of th at of the Spiritu al Person (01111011 , pun,~a)
,vhose 'two halves' (pati-pawi) arc to be equated with YamaVami= Agni and Earth in SB. Vlt. 2. 1. 10. and ,vith the Egyptian
Zodiacal 'Twins' who arc o f opposite sex and arc called the 'rwo
halves' o f the one solar deity (Budge. loc. cit.), of which c,vo halves
the 'wife' after giving birth to ' Men' (111a11ufy<1/J, patronymic of
Manu and thus ' the children of men') reflects tbat ' He produced me
fro m hi mself. forsooth' (motmana tva ja11ayi1vo, i.e. 'I an1 his
daughter'}, co nceals herself (cf. C ypr1a 8, where Nemesis 'dislikes to
lie in love with her father Zeus' and flies from lum , assummg forms
of fish and animals; and Hcn.deitus Aph.X , 'Nature loves to hide'),
*and becomes a cow, a mare, 'and so on do""'ll to the anrs: the
Spirirual Pason (01ma11, punlia}--"-hom she cannot elude-assuming corresponding forms and mgendenng corresponding off
spring (BU.l 4. 1.4). The cheme survives 1n folklore m ballads of
the r,pe of 'Tbc Twa ~giaans' (Cluld, E,,gli1lt dnd Sco11uli Papuldr
&llad1, Boston, 1904. no.44) 1n whteh there occur such lines as
'Then she became a duck. And he became a rosc-ka1med drake,'
and there can be no doubi that the 'two magiaans' arc ulumatdy
the Miy1ni (Sky and Earth, moyin and moya) who couple and bnng
forth the Babe (Agni) 1n RV.X.5.3, and equally the Miy1.ni
Nasatyau (Asvins) who arc Agru's kindlcn ui RV.X.24.4.5, atcd
It will follow from all that has been said above that SB. IV . 1.5.16
is essentially correct in saying that the 'Asvins arc manifestly (or
exotcrically, ab txtra} Sky and Earth.' Sec TS. V.6.4.1 'The Asvins
arc these two' and SB.Xll.9.1.12 'these cwo men that seem to be 1n
the eyes pertain to the Asv1ns'. If Yaska 1n turn explains them m
more dun one way, as Sky and Earth. Sun and Moon. Day and
Night, or as Two Good Kings (1'\J1rulr1a XII . I, cf.Xll.10 and
BD. Vll.126), this by no means implies, what Macdonell sugHme<. as Mrur<T Eckhrt says. 10 f,nd Na1u1< u ,h< 1> u, 1,.-r,clf. all he, form
must br s..hancrtd' An 1m111uon of n.itural form1 H t)O( an ,nuuuon of

Naru1< '-Parok,,....pnyi wa 111 dtviil1




gested , that ' even the

wha t the As' .
oldest cornrn

c .ntaco r s \Vere
on h,
c c con trary, the aJt
space and hea
na m es. b, ~tuch
crnativcs arc valid
""-~ sec TS V~ to
,~.-e t
. as ,,c have seen th
_examples of the .. ._6.4);
oo cann ot d1sn n guish
. e Asv1ns can be,
con;o1nt pnnaplcs t ha t a sharply bcc,vccn the thexpla1ncd'. If
GaPdhan :a and A psa
hre bo rn o f the S
ree Pairs of
r.is, ~- ccher
un and s
use .,,c arc puzz led b u
as reality or shado\,
ar._!1, ii,
Tvvms 111 d,v,111; chc cos
t because the distinction bcth1s is not
S\Z) gy is one of na t ure anm1c t~ns. and the pans of t,,cc:n the
or the Saeerdoa u m
d dhno t of essence. A I) these
the human
4LJ. Cf. SB
_an t _c Rcgnum .
pairs arc types
.X .4 . 1.:>. Agni and I d
n ra, Saccrdotium and R
spcakmg, ekam n'ipam bi (w h
" 1av asava, 'Ice us t\\' - be
ek JC a_ vie w to procrcauon), cf.ou r 'be mad au1 con1~ of On(' form'
o bhu IS co be unified '; hence both . c on~ flesh . Sa1i1b/11i, like
s1g n1ficance, but can also mean to . c-~prcss,o_ns have a marital
/rans-formaoon of the s
die ma rnag<' i1n plving
('COn party by
1 .
41 . The word - (fi

ass1m1 anon.
vrra; ro m ra; to 'shine' d ' I .
~01nadcn t m o tions) IS analo ou.s
. - a? . rue n1ctaphysically
diffusing rad iance' any s hg hi _co v,b~iasa, shining forth. and to sri
u c s rung being
1.c. an extensio n of be
neccssa n Ya1so a Vibhava
ing in vanous direcrio
d h .
sen ce . w hence also ,,ibl ,- .
ns, an t us 01nn,pre1
'autho ricy'; see also p ;~ a~o~co;cr (c( exeimi, 'proceed ' and exousia.
Vedas p 32) F h '
P 69 and A New Approach to 1/,e

urt crmorc
' Jg t 1_s the . p~ogc_nitivc power'
(TS. VIl.1.1.1 and SB. VIII
'The lig ht s
h 1. . 7 .1 16), c( Waclo, L,bn d(' 111t('l/iq1111is, IX
1 in cac uv1ng thing eh

TI1erc can be no
. . ~ on gin o its movc1ncnt and life.'
Sri and G rttk H wkon er th~r it is said of the Vir:ij (to be equated with
e at(>S n1ean1ng 'far sho t'
1 to 'shafts of light') t hat 'eh .
_ ~
~ ing , certain
y with reference
111ost thereof b .
c V iraJ
this Earth and he who gets the
Su XII ( I 4')) ccfcomt-s the chief (Sref{lial1 . also 'most glo rious'


AU VII 1- 'beh


pa1ya irrma,iam) <'/

, I k:,
o ld the Sun s Fo rtune (suryasya
.) If IS t l ~ lfl1'dom tl
w hich nuk.,
, 1e power an d t hc glory' by

l 32 3
r ru 1c~ {<)n V1raJ , e . M
v1r,ya11,a oat prablt11l,) V
anu . 3--tasya,h sa
1-'c.- rwn
ihc.- I (
.raJ . 1 en , a, '>n. " idcnuficd with lndri ni 'the
c I eye , lndra being h I'

(HU IV 2 J .ind ( . U. IV
ccc .
t c
ccson 1n che n ght eye
Vrtr.i;u,thc Pc. r\<>111nth<
l hat in S Blll.1.3. 11 , 14 S~i;ia or
the. f~t du t Ind
be unde rstood in eonnect1o n wJCh
r.1 i, no w what Vrira w (SU I
f)('~n 111 the c.-yc.. \(;~ N o te IIJI
, ?
a~ 6.3. 1.7). For che
.ind Phdo I 15 F I
J page - .ind also Plato Alabiades I. 133
. un u:-r UU. I 43. 11) l't r!,Qn in eh~
eye, lndra,




PraJapan: and in Ru mi, ,\lat/11,au,i 1. 1679 where 'The real Man is

nothmg but the 'Intl<' n1an' Ill the pupil of the eye', 1.e. 11. lOOf 'my
"n i1nage 1n thine Eye'. and ll.444 'make the child of your eye " eep
over you r body'. T heir place of umon is the heart (ib. , and
SB.X.5.2.1 1). and II is there in the heart (,vhether in our 0\\'11 heart or
at the heart and capital of the e'.l.'len1al kmgdom) in 'sleep'. i.e. the
resrnunt of the sense po\\'ers. ,vhich arc thus ' possessed" (as a JGng
poss('SScs htS Fomme)that one becomes as 1t were a Great King and
n10\'er-at-,vill in his o,vn realn1 (BU .11. 1.17.18.cf. BG. V .13}.
In our contcx'l, to which the text of AV. Vlll.9. 10 ,vho knoweth
her progcnitive-<lualiry (111ir/11111a1va111)?' is so pertinent. cf.AV.11.36.3
,vherc the ,vife 'should rule' (vi rajar11) her house. the Viraj is evidently
(like Sn1 rather feminine than masculine, and corcesponds to the Virij
of AV. Vlll.9 and JO where she is at once 'This' (Earth, World) and
that Nature (11a111ra 11a111ra,,s) from whom all things milk their specific
In TS. V.5.4.1 Sky and Earth arc respectively the svaraj and the viraj
(cf.CU . VJJ .25.2 svaraj and anyara;), approximately Empire or Aut<r
cracy and 'Vice-royalty' or 'Kingship'; and it is, of course just in
this sense that the supremacy of the bral1111a is cdated to tlut of the
~ atra.
Our text may also contain an allusion to the Viraj which is the
Nourishment (am1a) produced by the Sacrifice QB.1.233.234, cf. ll.82);
and the probability of this is increased by the faet that JB.1.233 speaks
of an excess of the Yajna over the Viraj as a fault, the phrase vira11
natiyafiavya suggesting the 111,il sambliavam1 a1yaricyata of JUB.1.54.7
where it is evident that it is only when this unconformity has been
corrected that they became the Viriij'. Viraj is Mitra 's, Svaraj is
Varuna's, BO. Vlll.107.
42. i.e. 'He has been born as my son'; whereas in BU.1.4.4 'He has
begotten me of himself, i.e. ' I am his daughter', cf. note 39. Both arc
corrcet propositions, and both serve as the ground for the mother's
withdrawal. The rebirth of the father as the son ~ m accordance With
the Indian and universal doctrine of progcnitivc remcarnation and
consequent consubsunriality of father and son; the wife who bears a
son becoming thereby the husband', 'second mother' (janani pWl<II,,
AB. Vll.13, cf.Mbh.1.68.47 (Poona ed.)).
43. Eckhart 1.378, Pfetffer 528-Der va~ gcbar sincn wn in dcr
gothcit mit alien dmge = The father bcgat his Son mto lus Godhead
wtth all things.




TE.Mt>oiv.L Pow

the _vital force, PriJ:ia. It is 1nU::::.n of the Sun and the Sk
4:,. W e have already (note 5
y etn~ted
l\t.icra to Manas and of V
) called attention to the
. .
d .
aruna to U

esignation of Vas~ia as "th~ so
M . t m RV. Vll.33. 11 \Vh on of
can onl ,
1tr:1 and V
ere the
. PB ) , mean at a ,n11huna111 o f Mjcra and V
arui:ia (111aicravan111a)
_?<?{V. 10, 10, or in o ther '\Vo rd
arw;ta has taken place: as
IS Vac ln PB vn 8 1 . .
s that Urvasi thus

it IS equally clea L

( _

amongst the Gods ' .
Vamadcva (the ~i of R V IV 1 40) .
1.e. the birth of
implies that

itravanu;iau h as taken place, which inde d

a ~nJugation of
connccnon of the Vamadevya
B he explams the special
am an ( r ad Ukth ) . h
mtercourse (vamadevyam mithu11e protam
II 13 2 ~
where Brahma as M an as betak hi
If ' , ), .BU.IV.1.6
es msc to the w oman, i v
himself IS born of her, as also in PB. V ll.6 where -~c ~c, an~
I raJapati ; all these are versiortS of one and the same U r-m ~ :
46. From M und .up. llJ. 1.3, M U . Vl.18, SB. Xll.9. 1.17
Y.XV. 10. 1(), brahmayoni is the 5am.c as van;l}ayoni, as Varuna ~
cq:tc:d to .Urahma m R V. Vlll.4 1.8 and MU. VU. II
mad7. At tmpbed by the Anuknm2ni
r to AV. VU. 21 , man1ro,uat,
,va11am, chc ~Un is hcre the Uruvenal Spirit (atma jtigatas tasthwsai
C4J o; l '_V .J 115. 1, the Hcdsmm of RV. Vll.60.2 (suryo . . . vii va~a
' :~"' ;ag~i ea t"J'ti, cf note 34), the Universal Lord and H w lnrul
!t.utnam ;agataJ tashu~s patim, Siyal)2 svaminam) o( RV.J.89.5, the
m~uplc one (viivam ilr4m) 11ho 'p lays the man ' (pa1yate, Sayai;i.a
abl11gahat1, cf l..ilnn, brahma, 2S abh1ga,ur in SB.IV.1.4. 1) to all th2r is '
m mooon or at fCj( (ijad dlrruvtim, RV.JIJ.54.8), and Parjanya of

+t. C(BU.1.5.12 From the


SB.I.4.1.22-23) is variously brought about: but that the worlds are

separated by the birth of the Sun, by Agni. lndrigni, Light or
Lighming. the Axis Mundi (skambhti) or the Bridge (selM), 'by Varur:'s
operation' or 'at the fiat of the Imperishable' (a~ra), or at Dawn, are
only different ways of saying the same thing.
Their fear or shyness of one another is genera.lly connected with the
incest motif, presupposed by the fact of their common origin, which
makes them father and daughter and brother and sister, like Zeus and
Hera: w here there is 'no duality' (advaita), it is only with his own nature
that the Deity can be united, and this could be avoided only at the price
of dualism . It is, indeed, inasmuch as essence and nature arc one in
divinis th:at the act of crc.ttion has sometimes been thought of as
auto<rotic. Cf. Orpheus in Argonautica 1.494.
In addition to our observation in note 42, we rcmMk that the
Theotokos is nccessarily feminine-to God in every possible rebtion, as
daughter, sister, mother and bride; and to note the Christian doarinc
as resumed in Dame's 'O Virgin Mother, daughter of thy Soo'
(Paradiso XXXllJ . I) and 'Bride of the Emperor of Heaven, :and not
bride alone but sister and most beloved daughter . . . cxisong in !um
in true and perfect fashion as if eterT1211y wcddI to !um' (u,nvito,
UL 12); that is to say. in the same way that Prajapaa, the Progenitor.
'bad Vic alone as his own,' w hom he only separated from huruclf as a
mother of whom to be born (PB.VLL.6; XX. 14).
In ancient Roman Law the wife was said to sund to the timband in



~ PB

49. '""'
Vic (Larin vox) as Theotokos is not here the Logos (Lat.
vobum), but the means or organ by which the Logos (~
uJrtlso) is
The solar Prajipati's own child-bcanng precedes and must DO{ be
confused with the giving birlh to chc child by his cooson. The normal
doctrine about generation applies in divinis as much as m the world: It
is that the fuhcr of all 'bc:ars himself in himself (.illnany tvcitmtinam
bibltam), and 'when he paurs it into the wotrWl as seed ('414 Y~ .striy~
rincat1) then he propagates it' (athainaj janaya11) and her givmg buth to It
follows (AA.ILS). In PB. VU.6. 1, X.3.1, Xl_ll.11,-1~ and SBJLS.1.3,
accordingly, Prajipati sees that the embryo is Wtthin !um (garblto .
a11tarhitah, c( RV.Ul.57.3 ga,l,lwm asmin, wilh reference to Agro as
embryo) and then scparatcS Vac from himself as a mother of whom t~
be bom;just as also in SB.Vl.1 .2.2. 6-11 he is specifically 'pregnant

RV.VU.t <,t.6: mother words, the divine Eros, Gwdh:arva, Bnhnu

to whom the whole creation is feminine, for 'All of us are the wives of
one ~d. it IS for Hun that we shall adorn ourselves' (ha,+, sob nari tlta
bhatara, sob Jw, tafl kara, s1flgara, K:abir); just as considered individually
dic bod y is ' the sensitive image, d:aughter and bride' of the soul (V. d2
S. Pmto, Ptttr Stary, PuriUJn and Plauust, p p. 166-7). See also note 70,
p. 19 (111).
The Two Worlds (imau lokau J dyavaprlhivi
' --'I ~
' =ma etc)
1 na1

ce es
~d te1;escn~. esscnri2J and n:uural, w er e origmally one, as is
oficn cxpliat and still more often implied b y their 'separation. This
~ara~on from one another , w hlch is in order that there may be
roon1 for a procedure from potentiality ro act (TS. V.I.5.8,





._~aibho antar tisit. . . garbhy abl
'cxpres '
iavat and th
scs ' sva11, those bci11gs that he ha
en un,t,ng With .
s concetvcd and f
. Vac
is to be the mother

o wh,ch I
The san1e principles apply to th ,
s ie
e second birtl1
e sp1ntua father makes the disa'pl ,
in upanaya110 wl
) d
e an e1nbryo I .
.be~rs him ~ l~ _belly (11dare bibl,arr,) fa~:~~~~ h,.rn (~~rbl1a,11
e IS Orn of Sav1tn as his n,othcr ( . .
nights , after
5.4. 12, A V.Xl.5.3 ai1d Manu JI 38 170 ;carya as A.~ni, sec SB.XL
Libe/1,is XIII.2).
' a so Hermes Trisrncgistus,


Th~t ?oth parents are thus thought of as chi.Jd-bca .

carrymg , so that we can speak of them as 'tw
nng, 1.e.
dve yoni, ekam mith11nam, no more contra~i::~hs .. one union' (tt
functional differentiation (one only gives birth) ~~r sedxual and
d g
f th

an oes the
es1 nanon o
e umversal parents as pitara or matara in RV

imply that both

b h fc
. passim
are m e or ot emale (their Supreme Identity, lad
ekatt1, is o.f co':"rse an~rogynous), or thm does the couvade (of which
thc.fat!1er s child- b:anng, as expl~ined above is certainly the mythical
basJS)-lIIlply any disnncnve ferrurunfry on rhe father's part, but rather
that like the brahn1a, that is both the brah,na md the ~atra, he is thought
of still as a first principle in which both natures arc combined.
SO. R. Eisler, '.Jallres Hochzeir mit der Sonne', Orie11talische Studien
{Mitth. der Vomerasiatischen Gesel/schafi, pub. Fritz Heramel, II, 1918
pp. 21-70).
51. That the Brhat (i.e. Sun or Agni) is elsewhere regularly
contrasted with the Rathmtara (Vac) as Heaven (m.) with Earth (f.) is
to be explained by the face that the Brhar-as 'unspoken Logos"-is
originally 'within ' Prajapati (,ne'yan, antarhita~, PB. Vll.6.2) and as
much identical with himself as Vac herself, whom Prajapati 'contemplates as silence' (t~.,im ma,iasa dl,ytiyat PB. VII.6.1) ante priridpi11m.
Thus the Logos (Brhat) is related to the Voice as Theotokos-<hc
Voice being that by which the Word is spoken-both as son to mother
and as husband to wife: cf Dante's 'O Virgin Mother, daughter of thy
52. lt follows from all this that the familiar mitl111nam of Manas and
Vac by which a concept, onginally formed in silence (PB. VJl.6. 1) is
itself incestuous and metaphysically illegitimate. The formation of a
concept 1mpLt.-s distinction of subJect and object, knower and known,
essence and nature; it is only when these distinctions are transcended,
only when knowledge of (avidyii) becomes a knowledge-as (vidyii) m
adl'qua110 rei et iritellect11s, only when knower, knowledge and known





arc a ~inglc lCI of being. that knowledge can be spoken of as

'purc'- 'thcn the intellect, having attaoncd to the form of truth, does
not think, but perfectly contemplates the truth' (St. Thomas Aquinas,
511111. Tlreol . 1.34.1 ad 2). '13ut in no way can sense know this'
(ib. I. I 6. 3). Hence the expression 'Silence is golden', where silence
~hould be understood to mean not merely not speaking, but not
53. Cf. my 'Tantric Doetrinc of Divine Biunity', AmUJls of tht
Bl1a11darkar Orie11tal Researcl, lllstitute, Vol. XIX, 1938, pp. 17~183.
54. $1:l.Vl.1.2.4 'By means of the Sun he entered into union with
the Sky'; and SB.!X.3.1.3 'The Sky is the All, and Aditya (the Sun) is
its man', also BU.1.5.12 of note 44.
55. Sasvati in Crassmann 's sense 2. The designation of the Domains
(Three Worlds) as 'Everlasting Dawns' (sa.ivatil)) corresponds to that
of the 'Three Realn,s of Light' as 'indestructible' (dii,lsa) in
56. In full agreement with the Samhita texts cited above, BD.1.7173 explains that the 'Three World-Overlords' (lokadhipatay.d~) arc ~ot a
plurality of principles but are distinguished only by their funcnons;
there arc not three distinct deities, but only 'severally named ID
accordance with their spheres': 'they arise from one another (any011yayo11ital.1), all their 'participati?n' is in the Spjr_it' (teim atmaivd tat
sarvari, yad yad bhakti~1) . This last is clearly an allusion to PB.XX.15.2,
where the 'participations' or 'shares' of the Three Candharvas are ~c
Three Realms. It is with reference to these 'shares' that we find ID
JU. 111a11astii' 11a1h (ptipmanam bhrolfVY~m) nirbluijtt.
For SB. Vl.1.2.1-4 Agni. Vayu, and Aclitya are the forms that
Prajapati assumes in relation 10 Earth, Air, and Sky. AB. V.25 calls
them the 'house-fathers' (grhapaldya~) of the Three Worlds (RV.1.26.7
l,otr grl1apat0; CU. I. 6.1-3 states the same_ rclltions~ps in terms of
Saman and Re; the former as Agni, Vayu, Aditya resting upon
Air and Sky in the same sense that in AB.lll.23 the one Siiman urutcs
with the triple (le. MU.IV.6, the locus classicus in the Upa~ds for the
via affirmativa and via rtmotiotiis, expan~ the.brah"."' vd1 l~V(f ofJ~111 4 J l and calls Agni, Viiyu, and Ad1tya (1dcnnfied with Brah ,
R~d~a, and V1gu1) 'the foremost forms o~ the immo~.
Brahma' to whichever one of these a man JS attached, his (NJ
a corrcs~onding world (cf. BG. Vll.23), But thouth ~ ~
contemplate and praise these forms of Brahma. th!:rcUy .~
and higher in the worlds (cf~B. Vlll.7.1.23 where the ruven





EAt PO RAJ. p O \VE)\

are stepping stones o r nmgs of the ladderascend o r descend in these worlds), one sho~;'J;"ya/.,.._,vhereby to
order to att:un to the unity of th p
ally deny them .
Th e otanons from the Sa rhhitas
interpretations of the Vedic T rini tyan1p yTsuffice to show that th~
ua n~c~s
expressions of any 'late r ' m onotheistic tenden
b r on are not the
ments of Vedic doctrine. They are furth
cy . ut simple restate.th RV V

ermore, m whole a
44. 6 It is j u st in accordance w ith hi
' (y- .
. . .
s aspect that he is .
, gtve_n
ad,:g eva dadrse tadfg ucyate), cf. SB.X
eh h
0 As he IS
. even su
e becom es, (ytitha-yathopti.sate ttid evti bhavat,
It 1s eVJdent that the 'Three Gandharvas' are th 'Th h ) .
ree-. eaded
G_an dharva, , the ,Three-headed
and that if three
Li h '
be dis .
. h d b
g CS can
~gws e .
the theologian, 'there corresponds to
all o f them one single reality (St. Thomu Aquinas, Sum. Theo/. ,
1.1? .. 4. ad 2), that of ~e uruty of the Person, Brahma, Savicr, Prajapati,
Spmt, and Light of lighcs (atman, jyot4a1il jyotis, j yotir uuanu,m, etc.);
the Father, M over, Past or (gopa, govind see Note 57). and E mperor of
all that is in motion o r at rest. The customary distinction of
'Hind uism ' from 'Brahmanism ' is essentially fallacious; it rests on
nothing more than the modem historian's sense of an obligation to
demonstrate an 'evolution' of thought.
The Hindu Trinity o f Po w ers consists of a solar Father above, a
fiery Son on earth (whence h e ascends to heaven), and the Gale of their
common spiration, and is thus indistinguishable from the Christian
T cinity (it also corresponds to Platos threefold constitution of the
whole soul). It is even m ore exactly and in detail the equivalent of the
Gnostic doctrine of the Three C hrists or Triple Pow er: 'Viewing the
cosmos as a tripartite unit ( = trivftam, RV.X . 114.1) . . . they caught
that the Saviour was manifested in the chrce divisions in a form and
ll'Wll'lCr suited to the mode o f being and needs of each... In his
ca_paoty as o~
(monog~. one i n =) he is related to the
cosmos as a wbol~, while the designation T riplc-Powcr signifies his
aooacioo v.'ltb the universe as aiply divided' (Baynes, &u Coda,
pp. 64, 77). C BD.L99, 100 and BU. L2.3 on the chrce forms of
Agm.C( Rene Gucnon. La Cranu Triaik, Cha:p. 17.
l11or lndologists conviction of an Indian polyt:hc:ism and pantheism
is a residue of Chrisria-n prejudice surviving even m the rationalist. In a
paraild connectJOn Goodenough rem.arlu: 'Philo hinudf was fully
a.warc: of the uruverul U:ndency in paganism toward the doctrine: of a
wglc supreme dc:tty_In one place he saf s. " But ifhe exisu whom with

s~ .



one accord all Greeks and barbarfans acknowledge together, the

supreme F2ther of gods and men and the Malter of the whole universe,
whose nan1rc is in visible and hard to grasp not only by the eye but
even by the mind" . ... Coulscn in his note on this passage cannot
believe his eyes that Philo thus ascribes monotheism to all pagans. So
far as I can see Philo w as telling the simple truth as he saw it, not as
Christian prop2gand2 has ever since misrepresented it' (An Introduction
to Philo j udacus, p. 105).
It w as not, however, at any rate not in India, th2t 'the approach to
this monotheism had been by the reduction of individual dcities to
aspects of the single divine power'. as Goodenough assumes: on the
contrary, it was precisely the universality of the supreme deity that
made it possible for local deities to be accepted as forms of That One
(tad ekam) who is of many aspects (purvanoor) and polynominal (bhuri'~i
tava . . .nanu,, RV.Ill.20.3). It is only by a wilful disregard of Vcdic
dieta, an inadequate correlation of texts, and it must be added, a
genen.l ignorance of theology an~ of metaphysics, th.u any so~ o~
plausibility can be given to the nonon of a Vcdic polythasm. E polio,
ge/oiotaton (H ermes Trism~tus, Lib. Xl.1 .11)! . . .
. .
Cf. Plotinus, E,rneods, IV .4.8; D1onys1us, De div,"u nomrn,bus; St.
Thomas Aquinas, Sum . Theo/., 1.13.3 and especially 1.31.2 'We do n~t
say the only God, for deity is common to several'; also my 'Vcdic
Monotheism' in the journal of Indi4n History, XV, 1936.
57. In the Buddhist story of the Bodhisatta Jotipala ('Protector ~f
the Light,' D .ll.220 f.) the Purohitaship to which he succeeds IS
referred to as the govindiyo (not in the PTS Diaionary). and the
Purohita is the M.ab.a-Govinda (cf. Sorvo SuJdhanto Sangralia Xll.54,
saccidanando govinda-poro rntilma. 'This epithet does DO( mean '~
treasurer' as rendered by Malalasck.an, for it was not the Purobia s
function to aa as aeas= oor does it mean ' High StcWard' in ~
special and literal sense of 'Lord of the Herds' as is ~ m
~ 2.226. It much rather means ~ of the ~ <X
'Pastor' in dw smsc in which the Sun, Agni, or B~
IS the
'Herdsman of the Wodd' (jogatas or W..-,osyo gopal, and m ~,,:
J ohn X.14 ' I am the good 5hepberd and k:oow my sbc:c:p. .
tc of a kingdom rdJcffl the bc:rding of the 'un&hering

~dsmm' (gopi,,t, RVJ.164.31 , c JUB.ID.37. l and llL 'S.6

.. - &_ . ~ dwof 'the 1-krdsnunoftbe
AV.Vll.53.2, Agni:.fl'P"" 'F.
- (,,....,, ,i,uw,piwr
...-, , whai l""i'
W 0 f Id , UIIO
bhuv""4S)'O gopil,, RV.X.17.3, wbae ...,.,. io, Jllll




a~ stcppmg stones o r rungs of the bddcr--sa




ascend or descmd m chcse worlds), one shouJdntyanyah-wtiactiy to

order to atum to the urury o f the p

firwl y deny them
, Ill
Th c at.3oons from the S:irhhitis

interprcun o ns o f the Veclic Trinirya:p yTsuffice co show tluc these
a nune PersoO
expressio ns o an y 'beer' monotheistic cenden
are noc tht
m ents o f Ved.rc doarine. They arc furth
cy,. uc simple rcsbic. .

ermore, in whole agr

ch RV V .44.6 . le ISJUSt
m accord,nce with L : _
' (y-d
' "" aspect tluc heisgiv
names h da ,:g tva
drse tad;_g ucyate), cf. SB.X.s. 2_20 'As he en
approac e , even such be becomes' (ytirlui-yathoptisare ttid b'-_ is
tha eh 'Th
eva navar,)
ree Gandharvas' are the 'Three-headed
t .J~ _ evi 'entht , 1 e
G an= rva,
c Three- headed Sun. ' and thac ,I three u
Li b
be ci. .
g ts an
Jsnngwsuc _b ~ the theologian, 'there corresponds to
al.I of them onie smgle reality (SL Tho mas Aquinas, Sum. Tuol ,
L13.~ ad T. due of_w Ullll)~ of~ Person. Brah.ma, Saviq, Pnjipari,
I ,g.hr ot EgbB (or---n, jyot~ JYDlis, jyotu ~ =.);
mr fa:::rr.
P=oc (.gopo govrnd sa: Nocc 57 . md Emperor cl
~ lhz 1S c ,,.,,......Ill ;n ~ The a1S1011~ disiioaioo of
"B .

.. ,._n __.



:X:UW:t=S:t:, :;uu.,



lS CSSCDD?~- GUMXN K ; U ccstS 00

nor~ ;aar-c
lh,: modem histomn 's <aJSC> o f ui obligmon to
CIIC:mcasu.:r m es.ollmoo' of ihougbr
The Hindu T nrul)' o f Po " crs consists of a sobr Father above, a
fiery Soo on ~
(v.bcnoe he ascends to bea,en), and the Gale ofthar
common sptn00n, and IS thus 1ndisnnguishable 6-om the Chriscwi
T nrury (1t also corresponds 10 Plato's thrce(old constitution of the
whole soul). It IS even more eJG1ctly and in d cwl the equivalent of the
Gnostic doctrine of the Three ChristS or Triple Power: ' Viewing the
cos1nos as a mp~rote uruc (= rrivftam, RV.X.114.1) ... they caught
thac the Saviour wa,, manifested m the three divisions m a form and
manner SlUted 10 the mod<' of being and needs of each... In his
C11>4oty u 1,1,0l'Cr')'Ev~ (m0twgfflll , one in nature) he is related to the
cos,nos as a who/(, ,vluk the designation T riplc-Power signifies his
~ n o n \\"Ith the uwvCTse as mply divided" (B,ynes, Bnlt Codex,
pp. 64, TT) . Cf BO L99.IOO and BU.1.2.3 on the three forms of
Agru Cf. Rene Guenon. La Grandt Tri4dt, Chap. 17.
The lndologu1s conV1roon of an Indian polytheism and pantheism
is 2 CCSJduc of Chnso.an prCJudice survtvmg even m the ratioru.list. In a
~ connccnoo Goodenough remarks. ' Philo himsdf was fully
aw= of the uruversal tendency m paganism toward the doctrine of a
gnglesup= daty. ln one plaoe be sa;s: .. But ifhc ai.sts whom with

one accord all Greeks and barbaruns acknowlcdgt togc:tba , the

supreme nthcr of gods and men and the Makc:r of the whole uJUvnsc,
whose narurc is invisible and hard to grasp not only by the eye but
even by the mind"' .. - .Coulscn in his note on this passage cann0t

believe his eyes chat Philo thus ascribes monothcism to all pagans. So
far as I can see Philo " 'as telling the si.inplc truth as he saw it, not as
Christian propagancu has ever since nusreprcsentcd ic' (A11 /111roduc11011
to P/,i/o Judacus, p. 105).
It was not, however, al any rate not in India, that 'the approach to
this monotheism had been by the reduction of individual dcincs to
aspcCtS of che single divmc power', as Goodenough assumes: on the
contrary, ic was precisely the universality of the supreme deity that
made ic possible for local denies to be accepted as forms of That One
(tad t lUJm) who is of ouny aspcas (pMrvanooi) and polynomuul (bliu'll!l
tava . . .nama, RV.OI.20.3). It is only by a wtlful du1egud of Vcdic
dict:a , m imdcquau: coudaaon of tc:xlS, md. it m= b e ~ a
gcncnl ignonno: of dicolog) md. of mmpb~. dial any
pbusibi1iry can be gj-~ co m:e 00000 of a Vcclic r)-mosro 6 polloi
gdoialon (Hames T asmcgisrus.. Lib. Xl \ . \ I).
C Plocinus, &tr.-b, !V.4.8; Dionysrus. ~ d,vu,u ~ Sc.
Thom.as Aquinas, Sum. 'IMol., L13.3 md cspcriily l.31.2 'We do DO(
only God, for dciry ts co~on ~ several'; also my 'Vcclic
Monotheism' in the Joum,,J of lndum Hmo,y, XV , 1936.
57. ln the Buddhist story of the Bodh.isatta Jo<ipila ('PrOte<:tor of
the Light,' O.ll.220 f.) the Puro~wbip to which_he succeeds IS
referred to as the govindiya (not in the PTS Dut10Mry). and the
Purohiu is the Mahi-Govinda (cf. Sarvo Siddhanta Sangralia Xll.!4,
sauidaMnda govinda-para matmi. This epithet does not mean 'hig~
treasurer' as rendered by Malalasclcara, for it was not the Pur~hiu s
function to act as treasurer: nor docs ir mean 'High Steward' Ul the
" --' sense of 'Lord of the Herds' as IS suggested m
ciaJ and =
the Flock'
Dialogun 2.226. It much ratbcY means 'Shepherd of
. . or
' Pastor' in that sense in which the Sllll, Agni. or Brbaspaa 15 the
'Herdsman of tbc World' ljog,was or bmivOIMU)'O gqpa), and in
John X 14 I am chc good shepherd and know my sheep. .
of kingdom rdlcas the herding of the 'unf.abcnng
=~rate ~ RV.L164.31, cf. JUB.lll.37. I and UI. 19.6
-llllltipi ~
of'thc Hcrdsnun oft.he
AV.VIl.53.2, Agni:IOJMI
kine arc .:ever lost' (vidvill ~ l w r
w~dd, tbc ~wRicrV, wXrhole
J7 3 whctt ~ gop~ is jusi whal govil,

'" of.



bnuVIJl14S)III XV,-!

. '




gcvmdu, and govinda mean). Tlut 'his .

(fop,ijihv..lSJ'a, RV. UL38.9) is as mud! as to 15 ~bdsnuns ~
VOICc ~ follows bim (as in John X. 4 ~ t the loci k:oo\\'S ~
"U'e digress ro =nark dw die

noaon of a divine sh b
""' of high anaquiry. going back to the
cp crd nuy weII
of a divine pastor md of an 3mlog= ~t pasto~ times. lbe
of the very mmy formulae common to Egyous . ununPI pas~ra~ is one

paan, atoruc and vedi

P osop y. nor 15 there anything in either of th
Philosophi.a Perennis that can be called uniq
These onns of the
h din h
ere IS an art 0 f
er g _ u ~ bemgs, royal and statesm anlike (Statesman -u,7 C)
the _beginning of a new 'period' (= Sier. kalpa or manv~ntara) ~~
d'.1g the rule of Kronos (the father and p redecessor of Zeus), 'God
~ e l f was the ~e~dsm.in of men,. watching over them' (ib.271 E);
the ~pe. o~ the diV1De shepherd (theios poimen) is greater than that of
Repub~i< 4400 w here the brave and eager
th~ king (1b. 275 E .
pnnople, the lover of Vlctory-1.e. the }4atriya and ji~IJII part of the
s o ~ the ruling shepherd's 'dog,. The royal an is one of
'.judgement and watching over' (Statesman 2926). In all these
statements, of course, we must not be misled b y the word 'royal',
because Pbto's concep tion of government is essentially theocratic
(Laws 713E, cf. Republic 431B, Meno 99F), and by 'king' he means
priest--<>r philosopher-king, or in any case a governmen t by both in
complete agreement (R epublic, 473 f., cf. Statesman 290). In
Christianity the Good Shepherd is 'both king and priest, Thy
kingd om com e' (Mat. VI. 9): where the Priesthood and the Kingship
m ove together in one accord (yatra brahma ea k,tram ea samyaiicau
carata~, saha), that holy world I fain w ould know' (VS.XX. 5, cf. note
18 p. 50). The government and care o f men is preeminently the
sacerdotal function, but in so far as the royal function is ddegated to a
king the latter can also be called a sh epherd of men, as in some of the
Indian texts where the king too is a gopii. We need hardly add that
Kmia's epithet Govind.i, and that be is the ' Divine Cowherd', do not
mean that be was in any historical sen se a h erdsman by caste but
that be is a sola_r hero, and like the Bodhisattva a descent of the



To return to India, Brhaspati is 'our fat-seeing Herdsman and
pa_chfinder' (no gopiil] pathikfd vica~l}tU!), RV.IJ.23.6 and giil] pra asta11
uta ea vidviin agiiyat, RV. X . 67.3), Agni 'LQrd authentic (riijasi tvam
piirthivasya paiupii iva tmani, RV.1. 144.6) of Sky and Earth and as it
were their Herdsman', 'Thou who at binh didst look about upon the



" orlds. c,cn as a b,d y hcrdsnun that gcx-th round about lus ~
(R \I . VB 13.3. dttal.1 .sa11r.i rrciyama..""!, VU.35. 10. and Brluspan as
Gopan liberates cank, X.67.8). The hunun Purohita IS. as we know,
the cn1bodimcnt and reprcscntanvc of this Agni-Brluspati. and
naturally exercises similar functions; he is the Pastor of the Flock, or
'Shepherd of the Realm' (r~(ra.~opci); the marriage of the Kmg to the
Priest is the restoration (p1111ardtiya) of the Brihmanas wife' , and it is
when this restitution has been made that 'then the ~atriya's realm is
warded' (r,4(rm;, .~11pita1h lqatriyasya, RV .X.109.3). O n PB.Vl.6. l
Caland equates rti~(ran, with lqatram.
A brief expansion of the last re,nark may be useful. SiiyaQaS
explanation of RV.X. 109 (Griffith's 'unintelligible fragment, and of
co,nparatively late origin.!) is excellent. The Bn hma's (V:icaspati's)
wife is Vac. Misled (de-<luccd from her proper allegiance) by one 'who
can approach her only in sin' (RV. X.71.9) the royal Voice is no longer
an expression of the Truth, but on the contrary subvercs the whole
cosmic order. This evil is corrected ,vhen ' Agni as Hotr takes her hand
and leads her' (liastagrhya 11i11iiya, i.e. marries her,-in the person of the
King). It is precisely this reductio regni ad sarerdotium that is c~ccted
the Rajasiiya, in the rirual marriage of the King and the Purohiu; and ~t
is only ,vhcn this marriage has been accomplished that 'the re:ilm IS
guarded (r'4tra1il g11pita111, AV .V. 17.3). i.e by the Brahma as r,q(ragopa,
as a wife is guarded by her husband. (cf. Apa/a (vac) restored to
V rtra-Soma, the Br~hmar:ia). The reference to the 'ladle' in
RV.X. 109.5 is to the performance of the Sacri6cc in which King
Soma is now cooperative (savrata) with Agni; the King whose open
hand is as it were a sacri6cial ladle (see note 50) is no longer one of
'those who do not offer the libation' (na sutikariisa~, RV.X.71.9).
The marital values of ni and upani (to 'lead', and to 'lead up',
' reduce', or 'induct') will not be overlooked: the husband is in relation
10 the wife the 'Duke' (niiyaka), she is the 'Duchess' (niiyalti). All
reduaions of effects to causes are marital reunions. The upanayana.of.a
disciple by a master is an audgrabl1a11a or 'lifting up'_ and :cxaluoon
and we have no doubt that the cnditional mamage is rally an
initiation of the woman, comparable to that of a bral11naciiri11 by the
or that both 'inductions' ate 'mysteries'; cf. ttl~ etc .. m the
acarya, ,
. , , Cf
40 It

reIated senses to r-.. ,

.'. . . . - . I .1.~n

may well be asked whether nili, 'lcadmg and ra1an1t1, Kings ea......~
as designations of the 'Art of Government' do not coniam _an cxpliot
reference to the discipubr and marital relation of the Kmg to the:







Purohita, his Guru. In our hymn, RV.X . 109

the ~arra and bral1111a is expressly assmil
.d4b and Sa the reunion f
to th c upa11ayana fo

I>raI1111acan11 y an actirya and this

1s 1n agreement h h
o a
n1aster relaoonship of the King to the p .
. wn t c disciple
expliat m th A
(see note 3 1) . We know already thatnest
th Kin .
e . rthasistra
Brahman is part of a sacrificial rite and . e I g s mamage to the
1nvo ves an initi
Now the induction of the disciple by th
aoon (di~a) .
an atrili .
b Y w hJC h t h e f,ormer is made directly a fosterf h
L :.
\VI e an
y ana ogy a foster-son of God and L: .

us consort. The moth
- . - h is S avirn, t eacaryamefather' Manu 11. 170 171 cf AV Xl
parallel may by noted in Hern1es Trismegistus ' Lib
h ). ;hhe

ere t e

moth er is op 1a .. . the will of God the inseminator

. ome nun
w ho is a son of God the mediator in this palingencsis' Th

e master
) B -h
is a r:i m~n, that is to say a 'son of Brahma', 'son of Cod' (as
the patronymic bra/1111a1_1a states) and re presents Savitr, the brahma; in
the same way the master's wife is the representative ofS:ivirri, Vic, as
brahmajtiyti, 'the Brahman's wife' in our hymn. The pupil beco,nes a
member of their household, in which he is fostered. In this connection
it 111ay be observed chat there can be little doubt mat the ancient
EuropcJJJ custom of 'fostering' (of which our 'boarding schools' arc a
late serular survival or superstition) originally involved an initiation. lf
marriage is also an afiliation we can see why it is is that the wife has
been crad1tionally said to stand to her husband, who is also her Guru,
in loco filiar, originally a metaphysical and afterwards a legal formula;
th..- fact of marriage making her a 'daughter'. These conditions arc still
reflected in the fact that a Priest addresses tile members of his Oock as
'M y son' o r ' M y daughter' , and is hin1Self addn.-sscd as 'Father', and
why a nun is addr~scd as 'M otller', or 'Sister '. And if the Kmg's
'm.rriagc to the Brahn1an ts strictly analogous to the induction of a
disciple by a master, we can as easily sec that his seduction of 'the
Hrihman's wife' (Vac, Savitri, Sop hia) in RV.X . 109 is analogous to
thJt of a n1astcr's ,v1fc by a disciple, fo r which such dire penance is
imposed (Manu IX.237, 238, Xl. 104. 107).
The ,vord govttula is not (as inferred by tile PTS (Pali T ext Society I
Drr11011ary ::nd u, the Dialoxuts) the equivalent of a Sanskrit gaverufro
but. in accord.mce with Pi1:1.1.ni (111.1. 138, Vmt. 2), o f govir, 'one who
knows, or finds kine' and to be correlated with gavtf, to 'wish, o r seek
for lone' the ,vord d1v1s1on IS go-vi,ula, analogous to go-pa, go-pati and
paiu-p.i Moreover, go and paJu, w lulc lite rally 'herd ', 'cattle', 'Oock',
d o not by any mc:in, always m~n 'an1n1als' oilier than men, but o ficn


x,u ,




refer co 'n1an' hin1Self,

the animal man, and arc thus used 3>. IhC.
equivalent o f pra;a_. c
ren (of,ncn)', as in AV.XlV.2.25where the
children of the bnde arc referred to as paitival3, in AA.tl .3.2 where
paitival., denotes both ani,nals in general and the animal man as
distinguished fro,n a ' person', and in BU.1.4. 10 where the man who
has not realised 'I an1 Brahn1a', and therefore approaches some God as
'another than himself. is called a paiu, an 'animal' fined only to be
regarded as food for the Gods.
58. Released from death in the Agnihotra, SB., more fully
explained in SB. X .
59. 'Dies no n1orc' corresponds to the 'O king. live for ever' of
several Old Testament contexts; cf. note 37. The present is one of die
many passages (e.g. SB. in which the connection of p,warmrtyu, 'recurrent death', is not with a future but with his present life.
T he particular context is paralleled by that of SB. V.4.1.1. where ' He
who performs the Rajasuya escapes all death (sarvti11 .. . 111rryti11
atimucyate), all assaults (stirvti11 badl1ti11). only old age is his death' (rtisya
jaraivti mrty,ir bhavat,); cf. note 37. 'The deaths referred to ar~ the sa~ e
as the sarve mrtyavol! (Caland, 'Todcsarten, Lebcnsgcfahren . cf. Iliad,
Xll. 322, ' the myriads of fates of death that beset us') of JB.ll._419,
where they are to be avoided by 'not deviating from thc__~1vmc
marriage, the sacrifice, CtC.' (daivytit SllJa ~jvQ/1ii11 lllt lO. , .' yaptat SIIIO
meta). Thus one who is forearmed by u1111auon and sacnfice n1~y be
called 'undying' (omrta) 'even though he has no hope of never ~ymg at
all ' (SB.11.2.2. 14), a hope that he could not have, because ." o;ncf
becomes im mortal in the flesh ' (SB.X.4.3.9). Cf. A.IV.320 -pc o
dying ever present'; and TS. V.6:3. l 'whcr~vcr deat~1 IS born, thence
he removes it by sacrifice; accord111gly the pilcr of the Fire uv<.'S out !us
whole life.'
Where we speak nowadays of 'surviving a mortal_ danger t . c
traditional philosophy sees an a~al d~ath and rebirth; thus "~
agam and agatn
TS ll 3 5 3 it is with the words ' His birth JS renewed
,.r (..ay11s) of the sick
(RV. X .85.19 novo novo bhavati jciyomti11a~) t~at t h.c me
. .
cd (C( St Paul on the 'inner and outer ,nan). AU life .
man IS restor

olv<.'S the
. , (bhava ientsis and otrochos tts xrnesros , in,
: : edco
d mm
cthgof what 'has been and birth of what ll,'. rcmcamaoon 1(~1
r - ,---'

h thi!> present 11c

this IM>irirna1t sense o f the word) belonging as muc to 1
of the
poral cXIStcncc. The app icauon
as to any other
ha has been born and sure the birth of
words 'sure is the death
w -~ - b
f Socr;ccs argumcnt for the
what has died' (BG. 11.27. and UK aslS o

onn 7m




Purohica, his Guru. In o u r h ymn , RV. X.109 4b

the ~arra and bral11na is express] y assimi] d and Sa the reunion f
bralr,11acan11 by an acarya and chi . .
ace to the upa,14 ya, 14
master rclarionship of eh~ King co
s ttshtnPagreemen.t with the discipie a
e nest expli h
(see note 31). We know already that the Kin ~tin t e .Arthasastra
Brahman is p art of a sacrificial rite and .
g s .m arnage to the
Now th e indu ctio n o f the disciple by the
on (diksa).
afftli .
b y w hi ch eh e , o nner is made directly a foster-so f h
. ,.
d b
not emaster dh.15
e an
a foster-son of God and hi
.ISw as-av1cn,
. - thy eanalogy
s consort. The moth
acarya the fath er' Manu (1.170 171 cf AV X
parallel m ay b y noted in Hermes Trismegiscus Lib Xl.11 I.Sh.3) , !hhe
. of God the inseminator

w ere t c
m o t h er is Soph.1a . . . the will

w h o IS a son o f G od the mediator in this palingcncsis . The
- - ) B -h
is a r.a m ~n , that is to say a 'son ofBrah1na', 'son of God' (as
th e parro n y nuc brahma,i states) and represents Savitr, the brahma; in
the san1e way th e mas ter's wife is the representative ofSavitri, Vac, as
brah111ajiiya, 'the Brahman's wife' in our hymn. The pupil becomes a
m ember of their household, in which he is fostered. In this connection
it m ay b e o b served that there can be little doubt that the ancient
Europl:'.u1 cus tom o f 'fostering ' (of which our 'boarding schools' are a
lace secular survival or superstirio n) originally involved an initiation. lf
marriage is also an aflliario n w e can see why it is is that the wife has
been tradio on.ally said r.o s Wld co be r husband, who is also her Guru,
1n 10"1 filiat, originally a m etaphysical and afterwards a legal formula;
ch..: fu:t- of rn.anuge making her a 'daughter'. These conditions are still
refleacd in the fact rlut a Prim addresses the m embers of his Oock as
'My son' or '!111.y daughter', and lS h.i.msclf addressed as 'Farner', and
'"'-by a nun is addressed as Moma', or 'Sister'. And if the !Gng's
'munage' to dJc Brahm.a JS saialy analogous co the induction of a
clisciplc by a master, we can as easily sec that his seduction of 'the
Brihman's ,~,.ife' (Vic, Savini, Sophia) in RV.X.109 is analogous co
that of a rna.!.ter's wife by a disciple, for which such dire penance is
imposed (Manu D<-237, 238, Xl.104.107).
The wo rd govinda is not (as inferred by the PTS [Pali Text Society)
Du11otu1ry :1nd in the Dialogues) the equivalent of a Sanskrit gavendra
but, in accordance with PaJ,lini (III.1.138, Vartt. 2), ofgovit, 'one who
kno w s, or finds kine' and to be correlated with gavq, to 'wish, or seek
fo r kine': the word division is go-vinda, analogous to go-pii, go-pari and
pai11-pti Moreover, go and paiu, while titenUy 'herd', 'cattle', 'flock',
d o no t b y any means always mean 'animals' other than men, bur often



refer to ' man' himself, the animal man, and are thus used
equivalent o f pra;a: c
rcn (o men)', as in AV.XIV.2.25 where the
children of the bnde arc referred to as pasavalJ, in AA .11.3.2 where
pasaval., denotes both animals in general and the animal man as
distinguished from a 'person', and in BU.1.4.10 where the man who
has not realised 'I arn Brahma', and therefore approaches some God as
'another than himself, is called a pasu. an 'animal' fitted only 10 be
regarded as food for the Gods .
58. Released from death in the Agnihotra, SB.ll.3.3.9, more fully
explained in SB.X.2.6.6. 7.
59. 'Dies no more' corresponds to the 'O king, live for ever' of
several O ld Testament contexts; cf. note 37. The present is one of the
many passages (e.g. SB. in which the connection of p,mar111rtyu, 'recurrent death', is not with a future but ,vith his present life.
The particular context is paralleled by that of SB.V.4.1.1. where 'He
who performs the Rajasuya escapes all death (sarvan . .. mrya11
atim,uyare), all assaults (stirvtitt badl1a11), only old age is his death' (rasya
Jaraiva mrtyur bhavat,); cf. note 37. The deaths referred to ar: the sa'."e
as the sarve mr(yaval! (Caland, 'Todcsartcn, Lcbensgcfahren, cf. Iliad,
XII. 322, 'the myriads of fates of death that beset us') of JB.11 ..419,
where they are to be avoided by 'not deviating from the__~1v1ne
marriage, the sacrifice, etc.' (daivycir s,~a. viv~l1ti11 meta . . : yaJ11ar sma
meta). Thus one who is forearmed by 1JUOat1011 and sacnfice may be
called 'undying' (amra) 'even though he has no hope of never ~ymg at
all' ($, a hope that he could not have, because .no .one
becomes immortal in the flesh' (SB.X.4.3.9). Cf.A.IV.320 -peril of
dying ever present'; and TS. V.6.3.1 'wherever death is ~m. thcn~c
he removes it by sacrifice: accordingly the piler of the Fire lives out his
whole life.'
ru.J clan th
Where we speak nowadays of 'surviving a mo
. I hilosophy sees an actual death and rebirth; thus ~
eradi nona P
d agam
TS. ll.3.5.3 it is with the words 'His birth IS rcnev'. ~am an the sick
(RV X 8S. l9 navo ,wvo bhavatijaya1na1U1I!) that the life \ay,u) of ll lif.
.. .
d (C( St Paul on the 'inner' and 'outer man). A
man IS restore

) volvt'S the
. (bhava getit'Sis and otrochos tes ge11t.Seos m
as a commthg f h ,has been and birth of what 15: rcmcan1auon (m
repeated dea o w at
this escnt bfc
this legitimate sense of the word) bcallonging as mThu:h atpopbca!:n of the
of tcmpor cX1stcncc.
as to any o ther orm
h h L-- born and sure the birth o
th death of w at as <>nil
words sure IS e
d die b
f Socrates' argument for t c
what has died' (BG.11.27, an
as1s o




survJval of the soul, in Phaedo) is as

. I
muc to d:11.Jy r .
spcoa cases of rebirth from ;i mothe . . .
v1ng as 10 th
.death when the nmc comes'. Living r(, ~natory palingcncsis, andc
ex 1s1cnce esse)
rcsurrccnon; life eternal has nei the r rcb h
s a repeated
, rt nor recu
rren1 death,
c.ause H JS not a becoming, but an immutable be
ing (esse1111a). er.
Plato, Euthyden1u_s --AJJ . change is a dying'.
In all this there 1s nothing peculiarly India11 Th

c mmortaury
ra er not-d ying
by th e Indian texts
in wh h
'living o u t th c w h o Ic o f one s 11te
r (ma1111syasya111natva,;, y ic H rnca11s

et,, SB. IX .5. I. 10: a,q,11hotra gives fulJ ljfc. SB X 11 4 ? 7 a dsarvha111 ay11r

-~. an a undred
years tantam o unt to a111r,a111 , a11a111a111 , aparr 111 ira111 , SB.1.9 J. JS
X.1.5 4): and this is to be distinguished from an 'incorruptibl~
1mmo~c.1hry m the \vorld of heavcn.Jy light' (a11,na11a111 aksi111; 1 s"ar~e
lokc, KB XIIJ.9 and XIV.4}--thc two arc analogous but not
confuscd-15 exaetl)' the sa me as t.J1e '11nn1ortaury' (not-dying)
desmbed 10 Socrates 111 the Sy,11pos111111 207 D-208 B (a.Jso in Pluudo
870 as m BG.X\1 7-11 and Eckhart): 'The mortal nature ever Sl'Cks. as
best tt can, to be nnmoruJ. In one \\'.I}' only can II succeed. and that as
by bccollll1Jg or grncraaon (l?e11es1r- a term \Vh1ch may be intended 10
cover born ordinary 'becoming'. and also 'progeruave re1ncamaoon';
both involve- a lund of 'nevcr dying'); since so 1r can always leave over
4 nrw creature m puce- of the old
. Every monal dung is preserved
u1 UlJJ, \vay; not by kl'<."J'lng tt c:xacdy the s.11n e for ever, like the divine,
but b) repl.cmR wlut absC"onds or 15 1nvcter3tcd \Vith somet.Jung else
Ill"'' 111 the: SC'rnblancc of the o riginal. Through tlu.s device. Socntcs
cn,rattfltS 1551). a n1ortal thmg part.ik~ of 1n1mortaucr, both m che
bodv and 111 .ill other r~pccrs. by no o ther n1cans can 1t be done'.
~1nuhrly Plutarch. .\1ora/,a, 3021) This also reprl'SCllts che l:luddh1st
concepuon of hv111g a repeated dl))Olunon a) o ne thmg follo\vcd by
reappca r;i_i1cc .;s auorhlr (rwi, rur11ya d,vasassa ,a a1i1iad cva 11pajja11 a,iiiam
11irv11l1a1, , S 11.%). thus ovcrcon1u1g recurrent death as m SU.
l"ltt-d .ibove .ind 111 J ti.1.13 (cf. J 5) pu11an11rtyu a1111111<yatt yad ahora1re, 'hcC$Clp<'S rccurn:'nt death 1n rhat he (sacnficc,,) night and mo rning. The
tdta of ..i 'pJrt1op..10011' in 1mn1oruliry occurs already m RV.1.164.21;
It i.s the SJllll' J~ t.J1Jt of the pamopaoon of cXIStcncc 1n being. and tlur
of tht p.1rnop.1cion of the l:>C'aunful m beauty.
TI1u,, that the Ku1g 1s 111,de 'undying 15 not merely a rhetorical and
iliHt'ru1g c~pcl~IOn. but hl) J mc:mm~. 1t d<X'S not mcvi rhac he wtll
llC'\'\'T du~. but tlut he \\ ill not die pn-m,rurcly





60. Pr.iycr 10 Agni: ligh1 for Brahma,:,,,. K111gs. Vaisyas and

$iidr.is. $13. Vll.4.2.21. lX.4.2. 14.
61. The Vasto~pari. cquat,'<l to Hudra (TS., who i,
11ratapii and associated wi1h 1he l>r11l,ma 111 RV .X.61.7 is c,"dcntly 1hc
lndra of RV.Vlll.97. 10: and 1he same .,, the lqetmsya ,111i of
RV.X.6(,.13, Vll.35. 10 and IV.57.3. The Va,1o~pau of RV.Vll.54. l
and 55. I 111ay be Son,a (though S:iya1.1a equ.ucs i111lu in RV .Vlll.69.1
with lndra), but even so suU rcprc.c111s the ~arm.
62. As \Vas pointed out by \Vcbcr, l111lis<llf S111din, V.216 the
formula E~o sum Caius, Illes Caia [I a1n Caius (masculine), you arc GJ13
(fc1runine)] was employed in ancic111 Roman usage. (Cicero, r\lurrna
12 fin . mentions 1hc cus101n.
Valerius Maximus, De pr.r,11,>111i11ib1u, ha~: Fenml t11i111 C<1iam
Caecilia111, Tarqui11i Prisci r~~s 11.,o,r111, opriru,1111 l11111ic<1111 Juiut <I ldco
iu.stiturum, ,u novae ,mptat autr jam,am intrmi.~afot ~1uutmu11 11<>wrrur1tr

Caias esse sc dicern11. Cf. Plutarch, Q1111rsrio11,s Rom111111r, XXX, and the
note in the edition by 1-1.T. Rose. Oxford, 1924.
Valerius Maximus, Co11rmm1,e rirst Namrs. has: They proposed that
Caccilia Gaia, the ,vifc of 1he Kong Pnsetus Tarquiniu~. W.IS the bc11
spmncr, and thus 1t \Vas established 1ha1 new bndt'S were asked before
the door, what are you alled?'. and they should say that 1hcy are
Gaia. Cf. Plutarch, Roman Q11estio11s, XXX. and the note m the ewnon
by H.T . Rose. Oxford, 1924.
63. For references tO all the parallel vcr\1ons and vanants sec
Whnncy in HOS, XIV.766-7.
. .(
64. If we compare this wnh the archetypal marnagc of Surya :~
whon1 the human bndc is alway~ assimilated) to Sonu, we find tlu 1
her marriage 'the 'potcnnality' (kryii, spell. enchantrncn~ etc.) tha~
clings to her is removed; her relations prosper; her h~sban is secure
b obli arions. 'Cast away the soiled garmcnt, give largt'S.$<: ~ to
.:.,-C.or this 'potentiality' ,hath got.11 feet (paJvat, bhutvQ
Byrah m..u.~
and as a wife attends her husband .
1' f. m is
It is clear from this 'gotten feet' that the bride s potmw or
d nl
hen the act of kind 15 referred to
FOllre= Sra Jamt ""'.tic:'an o y w
rion latent in eternity ' '~y
its paradigm ,n d,v,nu. the act of fccunda H
nd Eiirth shall be Ul

,,rh tlS ii is in Htavm. tOVtn O
w,/J bt rwnt ""
W!Jt dio, one PnNiple, Naturt a.... -_rr.
those days as Husband and
the Olltn-. and IWO Pnwns, each havuig
ycr rwo Sexes. one the Image
thought of.






survival of the soul, in Phaedo) is ~

muc to daih Li,
~.r......, cases of rebirth from a mothP

"lrlg as to h
'd rh h
, r. IIUUatory p lin
t r
ea ,..,. en the nrne comes' Li,i.ng ( .
a genesis .nd

ex-LStcnce esse)

resurrecnon; lifce eternal has neither reb1 h

is a rc~tl'd

nor recurr
because u LS
not a becoming, but an imnlutable .
ent death.
Plato, Euthydemus-All change is a d . ,
being (essemia). Cf
ying .
In all this there LS nothing peculiarl y Indian Th ..
eh -d ,

e 1rn,norrat.ry
ra er not ymg , envisaged b y the Indian texts
h" h .
'living o t th
h I f
lie ,
m w IC It n1eans
e w o e o one s ,e (1na1111$yasyamrtarva1i1 yar
ell, SB.IX.5 . 1.10; agniliotra gives full life SB Xii 4 2 7
dsarvam ayur

, an a hundred
years tantamoun_t to a111rtam , a11a11ta111, aparimitam. Sl:l.1.9.3.IS
X . 1.5.4); and this is to be distinguished from an 'inco

ali h
rrupt1 e
1mmo n ty m t c world of heavenl y light' (amrratvam aksiri,i, svar.11e
loke, KB .Xlll.9 and XIV.4)--the two arc anal~gous but .not
confused--1s exactly . the same as_ the 'immortality' (not-dying)
descnbed co Socrates tn the Sy,npos,u,n 207 D-208 B (also in Phaedo
87D as in BG.XV. 7-1 1 and Eckhart): 'The n1onal nature ever seeks, as
best it can, to be immorcal. In one ,vay only can it succeed. and that is
by becoming or generation (genesis- a term which may be intended to
cover borh ordinary 'becoming', and also 'progenitive reincarnation';
both involve a kind of"never dying'); since so it can ahvays leave over
a new creature in place of the old . . . . Every mortal thing is preserved
in this ,vay; not by keeping it exactly the same for ever, like the divine,
but by replacing ,vhat absconds or is invccerated with something else
new in the semblance of the original. Through this device, Socrates
(Tlieate111s 1551), a mortal thing partakes of immortality, both in the
body and in all other respects; by no other means can it be done'.
Similarly Plutarch, Moralia, 3020. This also represents the Buddhist
conception of living: a repeated dissolution as one thing follo,ved by
reappearance as another (ta,ir ratriyti divasassa <a a1i1iad eva 11pajjati a1i1iati1
ninijjliati, S.Ll.96), thus overconung recurrent death as in SB.
clCed above and in JB. I. 13 (c( I. 5) p111ian11rtyu ati11111cyate yad ahortitre. "he
escapes recurrent death in chat he (sacrifices) night and morning'. The
idea of a 'participation' in immorcaliry occurs already in RV.l.164.21;
le JS the same as that of the participation of existence in being, and chat
of the parciopation of the beautiful in beauty.
Thus, that the King is made 'undying' is not merely a rhetorical and
flattering expression. but has a meaning; it docs not mean that he will
never die, but that he ,viU not die prematurely.



Prayer to Agni: light for Brihmar.1as, Kings, Vaisyas and

Sudras, SB. Vll.4.2.21 , IX.4.2.14.
61. The Vasco~pati, equated ro Rudra (TS., who is
vrarapa and associated \\'lth the bral111in in RV.X.61.7 is evidently the
tndra of RV .Vlll.97. 10: and the same as the k!errasya pari of
RV.X.66.13, Vll.35.10 and IV.57.3. The Vasto~pati ofRV.V1154.l
and 55. l ,nay be Soma (though Sayana equates indn in RV. Vlll.69. 1
with Indra). but even so sciU rcprescncs the ~arra.
62. As was pointed out by Weber, fodisclre St11die11 V.216 the
fonnula Ego s11111 Caius, t11es Gaia (1 an1 Caius (masculine), you arc Gaia
(feminine)] was e1nployed in ancient Roman usage. (Cicero, Murtna
12 fin. n1entions the custom.
Valerius Maximus, De prae110111i11ibus, has: Ftnml e11i111 Gaiam
Caeciliam, Tarq11i11i Prisci regis uxorrm, optimam lanifrcam faisse tl idto
institurum, 111 novae 1111ptae a11/r ja11ua111 imerrogarar quatttam vocarentur
Gaias esse se dicerent. Cf. Plutarch, Q11aestio11es Roma1tat, XX.X, and the
note in the edition by H.T. Rose, Oxford, 1924.
Valerius Maximus, Co11cemi11g First Names, has: They proposed that
Caecilia Gaia, the wife of the King Priscius T~quinius, was the best
spinner. and chus it was established that new bndes were asked before
the door, 'what arc you called?', and they should say tlut they arc
Gaia. Cf. Plutarch, Roma 11 Questions, XXX, and the note m the edition
by H. T. Rose, Oxford. l 924.
63. For references to all the parallel versions and vanants see
Whitney in HOS, XIV.766--7.
_ _(
64 If we compare this with the archetypal marnage of Surya to
who;,, the human bride is always assimilated) to Soma, we find t)hathat
. li cy' (krt. ya,
- spcU' enchantment,
her marriage ' the poccnna
b d .etc. t cd
clings to her is removed; her relations prosper; her h~s an is secur
by obligations. 'Cast away ~e _so~cd garment, r,g1vc,:~~:~,:;;i;~~
Brahmai:ias',-for this 'potentiality .hach gotten ect "'
and as a wife attends her husband .
. ' .
.al' form is
le is dear from this 'gotten feet' that the bnde s pocenn

h act of kind 15 referred to

Facere= Sacra facere when, and only whedan t_e I t in eternity.' 'Thy
' t he act of fccun non atcn nd Earth shaU be m
its paradigm m
Earth , . ill HtAvtn . ... Htavtn a
will bt done on
as ~ Wife tho' one Principle, Naturt and Sluift;
those days as Husband
th otlstr. and 11110 Persons, each haVU1g
yet two Sexes. one the Image o c

thought of.





the enJire Principle, l\Jaiure and Shape Di .

itself' Peter Sterry in Vivian <h Sob
st1na:/y' and Comp/eady .
, 1934,p. 200.
mto, Pete Stl'rTv
. and
- r , Puntan

65. Sa being masculine, we follow Keith in renderin

'That' and .This' (\vlnch att often the terms .
hi g ama and sa by
hrth are referred to). The marriage formula ( tn wbo eh Heaven and
dscwhtt !us - she'
d .
sec a ve, and nou: 63'
e - 14, . ' an It may be thac. as Keith su
. ,
error for 14; we are mclined. however , to think t h at the ggests,
SQ IS an
the result of an attraction to the acru.al and obvious sex f h e SQ
addressed. for we must not overlook that the marriage r0 c ~ pcrhson
lied th
" rmuu IS ere
to e case o rwo pcrsorrs both of whom arc empirically male
and ~t the words arc spoken here onJy 'as if by a man to a woman'

For sa+tama sec AB 111.23 and JUB. 1.53.

Sky (dyaus) and Harmony o r Music (saman) are always masculin
Earth (prthivi) and Words (re) . In SB.IV.6. 7. l 1 for example, 'Thcr: :~
the sodas that male, the Sama, approaches that female, the !;le' (tad vii
ttad vua sama y6ia11l ream iadasy adhyet,), the reference being to the
congres~ of M anas (grammatically n., but explici tly male in SB.
and always male to Vac, cf. BU. IV.1.6 where 'the woman' is Vac)
and Vac (always both grammaticall y and effectively f.): in
Su. VIII. 1.3.5 the Saman is the hu~band (pall) of the ~c. which is as
n1uch a\ to say that r<aspati=vacaspati. In the syzygy vagmanas, prana
may take the place o f n1anas, as in JU.111.359, where pralJa (sarya) and
vac frta) arc rcf,ncd to as ' 1--fe' and 'She' (sa, sa) and arc united (ekam
abliavam , a re ,narried); or it may with the Brahma that Vac is conscient
(BU. 11.2.3). It wW be seen, accordingly, that grammatical gender is
by no rncans always a final clue to the effective gender of the referents:
saman , manas, and bralrma are grammatic.alJy neuter, but as persons
effectively masculine; while conversely in JUB.1.53.2 'She' has to be
rendered by yad (n.), sa (m.) and sa(f.) to agree with a.sat, apana~, and
v~c (a+ r=ar). C( also the discussion of gender by Keith, Aitareya
A ra~1yaka, pp. 208-09, note 1.
comparison may also be made with SB.lV.3.2.3,4 where the
Cantor (udgatr) is male to the Reciter (lrorr, in the restricted sense) and
the r~cit~tive is ~~ir offspring, AB.11.5 where the vocal priest is by
1mplicaoon fcnunme to the Maitravarur:ia (Vasi~~ha, Brahma), and
AB. Vl.3 where natu~lly male persons (the Subrahmar:iya and N~~r
pncs~) arc treated as n~~ female~ accordance with their symbolic
funcuons, and the quesnon IS asked: H ow is it that they consider him
who 1s really n1ale as if he were a female''. (L--0 , ..
iam p14ma11.ra,,,

s,:mJJJm strim ivOla~La). The answer to this question in our



would ~ char it is by cheir respective funcrions that the

Sao:rdonum and the Rcgnum is determined. On 'Sex' sec also Philo
De Fugo et Lnveruioiu 51.2.
Every student of Indian rirual will lnve rcourkcd che constant
attribution of opposite sex even to inaninuce objeas that are nu.de use
of: an effect can only be produced by che conjunaion of two
funcrionally contrasted causes, respeaively formal and nuterial. i.e.
masculine and feminine. It is for the same reasons tha.t che initiations,
rices, sacrifices, and ans that lnve to do with the comm.union of men
with Gods are spoken of by Pbco as eroti<4. lt is, in faa, so in all
making by art, where the word 'concept' (formulation, expression)
still implies that a 'conjugation' (yoking' , or marriage) of inu:Uea
(manas) with its organ (vac) has taken place. We coo still speak,
although quite 'superstitiously' (a 'superstition' is a 'survival'), of a
'wedding'of words to music. In Western coronation rites the Bishop
places a ring on the King's marriage finger, an aaion that says :I!
plainly as if in words, 'With this ring I thee wed.' Cf. Philo, Dt Puga.
150 for the significance of 'Ring' .
Close American Indian parallels can be cited. Thus, 'in Navajo
literature and art aU things go in pairs, male and female sometimes, but
often two of the same sex, one strong, the other weaker... one of the
Twins is a weak aid to the other. . . Moon is the weaker of the
Sun-Moon pair' (Newcomb and Reichard, Sand-paintings of tht Navajo
Shooting Cliam, 1937, p. 55 and Matthes, Tht Night Chant, Memoirs of
the Amtrican Museum of Natural History, Vol. Vl.p.6. for example,
Nature is masculine and Soul is feminine); and with reference to the
necessity of such pairings is 'the confirmed Navajo belief that neither
sex is self-sufficient, but both are necessary to fulfilment of any sort.
There are many cases where two beings of the same kind [i.e. same
ostensible sex] are paired, yet they are both males and (i.e. or both]
fem.ales. Holy man (Monster Slayer) and Holy Boy (Child of the
Waters); Sun and Moon ... Holy Women and Holy Girl are pairs of
this kind. These combinations seem to point to the emphasis that
weaker, more gentle powers are as necessary to well-being as the
stronger more forceful ones. This explanation is a religious one m the
light of the Navajo effort to secure _harmony. . _- Blue and bl~ck are
'males' or better 'dominating' colors lll the Shoonng Chant, white an~
yeUow are the ' female' or 'submissive colors' (Reichard, Navll)o

Medicine Man, 1939, p. 78).





the eruire Pri11ciple Nature and SI

D. .
' .
. '
tape, 1st11ut/
itself, Peter Sterry m Vivian da Sola p
p Y, an Compleatly
Plato11ist, 1934, p. 200.
into, eter Sterry, Puritan a:


65. Sa being masculine, w e follow K . h .

'Tha d 'Thi
e1t rn rendenng ama d
t an
s ( which are often the terms in hi
an sa by
Earth are referred to). The marriage formula see; vch Heaven and
elsewhere has sii, 'She', and it may be that ( K . ho e, and note 63)
, as e1t suggests
error ,or sa: we are inclined however to think h h
, sa is an

t at t c masculine .
sa is
t h e resuI t o f an attraction to the actual and ob
a ddresse d , ,or we must not overlook that the marriage tio
1a 1s. here
appIied to t h e case o f two persons both of whom are em pine
all y male
an d th_at t h e words are spoken here only 'as if by a man to a won1:u1'
For sa+ta,11a see AB III.23 and JUB.1.53.

Sky (dya11s) and Harmony or Music (siima11) are always masculine to

Earth (prthivry and Words (re). In SB.IV.6. 7.11 for example, 'There in
th~ sada~ t~at m~~..'. the Sama, approaches that female, the B.c' (rad vti
etad vrra sa,11a yosa,il rca,n iadasy tidhyetr), the reference being to the
congress of Manas (grammatically n., but explicitly male in SB.
and always male to Vac, cf. BU. IV.1.6 where 'the woman' is Vac)
and Vac (always both grammatically and effectively f.) : in
SB. VLU. 1.3.5 the Saman is the husband (pall) of the B.c, which is as
much as to say that rcaspati=viicaspati. ln the syzygy viigmanas, priina
may take the place of ,nanas, as in JU.III.359, where prii,i (satya) at1d
vac (ita) are referred to as 'H e' and 'She' (sa, sa"") and are united (ekam
abliavam, are married); or it may with the Brahma that Vac is conscient
(BU.ll.2.3). It will be seen, accordingly, that grammatical gender is
by no means always a final clue to the effective gender of the referents:
siima11, manas, and brahma are gran1matically neuter, but as persons
effectively masculine; while conversely in JUB.1.53.2 'She' has to be
rendered by yad (n.), sa (m .) and sii(() to agree with asat, apii11a~1, and
v~< (a+r-ar). C( also the discussion of gender by Keith, Aitareya
AralJyaka, pp. 208--09, note 1.
comparison may also be made with SB.lV.3.2.3,4 where the
Cantor (udgiitr) is male to the Reciter (hotr, in the restricted sense) and
the r~citative is their offspring, AB.11.5 where the vocal priest is by
1mplic2oon feminine to the Maitravarur:ia (Vasi.$~ha. Brahnu), and
AB VJ.3 where natur~lly male persons (tile Subrahmar:iya and N~rr
priests) arc treated as nruall y female in accordance with their symbolic
funcoons, and the quesoon tS asked: 'How is it that they consider him
who h rc:all y male as if he were a female!' (kasmad tmam pum,ihsam

sa11tam strim ivaca~ata).

. .
. mswer to this quesoon

i n


our context
would b~ mat 1t is by theu respective functions that the 'sex' of the
Sacerdonum and the Regnum 1s determined. On 'Sex' sec also Phil0
De Fuga et l11ventio11e 51.2.

Every student of Indian ritual will have remarked the constant

attribution of opposite sex even to inanimate objeets that are made use
of: an effect can only be produced by the conjunction of two
functionally contrasted causes, respectively formal and material, i.e.
masculine and feminine. It is for the same reasons that the initiations,
rites, sacrifices, at1d arts that have to do with the comn1union of 1nen
wim Gods arc spoken of by Plato as erotica. It is, in fact, so in all
making by art, where the word 'concept' (formulation, expression)
still implies mat a 'conjugation' (yoking', or marriage) of intellect
(manas) with its orgat1 (vac) has taken place. We too still speak,
although quite 'superstitiously' (a 'superstition' is a 'survival'), of a
'wcdding'of words to music. In Western coronation rites the Bishop
places a ring on the King's marriage finger, an action that says a.!
plainly as if in words, 'With this ring I thee wed.' Cf. Philo, Dt Fugo .
150 for the significance of 'Ring' .
Close AmeriCatl Indian parallels can be cited. Thus, 'in Navajo
literature at1d art all things go in pairs, male at1d female sometimes, but
often two of the same sex, one strong, the other weaker . .. one of the
Twins is a weak aid to the other. . . Moon is the weaker of the
Sun-Moon pair' (Newcomb and Reichard, Santi-paintings of the Navajo
Shooti11g Cha11t, 1937, p. 55 and Matthes, TI,e Night Chant, Memoirs of
the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. Vl.p.6. for example,
Nature is masculine and Soul is feminine); at1d with reference to the
necessity of suclt pairings is 'the confirmed Navajo belief that neither
sex is self-sufficient, but both are necessary to fulfilment of any sort.
There arc many cases where rwo beings of the same kind [i.e. same
ostensible sex) arc paired, yet they are both males and [i.e. or both]
females. Holy rnan (Monster Slayer) and Holy Boy .(Child o~ the
Waters); Sun and Moon.. . Holy Women and Holy Gul are P.airs of
this kind. These combinations seem to point to the emphasis that
weaker, more gende powers arc as necessary to "".c~being ~ the
stronger more forceful ones. This explanation is a religious one in the
light of the Navajo effort to secure .h armony.. : Blue and b~ck are
al L - - 'dominating' colors m the Shooong Chant, white wd
m es o r ~

had N
r , ava10
ye Uow are the IC"II"""'

Mtdidnt Man, 1939, p. 78).



66. H ere, and in the m arriage forn1ula of A V.XJV 2 7 t

sanian 'chan t', by 'H armony' (Attunement or Mu . ). b, \ve render
and smgmg
1s m u sic
, (AA .H.3.6 stimac/ yasic
ccause aU


h cf.. Cu. I. 6.8 14sya rk ea sama

- ea gesnau). S vara 'nas (a gfs11ah
, , sa/!

. ' . fi
d db .
ote , tone o
music IS o ten ren ere y accent but what is meant is
U , r

rea )' tone'
as m C hinese an d early G reek , no t 'stress as in Eng lish St
. ress 1s, in
faa, not a poen cal b ut a prosaic quali ty. The con tras t o f sama a d
,I n ,c ,s
that of a Ha rmo~y .t hat transcends S~eech, and a verbal articulation on
which the Music is suppo rted as 1f m a vehi cle (vac as rathanca
PB. VIJ.6.3.4 an d 7. 13, 14). The Music is sung on w ords (rci soma
giyate, SB. VIH.1.3.3) and bo rne or suppo rted (adl1y,iq/,am, C U.1.6.15, pratiHhitam CU. 1.8.7) on them as an earth; th is relatio n o f the Music
co the Wo rds being the sa me as that o f the Sun to the M oon in
AV. X V .15. 4.5. wh ere the forn1er is pra,iq/ra/.1 and the latter ab/,y,iqha/_1;
in these w o rds 110/, has its marital sign ificance, and it ,na y be noted that
prauqha can be applied to a w o n1an o nl y when she is a virago, a
relatively masculine type. Thus the Harm o ny wedded to the Words is
incarnated as if by a mother (SB.JV.3.2.3), the B,c is Vac and 'the
Great Litany (Agni) is her supreme adaptation ' (paramo vikara~,.
A.A. U.3.6). It is in the same wa y chat the King brings fort h (enacts)
what the P riest knows (cf notes 22, 26), w d that the formation of a
concept begotten by Manas or Brah ma on Vac is a vital operation
(BU. ll.2.3, IV.1.6, and Kena U.30).

On the other hand, the Words considered apart from and in

opposinon to the Music (svara) are the 'evil (papman) of the Chan t, and
whoever seeks to take refuge in such a toneless B.c froy asvarayam) is
found out by Death' (JUB.I. 16. 10.1. 18.8; CU.1.4.3). It is because the
words frc) arc the p hysical and mortal 'body' of the Music as
anguished fro m itself: and 'the body is given over to Death to be
his share. so that no one becomes immortal with the bod y'. that
Prajipati tells the C ods to approach the world o f heavenl y light by
means of the w ordless C hmt (samna 'nrcena) and so indeed they did .
'shakmg off these bodies, the verbal tracks (etany rkpadani farira1,1i
dlwnvanta) that lay strewn (along their path) up to the Sky'
OUB.l.15.3f. with SB.X.4.3.9); this is the sam e as the 'ascent on
wings o f sound ' (svarapa~a, JUB.111. 13. 10) or 'wings o f light'
(iyoti!pakfa, P B .X.4 .5), or ' metrical wings , (c/11it1da~1pak!a, ' AV .
VIIl.9. 12). Thus the de11aya1ia is thought of as the via negativa (for the
' wa ys of excellence and remotion' sec M U. IV.6): 'the ang les have
fewer ideas and use less means than n1cn' (Eckhart); 'N ot w hat is



uttered by Vac. not what men worship here, but that by which Vic is
urrered, know only that as Brahma. . . it is the Unknown that should
be ren1cmbercd, methinks' (111i111aiisya111 eva te maHye 'vidiram,
JU B.IV. 18.5 and 19. 1_).
But ,vhilc that ,vhich can be tracked pertams to our mortality
(pade,w l,a vas p1111an11rtyr a11vet1). and it is just because the lmmo~
h e kft rhcir tracks behind rlrem them these Gods, Agru. Vayu,
Aa;tya , Candra mas arc (like the Buddha) in themselves. 'trackless' (na
I 110 etasa1h de11ata11a111 padam ast,, J UB.111.35.7; apadam, ke,,a padena
,a tl1a7 Dh 179) yet can be followed by their traces (pada11i,

al liturgical

iconographic. .,and reliquary) . There

, 11coul
indeed. be no other 'ascent after Agru TS. V.6.8. 1) than by ,o OWlng
Oad On which the tracks are strewn of those who have gone
up t he r

d hi h
b c e until these footprints end with the road itself, beyo~ w _c
c,or ,
hi h
il' (Taitt
Ii the U nknown swn11111111 bomm, from w c wor s reco
.. mca~
gs' and
A via a.ffinnativa must precede the via
images must not be discarded until they are no longer meanings to but
mings of ourselves, no longer figures of others but our o,vn. who
: ~ then no longer see them over against o~rselvcs'. ~he reader
not confuse the meta-physics of scnprure . with the ano
. 11 cualism' o f the modem mob. That the music of the spheres IS
mtc ec
tificaoon of our
'pure' of any objective sense IS by no means a J U~
called 'love of art .L:w en, we
current love of fine soun ds , rrus
almost nouw,g ,b
'Leave it to pure soun d w h en t h c
nothing to do with the unintelligib~ty of the so~ = !s,of : ; : .
commends the sensitive and aestheoc ~o~~ ; aid above that the
It must not be gathered from what
Chant is a Music incomplete for lack of \VOrds. Onththc c o o ~
.. b th Mitra and Varuna (RV. VU. 12.3), ' e great

as Agro IS ?
. - an' is both the bra/111ia and the lqatro
one a~ara, mcxpressiblc Atm .
(MU VI 23) ni111kla11irulua,
(SB.X.4. I. 9 with SA.X~~:ero::~::ra/,1110 st~11d. alo:1e, which is no
sabdasabda,. etc.' and can t a (SB.IV. I. 4.2-3) than for a wo~ (Manu
more possible for ~c lqa ~
h S . rit (amia,i) is m itself an
c P1
d n1
48 f.
V. l , c .
. '
I 4 3 f Plato Symposium, 189 E) an o y
androgynous syzygy (BU. beec
husband and \VUC, or brahma

by a schism o its . .
the Chant or Harmony (samna,1 samatva
and lqatra, so the qu!~ty o~. lo ically differentiated elements, tone
is explained as the b1un1ty o Its g( 'ti sa,ndhi mithuna, etc.) of the
. the congress sam,
(svara) and word s (r~) '.
. . les like that of their
verb sym
masculine and fcmmIDC pnnap





~sa+ama=smnan), making up the incomposite whole of the


itself (a whole that had never been diminished by th ,.,,,. H_ar111ony

only the mere words in themselves eand
t e words) ; It
h on of
nott ew
as the support (pra11Hha1
of the Harmony, that are
. ords
,. t h e re Iaaons
. hip o f the Saccrdotium and Re
same way ,or
Inner and Outer Man.
g rn, or
It~ ~f co~~e, been generally overlooked that in KU.n .23 where
there IS a choice of one self by the other. in BU IV 4 23 wh

pacified and dompted (fanto dan1ti~1) and composed (samtilritah ,.
sa":"11_1') self~ itself only in the ~elf (at'.""Y evatmtinam paiye;'. i.:
being tn the spmt sees only the Spine, sees itself not as it is in itself but
as it is in God); in BU. fV.2.1 sa,ntihitatma ('self-composed'). AA.ln.2.1
pra.tJe . .. sairuihitaJJ, and AA.111.2.6 a1ma11a1n samadadhat (Keith, 'put
himself together'), sa111adhi implies the atmamithuna~ of CU. Vll.25.2,
samd}ia governing atma1,am always referring to the hieros gamos that is
to be consummated within you, in the heart. ln the arts, samdha (c:f.
hannoxo harmo11ia) has the analogous value to 'fuse' or 'weld' or
otherwise 'fasten' together two different metals, or such incongruous
materials as wood and iron (in the latter case with glue, s1eynatJO,
Vs1if, to 'embrace', in the former by means of a 'salt'), and 'even so
the Comprebensor heals everything' (sarvam bhifajyall) by the
utterances (vyahrtaya~) bhiir, bh11va.s, svar (the reference of which
utterances is to the unions of Agni with Earth, Vayu with Space, and
the Sun with the Sky), JUB.111.17.2, 3.
The gnmrnaacaJ samdhi and samhita arc, in fact, only a special case
in the long series of analogous c.onjunctiorn discussed in SA. VU and
VUI and correspoading J)2S.sages of AA., and elsewhere. ln the case of
all these uniorn the end in view is an effective harmony and the
reproduaion of the higher of the two principles involved. In general
the Juaaion IS a combimtion (samhita1 of the parents in their child
(SA. VU.15, cf. Taitt. U.1.3), so that, for example, 'science' (vidyal is
the coaJuaction of lntdlecr and Voice, Manas and Vac, jointly
necessary to the expression of any concept of truth (SA. VTI. 7).
Now in the case of the macrocosmic harp (the seven-rayed Sua) and
that of the analogous human instrument with its seven 'breaths',
AV.XV. 15.2, etc.), the man lum.sclf(cf. A.111.374 (,wherein the
'figure', ni111it14, of the harp, the right tuning of the strings to a mean
U'l;lt JS neither too taut nor too slack c.orresponds co the proper
adJustmenc of the nun's force and Caculcit.-s, 11iriyo and indriyal}i: Placo,
R,p 34,, 4 l 2A and Phatdo), the combimrion (samhi/41 that is its

10 l

'force' (tvi~i=bala in Taitt.U.1.2) is 1hat of the skilled player wi1h 1he

instrument itself, these two being ihe formal and cfficien1 causes of ihe
audible harmony or euphony; we read that 'Just as the harp struck by a
skilled player accomplishes the las1 end (whole reason, raiso,i d'irrt) of
the harp, so the voice impelled by a skilled speaker accomplishes the
last end of the voice' (evam eva kusalena vaktrti vtig tirabdl,ti krt,r11a,h
vagartl1a,i1 stidhayati, SA. VIII. 1O.cf. B_G. II.~ yogal1 karmasu kausala.m),
and ir is cenainly pemnent to the Kingship that we are told chat He
who is a Con1prehensor of this divine harp (the seven-rayed Sun)
becomes exceedingly famous: his reno":1 fills the ~ h; m?n hearken
him when he speaks in the assemblies, saymg: Let this be done
:hich he desires' ' (SA. VIII. 9). The speaker, like the ~g and o~er

is thought of as a sadliakii, 'one to hit the mark. Here then IS a

::ric of'the energising of truth, the bringing to bear of_cruth upon
men (Baldwin, Mediaeval Rl1t1oric and Pattie, p. 3). For 1t IS clear that
the 'last end' of the musical speech is b! no means o.nc of 6ne sounds
by any
h own sake (for which the voice alone, uninformed
h 'T

ould suffice it has been remarked t at

o exerosc

h h
mearung w
freedom of speech one needs only vocal cords), not w at t .e
s (indriyani) have to offer not amusement, but that ~a
without w hi ch .an .IS n othing' ' that 'science' (vidyll) for which
'th v- Inner Sage and Ou~
cooperation of Manas _wi
. ac,
. of the Vedas' by
philosophia and dynamis, IS . reqwreSd, that m:U:! (salralam bluidram)
which if one understands 1t, the ummum on . .
. l
.' bi (SA XIV) We need hardly say that this IS also preosc y
IS atwna e

f th
of an we are
Plato's (and the universal) d ~ e o d he ~urposcd harm.ony was
endowed by the Gods \VJth V1S1on anth eanntegll,~ y (mtt4 nou =
b th M
him that can use cm m
(hidonin a/ogo,1) as IS
given y e uses to . . nal
an aid to 1ITano
not as
. t the soul's revolution {p$ichcs pmodon.
da S yv~u

nowa ys u P, ut to a.ss1S .
d concord with
cf. cittavrtti and vrota), to restore~~
And because of the want
~ in most of us, rhythm
the 'Self, the Inner Man of Pha
of measure (ametron) and thalsocla~~ o gedra upon us by the same deities
mlrh -na) was
ds .
(=numnw, sa
yo , . nu '47 D,E): the composition of soun IS
and for the same ends (T,""3 affi ds . deed 'pleasure (hidonl) only
the basis of an affect (.pothi) that . orIii, : t (tmphron connected with
co the unintelligent, but to
that bean's ease (tuphrosyni)
phrin 'heart' , 'mind' and Skr. . .
die divine harmony ma<k
which IS
. induced by die, ('<
n..:ft.;1:,n's doai
80 B echoed m '<....,_.
manifest in m onal moaons "'




Snon; u.


A, o

T E."-PORA.1. p 0 '1.El!

fThc brncd
-=i >:l:X1CS:z;xl :asou., dJr rnleamod undcm.md onlv ~ - I D
IX. .:. ltf .-: r.i SL ,.~.:suzx:'s cic0a::noo o f ~ ix, .eJ
,ab dx'1 ~ t!IC J "'--S conccpoor. of the: ,.-hole end of
or ::xx-c gc1C..!l; of :he -...-hole?-~ o( 2:1 (smcc he rcg.u-<h
.._.5mcn .a ' jX'-3. Cor,tldJ YJ31. IS idcnaaJ -uh dul of die,
md lt a da:r du1 hn dcbgfv. so arcfully dJSDnguahcd
i::-.oc ~ . IS DO ITIOl!C aachcoc dun IS the 's.avonng of the fuvor
,~id.zn,. dw the Sa1tya Darpana (Ill 2-)J speaks o( u
bc:ao6c' (Jna11daanmayo, cf A.Ill 354 poramtm1 naJIQ111
~ -llm.n) and u the N.'1Jl bnxhcr' of the ~vonng o(
Bnbnu'; r= corn:spond:tng to the 'JOp' 1n JOp1tmltl, 'cog,i1110 cum amort'
undcrsund:tng wuh love) In the procn1 context the applicaoon JS to
the m of government. likened to eh.it of music; the: end of tlus art is
not the K.mg's pleasure:, but his 'children's' and !us own good. As in
m y other voaoon (1vadham1a) the KJng iJ. to be governed by his art,
not 'c:xpn:ssmg lumself. the mstrumcn1, but voicing what has been
dtctatcd by the ln1c:Uect, 11011! (monosa va Ol{r t kinayoti, SA.Vll.2, cf.
John Vlll. 2.8 and Dante, P11rgotorio, XX IV 52.54), and n1aking the
good of the work to be done hi~ onl y conecm (kam,a,;i y e11ad/1ikara1 tt ,
BG. U.47). In the last anal ysis, God is the skilled player and we the
harp of ,...,tuch the 'strings' or 'senses' rnust be ' regulated'.
We bcgITT to ~cc: no,v ""'hy the ,vords (rr) should be studied (adhiyita,
i.e. like aU other symbols. a) supports of contcmplanon, dl,iyalamba) in
thru s~,,,J,,tti form. tlut fonn in wluch they a.re sung, and tn whJCh
alone arc thc:y 1ir~--g1vmg' (iy11n-a, SA. VIJl. 11). J.C. Producove of
tfj,xJw,i uy,o here: (the Li fe o f J(XJ yc-J~ ln1n1ortahty' for n1an = l~J
ytan of bfc. Su XIII I 5 6 .i.n<l I'll XX IV 19. 2) and hereafter
(1n1pc:rt)lubll 11n1noru.bty) It is lx'\.au;e the rl-consutuoon (a1maJa11U
ht,) of th dii,1ntl"gr,Jtcd Jnd 1n.i.rufold ,elf effected 111 the Sacnfice (for
which tbr C..lunt .is abM>lutely ind1.>pcn>1bk, TS 11 5 84 ) 1.> csscnu:ally
ITIC'tnc..l 'tlie ,acnfi<l r pcrfecu h1m~lf as composc.-d of the metres'
(dwnd ""'Y"'" ~"' :!IAnu,, "U VI V. Koth \ rcnJcnng). and is thus a
'ptrlc:c1cd xlf (,."lrtat111Q11 , I ,utt U II 71 PnJap.io broken up 1n the
cnu,uuon ofl,u chJ!drm
X 5 2 16 on rhe ( )rt,; and the Many)
' uiuJa luu,i.clf by mccun vf 1hc n1etro' (,J,anJ.,l,/11, a1m.i1u m samad.,;.!J,uJ, All Ill 24 nd SA \'JII I!), 1c: '\)ltdle\uo' the: mmifold sclf
wu:h the: sa.o ,plc Sd( (lhc rdx{ with rhc nghttul so~crogn) Similarly.
Ill dw: JarWd111 of d1<: Yog..s -0trll v..ht-re lhcrc is a rcconolunon md
C '.'MO! CLP


,....:--..i. ~ ,

t'J'lar: tnd:tct1 Vol.JI.~




Po~ ut

$p11u Tt:A.L A1..,110R1rY A'< D TE.\\POllAL


s,'JlU)CSl> of ~ - ~,-cs, and m the lolfri.idlu of the Antu.~

.-ncrc s,m,.,i,ih, o: samrlhi-1.z,~...., 1.> rhc nulun~ of a trc,r, of pcan- nd
3Quocr al:,,o npla.ux:d '" a "'""""' J>U, lLTm w ottrn nnployc,J m
COIJD('(~ .-,di rrun;.il :illuncn) bct"UJ t'4o po-..~T~ d.at luvc bc:a,
t .,,;ir. :uJJ rhc CX>O",cnc SoJ1...;dl11-or Solfftdh,.~i.,., (...,,,,l.l,,.blu-4oj "
rhc J. soluoon 01' brckmg ol )U(h A trc.il\ and 2iulogous 10 the
gr.imnuaal JJ1itdhn'fv11rt.lflJ=~lu-da. the ' J 1,..0tQ of f\1$td '4 ords,
11 wtll be j11 tNl I C21UlO( wholly i:r,-c ,...,1h L:d,;<:Ttc,n\ rai<knnl( ol
JJnwi/11 b, ho~t..~, 1'>C.T ht\ ~mJJJ11, 'I lost.;~c . , ,n J:\O'S
fll.~l>llt ) but rath,T hold 1hJ1 tht- <.imiidlu h) nthl"ll') n 'trc..1y of
pc.ice' con11nonh untied o r ,crurl'll b) .m ,xch.lngc o( Rift, or
'd-p<>"ts' (al11taJ not ,:xcludmg 1ho..c of pcrmn, ,uch " dughu..-r
given 1n m2 rnagc (rJthcr "' J pledge thJn J\ a ho,ugc); the pkdgcs or

h~ cagcs arc g1vc11 ,vhcn th, pt,tCc 1s n1adc, and thcr, 1, notl11ng to
sho" chat any , uch ho,u gc, wtrc hd d ,vh,lc the fi~htmg w~~ 11,011111
on. ,vh1ch hostage, could be ' rclc,1,cd'. In .111y case: all thc..c
'agrcc,ncnts art analogou, to that of cl1c.'two ~clvc,'. of M1trJv;1ru11Au
and all 1hosc other a,pcch of the union ot contrary pnnnplc, , 111 wluch
there 1s al,vays an cxcha1111c of gift,. eat h g1v111g ,01nctl11111,1 of 11\ own
to the other: all th~e tpo,nKa (cro1iw) arc 1naki11g\ ol lur111011y Jnd
order where di,cord had been, and we c;u, ,ay with 1)1011y,1u, (1)1<liv
110111 . IV 5) that 'all .ilhancl~ .md fnc11d~h1p, arc bc:cJU\C of the
bea unful '; chi ~ will apply, (or cxa111plc to the .,lliJnn:' of word, 111
gra n1111Jt1cJI .rn111dl11, for the ntctrk.11 rn1hl111n t,xt, Jrc J\\urcdly
hc.1u11ti1l, 1h, 111,rc word, (rt) hc:111g the 'evil' of the chaut, .111d kalyt11J11
cht oppclS11t ()( l"'J"'"'" J , 1, p11/d11r of 111r111~
<)n the other hand, 111 pada text, the blJnk \PJ((' (t11akusa) or
1no1ncnt o( umc (mtitra) 'J,~o,,.., rhc to11Junctwn (sa,lull11m v1vartaya11,
cf HV VI 1J. I v11ar1rte ra1asi and VII.HO. I '!"'""'Y"""' rJjt1si; and
111ra10, 'contra~tcd opc-rauon') and d1viJ.., (v,bhaJaJi) or dJS1mgu1,I"~
(1'1J110paya11) cm: long and \OOrt ~yUabb (lf"11rama1,a,n} and tu!''' (u1
Wc:b~u.'J'\ Kmc: 4 b) from 'atonK' (1v11141varam). AA 111.1..:> with
SA.Vll.12. ~uch a formublJOfl 1' cenainly not ITIC.ll1t robe untk~\I.OQJ
Ofily gnmnuacally (grammar ibcl{ is a tJadihonal 'Way . and
'IJocumc'; cf. CU.11.22.3-5. Ta11. U 13.1, and Fadlk-gon. Sllld1t1 on
l'J36. PP <,7. 68) the: 'divorce" of the rnctncally
CJ ~........ ... , . "wffl ..... - , dooc ~
~ ,.,_.. I t ll 116. .... lJ3

mn,ay .. ,u11.,




S P11u I UAJ

ra.nmmi a,mp<meruh
,,____ _, 1ntdl1gum, ettam 1ndoai volup1<2tem llbe Je.trnoo 111
= g .J.O"""'~""" reason, eh<: Wlleamed understand onJ 1
:IX. 4 , i :6 and ~ St ~-tg:J~..ine -s ~ro<tl>n ,;( d,,~ .:_.-f e.i~ureJ
\\-;::;a: ":.:lt", S-T.r.tl~ -.r..e ?la;.,.,~ ~-)-.i{;t;;J'..1<)11 ,,,( h-: -y,,!)-.,1,
11 ... ,,,, t4~
~ ' : : ?'C :::Y~ ~ . . , j > < ;:;.,t n''..r'.>.C ;>:--/,r..r, ,/,:: !,.,i..:, , ,,
,,...,,,_ ,,.., ,.,.,.
.... . ........
.-.L- ..:::::z:,,~, a
/;'1.~' ? ;; r. ..,.~ .....;.-'A.i ""i')']t: --:_-..:,..... ,,.f ,..,.(!:

' _,,.,.......ea .:::.:: ir.


" - --.

--.:c;:_ r"'~""



.. ~ . --.:ii'

-r.... ';.&:P
. - .....




.;er.,...__ J'. ..... .,. ..- ~ ~-

........ia,, > .-.~

'-h --

, .-~



, -..,,,!"-,?:

f ,

~ I ..., ~..~ l'A


~ .;.,~


C-..- rl:;: 1"';,

=ilviA>.Z.,.:r.d' i::-.:.t ::.e- S:iii;y;; f>..:;.-.r.:i 1;; 2-J, Sye;i:Cs of .,,

"tr.o:, e.-r.;a!fy ;;.e.cf,e' .ir..:~.r.c;.:., cf A .[Il.}54 p,;rarr.;m ;;.;,...,,.,~
~.am "1Uc:J:.;r.-1 a:-.d as che 'twin brochc:r' of the 's.ivonng of
~=, r.:.s,; corresponding to the S<lp m S<lp1entia, 'cognitw cum amort'
'understanding w1Ch love1. fn the present context the application is co

'l f.l,!PQWAJ

JJowt R




J!-,P >, ,1'_'4Wt






, ,:-.

u .. .,- ._.,~..,.
sM!,i, u
:.-x ' "' ;,,: -,.<#!;); I 1v ' -c.t:, ~
t," h.-:..:., W!'~'#ft'Y-~.~,, "" '!:-:, K',t M f.,);,,-.4 .,,, ,...;;It,, k ~ T ,r.J <, ;<,e, .,t,.-~ M
y\( V~ !(,.- ~ rnG<r ,;.,/
r.trmid by 1AC.i~ ~c ~.;~ 5,,,;ra,l,w ff,,r.t.i~
, 11, J/10-,
(J 1. '}J 'll',ff ) h, 1, r~rhCT hold cl.at d1< sam.:dh, (~ynt~ISJ 1s. , cr=y of
~cc' commonly rauf1ed or ~ccurcd by an exchange of gif::l or




of h<r.>nJ. . :.dv<':> ind Ill d",: $(W1<1dJt, ,,f .-i,, ,---;
.,._!lo,;i.4\;l.,J ..,
#h-.'.t't' "1J>1df1/ t <>f .,~nv,t, /,4T<lfl4" I> tll< !}1;<1, !l)t ,fa ,,:a\ f .,\ i;.' 4' I ,~)O
~.u<.4 ' !f'! ) , x~
.-) ~ Kflf J) v.,.~ 4 .. <:,1 .-,,.r.., l) ,
fy :d


Au, 110,ory

~....-n,,..,. ,:,: .,,

me an of government.

likened co that of music; the end of this art is

not the King's p~ure, but his 'children 's' and his own good. As Jn
my other vocation (svadharma) the King is to be governed by his art,
not 'expressing himself, the instrument, but voicing what has been
dictated by the lntclleet. nous (ma1UJS<1 va agre kirtayati, SA. VIl. 2, cf.
John Vlll.28 and Dante, Purgatorio, XXJV. 52.54), and making the
good of the work to be done his onJy conccm(kam1a1Jy evadl,iktiras te,
BG.ll.47). ln the bst analysis, God is the skilled player and we the
harp of which the 'strings' or 'senses' must be 'regulated'.
We begin co see now why the words (re) should be srudied (adhiyita,
i.e. like all other symbols, as suppons of contemplation, dlriyalamba) in
thc:ir saml11ta fo rm, that form in which they are sung, and 1n which
a.lone a.re th.cy 'hfe-giving' (ayu~ya, SA. V III. I I), Le. Productive of
dirgluzm iiyus hae lthc: life of tcYJ years; Immortality' for m.in = If})
yeus of bfc, SB.XflJ. l.5.6 .and PB. XXJV. 19.2) and hereafter
(11.npcrishablie immorulity). It is bcamc the rcconstirunon (atmasa,ns1 of the dtsuucgrated md mmifold self effected in the Sacnficc (for
wluch the Clune is absolutely indispensiblc, TS.IJ.5.8.4) JS essentially
memo.I: 'the saoificer pencctS himself as composed of the metres'
(dwidomayam samskuruct, .AB. Vl.27, Kcith 's rendering), and is thus a
'perfected Sclf' (suk,:r.at,nan, Taitt. U. fl. 7): Prajapui, broken up in the
emanation ofhls children (cf.S B.X.5.2.16 on the One and the Many)
'unifies himself by m=s of the merres ' (cha1ulob/1ir at111a1101n samadadl11Jt, AA.Ill . 2.6 and SA. Vfll.IJ), i.e. 'synthesises' the manifold self
with the simple Self (the rebel with the rightful sovereign). Similarly,
in the samadlri of the Y ogasastra where there is a reconciliation and

'dcp05tts' (dhllaJ, not excluding those of persons ~uch as a daughter

given 1n mamagc (rather as a pledge than as a hostage); the pledges or
ho~tagcs arc given when the peace 1s made, and there 1s nothing to
shO\V chat any such ho~tagcs were held while the fighting was going
on. which hostages could be 'released '. In any case 211 chesc
'agrccn1cnts' arc analogous co that of the 'cwo selves' of Micravarui:iau
and all those other aspects of the union of contrary principles, in which
there is always an exchange of gifcs. each givmg son1cthing of its own
to the other: all these El)W'TLK<X (eroiica) arc makings of harmony and
order where discord had been, and we can say with Dionysius (De div.
110111. IV .5) that 'all alliances and friendships arc because of the
beautiful '; this will apply, for cxan1ple to the 'alliance' of wocds 1r1
gram rn acical sa1i1d/11, for the ntetrical sa1iil1itii texts arc assurc~ly
beautiful, the mc:rc words fr<) being the 'evil' of the chant, and kalyaqa
the opposite of pdp111a11 as 1s p11/c/,er of turpis.
On the other h.ind. in pada texts the bbnk space (avaltai<I) or
moment of time (macr,i) 'divorces the conJunct10n (sa111dl11~ v~va'!"yati,
c( RV. VJ.9.1 v1var1ete rtijasi and Vll.i.). I riva11iyan11111 TO)IU,; and
111vra1a, 'contrasted operation') and divide!. (vibhaja11) or disring~~
(vij11apayat1) the long and short syllables (mtilrtimalram) and to~ (m
Webster's scruc 4 b) from 'atonic' (svariis11aran1}, AA.Ill. I..:> with
"A VII 12 such a formuboon is cauinly not mcanc co be understood
;) . . .

ona1 'Wa ' and

011/y grammatially (grammar itself JS a traditi
' Doctrine'; cf. CU.11.22.3-5, Taic. U.1.3. 1, and faddegon. Studies on
n- s G rammar, 191u.
.,.,, pp. 67, 68) the: 'divorce" of the mctncally
*Cf. Smlu1n,.;p, ...,,,mi ' Eftll with I very dose alhance' cntmy
Edgcnon, p_ _ , . II. UIS. 1116. 3ll


still m en.my.





O W1,11

ht\Cd 5ylh1 bk-s 15, a\ n1uch as the divorce of Sk y

d E
dt~Jccord and d ~cord. matra
15 t hc quanatative ' inatter'n th anh
Ci ' th cir
(miitra as materia BU. IV.3.9), and avakaia (=akaia a
ill~ _space

111an...,a Saya
on PT:3.XVlll.9.6) the lununous sphere that intervenes Li '
i:t 3
.c:..irt an
y; 111a1ra an 011,atra can be taken to refer t
0 \v at has
measure o r number and \Vhar has not (the distinction of poet fr
.,_ . .
ry orn
prose ; ""'. e t c ws~nction o svara . (tone, tune, music, chc gold of
the chant, BU.1.3:2.:i,26) from what 1s ~vara (tuneless noise}-in SA.
I emend to asvarat svara,11 to agree \VJth AA. svarasvara11l--Can be
equated \Vlth that of the intoned (svarya) chant from tbe toneless
hbrcno (re, 'the evil of the clunt',JUB. 1.1 6.JO) and furthem1orc \vitb
t!ut of solar hghc from muncbne darkness (it can hardly be conveyed
tn Engh~h that svar unpucs both 'cone' and 'light', though "e QJl
spak of a 'bnlh.ant tone. and Dance spoke of 'singmg sum'). Strong
con.firnuaon of mcsc mtcrprcunons can be found in a correlation of
AA IJ.3 <, v.-hm: v.t. ue rold du.1 ' ,mi talk 15 uruneasurecf (vrt}za va.k
.. --..,-v.-e llJldttsWJd dus lO mean at OllCX' 'unmcrriaJ' and
trrmodcutt'-w.tt, JB.U VJ, 70 13 v,hac m chc ~cul COIUC!Sl
~~ l'rapP4--'l and Death '"iw ..., as sung or dmca:I m the ~ rp by
way of mar ffltc'UJltmau {"1tho = nwgham, vainly'. Ill rhc COTTC$-poochng i.:x.1 o{ ~8 III 2 1 6) by ~ is 'unnumbered' (asamknya114111)
and dodly ni,;rty.::m), .ind 1,1,.ha1 b) Pr.iJipao 'numbered ' (sam
"}ryr411'1 ;nd bliClJ (o,nrtamJ .ind l)c.ith \ mus1c IS now our secular
.. n of l,e ' p~r!{,r' (p,,tn1itilo), 'wha1c:vcr people sing to the harp, or
d~rio. or d,, tu pi= 1hcn1sclvc,,' (11rtl1a); and \Vlth Ss. rn .
where the rnund.nc l)c-v..a, (11"1 d,val,) con1cst \V1th the cclestul (dwr)
(, 1r11Jl1.r\'J\ forth, po">~t~,on ofVac; the Gandharva~ ~ay to her: 'We
,ir( dt ldnni,: the Veth~. \,c kno1,1,. , indeed \\'C know' (va, vayan, vidma,
tf Su Xl 2.J 7). but thl 1nund.u1c l)cv:is. 'We ",ru an1usc thee' (tva
p1wrncrday1}yti111;.1l,11), \ .ic IS seduced by the scns1ovc Dc.>vas, 'and that JS
wh~ C\'Cn no,, ,dJy~ \\'Omt'TI arc 1,1,.cdded 10 foUy' (moghasamhitah); but
tuully " 'On bv chc Gandlun 45 from them. The word pramcrday4Y.ima
lw IS rcOcctcd bdow (16) 111 the t'Xprcssion prakaniodya 'aesthetic, or
..appconvc convcrs;ition'. l"\'Kicntly contra.rung with brahmodya,
'godh con,c=oon' or 'Br.ihnurucal coUoquy' (s Bloomfield in
J 40S 15. 184 and Dl.md on PB.IV.9 12) the dl5rmaion of celcsoal
G.mdh.arv.as fron1 chc muncbnc Dev.as IS the same as that of chc
br.ihMa~idharvalJ &om the drvah m TS. VI I 6.5,6, due of the divilqit
lrun1 the lokak111 Dev.is in CU.U.24. 14, and that o f the Ocvu whose
$poC$m:i.n Q the Sacnfice from the Asuns--mc unregc:ncntt




AND "f t MrORA L

Po wr,N

scnsc-po,vcrs. prii1.ral1, i11dnyii1.ri-in Sll. where also the

contest 1s f~r Vac; t~1~ mundane Dcvas arc of those ,vho 'c:in onl y
approach Vac 111 sin Ul the sense of RV. X .71.9. T he distinction of
such an 'unrnodulatcd vain conversation' (1,ri/1ii 11iik . .. amitam) froin
the 'Chant com,ncnsuratc ,vith the spiritual-Sclr (iirmasammita 111
... soma, CU.11.10. 1). 'con1mcnsurarc with lhc ln1pcrishable' (a~ara.sammti11as . .. atmti, SA.Vlll.5, i.e. ,vith the syllable Om. wich
Brahn1a, not Keith's 'iencrs'). is very evident. Saya~us explanation of
vrtlui vak in AA.11.3.6 is 'non-Brah111an1cal intcrprclations (1.c. free
examination'; agata is very literally 'unauthorised'. 'not fathered by')
and humorous anecdotes and so fonh told at court or ochcr such hkc
pl.:ices' (brtil,ma1.1aga14 yt 'n/u,viidii yii ea riijruabltJdau parilriisJJ,nipC'IJOC)'
The sacred 'science of the ccksti:i.l Gandhar\';u' (who kno\\ better
dun the Risius \\"hat is too mud1 or too hnJc m the Sacnfice, Sll.Xl
2.3. 7) and 'saence' (vidya) of SA Vll. 15, 111usr not be equated \\"llh
our profane samcc. bu1 "ith 'metaphysics' (cf. Rene Guroon. '0..."Ux
sciences' in u, ms, d11 11wndt mt>dm,t, 1927, and Li mt1.q,lty.n.p,t
orimtalt, 1939; Gaigncron. LA COIIJ1Q1SS<111lt 111!ml11r, 1935). An accumulaaon of kno\\lcdge for 1cs own sake, to sausfy a cunos11)'. is as
much as gossip, vaudeville, or any merely senomcnul art or ' art for
an's sake', a 'profanity' (vnlia viik. We say 'p.r o~ty' here with
reference to the opposition of profane to sacred (1.tpcx. icros, bra!t~1a),
brahma), a.nd the fact that 11rt/ui, from Vvr, to 'choose', 151hc: senuonc
equivalent of 'heretical', from airto (airtomai) to 'choo~c for 011~clr;
the m.111 who can boast, or even admit that ' I do not know what is
right, I know wluc J like to do; I do no'. know what IS true, bu1 whJt I
like to chink; and I do not know anything about art, but know wlut I
like' IS in the strictest sense of the word a 'heretic', one who h~wc~er
'well-in1Cnrioned' is nevertheless 'opinionated' and 'unpnnapled
Stated in other worcl5, there is a distincnon of a s1grulicant
(padtinhabhinaya) and liberating (vimuktida) art-the _a.rt of th~ who
singing here to the lurp arc celebrallng Hun, the Colden Pcrso;, in
both his natures immanent and tran=dcnt-from an 1J1-S1gn1 ,cant
( IO,can~ran;o
art colored by worldly
~d <k..,.,...,dent
.,. .. d theonl.:ittcr
moods' (bhavairaya); the former IS the highw~y. (marto) an
a 'pagan' (dtii) art (CU.I. 7.(>--9 \Vi1h Somx,'tatlarpa7JO:_ L4-6 ~,f
Daiaril4pa I 12. 14). The disnncoon of mirta from tkJ1 tbs no~ he
o f Iime ,r
c om apphcd or of high from folk in. ut o t
course, one




fused syllables is, as n1uch as the divorce of Sky d r,

- - 1s
. the quantitative 'matter'
an hicarch
disaccord an d d1.scord : matra
fi ' thear
(mcicrci as materia BU.IV.3.9), and avakciia (=cikaia a / ~kst ills space
, n arr, a Sayan
on PB. Xv,11 .9. 6) the Iurrunous sphere that intervenes b '
- - an d amatra
- - can be taken to refer t ctwecn
E arth an d Sk y; 111atra
atfi has
measure or num ber and what has not (the distinction of p
. .
oetry rom
prose) ; w,hiJ e th e disuncoon o svara . (tone, tune, music, 'the gold of
the chant , BU.1.3.25,26) from what 1s a.svara (tuneless noise)-in SA
I emend to asvarcit svaram to agree v.rith AA. svarasvaram--can ~
equated wi~h that. of the intoned (svarya) chant from the toneless
libretto (re, the evil of the chant', JUB. l.16.10) and furthermore with
that of solar light from mundane darkness (it can hardly be conveyed
in English that svar implies both 'tone' and 'light', though we can
speak of a 'brilliant tone'. and Dante spoke of 'singing suns'). Strong
confirmation of these interpretations can be found in a correlation of
AA.ll.3.6 \vhere we are told thar 'vain talk is unmeasured' (vrlui vak
rad an1ira,11}--we understand trus to mean at once 'unmercical' and
'immoderate'-,vith JB.IJ.69, 70, 73 where in the sacrificial contest
bcnvecn Prajapati and Death '\vhat ,vas sung or danced to the harp by
\vay of mere entenainment' (1,rthii=111oglra111, 'vainly', i.n the corresponding text ofSB.Ul.2.4.6) by Death is 'wmumbered ' (a.sa,11khyci11a111)
and 'deadly' (111arrya111) , and ,vhat by Prajapati 'numbered ' (sa,;,
klryci11a,,,) and 'lively' (a111rfa111), and Death's music i.s now our sca1lar
art of the 'parlor' (pat,uicilci), 'whatt:ver people sing to the harp, or
dance or do to please themselves' (11r1irci): and v.rith SB.
where the niundane Devas (iha devci!J) contest v.rith the celestial (div1)
Gandharva~ for the possession ofVac; rhe Gandharvas say to her: 'We
arc declaring the Vedas, we know, indeed we know' (vai 11aya1i1 vidma,
cf. SltXl.2.3.7), but the mundane Devas: ' We will amuse thee' (tva
pramoday,~yamaha); Vac is seduced by rhe sensitive Oevas, 'and rhat i.s
why even nowadays women arc wedded co folly' (moglrasamhit,ih); but
finally won by the Gandharvas from them. The word pramodayfyyama
ha is ccfleacd below (16) 111 the expression prakiimodya 'aesthetic, or
appcoovc convcrsaoon', evidenrly contrasting v.rith brahmodya,
'godly conversauon' or 'Brahmanical colloquy' (see Bloomfield in
JAOS 15. 184 and Caland on PB.IV.9.12): the distinction of celestial
Gandh.arvas from the mundane Dcvas i.s rhe same as that of the
brahmagandharvcilJ from the devalJ in TS. VI. I .6.5,6, that of the divik!it
from the loka~it Devas in CU.U.24.14, and that of the Devas whose
spokesman is the Sacrifice from the Asura~e unregenerate



sense-powers. P_'ci1J11}_1, i11driy111.ri-in SB. where also the

contest rs for Vac; the mundane Dcvas arc of those who 'can onl
approach Viic in sin' in the sense of RV.X.71.9. The distinction
such an 'un rnodulated vain conversation' (vr,l,a vak . . . amitam) from
the 'Chant co1nmensuratc with the spiritual-SeJr (111masammita111
. .. s11111a, CU. ll. I0. 1). 'commensurate with the Imperishable' (ak.farasam1111111as. .. 11111111, SA. VIIJ.5, i. e. with the syllable Orn, with
Brahma, not Keith's 'iettcrs'), is very evident. Siiya1:1a's explanation of
vrth11 1111k in AA.11.3.6 is 'non-Brahmanical interpretations (i.e. 'free
examination'; agata is very l.iterally 'unauthorised', 'not fathered by)
and humorous anecdotes and so forth rold at court or other such like
plaa.--s' (br11l1111a11aga111 ye'rthav11d11 y11 ea riijasabl,iidau parilitis11din1pe,_,ocyate).
The sacred 'science of the celestial Gandharvas' (who know better
than the Rishis what i.s too much or too little i.n the Sacrifice, $8.XI
2.3.7) and 'science' (vidya) of SA. VII. IS, must not be equated ,vith
our profane science, but with '1netaphysics' (cf. Rene Guenon, 'Deux
sciences' in La crise du 111011dc 111odm1e, 1927, and La 111etapl1ysiq11e
orie111ale, 1939; Gaigneron, La co111iaissa11u i11terdite, 1935). An accumulation of knowledge for its own sake, to satisfy a curiosity, is as
much as gossip, vaudeville, or any merely sentimental art or 'art for
art's sake', a 'profanity' (vrrl,a v11k: We say 'p_rof~niry' here with
reference to the opposition of profane to sacred (u;P<>':, _ieros, brali'.,ia),
brahma), and the fact that vrtha, from Vvr, to 'choose, IS the sermooc
equivalent of 'heretical', from aireo (aireomai) to 'choose f~r oneself;
the man who can boast, or even admit that ' I do not know what IS
right, I know what I like to do; I do not know what i.s true, but what I
like to think; and I do not know anything about an, but know what I
like' i.s in the strictest sense of the word a 'heretic', one who h?wevcr
'well-intentioned' is nevertheless 'opinionated' and 'unp~a~lcd'.
Stated in other words, there i.s a distinction of a significant
(padcirthcibhinaya) and liberating (vimuktida) art--<he art of those w~o
singing here to the harp are celebrating Him, the Golden Pers~n, m
both his natures, immanent and cransccndent-from an m-s1gnificant
an 'colored by worldly passion. (lokanuraiijaka) and .dependentht onl the
thc 'hig h'~),_ (mnroa)
moods' (bhcivaiTaya); the former IS
-,- and e atterd
a a n' (defi'J art (CU.l.7 6-9 \\ich Samg,rada,pa,,a:_ I.~ an
D ~
I J? 14) The disnncnon of r,iarsa from des, is not, of
me .fron1 applied or of high fron1 folk art. but of the


co:::::~~a~c ~f-f




traditional art that follows up the main track to its descin .

-" .
anon at
'Wo rld 's.End, om a ~a~_r.wstic a~ t ~t wanders off the main road 'in
all direcnons (c{ yatha duam=yathavasam); the root meanings
m dts1- are to 'd'1splay ', an d 'all d irecnons
' (d1s1
" c (. diso disas, present
d ' '
t er . w ence esa country or envuonment', 'outlandi er
pan:s' as distinguished from the 'heart' of the kingdom . while piil!u/i
also 'counrry' and 'pagan', 'outlandish', and thus hcterdox. Th~
'pagan' art by which we are seduced, i.e. led off or led away from the
relatively 'narrow' Way is essentially feminine: cf. SB. where
the Devas (Gandharvas) remark that ' Vac is a woman ' (yof a). and are
fearful 'lest she ensnare' (na yuvita; cf. RV.1.105.2 where Trita lamencs
ii jiiya yuvate ptitim) the Sacrifice, her suitor on their behalf. Ths fear is,
of course, the basis of the Indian, Islamic, and Christian 'pu ritanism',
which must not be misinterpreted to the discredit of all art and is a
disparagement only of the profane aru of amusement, of mere
diversion, Plato's 'art of flattery'. There is obviously no disparagement
of the Cantor who sings of the Sun on his harp by means of the
'Threefold Science' (trayi vidya, i.e. 'bhur blu,vas svar', J UB.1.58. 1,2; II.
9.7; lll.18.4). the harpists whose song is 'of Him ', the Person in eh,
Sun, the lord of these worlds thereunder and of men's desires. and so
singing ,vin both worlds (CU.1.7.6, 1.11), or of the art (ii/pa) of
dancing, singing, and instrumental music referred to in KB .XXIX.5;
no disparagement of scripture with its 'figures of thought', but onl y of
'literature' with its 'figures of speech'; none of ' poerry', but only an
affirmation of its real values (artha), a justification of such 'scientific'
poets as Dante who, with his dotlrina che s'asconde solto ilvelame degli
vm, strani'. .. doctrine which conceals itself beneath the veil of strange
verses;, lnfen10 lX.62-63 and confessed amanuensis of Eros, was no
more than any Vedic Rishi or mantraJrrt a litterateur, but a soothsayer,
And just as there is no disparagement of art as such, so in the
so-olled misogynism of the texts there IS no more disparagement of
woman as such than there is of things as such; the disparagement is of
an effeminacy to which both are liable by a perversion of their
naturally and therefore properly 'ero tic' nature: a disparagement of
monarchy, like that of the spiritual power, is an altogether modem
development, essentially prolcarian and 'maccrulistic'. It is not 'this
wo man ', but the feminine, or rather effcnunate, principle which, when
it fallows Ifs own devices, makes pleasure its end, is rrjcctcd, whether 1n
won1Jn or man, subject or king. We arc aU of us, like Aditi-V:ic,
'double-headed' (ubhaya1al,rs11i), having one tongue 'worslupful and


regal' (~atriyii hy e~ii yajniya) that enunci_ates the Gucrdon (dci~i,.1ii) of

the S~cnfice, the w1sdo1n (v,dya) by which the whole end of Speech,
and 1n1mortahty, arc won; and another that perverts the Truth
(SB.111. 2. 4. I 6 with JUB. IV.19.4); the latter is condemned, but not the
tongue as such.
We realize now that art can have, not only 'fixed ends', but also
'ascertained means of operation'; that it is not only for those who sing
here to sing of Him, but to sing as He sings. On the one hand, a
prosaic, historical and anecdotal, sentimental and humanistic interpretation of 'scripture as literature', or of any traditional symbol,
,vhethcr auditory or visual. is a deadly error (cf.S.1.11 ), the defea of
Plutarch's Greeks, who could not distinguish between Apollo and
Helios, and because of ,vhich many learned Indians have thought of
European scholarship as a crime'. On the other it is clear that our
substitution of stress for tone, our 'expressive' and informal manner of
reading and singing--so different from the n1easured 'singsong' of
traditionall y spoken verse-arc essentially profane developments
characteristic of an age that can no longer think of song as an evocative or creative (poietikos) art in any literal sense of the words, or of
the Sacrifice as necessary for our daily bread. We realize the significance of the fact that prose has been a late development in
literary history; ours is a prose style, while the traditional lore of aU
peoples-even the substance of their practical scienccs--has been
everywhere poetical. The prosaic and pedestrian language of the 'pada
text' is the analytical language of fact, the intoned poetry or
'incantation' the language of truth: intonation is analogous to
information. It can hardly be said of us that our music is 'an earthly
representation of the music that there is in the rhythm of the ideal
world' or chat our 'crafts such as building and carpentry take thetr
principles from that realm and from the thinking there' (Plotinus,
E1111eads, V.9.11), or that we 'make all things according to tht panem
that was shown thee upon the mount' (Exodus, XX V.40), or that 'our
songs are the same as His songs' (CU.I. 7. S); for ~c aU other arumals,
we know what we like; and over and above this, have mv~ccd a
science of likes and dislikes-properly styled a 'psychology-and
have substituted this 'aesthetic' for the traditional conception of art as
an 'intellectual vinuc'. Thus when we said that samdhi, whether
grammatical erotic, or technical, was 'for the sake of harmony, or
cup hony, ch'IS. did not mean 'for aesthetic reasons', for
di the
nalloveof fine
~ounds or the mere satisfaction of longings (the ~ra . no
other and practical ends in view, so that a man sms 1fhc dcstrCS even




l 07

cndioon:J art that follo,vs up the main track to its dc:stin .

curali .
aoon at
'World's End lron1 a na
soc art t at ,vanders off the inain road ..
all dirc:ctions' (cf. yarlrti diia,11= y111lrti11aiam); the root meanings
.m des,- are to 'dispIay . an d 'all d rrecoons
' (d 151
. . d"'
151, c . diio disas, 'hith
.L:th ')
d . .
an d uu er . w encc esa country or environment', 'outlandish
parts' as distinguished from the 'heart' of the kingdom , v>'hile pa
:Jso 'country' and 'pagan', 'outlandish', and thus hetcrdox. Th~
'pagan' art by which we ace seduced, i_e. led off or led away from the
relatively 'narrow' Way is essentially fem.in.ine: cf. ~B. where
tbc Dcvas (Gandha.rvas) remark that 'Vic is a woman (yci~l. and arc
fc:uful 'lest she enrmre' (na yuvita; cf. RV.L 105.2 where T rita laments
i ftia j'IIV'1lL pcnm dre ~ c e , her suitor on their behalf. This fear is,
o{ rot::=. dx basis ofdr Indian. lslanuc. uid Chrisr.im 'puntarusm',
~ :.nu.sr. DIX be mmntcrprcted to tbc discredit of all an: and is a
d:is;:,:zagm11t:nl only of die profme :ans of amuscmrnt, of mere
<1rrenll'.Jn. Pb.co's m: of flaac:-ry'. The-re is obviously no disparagement
of die umor ,;,:ho 5tng5 of rhc Sun on his harp by means of the
'lbrttfold Sacna (tray, vidya, i.e. 'bhur bhuvas svar', JUB. 1.58.1,2: II.
9.7; 111.18 4J, the harpists whose song is 'of Him ', the Person in rhe
~un, the lord of these worlds thereunder and of men 's desires, and so
smg1ng win both worlds (CU. I. 7.6.1. I 1), or of the art (ii/pa) of
danang, smgmg, and mstrumentaJ music referred to in KB.XXIX.5:
no disparagcmt'llt of scripture with its 'figures of thoug ht', but onl y of
'utcrature' with its 'figures of speech'; none of 'poetry', but only an
affirmation of its real values (artha), a j ustification of such 'scientific'
poets as Dante who, with his donrina che s'asco11de solto ilvelame degli
ver5i strani'. . . doctrine which conceals itself beneath the veil of strange
verses;, l11fen10 IX.62...{)3 and confessed amanuensis o f Eros, w as no
n1ore than any Verlie Rishi or mantrakrt a lin erateur, but a soothsayer,

And just as there is no disparagem enr o f art as such, so in the
so-alled rnisogynism of the texts there is no m ore disparagement of
woman as such than there is of things as such; the disparagement is of
an effemmacy to which both are liable by a perversion of their
naturally and therefore proper ly 'crone' nature: a disparagement of
monarchy, like that of the spiritual power, is an :utogether modem
development, essentially proletarian and 'materialistic'. It is not 'this
woman', but the fernirune, or rather effeminate, principle which, when
If follows its own devices, makes pleasure its end , is rejected, whether in
\von1an or man. subject or king. We arc all of us, like Aditi-Vac,
'double-headed' (ubhayo1al,u1r511i), having one tongue 'worshipful and

regal' (~mri ya l,y <'In yaj11iyii)_that enunciates the Gucrdon (dti~iiJti) of

tl, e Sacnfice, the w1sdo111 (111dyal by which the whole end of Speech,
and in11nortahcy, arc won ; and another that perverts the Truth
(SD. 111.2. 4.16 ,vith JUB. IV. 19.4); the latter is condemned, but not the
tongue as such .
We realize now that art can have, not only 'fixed ends', but also
'ascertained means of operation': that it is not only for those who sing
here co sing of Him, but to sing as He sings. On the one hand, a
prosaic, historical and anecdotal, sentimental and humanistic inccrprerarion of 'scripture as Literarurc', or of any traditional symbo~
whether auditory or visual, is a deadly error (cC S.l.11), the dcf= of
Plurarch 's Greeks, who could not distinguish between Apollo and
Helios, and because of ,vbich many learned Indians have diouglu of
Europc:in scholarship as a crime'. On
other it is dear dm our
subsrirution of stress for cone, our 'expressive' and informal manna of
rC2ding and singing-.> different from the measured ~ of
traditionally spoken versc---are essentially profme dcvclopmmrs
cha racteristic of an age that can no longer think of song as an evocative or crcaave (poii1ilws) art in any literal sense of the words, or of
the Sacrifice as necessary for ou r daily bread. We realize the significa nce of the fact that prose has been a late development in
Literary history; ours is a prose style, while the tradition:J lore of all
peoples-even the substance of their practical sciences-has been
everywhere poetical. The prosaic and pedestrian language of the 'pada
text' is the analytical language of fact, the intoned poetry o,
'incantation ' the language of truth: intonation is analogous to
information. It can hardly be said of us that our music is 'an earthly
representation of the music that there is in the rhythm of the id~
world' or that our crafts such as building and carpentry take thru
principles from that re:Jm and from the thinking there' (Plotinus,
Enneads, V.9.11), or that we 'make all things according to the pa~em
that was shown thee upon rhc mount' (Exodus, X?CV.40), or ~t our
songs are the same as His songs' (CU.1.7. 5); for like all oth~ animals,
we know what we like; and over and above this, have mve:ited a
science of Likes and dislikes properly styled a 'psych~logy -and
have substituted this 'aesthetic' for the traditional concepnon of art as
an mtc11--1
a..-i\141 . .:-e'
u ,u
Thus when we said that smiulhi, whether
'cal erotic or tcchnical. was 'for the sake
of harmony' or
gramma b ,
, r ..1. I
cuph ony , t
d" n:J has
sounds or the mere satisfaction of longmgs (the ~a _1 00
ot her an d pra Ctl'cal ends in view so thal a man SUlS if he desires even




his own wife 'as a woman, and not because she is his wif, ,
. .
Iove ' b ut on quaJjfi1caaons

e and
not upon a 'f:alhng 111
that the rna
t is
king and priest depends). The point is that discord isrna~e. of
. good use. concord e fficcovc.
I f thc texts arc to beSten1
'enchanting'(cf. Plato, Laws 659 E), this is not in the modem sc ma cf
th e wor d b ut .111 th at sense .in w hich the Can tor (the Udnsc- o
assim.ilated to the Sun, secJAOS 60, 1940, p. 49, n ote 12; the ha~~!;
whose songs arc a mimesis of the solar music of the spheres, CU.1.7.S)
IS strictly speaking an Enchanter, voicing words of power, a
chanticleer announcing the morning. If the intoned (svarya) text is
actually also more 'charming' than the p rosaic reading (this time
'charming' in the modern sense), this charm was not their first
intention or last end; the aesthetic value of the incantation, so artfully
constructed, is indeed an undeniable value, not however the value of a
raiso,1 d'ltre, but th.ar of 'the pleasure that perfects the operation'. A
good example of the principle can be cited in the case of the lotus
wrc31h, caJJcd a 'work of art' or rather 'symbol' (ii/pa), chat Prajiipati
we2r. 'f"r supreimcy' and which h e bcqueathcs to lndra, who
th,.,~1.1p1Jn l,cco,r11$ ;in ~JI-conqueror (l'lJ.XVI.4.3-5); this wreath is
~urcdly 2,1 'c,mam~11t' in the word's original semc of'cquipm cnt'; it
1~ r,,.,i wum 'fur effect' but to be c1Tcctive. Conversely, those whose
language Ii and (anirel}.a, in-sapient) are thought of as unarmed
(JIV.JV.5 .14). C( my 'Ornament' in Art Bulletin, XXI. 1939.
11/c find It strange that, with the exception of Goncb, students of
.Indian rheroric Juve compleu:Jy neglected th e older and also the
lSuddh.ist nutcri.a.l on the 'purpose of speech.'
67. ForpuriitJi S.iyaip bas grtima!J, 'villages', bu t this does nor m ean,
as Kath suggests in a footnote, 'villages in the kingd om '; on the
contr.uy the 'villages' ace those of Sk y and .Earth, as in CU. VlII.6.2
where the Two Worlds ace grtimau, 'rwo villages', cr.SB.X .2.5. 1
where-These worlds, indeed ace strongholds' (purti~). For 'worlds as
citadels', see AB.1.23. ln JUB.I.53.3 the T wo Worlds are tiyatantini;
and in AB.IV.27. the Puroh.ita the Kings's tiyatana. ln TS. [II.4. 7.3 the
Two Worlds are upari grha ilia ea, ' the upper house and this one here
below', the latter being the adhartid grl1a o f AV.U.14.3. ln TS.IV.2.5.1
the formula for the marriage of the two Agnis (brahma and ~atra,
ib. V.2.4.1) concludes with the words bhavata1i1 110}1 samanasau*
b) .a cunous comodence that rh.is word jamanQJau, if anaJ ysed as sam..a1Ja$1111
would mean 'sh,nng one vch,cle'. c( so,i,-vol, to "drive o ff together', with view to
'hvmg together' (10,il-vos)




samokasau, which arc found also in TS.1.3.7 where they are addressed
to the fircsticks, identified with Urva.si and Pururavas as parents of
Ayu-Agni: samokasau, cf. C k. synoikeo, being literally 'cohabitant'.
T his reflects RV. X. 65.8 Pari~itti pitarti piirva jtivari rtasya yonti kfayata~
samokasti dytivtiprthivi vani,iya savrate. . . 'Sky and Ean h cohabiting,
cooperatin g, at the source of j ustice', i.e., at the sacrificial altar.
lnJB.1.145, w here again it is a question of the 'divine n1arriage' of
the Two Worlds (c( PB. Vll.1 0.3 and AB.IV.27), the result is that
now 'they dwell in one another's house (a,1yo'11yasya grl1e) and it is as
hard co see why Caland Das Jaimi11iya Brtihma,,ra in Auswah/, p. 47)
found the plural, vasa11ti, so strange as it is to see why Keith (who fails
to remark the marital force ofTS.1.3.7 and TS.IV.2.5.1) should have
thought that Sayai:ia had overlooked the marital force of the formula in
AB. VIII.27. What of the plural in 'They twain shall be one flesh'
(Matthew XIX.S) and Vidyapati's 'Each is both'?
There is a very significant parallel here between the Sanskrit and the
Greek sources. In the first place the two words pur (or pura ) 'city', and
samokasa {Vue, to 'be apt for') 'living in one house with' are th_c
etymological equivalents of Greek po/is and ?''.1~keo. Both the Sanstcr:t
and the Greek sources speak of man as a oty : for example, nun s
body is a 'city indwelt by God' (brahmapura, CU: VIll.1.1, Mund.
Up.n.2.7.-thc term also meaning 'city of God', 1.e. Heaven), the
head is the body's acropolis (Timaeus 70A). Furthermore, JUSt ~ Sky
and Earth arc to be 'cohabitant' (samokas) 'here', so the divme:
dairnonic, immortal pan of the soul is said to 'live in one house Wl~
90 A , C , etc.) the morul part of the
and if
- T 1maeus
. soul:


this to m ean a colub1taoon

Plato does not expressly interpret
. O rru.iC
JS certainly. latent 111 the. &et
and female principles, such a dis nncoon
r: him b Y nature ces""""vely
the dommant
that the two principles are ,or
r-and the obedient.
d f
k of a marrugc as an alliance of two houses , an o
g' There can be no possible doubt that
e ea~ sd s.pca L-bnn
the mame pair as co" 1
d Earth

- - ' oacs ' , sa-ya~'s

t h c purm.11,
.- griinuih
. in our context are Sky an

.:~li:~ (::)

the city of Go~,, and ,the

of the Purohita and the ~g
68. The two ,orms
- - ) of JYUw
.:..,..;; varunu

correspond to the two forms (vam; . . ~
. SB )VJ.4.1.
eh . 'two selves or two persons Ul
RV. V.67.5, an~ t~ e:cans of their 'two dear bodies' l,priyt tanvau),
In PB. Vll.10.3 tt IS by.
tha th divmc marriage (daivam
cd eh
the tulU
a an
d Earth (brluidratham14rau) is consummat ' e
111ithu11am) of Sky an





union ban_g ~ by~ e.x change of ,erse endmgs. For dus .

'trms.posiooo 01 rorms m rrui.rruge. comparable " i ch eh /il J~d of
-'-- b n:r uaaona
..J.. ans, d. PB. V ll.10.3 11pankra,
- ari e"" I JB
a tava of
-'-- ln AB . \ lll -r.' a readingo f sa111v,
11avalrai (fo r sa -L . .I. J45
" 'Ould scaccdy affea che m earung:
ef. Caland on vi vaJ,,,
-va1ia, ln.
JB.1.14.:, ~ - m Auswahl, pp. 46, 47). The_ transposition and mingling
of hymns m the nrual (e.g . AB. Vl .28 ;11k1e paryasyati, sa eva ta
viluira~,) is always a corningling of contrasted forms ,vith a view t~or
propagaaon; and there is somethin_g in the assirnilarion of the King an~
Pnesc to one another that _,s quite analogous to this.
That lil,rus in our tex"t refers to the K.ings 's person and 1a11va to the
Purobita's is para!Jded in .T S.Vl.1.1.3 (also RV.Vlll.48.9 11as tarrvalr
soma gopalJ, and X .7. 7 to Agni-ims1a11110 ' pray11cd,a11)-'Thou art ih~
body of (King) Sorna, protect rhou my body'. Cf.SB.XIV.3. 1. 9 'We
,vill follo,v Thee (Siirya) for the protection of the K~atra. . . guard
thou the Brahmai;ia's body! ' Just as lndra, King i11 divi11is, is
vratapa,'Fidei Defeasor', and becomes the Budd.ha 's protector from
the ome of the Buddha's A ,vaken.ing and Enthronement onwards, so
the human King is bral1111a1.1a11a1i1 gopta. . . dlran11asya gopta,
AB. Vlll.17. For an exchange of bodies and nam es, and tran.svestment,
C(TS. and 1.5. 10.1.
69. Taken alone, tlus seems to mean 'Fo rmula for the King's choice
of the Purohita ', cf. RV.V.50.I "Let every morral choose (v11rita) the
God's, the Leader's (i.e. Savirr's) fello,vship', X.21.1 agni,ir . . . hotar
am L1a vr.imalre, and lll. 62.10 vtirei.1ya111 'choiccworthy', qualifying
Sa,'lt(s Splendor. In any case rhe choice is n1urual (ef. SB.IV. 1.4.5,6);
each 'takes' the other in the sense chat 'rake' is used in the Christian
lllanUgesen i~ In RV.X . 124.4 Y.here Agni 'chooses' (v~,ia~,) lndra
n .is. of course, co be understood that lndn also 'chooses' Agni, as in
T'S 11.5.23. This reaproca.l relarionslup IS paralleled in the ambiguiry
of die much discus.-so;I tr:XI ofKU. lL23, of y.hich the real theme is chat
of die sacred IIW'ri.ge co be effeaed. wuhin rou (ef. BU. IV.3. 21 ). In
K U.{I 23 lt is a macttt of the u1ang (v'bbh. which has also an erooc
5f'TIS<) of die Sdf br tht sdf. bur 11 IS uncauin which 'self is the
.suhjca of'chooscs (lf!>tu~, v'vr, rnc:ining also to ' woo') rn chc third
~ We .wum,:, '"'"h most of the tran.sl.uors, due t-ia refers back co
a-1am i lm(i fdw:- ScU} as subJca J lowcver chu may be, clu: pr<,blcm
"'1tcwr o r IJ()t t fQ vrtJut, 1mph~ a 'doa:nnc of l)iV!nc Crace and
peT'!oml (JU<I' fRav,~n) ~ not depend on the grammar h1.-rc. If
we re~rd rhc ch01c:c or wooing of the lower pnnc1plc by the high,-r a\




'act of grace', then it goes ,vithouc sayng that a doarinc of 'Graac'

and a sense o f personal relacionship ,vith the <livine Eros lud been
an hr and fdt long before the rime of KU. Nor is thcR any

caug sicion bcf\veen the doc1nnes

o f a personal and an 1mperson


}-like saoarua
. L,a,.bda,
deity: 'personal and impersonaI'. ll'a11n1n,apa11nizya
kolaktila, pan"111i1apari111ita, ecc.-,s only one of the many ways of
describing the divine dvaitibhava.
ln this connection it must not be overlooked that a doa:nne of Grace
implies also one of Disgrace: 'He causes him whom he wishes_co lead
fron1 these worlds to perforn1 right acts, and whom he WJShes to
~d do\vnwards co perform unrighc acts'(Kaus. U.lll.8. cf.__HeracFr XLIV) . If this appears co deny our moral responsibility (the
e1rus, .
akiriyaviida heresy, attnbuted also to the Amaunans, see .

119f., and cf. St. Augustine, De spir. et lit. liO), the answe~ JS d_iat th~
freedom of choice is ours to ask \vhac boon w_e wtU (v~ram
komatii komayeta ram) and that ,vhoever prays smc_e rdy 10 the wor: ~
the 'Elevation' (abl,yarolra) , 'Lead me from \vhat 1~ naughty co :tht t:
aughry (asato ma sad gamaya), fr~m d_arkness to light, from d
immortality' assuredly obtains his desire (B~.1.3.28)- ~ oth~r wo~d
the Lord bestows his Grace on those who choose his leading ,
'disgraces' those who do not seek it. In the same way ~e King ma~ o~
mav nor 'choose' the guidance of a qualified Purohita. in our tehxt it f
, that the choice
. has been ma de, and the spoken. words are t hosewill
the Purohita expressing his acceptance of the King whom e
'cause to crform right acts', and therefore to prosper.
~retm and
70. In HPeres 258 , Philo calls Sarah the ek pl,yseos
fc rrurune
. Ab 99 Philo takes artte masculine to 1ogrsmos e

71 CfTS I 6 7 4 'The sacri6ccr IS a
I vo;ra'
. .. . . .
ul ) in that he fasts and does not eat,
(blrrat,:vyo1n) of ma~ is w_ant (lql ram ' nemv. want'; simibrly
he srr.iiohtway srrut.CS wah a bolt, thee
. -.,
of the vanous uman ""''
72. In an analysis of the rulin~ passions
chose accnbuted to the
orcasces m A.ITI.363 It~ mteresang ro co~~ehsts of qualities end In
'eh those artnbuted to women. t
. atnya WI
rhe same way, 'his vocanon 15 co ru
rule' The word
382) and 'her vocaaon JS W

Sin presides, Ja1alui _nos. ), I
t litcr~Uy 'nc--up' or 'conneroon '
ptJriyosana (Skr. pan-av~-syu a 'i:i:Y goal as may be se<.'Tl from



means vocanon, func:non, en.:Sa~ni's Par,yosallD ~ mbballD, and the

fact that ,n tht same con1ex1 I .
. ') s '--'ecicd work', It i., not
hose 'support JS an art I I"''"
-- b
I louscholder S w
d womin \ mc:rc ambition w run:, ut
meant that 11 ,s the K,a1nya s an




wnoo bcmg dfected by an exdunge of verse endings. F his .

of f.
Or t kind f
orms m nurruge, comparable with th /i7.i_, 0
-L la teT r hetonaans,
cf.. PB . Vll.1 0.3 vrpankrtirnati
. .
c r Onava f
"' JB 0_
vyavahtui,n. In AB. VIIJ.27 a reading of samviluivahai (for . h _.L l 4;i
would scarcely affect the meaning: cf Caland on sarnva
; ,. - avaJia,
11 11anava1101 in11
JB. Ll4::, UB. m Auswa , pp. 46, 47). The transposition and glin
of hymns in the ritual (e.g. AB. VJ.28 srikte paryasyati, sa ::" g
1i - I ) . al
. li
v, ara J IS ways a coming ng o contrasted forms with a view
. so":cth'1ng .In the assimilation of th e King toa
an d th ere IS
Pncst to one another that _,s quite analogous to this.
That /anus in our text refers to the Kings's person and ta11vam to the
Purohica 's is pa ralleled in TS. Vl.1.1.3 (also RV. VIII. 48. 9 nas tanval,
soma gopiil.1, and X. 7. 7 to Agn.i-nastanvo' prayualian)-'Thou art th~
body of (King) Soma, protect thou my body'. Cf.SB. XIV.3. 1.9 'We
wi" follow Thee (Siirya) for the protection of the K~atra. . . guard
thou the Braluruu;ia's body!' Just as lndra, King i11 divi11is, is
vratapii,'Fidei Defensor', and becomes the Buddha's protector from
the ame of the Buddha's Awakening and Enthronement onwards, so
the human King IS briih111a1.1ii1ui1il goptii. . . dliam,asya goptti,
All. Vlll.17. For an exchange of bodies and names, and transvestmcnt,
Cf'fS. and 1.5.10. 1.

69. Taken alone, this seems to mean 'Formula for the King's choice
of the Purohita', cf. RV. V.50.J 'Let every n1orcal choose (1111rita) the
Cod's, the Leader's (1.e. Savitr's) fellowship', X.21. I ag1111i1. .. lr6tiira,;, tuii vrr_1imalie, and 111.62. 10 vtire1,1 ya111 'choice~vorch y'. qual ifying
Sava(, Splendor. In any c:i,e the d101cc 1s mutual (cf SB.IV. 1.4.5,6);
each 'tJkcs' the other 111 the scns(' chat ' take' is used in the Christian
rnarnagc service. In HV.X.124.4 where Agni 'chooses' (vrr.ui11a~1) lndra
it is, of t'Our~t, to be undcr)tOod thar lndra abo 'chooses' Agni, as in
TS. ' flu~ reciprocal rclation~lup i~ paralleled in the ambiguity
of the n1ud1 th~cu~\cd text of K U.11.23, of wh1d1 the real theme is that
of the ,arrcd 1aarriagc to be cO"cctcd w1thu1 you (c(UU. IV.3. 21). In
KU.U.23 It 1~ a rnattcr of the 'taku1g' (\/labh, wluch has also an erotic
~tl)t') of tlic ~elf by the ~elf, but it is uncertain whjcl1 'self is the
subject of'chooscs' (vr.1111,,, Vvr, n1caning also to 'woo') 1n the third
line. We assume, with most of the translators, that tfa refers back to
aya,n qtmii (the Self) as ~ubjcct. H owever this may be, the problem
whether or nor era vrr.1u1e implies a 'doctrine of Divine Grace and
personal Cod' (Rawson) docs not depend on the gramn1ar here. If
we reg:ird the choice or wooing of the lower principle by the higher as



'ace of grace', then it goes without sayng that a doctrine of'Gr.cc'

and a sense of personal relationship with the divine Eros had been
an ght and felt long before the cime of KU. Nor is there any
cau osition between the doctrines of a personal and an impersonal
}-like sa.,,,.,auaa,
' c,a, c,.
deity: ' personal a,ul impersona I'. 1.
kiiliiktila, parimitaparimita, etc.-1s onl y one of the many ways of
describing the divine dvaitibliava.
In this connection it must not be overlooked that a doct~ne of Grace
implies also one of Disgrace: 'He causes him whom he w1Shes.to lead
up froni these ,vorlds to perforn1 _right a~, and whom he WJShcs to
I d d wnwards to perform unnght acts (Kau~. U.111.8. cf. HeracF XLIV). If this appears to deny our moral responsibility (the
e1tus, 0r

' - heresy

a ,nyavaaa
'Jdu th
119f and cf. St. Augustine, De spir. et lit. (i()), the answer IS . t ~
i edom of choice is ours to ask what boon we will (vara,it V('l!lla yam
::.,,am ktimayeta tam) and that ,vhoever prays sinc_ercly in the words ~f
the 'Elevation' (abl1yiiroha), 'Lead me from what is naughty to what IS
aughty (asato ma sad gamaya), from d.arkness to light, from deat~ t:
immortality' assuredly obtains lus desire (B';J.1.3.~). In oth~r wo d ,
the Lord bestows his Grace on those who choose his leading and
'disgraces' those who do not seek it. In the same wa_y the King ma~ ~r
may not 'choose' the guidance of a qualified Purohita: m our t~xt it ISf
clear that the choice has been made, and the spoken words are th osc ~
the Purohita expressing his acccp 13 nce of the King whom e w
'cause to erform right acts', and therefore to prosper.
258 Philo calls Sarah the ek pli yseiis ard1ousa'.1 ~reten and
70 In
"" Philo takes arete mascu 1ine to /og,smos

) the enemy
71 r.Cf.77TS I 6 7 4 'The sacri6cer is a bo It (vaJra
. .. . .
d ) . h t he fast> and docs nor cat,
(blrrtitrvyam) of man is want (~u ram ; m t a
. ii ly JI 5 6 6

.s1n1 har
he straighcway smites with a o t, t c enemy.
Ii passion~ of the vanou~ uman
. f h
arc those attributed to the
72. In an analysis o t c ru ng
or castes in A.111.363 it is intercsung to cornbp h lists ofqu;iliues end in
h I .
b tcd to women: ot
K,Satnya wit c .1ose attn .u
rule' (issariya pariyosiit1a, over which
to rule' The word
the same way, his vocauon is to
3S2) and 'her vocaoon is

), 1
t literally 'tie-up' or 'connecc1on.
Siri presides, Jataka .nos.
pariyosiin11 (Sk.r. p11n-ava-syu a ml ohs
al as may be seen fro1n the
d he

function cnte cc Y go
means vocauon,
' th S ana\ Pariyosiina is 11ibbana, an t
fact that in the same context e . am . t') is 'perfected work.', It is not
, ( h
'suppon IS an ar
Householders w ose . ,
d woman's mere ambition to rule, ut
meant that it is the K~atnya s an


.....--- --

I 12


p WR

due it pertains to them to do so. ln other words, the eh

. .
. .
fun .
. th
royal and 1cmuune
caon 1s
.it of administra
1ron; t e
adnurusccnng a kingdom, the other a household (cf p
XXXI. IOf). 'Admirustration ' implies of course the p roverbs,
resence f
anoch~r ..nd authonc.iti ve principle, on ~ehalf of which the a ~
tntor aas. It IS well kno\vn chat the Indian woman, in face, 'rules' the



There is another \vay in which the King and the \vomaa

correspond: both are devoted'. We luve already seen that the King's
patronage of the Brahman corresponds to lndra 's bestowal of his
share (blza.~a,n, RV. Vlll.100.1 ; cf note 6) on A gni, and that this
o!Ienng nukes the King a bhakta; it is in the same way that the wife
offers lus share of che meal to her husband before partaking of what is
left, the remains of her sacrifice. lt would be as 'incorrect' fo r her to eat
with him as It would be for the King to eat ,vith his Purohita.
It is by no means an accident, or merely historical 'd evelopment'
that ' the doctrine of bltakti' should have been so little emphasized in the
Upani.\;ads and so much in BG. For it is the Way of Gnosis
(fiianamarga) that penains to the Brahman, an d the emotion al Way of
Devooon (blraktimarga), which is also a Way of Sacrificial Action
{kannaniarga). that pertains co the King. The relation of a vassal to a
feudal lord. which cs also that of the Regnum co the Sac.erdotium, is
cssc:ncially one of'loyalry' (a word tlut better than 'devotion', perhaps,
convC)'5 the mcarung of bhak11), and clue is precisely the re.lacioo of the
,,:onun ro the mm.. her 'lord"; thtte JS a real equivalence of the
J a ~ harakiri and the lndJa.n satf, and 1c is in the same way du.t the
'soul' (alv.ays f.) must 'put u:sclf co death' for the sake of the spirit co
v.;Jucb It O""'CS allegiance.
U'e can see ill this as clearly in the connecoon of European Chivalry
(ksa:ra,, ) \\'lth a devoaonal mysticism, and in the corresponding Siifi
dcvooom} lircraruce, ,,;eh its 'Fideles de !'Amour', as in lndia. As has
been pointed out by Rene Guenon, 'Nous ne pouvor15 que singaler. . le role important que JOue le plus souvenc un element teminin,
ou n.'J>r&"fltc symboliqucmcnr comn1e u:J, dans Jes doctrines des
Kshatrl)'a5. . . Cc fut peuc s'cxpliqucr, d 'unc part, par la preponderance de !'clement 'raja~rquc' ec emoof chez les Kshacnyas, et surtout,
d'aucre pan, par la correspondence du fcrruruu, darJS l'orde cosmiquc,
avec l'raknt1 ou 'La Nature prunordule', p rina ple du devenir et de la
muunon i:emporelle' (A111on'1i spritudle et Po11voir temporel, 1930, p.
93, note I).

I 1)

w e muse point out... the important role frequently played by a

feminine elem en t, o r an clement symbolically represented as such in
the doctrines of the K$atriyas ... This fact n1ay be explained, on the one
hand, by a preponderance of the 'rajasic' or emotional element in the
Ksatriyas. and, on the other hand (and most of all). by the
c~rrcspo nden ce o f the feminine, in the cosnuc order, with Prakriti or
'prin1o rdial Nature', the principle of becoming and of cen1poral
mutation '. (Spiritual A11tliori1y a11d Temporal Power, by Rene Gucnon,
J930, p. 93, note 1).
The Sacerdotiun1 and the 1nan are the i.ntellcctual, and the Rcgnum
and the woman the active cle1nents in what should be literally a
symphony. Over against the intellectualit~ and ~ontincnce that arc
proper in the former the e1notion~l a~d crone qualic1~ of the lat'.cr are
in due proportion, necessary and 1nd1spen~1ble to soacty; for .without
the softer woof co be combined with the harder weft, the soaal nssuc
could not be woven at all. But it rnust also be realised that in any
normal decadence (such as chat of the last centuries in Europe): the
progressive 'emancipation' of the less intellectual and n1ore em~oonal
elements in the community will mean the gradual subsotunon of
feeling for knowing as a basis '.or judgement in conduct or ~rt .. ~n
ethics, the notion of altruism will take the place of that ofJ~UCe, in
literature words will more and more be used for cheu cmoove etTea
than crea;ed as the vehicle of thought. We ultimately reach JUSl such a
condition of sentimentality as is charaacristic.of modem soocn~; ~d
it need hardly be pointed out that if the sooal ossuc IS to be "o,cn
cocircly of the softer elemcocs, It cannot be expected co "car
73. For the Marriage of Sk) and ~nh, see Aesdt)lus. L
classical Library, ed.11.395.
74. 'O A .' the wise one, do thou avert for us the- ;mger o
Varona the~ (RV.IV.1.4, TS.; 'May he (Agru) save us
from. the overwhelming duress, the curse' the ovcnvhclrrung
from Varuna's craft' (RV.1.128. 5-7): 'Thou, Agni, hast
from th.ar
. curse' (RV .VU 13 2) and sinular
texts. By
freed g.
the 'remittcr of debts.
the same toIten, Brhas
. paa
a .
made do not cat':
75 JB
200 'The Gods to who m no ouenng cs
6.8. (lndra addrcssing Kutsa) 'Offer a Sacrifice co me, for I



am hu~ .....__. out (HOS XXXI. 259) the ba!.is of the Sacrifice
As Keath
die Saaificer saying: 'Give thou to me;
is an ex~c ofgifts. We &adm oft'ering, 1 shall accept thy offering'
I shall give ro cbec. Aa:iep Y



SPIRrT1.:Al. ,4, UTRO IUlY


T E." lPO

D ~

lura .


dut tt perums co them to do so. In other words the

ro}'ll md feminine fun ction is that o f ad~in iscc , ctensnca.Uy
.J ___ : _
ra ion the

au,,w~tenng a kmg dom, the o th e r a household (cf ' p

XXXJ. IOf). ' Adrrunistratio n ' implies, of course, the rovcrbs,
. .
. . I
p resence of
another an d au th o ntaave pnnap e, on behalf of which the 'ad . .
rrator' acts. It
ho use.


well known that the Indian woman in fact I ~

, rues the

There IS anothe r way in which the King and the v


., oman
correspon d: b o th arc d e voted . We have already seen that the King's
pa rron agc of the Brahman corresponds to lndra's bestowal of his
's hare' (blragtint, RV . V lll. 100. I; cf. note 6) on Agni, and that this
offen ng m akes the l(jng a bhakta; it is in th e san1e way that the \vife
offers lus share of the m eal to her hus band before pa rtaking of what is
left, the re m ains of he r sacrifice. It wouJd be as 'incorrect' for her to eat
with h.in1 as 1t w o uJd be fo r the King to ca t with his Purohita.
It 1s b y n o means an accident, or m e rely historical 'development'
that ' the d o ctnne o f bl,akti' should have been so little emphasized in the
Upa~ads and so much u1 BG. For it is the Way o f Gnosis
(J,iii,u1111tirga) chat p ertains to the Br:ihn1an, and th e emotional Way o f
Dcvouon (bltaku,niirga), which is also a Way o f Sacrificial Acrion
(kannamarga), tha1 penams to the Ku1g. The relation of a vassal to a
feudal lo rd, v,hich 1s also that of the Regnu m to the Sacerdocium, is
c.scnually one of'loyalty' (a ,vord that better than 'd evotio n ', perhaps,
conveys the mt."a1ung of b/1akJ1), and that is p recisely the rel ation of the
~ om an to the m~n. her ' lo rd ': there is a real equi valen ce of the
Jap ant'"SC liaral1Jri and the ln&u1 sati, and i1 IS in the sam e w ay char rhe
~oul' (;tl\\avs f.) 1nust 'put itself to death' for the sake of the spirit to
\\ lucb II O\vt-s all1..-g1ance

\Ve cu, s1..-c all tlus .1s de.ir ly u1 the connecrio n of European Chivalry
(k.<,111<1111) \\' tth ,3 dc vononal 111rstirum. and in the corresponding ~ii6
devouon;u htcr:irurc, \\'lcl1 its 'F1di:les de l'An1our', as in India. As has
bc:..'n pomc1..-J o ut by Rc:nc Cu61on, ' Nous ne pou,ons quc sing;tler
le rok 1n1port.uu quc Joue le plus sou vent un clen1enr renunin,
ou n:prC:-...'ntc svrnbohquemcnt conune tel, dans lcs doctrines des
Ce fillt peut s'exphquer, d'une part, plr b p reponder:lfl(e de l'~lc n1cnt rJJl, tque' et c1noo{ ch<.'2 I~ Ks harnyas, et surtout,
J 'lutn: p.m. p.tr la correspondence du fcrninin, <il.ns l'o rde cosnuque,
lll \ t t Pr~nu ou 'L.t N.irurc prin1ord1.i.k', p nnaple du de venir et de la
n1ut-'Uun ten1pordJe' (A111<1r1tl sp,niu.-llr ~J P11u11<11r tmrporef, 1930, p.
93. note I)




'We musr point out... !he important roli- frequently played by

feminine element, or an clement syn1bolicaUy rcprcscn1cd as such
the doctrines of the ~ atri yas ... This fact n1 ay be explained, on the one
hand . by a preponderance o f the rajas1c' or cn1onon~l clcn1cnt m the
K~arriyas. and , on the other hand (and 1nost of all), by the
co rrespo nden ce o f the fen1ininc, in the cos,nic order, with Praknti or
'prin1ordial N ature'. the pnnciplc of bcro1ni11g and of tcn1poral
mutatio n' . (Spiritual A,11/iority and Ttmporal Pot11rr, by Rene Cucnon,
1930, p. 93, note I).
The Saccrdotiun1 and d1c 1nan arc the in1cllcctual. and the Rcgnnm
and the woman the active elen1c11ts in \vhat should be laterally a
sy,nphony. Over agains1 die inteUcccualif'i'. and conuncncc that are
proper in the fora1er the emotional at~d cro~1c qualio":' of the lat~er arc
in due proportion, nect'Ssary and 1nd1spen!1blc to society: for wu~1out
the softer woof to be co,nbincd \vi1h the harder \vcft , the socuJ oi.sue
could not be woven at all. But 1t cnust also be realised that Ill any
normal decadence (such as that of the last centuries in Europe): the
progressive 'emancipation' of the less intellectual and ,non: cn1~nonal
elements in the co1nmuniry \viii rncan the gradual subsntunon of
feeling for knowing as a basis for judgen1ent in conduct or art. (n
ethics, the notion of altruis1n will 1akc the place of t~a! of JU~tlcc; an
literature, words will more and 1nore be u~cd for their cm~ove effect
than created as the vehicle of thought. We ulttn1atcly reach J~S~ such a
condiuon of sentin,cntaliry as i~ charactcnstic of 1nodc':'1 sooet11..-s: and
it need hardly be pointed out that 1f die social tissue t5 to be woven
cannot be cx pcctcd to wear wcU.b
entirely of the softer elements, 1t
73. For the Marriage of Sky and Earth, \CC At-0lylus, Loe
classical Library, cd. 11.395.
74 'O Agni the wise one, do thou .ivcrt for us the anger o
Varu.na the God' (RV.IV.1.4, TS.; ' May he (Agni) s,vc us
from the
duress, t hc rune, the overwhelming
from Varuna s eraIi'
t (RV I 128 S-.:7) 'Thou, Agni, ast
wrong... ods fr
h. .
(RV VII 13 2' and ~imilar texts. By
the G
om t nr cu, 1,
has 15
rhe 'mnincr of debts.
the same roltcn, Br paa
ffi g :. made do not ear':
B ill 2(X) '1llc Gods to w m no o cnn ~
75. J . .
_..,..,_ . K rsa) 'Offer a Sacnficc to n1c. for I
PB.XIV. 6.8 (lndra ilUUJl;>smg u


(HOS XXXL2S9) the b~is of the Sacrifice

As Keilb bas~ oat
die SaaifiCCT saying: 'Give thou w IPC;
is m C'JrCNl!l'C al
We 6ad offi . 1shall aa:q,t thy offcnng
I shall gm to di. Acxq,c my mng.
am h ~ '


T 14


0 W ER

(fS. ), and '\vtth v.rhat goods (dlui11e11a) I barter, seekin

\Vith goods. ~ay that become more for me, not less' (AV. IIJ ~fO ds
what the Sacnficer docs for the Gods here, that they do for hi h6l:
QU .I. 233); rn d ra d oes not rob his \vors hi ppcr but returns n1
h' t ere
- ,
mo re abundantly (RV. VJ.28.2), cf. AV.Ill. l::>. l where lndra is ll
) an d as sueh contrasted \vtth
. the ' m er' (a' caed
a erader c
- )
This IS. indeed, a com111erce of man \vith God, but in the primary

of the v.ord.. that of cstabllSh.ing personal relations hips (Webster 2)
r:ather dun in that of our modem 'business'. Even today the
shopkeeper IS apt to ask; ' Do you think I am in business only for
projii':' Tix crans-acrion JS parallekd in the lavish exchanges of useful
;ms v.-bich we meet u,th as a uorld\vide practise in 'primitive'
~ \\-here. at die same time that the actual benefits of a 'trade are
=ed. che m.am purpose is that of the cementing of friendly and
reoprocal rclaoons. An enduring friendship, all on one side and
V.'ldiout reaprociry of any kind, would be unreal.
The com merce of the Do 111 des tex,s is, moreover, identical v.,jth
that implied b y the term bl1ak1i = bluiga, literally 'share' o r 'portion',
from v'bha; co 'appornon '. Thus in RV.X .51.8 Agni only consents to
conduct the Sacrifice on condition of receiving his 'portion ' of d1t
oblaaon (havi~o dacta bhiigtim) , cf. 11. 10.6 where the Sactificer thinks o f
himself as winning 'wealch' (dhanasii/_1) by his invocation. As \Ve have
seen (note 6, q. v.), and as is also evident from the fact that the
sacn.fiaaJ commerce is really an exchange of ,veddi ng gifts, the
unphed agreement or mutual underscanding (samjtiana) has as much to
do with love as with advantage. A man does not ' love' his wife the less
bcca~ he ' pro vides for' her and she 'serves' him or his, as we arc
God's. to 'lovt, h onor and obey fum ', 1t JS the same m feudaJ relarions,
~ here the 'dl:'otion ' o f thane to orl (as in Beowu/f) is ofjust me sa me
~ as dw of dlC '.\'OITWJ w the nun or me man w God. If love be
lncnIJJ a 'hl a>) mg .,..e cannot rC2lly love anyone, other tmn one


wfnse v.ill 111,c do, or one: who docs our will

Tne ~ JS 'dnooon 2nd dw ~ as much as to say a
'50-~;.crificc: .md m fxi. 7,hdc the God is ardx.-rypally the VICtlm, ,n
- .c ~ muncsu :he ~fica- idcnnfin himself v.-ith the acnul
new ;n as o(ur. cxpliat:: chc hre mov.s cmt he ha!. come w i,ve
b::mdi to me ~ -. SB fi.4. I, 11, cf.IX.3.2. 7 ya;rw va, devtinim
as.: ra~ir<i .. cva ,").m-.:inasya), U1d h.cnc.c dlC d.isonctJon of the
'$df--sxniiccr ii1m.:Jyii;i &om the mere 'sacnficcr', SB.XI,
c( Eggcting's


on SB. In the last analysJS, the Sactificcr is



or if we prefer to say so, 'bartering' his own eye for the
cxc .angh~1g vn' ,.or the divine substance. (Mallmaivi 1.922 'His eye for
Sun s. is o, "
ours ,vhat a goodly recompense.).
language of con1merce, in fact, survives .
t~e- ;~~:
characteristically devotional contexrs, for example 10 Mira
,vcll- known song:
Km h have I bough t. The price he asked, I gave.
Some cry, 'Tis great', and others jeer ' 'Tis. small'( gave in full, \Veighed to the utmost gram,
M y love, m y life, my self, my soul, my all. . .
It would be very difficult to sho,v that it was in any other spmr thar
the Sacrificcr made himself over to Agni. It is only our o,vn btaS that
stands in the way of a realisation of the rcaJ content. If the virrue ~f
self- sacrifice is. no more than any other virrue. 'irs o,vn reward' but ~
with a view to results ('Thine may ,ve be. for thee to give us trea~u-": ,
RV . ll .2. t), me last end in vie,v being that of a rebirth from the Fire m
an immortal body of glory, this consciousness of ends. whether here
or hereafter (metaphysical rites have ahvays in view to secure both of
these ends), no more implies a 'loveless' relationship than docs a feudaJ
or marital 'contract'.
We n1ust not be distracted from a realization of this by the
unquestionable fact that, as Keith has rightly pointed out, the sacri_ficial
gift is by no means a thank-offering. or by the fact d1at there 1s no
word in Hindi for 'thanks'. The Indian point of view is that we do not
say 'thanks'; we do something about it. The beggar who receives alms
offers no thanks; he has favorcd the giver with an opportumty to be
generous. The whole stress, indeed, is upon the anstocraric virrue o f
generosity, not on the servile expression of grarirude. Our norion that
' Virtue is its own reward', so Ur from bctng admirable, I\ only the
cxpr,-ssion of a cynical di~belJd" in an ulamate order and JU!.O<.e, a
distrust in man's or God's magn.in1mny In all tr,tcrpn.-canon of the
Vedic Sacnficc by European scholars there mu$t always be dt)COUntcd
their (ofren uncon.\OOUS) anu-tradiuonal, and l~peo.1lly ano-feudal
and ant.i-clcncal. ptCJUdlCCS.
76. Caland. in annotatt0n of PB. VJJ 10.3 renders dhumam by 'fog'
and so mis,;cs the whok potnt It as bccau,c aU g,fh .tre esscnwlly
sacnficcs that A gift is given with the word\ "This is \moke" '
(JUB 1.58.6 and CU. V.8). Nothing more profound than tht\ has ever
been said about givtng.
Cf. JB.111.216-Ascent of oblaoon, d~cent of rain dependent on


11 4


TS. I ".4. 1). 2nd '\\1th "'hlt goods (d/w11e11a) I ban er, seekin
",th goods. ma_y chat be~o1ue n1ore for me. not less' (AV.tu ~! ~
'What tht' 5.lcnncer does tor the Gods here, that they do fo r hi h 6);
(JU I.ill); 1ndra do.."S no t rob his ,vo rshipper, bur returns : t ~re
n1oreabundantl)'' (RV. Vl. 28.2), cf. AV. 111.15.1 where Lndra iss~;rrs
a 'trader' (11a11ija111)
and as such contrasted with the 'miser' (ararun
. e)d

This 1s. indeed, a commerce of man with God but in the primary

' .
of the \\'Ord , mac of escabl.tshing personal relaaonships (Webster 2)
r.irhcr than in that of our m oden1 ' business'. Even today the India~
shopkeeper IS ape to ask: 'Do you think I am in business only for
prefit?' The u ans-action is paralleled in the lavish exchanges of useful
gifi:s which ,,e meet ,vith as a ,vorldwide practise in 'prinutivc'
societies "'here, at the same amc that che actual benefits of a 'trade' are
secured. the main purpose is thac of the cementing of friendly and
reaprOC21 rclaaons. An enduring friendship, all on o ne side and
\\1thouc reoprociry of any kind, would be unreal.
The commerce of the Do 111 des cexts 1s, moreover, identical ,vith
that implied by the cerm bhakli = bl11iga, literally 'share' or 'portion',
from vblLlj co 'apporao n'. Thus 111 RV.X. 51.8 Agni only consents to
condua the Sacrifice on conditio n of receiving his 'portion' of thc
oblanon (lia,,1ro datta bl11igtim), cf. II. 10.6 where che Sacrificer thinks of
hi mself as V.'lnning 'wealth ' (dha11asa~1) by h,s invocation. As we have
seen (no te 6, q. ,.), and as is also evident from the fact that the
sacnfiaal comm erce is really an exchange of wedding gifts, the
unplicd agreement or 1nutual understanding (sa1i,jiia11a) has as much to
do wuh love a; with adva.ntage. A n1an docs not 'Jove' his wife the less
b..caust be 'prov1dl'lo fo r' her and she 'serves' hi1n or his, as we arc
Cod\. to 'love, honor and obey 111111 '. It is the same in feudal relations,
,vhcn: the 'devotio n' of thane co Earl (as in Beow11!f) 1s ofjust the sa me
~Ort as thJt of the \VOn1an 10 the n1a11 o r the n1an to Cod. If love be
l1tt:r,1Uy J 'l1k (en) 111g', we cannot really love anyone, other than one
\vhosc ,v1U \Vl' do, or one who docs our ,viii.
T h.. - Sacrifice 1~ a 'devot1011', and that is as much as co say a
~clf-sacnficl; and in focc, w hile the God 1\ archctypally the victim, in
tl11: ntual n11mcs1s the Sacnficer identifies himself with the aaual
v1ctun, as IS often cxpliat'. 'the Fire knows tl1at he has co111c to give
lumsclf to 01e' (parida,n me, SB.11.4.1, ll , cf IX.3.2. 7 yajiio vai devti,uim
atma, ya;11J II ei,tf ya;ama11asya), and hence the d1st1nction of the
'self~rnficer' (at111ayaj1) from the n1ere 'sacrificcr'. SB. Xl.2.6. 13. 14,
cf. Eggchngs note on SB.12.3.5. In the last analysis, the Sacrificer 1s


I 15

. or if ,ve prefer to say so, 'banering' his own eye for the

- 1 922 'His
. h's o,vn for the divine substance. (Mat!maw, .
eye or
SUl1 S. I
ours. ,vhat a goodly recon1pense. .
The language of con1merce, in fact, survives . m ~ - :~~:
characteristically devotional contexts, for example in Mira
wcll-k110,vi1 song:
Kaiih have I bought. The pnce he asked, I gave.
Sorne cry, 'Tis great', and others jeer 'Tis. small'! gave in full, weighed to the utn1ost grain,
My Jove, my life. my self, my soul, my all. ..
It would be very difficult to sho,v that it ,vas in any other sp1;11t that
the Sacrificcr made himself over to Agni. It is only our o,vn b.1as that
stands in the way of a realisation of the real content. If the vinuc ~f
self-sacrifice is, no more than any other virtue, 'its own reward' but 1s
,vith a view to results ('Thine may we be, for thee to give us treasure',
RV . U. 2. I), the last end in view being that of a rebirth from the Fire m
an immortal body of glory, this consciousness of ends, whether here
or hereafter (metaphysical rites have always in view to secure both of
these ends), no more implies a 'loveless' relationship than does a feudal
or marital 'contract'.
We must not be distracted from a realization of tllis by the
unquestionable fact that, as Keith has rightly pointed ouc, the sacrificial
gift is by no means a thank-offering, or by the fact that there 1S no
word in Hindi for 'thanks'. The Indian point of view is that we do not
say 'thanks'; we do something about it. The beggar who receives alms
offers no thanks; he has fa vored the giver with an opportunity to be
generous. The whole stress, indeed, is upon the aristocratic virtue of
generosity, not on the servile expression of.gratitude. Our notion that
'Virtue is its own reward', so far fro1n being admirable, 1s only the
expression of a cynical disbelief 111 . an ultimate order and_Justice, a
distrust in man's or God's magnan1m1ty. In all mterprctanon of the
Vedic Sacrifice by European scholars there 1nust always be discounted
their (often unconsaous) anti-traditional, and especially ann-feudal
and anti-clerical, prejudices.
76. Ca\and, in annotation of PB. Vll.10.3 renders dl111111a111 by 'fog'
JSSCS the whole point It is because all gifts arc Closenually
an so m that A gtft 15 given Wlth the words "Tius 1s smok l' " '
OUB.1.58.6 and CU ..V.8). Nothing more profound than tlus has ever
been said about giv,ng.
Cf. JB.111.216--Asccnt of oblation, descent of rain dependent on
cxchang uig

J r6


performance of Sacrifice: when omitted, gods and men both hun

See also AB.IV.27, SB. VIT.3.1.29-30. SB. IX.4.4.3.
'It is upon the observance of rirual that the governance f S
d~~s (Con~cius, Analeas, Xl.2_5). _'Wherever the idea
kingship p~evails we 6;d. coupled with tt the conviction that upon the
correct pc o~~ce o kingly nrual depen~s the whole welfare of the
State, the fertility of its lands, the fnutfulness of its trees h
fecundity both of its women and of its herds and flocks'. (Waley' ;,;
A,ialects of Co11faci11S, p. 65; Odyssey XIX.109f; A .C. L. Brown, 'Grail
Legend, p. 133; Chretien, vs.4679). Waley further points out that the
'power that enabled Divine Kings to deal with all things under
Heaven' depended not only upon the correct performance of the rites
but also upon an understanding of them; this is just as it is in the Indian
texts where it is only to the comprehensor (evamvit; ya evam veda) that
the ultimate benefits of any given rite really accrue.
78. ln S.B. IX.3.2. 1 and 4 the Shower of Wealth (vasordhara') is both
'Agni's Shower' inasmuch as he is the Vasu, and also the 'Shower of
Wealth' with which he is aspcrsed (ablri~ikta) as Emperor.
SB.IX.3.3. 15-19 explains its narure: ' Its self or body (atrnan) is the sky,
the cloud HS udder, lightning its teat, the shower the shower (of rain);
from the Sky It comes to the cow (i.e. from the Sky as archetypal cow
to the e.nhly cow, so that on ea rth), its self or body is the cow... its
shower the shower (of oulk); and from the cow it comes to the
Sacrificcr. He (111 rum) is its self or body, his arm its udder, the
offering ladle its teat, the shower (of ghi). From the Sacrificer to the:
Gods; from che Gods to the cow; from the cow to the Sacrinccr; thus
circulatcS dus pcrpenial, never ending food of the Gods. And, verily,
whosoc,.er is a C.Omprchcnsor thereof; for him shall there be thus this
papctwl ne,,er-aiding Food' (the Bread of Life). Stt also TS. V .4.8
znd 7.3 . mc1 rv 1.1




This sa.me 'ciro,boon' is more bnclly formulated in BG.lli. 10-14;

the SUCCCSSJ,e tcnns of the endJcs.s scncs being learman (a.as of the
Saomcer), yaiija I the Sacrifice) parjanyo (rain), ""'1lmu (creatures), anna
(food), md then g2Ul kmman, md so wu:hout end. ln MU. Vl.37 the
appbc:aaon IS made to the mcenor Samfice: here then.in from above is
the Ounc (udgidui) 'whereby livmg beings here on earth live'.
Thus .gam we find that the performance of the Sacrifice IS the basis
of die prosperity of the realm: it is from this point of vtew th;i.t in
Mbh (Vana Puva, XXV) Bhima addresses a king Wlth the words
'Thy lwld an n.in gold'. The source is 1nexhausribk; but the stream~

J 17

not a stagnant one, only by the Sacrifice can it be kept in circulation.

The 11asordluira doctrine outlined above explains the iconography of
the series of representations of the Cakravartin Emperor at Amaravati,
of ,vhich I republished several in an article entitled 'A Royal Gesture'
in the Feestbu11del v.d.K. Balllviaasc/1 Ge11ootsc/1ap van Kun.Hen en
Wete11sclrape11, Wcltevredcn, Pt. I, 1929; and republished here as
Frontispiece. In these representations the Cakravartin, surrounded by
his 'Seven Treasures', is raising his right ann to the clouds, from
which a shower of coins i.e. 'wealth', vasu) is falling. It is manifest that
the Emperor's hand is the 'ladle' of the Sacrifice, and that it is raised in
accordance with $8. Vll.2.3. 9 where the offering of gl,i is fivefold, to
agree with the five strata of the altar and 'when he offers, he raises (the
ladle) and so builds Agni up witl1 his five strata.' Cf. Dh.186
Kal1apa1.iavarsa and J B.111.216.
However T.N. Ramachandran in Papers publisl1ed by tire Rao Sahib
G. V. Rama111urt!ii Pa111a/u's Birtl1day Celebration Committee connects the
Cakravartin types of A1nar:ivati, Jagayyapeta and Goli with the
M andhatu Jataka.
79. Unlike Agni, the Saccrdotiun1, 'not vain-glorious because of
his Counsel' (kratva. .. apradrpital.1, RV .1.145.2).
80. All political systems which directly contravene the law _of
nature and the liberties of the spiritual power, arc nea..-ssarily
short-lived' (George Avery, SSM .. in New Englisl, Weekly, July ~5.
1940). 'Division between Church and Lay, that is what shall subsist
now . . . Church shall be enslaved by State ... evil shall overukc the
Stare... By perfidy of all men the fruits of the earth _shall pcris~. the
mast of trees and the produce of the waters' (from the mtcrpretanon of
Dcrrnot's dream Standish H .O'Grady, Si/110 Glllkli<.a, U, p.84).
'Verily, so long' as lndra knew not thar Self. so long the Tiuns
overcime him. . . When he knew, then strilung down and conquering the TitanS, he compassed the chicfuincy, autonomous rule ~d
overlordship of all Gods and all beings' (Kaus .. U.IV.20). In Platoruc
rcrms, there cm be no stability where there IS no agreement. ~ t0
which shall rule, the better or the worse part. 'Every k.ingdom divided
against itself is brought to a dcsolaaon' (Luke Xl.17).
81. AV.X .2.~Purom yo brahmatJO vtda yasya~ pun1~ ucy_att. He
who knows the fullness of Brahma, from wluch (fu!ness) ~e IS called

. BU 11 5 l8-So v..a oyom punual, s,,rvintsu pur!u puruayo}J-Hc


~ ca1lcd the Purusa.

on account of his dwelling 111 all
es IS
f wlu
82. Most Chinese philosophic schools have taught the way o



pcrfonruncc of Sacrifice: w hen o mitted , gods and men both hun

See also AB. rv.27, SB. Vfl.3. 1.29-30. SB. !X.4 . 4 .3 .
77. ' It is upon the observance of ritual that the govema
f S

a tate

d ~ ds
o n_ ous, Analects,
Wherever the idea of clivine
kingship prevails we find coupled with 1t the con viction that
upon t e
correct pcn o~ancc o kin gly nrual depends the w hole welfare of the
State, _the fenili~ o f its lands, the frwrfulness of its trees, the
fecundity both of1ts wom en and o f its herds and flocks '. (Waley The
A naltas of Co,ifucius, p. 65; Odyssey X!X. I 09f; A. C . L. Brown. C,ail
Ltge11d, p. 133; C hretien, vs.4679). Waley further points out that th
'power dut enabled D ivine Kings to deal with all things und e
LI, ,i_
nca\'(D -r-',ded not only upon the correct perfo rmance o f the rites
but also upon an understanding of chem; this is just as it is in the Indian
~ v;Jxtt it is only to the comprehen.sor (evam vit; ya evam vala) char
the ulnroaic beudin of any given rue really accrue.
P... hi SB lX..3.2.1 md 4 che Sbowtt o f Wealth (va.sordhara1 is both
'! :.r;,:z,_~s ~ ~ mamuch as he 11 che Vuu, and also thc 'Shower of


ea!.m' ilh ,r.itich be l l upcncd (ablusiktaJ as Emperor.

~; r.y_3 ; 15-l'J C%pbe IU rwurc: 'Ju sdfor body fatmanJ is the sky,
:tAC dr,oo Cl Pddcr, lighuiing IU ICU, che SMW'CT che ffiOWCT (of r:rin);
frrm, tr.c Sy ll coma u, thc row (1. e fro m the Sky as archayinJ cow
"' t.'>c: canhl; CO'N, so tlut on e:anh). ltS xlf or bod y IS the COW . its
sw...,er tlx 5hower (of milk ); and fro m the cow it comes to the
S.crifica. He (111 tum) IS IU Klf OT body, lus arm its udder, the
o fTmng ladle its teat, the sho wer (of ghi). Fro m the Sacrin cc:r to the
Gods; from the Gods to the cow ; from the cow to the Sacrificcr. thus
orculates dus pcrpctu.i.l, never ending food of the Gods. And, verily,
whorocvcr i.s a Compreh ensor thereof, for him stul.l there be thus this
pcrpcrual never-ending Food' (the Bread of Life). See also TS. V.4.8
and 7.3 .. and rv .7. 1.
This same ' ci.rcularion' is more briefly formulated in BG.111.10-14;
the ~uccess1ve terrns o f the endless series being karman (acts of the
S:icnficcr). ya,ija (the Sacrifice), parjanya (rain), bluitani (creatures), anrta
(food), and then again kanna,i, and so without end. ln MU. Vf.37 the
application is made to the interior Sacrifice: here the rain from above is
thr Chant ~udgiilia) 'whereby living bemgs here on earth live'.
Thus agmi we find that the perfonnancc of the Sacrifice is the basis
or the prosperity of the realm : it is from this point of vtew that in
Mbh. (Vana Parva, XXV) Bluma addresses a king with the
'Thy hand can run gold '. The source is inexhaustible; buc them:':~



1 17

not a stagnant one, only b y the Sacrifice can it be kept in circulation.

The vasordluira doctrine outlined above explains the iconography of
the series of representations of the Cakravartin Emperor ac Amarivati,
of which I republished several in an article entitled 'A Royal Gesture'
in the Feestb111ulel v.d.K. Bataviaasch Genootscliap van Kumten en
Wetensdiapen, Weltevreden, Pt. I , 1929; and republished here as
Froncispiece. In these rcprcscncacions the Cakra vartin, surrounded by
his ' Seven T reasures', is raising his right arm to the clouds, from
w hich a shower of coins i.e. \vcalch', vasu) is falling. It is n1anifest that
the Empero r's hand is the 'ladle' of the Sacrifice, and that it is raised in
accordance with SB. Vll.2.3.9 where the offering of gh, is fivefold, to
agree with the five strata of the altar and \vhen he o ffers, he raises (the
ladle) and so builds Agni up with his fi ve srrar.i.' C ( Dh. 186
KAhapalJOvars.a and JB.lll.216.
However T .N . Ram.achandran in Paptrs pub/isl,td by tlit R/Jo Salub

C . V. RJJmamurrhi Pantalu's Bi,thday Ctltbra11on Comm1Utt connc(:t$ chc

Caknvartin types of A.m.aravari. Jagayyapcra :and Goli with thc
Miruihiru Jiu.k.a.
79. Unlike A.gm, the S2cadotium, ' not vaio-glonous because of
his Counsel' (lua1vi. .. aprad,:piw.~. RV.L 145.2).
80. AD political systems which dircct.l y contravene the law of
naru re and ch.e Hbenies of the spiritual power, are neccssanly
sho rt- lived' (George A.very, SSM ., in New English Wttkly, July 25,
1940). 'Di vision between Church and Lay, chat is what shall subsist
no w ... Church shaU be enslaved by Sr.ite... evil shall overtake the
State... By perfidy of all men the fruits of the earth shall perish. the
mast of trees and the produce of the waters' (from the interpretation of
Dermot's dream, Standish H .O'Grady, Silva Cadtlica, II, p.84).
'Verily, so long as lndra knew not that Self. so long the Tinns
overcame him . . . When he knew, then striking down and conquering the T itans, he compassed the chicfuincy, autonomous rule an_d
overlordship of all Gods and all beings' (Juus. U.IV .20). In Pbtoruc
terms, there can be no stability where there is no agreement. ~ to
which stul.l rule, the better or the worse part. 'Every kingdom diVJded
against itself is brought to a desolation' (Luke Xl.17).
81. AV.X .2.30--Puram yo bro.hma,,o veda yasya~ puruia uc~ate. He
who knows the fullness of Brahma, from which (fulness) ~c is called
urusa; BU.11.5. l~Sa 11114 ayom pu~ sarvtimsu pur~ p11nsaya~=He
f his d we lling in all bodies is called the PufU$a.
on account o
f hat
82. Most Chinese philosophic schools have taught the way o w

-~--~~-'----. -



riRn u \ l

aikd rhc "Inner

S.it< .lnJ Ourcr Krng " The Inner S-tge rs a

hl, c:--rJhlt,hcd '-,nue 1n lum~lf the Outer Kmg ~ O i l ( " \ \ ' ~

aompli,hcd we.a d<:'Cd, 1n the world. The highest rdc-aJ for a nun rs
~t once ro
the virtue of a Sage and the accomphshmm of a
Rulcr. an<! ..o hcrome what ._.. called a Sage-king (Janak.a). or 1\\ hat
Pl.Jt<l ,..,ould tNm the Phtlosophcr-k111g' (Fung Yu-Ian. H,. ,,,y ~f
Clull'lot' Nr,lt xpliy, rran,bt.ed by !)erk Boddc Pc,pu1g. 1937. 1p ::?J
nl(' Inner \:ii.:,. thC' pr.1Jt1Jlm.Jt1, l\ rhe Emperor. or King oi krng,. rh(;11VJ,rt.2 rh<- Vr,lt'ror, and 11 1\ for the bttcr and arnvt self to do "lui
the- t,nncr 2ncl ,ot1rcmrbt1\ c <,cl( CTl.)orn\. nor to 'do ,h he W.c-.
3 Rt']'MN1 4 ,2 (:. ere P lato\ doctrmc o( the rndt, rdual 'c,l') b
l"Xl 1h r_ar.alk k-d rn the lnd1.i11 hrJlrttwr11ro1
IC) of God) contcx~
for C':\aanpJ.c,, '(fnt\ h(,Jy) \O.llh II\ Clj,!ht 'c,rc1<") .llld nrne J~nUrl") I<
~\l.Jh\;a f'unro1kJUCrJhk'j. th, { 11y o l thc C',od,, 1r- golden 1rcasun
jhcrnj n11ollk\l b, th< light o f h<.ivtn, h, \\ho" a Con1prchcn\or of
1lu1 l 11, ol llr~h111.i, b, 1n1111 on..1J11, cnfold.:d. him l:3r.lhma .lnd
Hr.ihnta t( 011101 l',1r~n1.irn1.i11 J11d Pr.11.ip,t1) do\\cr \\1th hfc, rrno \vn
.11i.l 1,rut11) ( I\\' X 1 ;!'L.ll)" 'lht Pun :ind M ,thura Ii 1n l'\'('ry
n1,11, tllt' l;ir11 do,11 111 lu, 11\, 11 1111nd \\ her< th< ptr\(lnal 'C'lf I!> to be
11~ K~t11s.a tn t'J< h ul U\ (I' N 'lu,lu. :\ sr,uly <>( tlrr
Hhig.n'4U /'u, u 11.llll, p '\! ~I) '(.),~ \\ho h., , l~tn lu, VrtrJ'
I'S II ::. " 5 lu, dont' tlu,



,..., ""''

The dtatilC't , ot l,1nhs 111 JU I 17 ,or,oJ'O'td t"\lttl) to th.u

ofJolu1 111 (t '1'h.:t
h u b,; n, rht-J ah 1, al~ ,md tk,1 "-In,-,, u hcrn 'I
t.!:r w
and r....i \ I s fu ht tft.tt mlt i., his.flrJ, Jlw/1 ") rht
1!rr!i ,
- :n ~ Ju t1u, ~ u tht- ~ ,,,
I cf tht- '\p,nr ,,.,,
""" iil::'r,\t

the- '.1m IU lC':O.l 1'u10\ 'man.al 2Jld unmoruJ

lftt' SOW .U(' chc ()ml'T ffld hUk:1 , , ,, wfum IJ ,ti.,ard
.and di.t:
I\ I (I o f 'I.\ I,
t l honu~ ._ qwmi
m r
h err t
rn .111 cdx) '" f :..t, , .Juo p1umro .tll"'
tm..1 pr,n~ U'1 nun Jw
tJ It
t !\,al 4 '"'111 I s.Ji.il IO ftwr Jr~ hy





.t ,o lu ~tn!JLJI Ma.,.<
UU I\ 5 b. n
S."C .also .\ n,rodt- on

\\ ch rcttTnKr co me, ~ 1
-he HuJdtusr
pc , i<i!'
noc ruy
sdf ,a;: mr s., .in.,,
~ t Chfut ta\
eu to tN ilnJ luu h.1 _.,,
.....,, bt my k-.'Jpk l.o,;c- XIV 'lit and widl rcrc-r,utt to

A\. THll'RI 1,


11'll't.lR ,i Po\t I k


eh ir ",.' ' ,, 1..in l'lJt' ,\ l..lthll'o\,, th, '"'!'lilting 111 '<>11l 11t11l\ ho,h
I ,, \llI
far< .b Ih.JI 1, ('<,"' ,l,) l /'I,,,.,1,, <>7c) tlut \t l'.iul ,lllir111, tlut t I< ,\ ,,r,
ol ("'xi
(' <. l JI tlllr) ,.,,,ntl, 1,, 1hc ,1111du1111t nl I "'UI lh1111
I l'I I
. I\ 1,) 1h, .iht1n,1t,,n 1, 1lu1 wh1rh 1, tl\ \ 11 'Ii lJ"
- 111 (',,11I'. ,, II :;9 Jnd I),. ( hrr11/1 11 ) t J\ 1111
(Qt IC>lh'II(':,
I hhy
-,h LI l I 111. I ,~I,,, rr 174, \7"1) hct\ \ <'< JI II\ .lfl, ( ...,
(.otx:<11\lui,:l>t:ti,~ i,u~ !>11th: lmJ ",11 he (Cl 11(, II l:?) '\\ hn, wr, "'bu
"h1, I \\.1,
th l)11r 1~~1t,-..
lit' 1111\tun-... , h,11 nnt ~Xl\t , hut ui.111
UIJUlltllllll \\,
" '
u1 ot:-n,u~ht u1111 t II(rt,,,
.,. rth', , t ' hon1 litun' ol th, 1)1\ lllC w o 1nn " '
t\C." ,,1 Ill I ,., Jnd 1<,hn Ill :\
the 1"'~
-'h,-.. JI<', Ji,t.1111, th, 111,1n11111 an,1 th~ lll'ltt (/~ "'''' i nJ ".
; ,.,. t~:o l~m.uJ W~ n.11111.111) 1tlr11t1I} "our,d~,, w,th th\
,,,, o
inJJ\ 1d11.1.ht) .1, k nO\\'ll b) 'n.1111< Jn,1 J,~, 1
we rt!l1n1 li ,)111 th, , , 111111 1,I
) o1
nun to \ ' l1,~l1
, I 1,.11,,. N ' " ' ~n, I I tt , , 1111 l rllly
,,11' (,1l,,11h y.1 n,11111
d ...1hc.1t1un
,1 3 -,\),.... Jntl In " It1l I1 t Itt Kiuu,., n:turn, \\ 11h till' \ JIU(



1>I iltl ltJ huy.1 111 wh1d1 h1 hJtl hc,11 ntJ1k J
.It t ~ u,
l ,
II JTI.' 111 d1l 1110,r
(!tu \, II 141 whic h 111111111, >.1, .. to l)ll(' ..i;
UrJ ntJn
wortl \ k ,<1 rJt10 11 ,' hi thu , ntutnHIK w e i11
ttch111tJI '('11'<
t '
.. , , n o t our rcJI ',di, lllJt
h I11
I') 1W'I " ' w 1Ill 1t Wl I l 111 11 1
for~tttJn~ t Jt t prnp
,,occ,, It ,,, un th< odt<r hJnd, with
nJII) Jn ..,-cr111 "' Jll, lllll only I
J1J ' l11Jt Jrt
\1 l.lc t11.1 r.J \ 11111111, I lJI II It '
r l'krt~11, 10 our ,,M.il<t,
\di 'ell<' ( ) vctl,,uJ ,nd
< U VI ij 71 l " " ! with nfr r111t1 ro I1ut


thou (

I hc

' : (II U II

Ktn ol .ii
<Jt<tVTh l! {i:t101l11 sc111111,1)


I'>). th.11 rla ()1.id <-t1Jll"1'>, -yvwU<

'I ,lu h, in11111r1, ol 11<,.,i.Ju11, wlut

PJ . I
l.ll' h~ ttlh h.i111
\01t111g ,11, nu,ru 411111
'II thou k11014 t 'n,,t

Wh,n I

,11.I he i111wc r, ~
rl1Jt ht" ha, ' 1ur.:1><tc11' wh, he l!i ""
11111 I K)
IOI pro~ "' ~,,.. """'
tl,r~lf, J( ~ rt flV' I ' 1,
If' I plr.olk I, J JII rhc 11\ll~ll.llbo o l t.h(
I he TllJUll(t K>II Kno\O. ,y1,1
,.,, (L ., ,ah iUI atnw !,,/\II''
~\ ' Wlurn K 11: """
Urll,nurw and ra111,-. ' II I a11d i11111'4rly kn'"1Wllil, S :i/M} "~
k.ii.ima 111,r111 liU IV 3 7, MU
L -h I II\' 011,i,; fonll'
L -I "" (,,nh ,..,,u. " "II
"In \\ M m, ~IKT
l U VI l) w1!l1 U.. ~u~wt r 111
11a, ..,111 ,
wlrranto bhai, Y""''
t- ,.~uo,1 'Wl1<, . a n
fllC: lfUC lrt) W C-f to ' ~ "1
CU Ill l-4 4 rr, u,~nnu
.L )ulu .ltll I' (lrtJ ,,..,,,. (l l)f(J



p,., ""

ti-" ).

' Wlut i}K,u ~rt. uut ""'

thou' (,bJ
' thr. Ku,"di,rn ''
d hat vpn uie
~u~ ut

sawa ,,.._), " rhc pm~t ' (..orr1< "' <' r11yxlf QUU Ill 14 1-5,
f-lavcn .and wim the~ ,..:,_,, I 3'i,2 f ) lucidn,~Uy, I 1111
K:ius U I ~. kuma. }.

, ~hi ,r,u,ti,,,) ~11d I. Jrc a

COflVinmi due lfx, Ddpln(: ..,..:.at,
~ ,i,-,d "-'',(f .lt !he
qunuon Cii t-} .md m .u!JWCJ '>f""t


rt ~

SPmrn:.-\1. ALTiiORITY A.-.-o TE..'1PORA1.


is a lkd the 'Irma Sage and

Outn K ing'. The Inner Sage s

Lbhs d .
I a !JCrson
~ilo ,us esa
he virtue in himself: the Outer King is o ne who has
accomp hshed great deeds m the wo rld . The highest ideal C.or a
man ~
at once to possess the Virtue ?fa Sage and th e accomplis hment of
Ruler, and so become what 1s called a Sage-kin g Qan aka), o r \vhat3
Plato wo uld term th e Philosopher-ki_n g' (Fung Yu- Ian, H istory of
Cl1111ese Plulosoplry. tran_s_l~tcd b ~ Derk Bo dde, Peiping, 1937, p. 2).
T he Inner Sage. the pra;11at11ra11, is the En1 pcro r, o r King o f kings, the
_i11at1,ra11 the Viceroy. and it is fo r the latter and active sel f to do \vhat
the former and contcn1plarivc scl[ enjoins, no t to 'd o as he likes'
8.3. Republic 432 C . e tc. Plato 's doctrine of the individu al 'city' is
e xaetly paralleled in the Indian bral1111ap11ra ('City o[ God') contexts.
For example, ' (This bod y) ,v; th its eig h t 'circles' an d nine aplrturcs is
A \'odhya f\u1conquerab k ']. the C ity o [ the Cods , its golden treasury
[he~rrJ en folded by the lig ht o f heaven; he \vho is a Comprehcnsor of
that Cit) of Brah n1a, by immo rraliry enfolded , him Brah n,a and
Brah ma (Cornn,. Paran1atman and Prajapati) do \ver ,vith life, r<.' nO\vn
and progen y (A V.X .2.29-3 1)'. 'The Puri and M athura is in every
m an , the king do m of his own min d , w here the perso nal self is to be
put dow11 . .. tire Kamsa in each of us' (P.N . Sinha, A study of the
Bha~avata P11ra,_1a, 1901, p . 300). 'One who has sla in his Vrtra'
(T S. has done this.
84. The distinction of birrhs in JB .1.1 7 corresponds exactly to that
ofJohn lll.6 'Tirat wl11d1 is bon, ofthe flesh is flesh; and that whi<h is bon, of
the Spint is spirit', and Cal. VJ. 8 'For he that soweth 10 his flesh shall of the
flah reap corrupuon; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap
li(t evtrlas11ng. '

The ' n..o selves' of the Sanskru texts, PL:ico's ' mo rtal and immort.:11
it.ins of me soul are the O uter and lnner Man, that which is 0111ward
md iJ14J whl(h 11 inw11rd, ofll Cor. IV 16. of v.hich St. Thomas Aquinas
rcmark.s ' In man art 11110 natures (an echo o f Pb co 's d110 phan1t11 a1110
.:n.,g/raion nna1 , Rq,ublu: 6'J4b-cv.o d.tsnnct prinap lcs in man), his
sp1n1J<a[ na111" and h1, <c,rporeal 11a111rt And a tt1a11 ,s said to love himselfby
,ea.son ef J11s Io11111g huruelf wl/lt reJ?ard to l11s spiritual 11a111re
(Sum ' fhcol ll.26 4, as in BU.IV.5.6, etc.). Sec also A ristotle o n


It is wnh reference to the corpore.il sel f o r 'life',--the Buddhist

'pett y self (appatumo) 'which is not m y (real) self ,1a me so alto,
passim-that Christ says 'Ifany 1na11 come to mt, and hate 1101 .. his ow11
life also, he ca,11101 bt my d1,ciplt ' (Luke X IV .26), and Wlth reference to

SPIJllTt;A.l AUTHO RITY :\~D TE.'lPORAl. P O \q]l

lI 9

division Pl.:ito's karharsts, the 'scpu.inng o f soul from bod}, so

b1e p/,aedo 67c) chat St. Paul affirms that the Word
fa r as chat 15 poss,
f ul fr
d (
of Go sc.

hi h d
b Phil
b IV 12) T he distinction is that w c 15 rawn y
(He . Genesis II 59 and D r Cherub.113f., as atcd by
(Q 11aes11011es '"a Li ,., Li. ht, pp. 374, 375) bcrween 'us' and 'that
Go?denougbh .,. y ; birth and \viii be (cf.BG. 11. 12) 'when we, \vho
hich ,vas e,o rc ou
b hall

.111 o r Junca on wit l o ur

. . W ut sb .
be burought .ttHO t h c reb.1rth , 1. e 'born again' of the 01v1nc om m
c of JB I 17 and John 111.3.
the scn.s
1 . , ain the propriwn and the s,111111 (le moi and le
T he two ~ _vcs ~re,;~ ~aturally' identify 'ourselves' \vith eh~
sm) o f St. ci:n a_r . .
kn wn by 'nan,c and aspect
propri11111' , 'our 1nd1v1duality _as
the sacrificial
- ) . h . n1an. to \Vhtch ,vc return ro1n
(11<1111an1_Pa ' t is . :
w an, I he \vho l really a1n' (al,ti,11 yti evasm,
dc16canon 1h1nkit,g . N o
. h h King returns ,vich the san1e
- . t- 13 I 9 3 23) and !O w 1U C t e
sas1111 , :) '
. _ .
hi h h . had b<.'al made a
d of the RaJasuya 1n w c
words at t c en
. h
. back to one self arc in the n1ost
13riih1nan (AB. Vll.24); wh1c .~01rung~ , In thus returning \VC are
technical sense of the ,vord csecraaons .
is not our real Sclf, not
forgetting that the propri11111 to ,vhich
r~~;'1on the other hand , with
really an essence at all, but only a pro

' h
d 'That art
St Bernard's nmm, t at It IS sa1
reference to our essence, :
h S If 'the Overlord and
. .
hou' (C U Vl.8.7f.), and with reference tot at e
t .
f 11 b
(BU 11 5 15) that che Oracle enJ01ns, )'vw6
King o a
. . . , .'
hi en uires of Boethius what
cravrov (!IIIDll1i sea11to11). When ' hilosop a alq . al' she tells hin1
onmg and more anun ,
hinr 'If thou knowcst not
he is, and he answers a reas .
th at he has ' forgotten' \vho he IS and_warnsC . I 8)
, (D
/ prose v1 and anc.
thyself. depart
eco,iso . ,
If .
rallded in the questions of the
The iniunction 'Kno\\ thysc
- AA II 6"
sads 'Which self?' (kalarw! sa am,,, , . ,
Brahn1a.?as_and Uparu.
' n I d sintibrly kr11'a1ta11ii, S.508) 211d
katama arma BU.IV.3.7, MU. anh
b II I be going forth?'
I go forth ence. s a
'In whom. \V en
. _ _
, U VI ) v.ith the aflS\Ver u1
3the question 'Who .ut
. B h , The true an5\\-er to
CU.lfl.14.4 'm ra ma.
that li ht am I' (ko '/,am a.sm1
thou?' (kas tvam as,), viz. 'What thou art, the a!s of the Kingdom of
suvas tvam), is the password ~tCo~ Ogmyself QUB.lll. 14.1-5;
. h welcome ome m ,
Heaven an d wms t e
(nodcn~y. 1 am
- - J\fathIIQUII- 1 3062 f)
Kaus. U.1.5-{); Rurru, . __:,AL ~avrov (J(IIOll1i staidon) ~nd E arc a
convinced that the: Delphic l"""' (
,isum) asked and given at the
question s1,enum a




door (certa.in]y a 'S d

I .
un o or ) of A U
po o s shrine 1r m1p ~1 ng 'Wh o art tho u
' (th
== El m ea
' "-IlOW th
esc arc t\.vo of P luta eh' .
iung (1) ApoUo d
ans\,cr ro the que-cio "Wh r s rntcrprct:icions A1o 1 an (2) 'thou

ra ra 39? A)
- n
o 3rt tho ' (
tom1 "The un thou - -, (th ar a.in I) u 'Th
seeking admi-- . the
.....,cc) tak:in
h e $4\-S m eli(',.-r
\ 'cril b

at tho u an, th
g the
" 'Th. 'E' - . . ~ y. e m ,okes this bi . .
us n1ay I be'
.i Del~";' .
(fS I "
-. H
F'" m Rnieu c>f R r1 1. 11
. :>. 7.6). Cf,

en~ m vrder to ---L ...1..

e S > , No\'. 194 1
be und
= w eir source 'Both . .
- erst~' \l"id)'Jm (a av-idr.im (a
,1dya and a,1dya art
~~'1'f ~7rUI(, rsa Up. I 1. The \YOrld o f
ved~blrayam sa~ . ..
~ n~oons.. good and evil, is a theo paus o opposncs. affirmations
the ID\'ISlble drings of him' (R
plun y. le has not been said eh
o m . l.20) are onl
be kn
o f che dungs that wer e made clut
y co
own by those
answer to tbe q uestio n 'Did h
hseem to us 'good'; the obvious
. a:._
e w o made the lamb
k th
ma e ee?' is
= ~natlve. h e problem of evil ('Can a
this' cf. JUB. 1.18.2) can onJ be
good God have permitted
posed by a monophysite or a
dualist. The Muslim sees in Hy
ea ven and Hell the ' fl
vme M ercy (Sacerdocium) and d . .
re ecaons of the
M.athnawi 1.1128 1298 N ' h I
ivme_ MaJesry (Regnum). Cf.
nough, Philo. ' - '
ic o son s Mystics of ls/am, p. 98, Goode-


In Th.at One (uui eka,n ekam aviv 1"kta

tkatvam) M.itra and v anma'
" ', visva,n eka,n, advaitam,
together' T o p .
bl. maJ_e and female, lamb and lion 'lie down

pairs -
-raise o r am e Him "r.0 r th e eXJScence
o f any one of these
presu; ~~ blame
fo r clue of the other, beciuse each
211.. for a ,v
~r , co praise or blame Him for making a ,vorld ac
orld-~1aure_ (of lo,e-joy) cm only be painted in
seuro, n or all Ill " 'hite or all . bi ck y . .
"orld of ood
m a et it IS 0t1r ends that the
rottd g fr and e vil ~ei:ves, for ,vitbouc it there ,vould be no ,vay of
ure 001 poccncialiry t

knowledge of good uJ vii O a~. 1t 15 nor the First Cause, but our
a, e that IS the occas

C/1ai11 of Being). This F. C
ion o our mortaliry ( .
rs_t ause, which ,ve cannot call either good or
e vil m any h
un1an sense ts the cause 0 f
are the cause of
our eXJstence, but we ourselves
our n1anner of being
le docs not follow that the dis . . .
fro m falsehood lacks valid '
onction of good from evil and truth
calJed good. 'flu: way /cy tere~nd now, as though both could be
D l rkncss, Untruth and ol)t~:h rntyh of Brahm.a le.ids from the
(UU 1.3 ff) it was 'by folJo
coh 1 , c L~t, Reality, and Life
UU IV -4 B, .,.II.
J<JG. IV.117 Wing
cte)tluISth Ancu:nt Path' (RV JV. 18.l,

t e Dev.as ~aratcd rherruclvcs




from the Asuras and became ,vhat they are (SB.IX.5. 1.12)', 'by
qualification' (arlr.ti,.ra) thac they (who wid1 exception of Agni were
originally mortal) became Immortals (RV.X.63. 4), assimilated to him
,vhose name is Truth' (CU.VTll.3.4, I John V. 20, etc.). By this 11 ia
'!ffin,rati1a one rises bighcr and_highcr in the hierarchy of degrees of
real.icy or cruth (MU.IV.6) until ,ve reach the Sun, ,vho is the Truth
absolutely QUB.1.5.J and passi111) but tl1ro11g/1 ,vhon1 the Way lc:ids on
co Brahma; to reach that Uniry. the ltlcimace realiry chat ,vas hidden by
the Truth' (BU.1.6.3), we muse deny the names that have been given
co God, co kno,v him only as unkno\vn (MU.IV.6, KemUp.U.J). In
other words, the end of the road (adl1va1ral1 param) and summit of
contingent being (blravagra) bring us co a wall through ,vhicb the only
way is by the strait gate of the Sundoor, that bars the way to anyone
,vho still is anyone (C~a. De Visio11e Dei, IX,fi11). What lies beyond is
'other than Law or lack of Law, oth er than our well or ill-<lone, other
than past or future' (a11yatra dl1an11ad a11yatradham1ad a11yatras,r1at krtakrtat
a11yatra blrutac ea blravyac ea, KU . ll.14; there, as Eckhart expresses it,
'neither vice nor virtue ever entered in' co Him who is 'neither good
nor true'. St. Thomas, Sum. Tlreol. 1.46.1 ad }-.omne quod gr,1erai11r,
generahtr ex corrtrario = from its opposite, ,rot contradictorics; 'if based
on P/,aedo 70 does not mean pairs of opposites but from its opposite.
Pliaedo 71 A-pa111a ostci, gig11elili, ex trra11tiii11 w r,iarrtia pragurata.
86. See note 47. Just as in Christianity, all CT\-arion is fenunme co
God, and in the satne ,vay, tbe body feminine co chc Spine. All birch
depends upon the conjugation (sa,hyoga) of the 'Kno,vcr of the Field'
,vith the 'Fidd' (BG.XIU); as a ,vife to a husband, so is the body (1.uui).
,vhich is for the sake of good ,vorks (su~.iya k,1111), to the Spuit
(atnra11, TS.1. 1.10,1-2); the Sun is our real nthcr QUB. Ul.1 0. 4 and
RV .X. 149.4 patiriva jaya,11abl1i 110 11yeh1 dharta diva!! sa11itti vis11aviirol1).
All this 1nust be taken for granted if the theory of govern1ncnt is co be
It may be added tlut there is nothing so strange about the relation of
~i:ia to the gopis, his bliaktas, as is often supposed: Peter Sterry, for
example, writes 'The Lord Jesus hath his Concubines. his Queencs, his
Virgina, Saints in Remoter Fonnts, Saints in lugher Fonnts, Saints
unmarried lo any Fonnt, who keep themselves single for the
immediate imbraces of their Love' (Vivian da Sola Pinto, Pfltr Sterry,
Pwril4n and Plawnist, p. 25). It should be noted that these are the words
of a Puril4n diVU1C.

l ~O

SPmrn:.u ,'\ L'TlfoRrn:

door (ccrt.m}y a 'S

i\1''1> TEMPORA1. Po


I . .
un oor') of A ll ,
ymg Who Hr thou', and E==EI po ~ s shrine; 'Kno
arr (these a rc two of P lutarch's intemeamng (1) Apollo an: th:selr
answer ro the quesoon "Wh
rpre taoons Mor 1.
(2) thou
form 'The Su n thou art ' ( ho art thou' (seeking ;drnircanara )92 A), the
r at am n 'Th
ce takin
I1c says u1 effect
V ril
. ' I
ar tho u art h
g the
my 'The 'E' a; Delp~' y, hR
c in vokes this blessing' ,(Tt
.'.117ay I be',
85 H
ev1eu, of R ,- .
. .:i. . 6) Cf
encc in o rder to reach th .
e ,g,011, N ov. 1941
. .
ro be ll_'.1derst?Od' (1,idya,ii ea av:; ~~~:e ' Boch vidya and a~dya are
a111r,a111 asr,ute, Isa U p. 11 . The w o rld o f . yastad vedobl,aya,;, sa/r.
:11'd nega?ons, good and evil, is a thco ~atrs o f o pposites, affirm~ti~,;s
the mvis1ble things of him' (R
I p any. It has nor been said th
o rn . 20) arc o nl y t b kn
f h dun
o t e
gs that w e re mad e that.
o e own by those
seem to 11s 'g d ' h



answer to r h c q uestio n 'Did h

o o ; t e obvious
a~~arivc. T he pro ble m o f eiiJ w ~ a:-adc the la n1b make thee?' is
this? . cf. JUB. I. l 8.2) can onl ~c
a good God have permitted
d ualist. The M ush m sees . H y
posed b y a monophysice or a
di .
in eavcn and Hell th , fl ,
vine M ercy (Sacerd o tiun1) and djvine
. c re ecoons of the
Mat/111aw, 1. 1128, 1298 N . l
. M aJesty (Regn um). Cf
no ugh, Philo.
IC 10 son s Mystrcs of lsla,11, p. 98, GoodeIn That One (tad eka

ekatva,11) Mitra


" I , c 0111 av1v1 ta,n, 11isva,11 ekam, advaitam,

togethe ' T
arw:ia maJ_e and fe rn aJc, la mb and lion 'lie down
. . r . o ~r:use o r bla m e 1-1.im for the exis tence of any one of these
pairs lS to praise o r bla n1c 1-1.im for that o f the othe be
pres upposes the o thc
cause ea
r, to praise or blame 1-1.im for n1ak.ing a world at
all ' ior a , vorld-p1cture (O f I
. ) can only be pain ted in
aroscuro, not a.lJ m ,vhice o a.lJ bl ck
. .
\\"Orld of good d il
m a Yet u IS 011r ends tha t the
. o r \Vleh out Jt tb ere would be no \Vay of
u rc
not th c Fust

kn Jed
fm potcn ttalit}' co act. l t JS
C ause but our
O\\: gc o good and e vil that IS the oc .
' .
Cltai11 of Bein ). -lus F.
casron o o ur m o rtality (cf.
evil in a., h 'll 1
11S_t u use, wluch \Ve annot call eithe r g ood o r
l}' uman sense 15 the cause 0 f
are the cause of
our existence, but w e o urselves
o ur nunner of being
It does no t fo llo w that the d .
from falsehood lacks valid h lStlnctJon of good fron1 e vil and cruth
ity ere and now, as tho ugh both could be
c.illt-d good Th
c way tO the Unity of Bnh
tru cads from the
l) ark.nc,.~, U ntruth, and D
(UU 1.3.8) 1t w as b y fol.lo:~h t ~ t1:<.: Light, Reality, and Life
}JU IV.4 8, S.11.106, IV 117, ccc.! t~arrh:~aent Pach' (RV.IV. 18.1,
cvas separated themselves



from che Asuras and became \vhar they arc (SB.IX.S. 1.12)', 'by
qualification ' (arl11i1.ra") that they (,vho \Vith exception of Agni ,verc
originally n1o rtal) becam e ln1mortals (RV.X .63.4), assinulated to him
' whose nan1c is Truch' (CU. Vlll.3.4, I John V. 20. etc.). By this via
aflinnativo one rises higher and higher in the hierarchy of degrees of
realiry or truth (MU .IV.6) until we reach the Sun, who is the Truth
absolutely QUB .l.5.3 and passim) but 1lrro11gl1 ,vho m the Way leads on
to Brahn1a; to reach that Un.icy, the ultin1atc reality that was hidden by
the Truth' (BU .l. 6.3), \Ve n1ust den y the names that have been given
to God, to know him only as unknown (MU.IV.6, KenaUp.11.3). In
o ther words, the end of the road (ad/,va,ra/J piiram) and sun1mit of
contingent be ing (bl,aviigro) bring us to a waU through which the only
way is by the strait gate of the Sundoo r, that bars the way to anyone
who still is anyone (Cu~a. De Visio11e Dei, IX,.f111). What lies beyond is
'other than Law o r lack of Law, other than our well or ill-done, other
than past or future ' (a11yatra d/1an11iid a11yatriid/1an11iid a11yatriismiil kr,iikftiit
a11yatra b/riitiie ea bl,auyiic ea, KU . ll.14; there, as Eckhart expresses it,
'neither vice nor virtue ever entered in' to Him who is 'neither good
nor true'. St. Thom as, S11111. Tl,eol. 1.46.1 ad 3--omrre quod ger,eralur,
ge11era1ur ex co111rario = fro1n its o pposite, 1101 'contradictories; 'if based
on Pl,aedo 70 does not mean pairs of opposites but from ics opposite,

P/raedo 71A- pa11ta osto, gig11etai, ex e110rltio11 ta e11a111ia pragmata.

86. See note 47. Just as in Christianity, all creation is ferninine to
God, and in the same way, the body feminine to the Spirit. All birth
d epends upon the conjugation (sa,llyoga) of the 'Knower of the Field'
with the 'Field' (BG. XIII); as a wife to a husband, so is the body (ta11u),
which is for the sake of good works (sukr,aya kam), to the Spirit
(111ma11, TS.1.1.10, 1-2); the Sun is our real f;ither QUB. lll.10.4 and
RV.X .149.4 patiriva jiiyamab/ri 110 11yetu dharlii diva~ savitii visvaviira~).
All this must be taken for granted if the theory of government is to be
It may be added that thc.-re is nothing so strange about the relation of
Kwa to the gopu, his bhaktas, as is often supposed: Peter Sterry, for
example, writes 'The Lord Jesus hath his Concubines, his Queencs, his
Virgina, Saints in Remoter Fonnes, Saints in higher Formes, Sai111s
unmarried to any Forme, who keep themselves single for the
immediate imbraces of their Love' (Vivian da Sola Pinto, Peter Sterry,
Puritan and Platonist, p . 25). It should be noted that these are the words
o f a Purill1n divine.






lrenacus (1.13.3) quotes the gnostic M k

ar os 'Pre
b n d e ro receive a bridegroom that th
pare thyself,.
- a
w tu t tho u art'. Cf. VS. VT!! 10 Ag,,e v -k
w at I am and I
a pat11n.
7. The p;issagc is pcmncnt both to the s to ry of I d '
ment (CU. Vil!. 7-11 ) and to that o f h' fall n ra s cnlightcn(DD Vll.54f.).
and aPokatascasis


I 23

that they had four ruto rs, respectively most wise,
Persian pnnces. en, pcratc an d ,nost brave. The first taught hin1 the
j ust most '

fi I th
l~rc* o f Zoroaster, the second always to be truth u , e
Magian be 1- less and tlic third 'no t co be n,ascered even b y a su,glc
r rth co
d that he 111 ay acquire the habit o f being a free an real
lcasure in or er
' . I10 is first of all the ruler o f what.ever po wers are u1

can rc:i
If.one d,v ot their slave. (Alr1/ 11ades
1.1 22). We
I y
hunsc . an n
. d d .1.,.
111 cc ..,.... e,

f l
that d,c I e
Cf C ,ccro.
d' . \in

..ho beforehand does not understand 1c grc.1tcr 1.~ap c
an d socnc .

88 P laco recognizes rwo kinds o r p.arc:s o f the 'soul' in

li"cs or St"lvcs, n1ortal md imm o rtal wi th

us, or two
_.,_ .::

one o r t c o ther o f th
,ucn01 y our,,elvcs' The m.in g overned by h d
. . .
CSC we
IS csircs IS (cnon heru,tou)
SU !JC'Cl to
msc . 1.e. to the self that savs ' I " '.int'

ho ~
( ,
. o ne ,v o governs
fC'5 r. CTl'IUOfl he.zu/JIIJ) e. 'tTUStcr oflum$Clf e ofth
'(' -'.
e sc
"'.in: ......., 6-1:,, RqnJ,iu 431. ecc ). Jn the firsc a.se h ( be
S l l ~ prtmcur_d b\ ttl:;,_1 ~ 11.f)El TTulV CTl'llt0t1) 1dennfics ~
'lo\,th fhe J.n,.m 4lnl.m {bhut.iiman). 'overcom e bv likes and cLslik
f,.f U .ID.2 . m the SltCOlld Cl.SC 'lo\'l th chc 1m........,;rbabl . . cs

r- e a.sanra arman
~~ Toe t ~ rondiaon IS one of 'ignorance', aPulya) du
b.!= one 01 1&'1idom (,ulyw) (PrC11.:z~,u 358) The " ~If.ire of the
sou.I' depends upon chc turmooy o f i ts p.irtS md their
~ y :is to "-hich ~ rule' (Rep11blu 432 c). Ail rho IS rhe same
101' chc Sa.te md m die' 1ndi\,Jwl econom y


tJ9 CC: Mund U IJJ l.-4 . The b.ngwge 15 cqwil y apphc.ble to the
politiaJ economy of Rcgnum ;and S:1ccrdouum, .ind to tbc mdiVJd u.il
ttooomy of chc ' n,.,o selves . O uter King .ind Inner Sage.
For eh< brm.iran,, cf. H.V IX 11 J 9. J U B Ill 28.3, CU. Vlll .5.4;
l~t11, U Ill 5 J) I !""':?, Jo hn X 9. ;ind HJ.4.S IV 19.39. p. 35.
As u ~ pnma.n.l > the G.ue of the Spin thi t 'm ovcch .is it will'
(y,uh.ivai.im, R\' X 168 4 . 11111/0 1,y.i yatl,a J.:a,nam.J V . 418;J ohn 111.8),
so It c. onl) one 'g o ne ,.,,cJ1 the \,-u,d' (Ka~ U 11. 12. etc.) m the sense
~c reqwcn1 ,'(acc/10111 ,ata,11 atnui (llV X. 16.3) dut on be c.Ilcd
~ . or to u>e d1c lmguJtt(' of NT , o nJr tho)C " ' ho arc 'in chc spine'
(pr1nitr1..10) d1Jt c 111 'p.1~s u, .lnd ou t'
90 Suruhrl~ the Huddlu)t I) 1.1 72. fo mw1g pan of the mstrucoon
of .i King u1 ffil' 'Ad,:u11Jg<:$ of me Mon.i~oc Life' the servant of
<k--irc ~ tu~ o,~,1 ~bvc. not hl5 o wn nu.srcr nor able to go where he
"ill (,u Y'nJ k ,tn1J111 ~"'-= '"' k.im.icin11). whllc the m.in 'the d oors of
"'h~ ~e-. an: gu.ird<.'li (1ndnyew ~ tta..Jv.iro = aua-guflcJ Oh 379) IS
l'IS 0\\11 OJJ..<ter, fn..-cJ fronl h~ sla,~rv J o . .
, u.u.ivyJ mutto, Mitra nature m
;a to go .., here he ,vtll'. In .ihnost tdc11tic.l languagc Pbto desa,bcs
tho,c who .ire )UbJl'l'"t to thclll),,lv,-s (~ Note oo) ' fr
nJ .
(R u
oo i s cenun o y Ul
q,t,uoc 4.31 C ) I-le tells us also reg1rdmg the cduo oon of




P 9 ~'. The ' frcc-,vill' chat C h ristian donrinc ass~rtS for all IS eV1d,,1tly
not the 'self-"ill'. but rather a freed o n1 to rcs1sc o r consent to th~
_ f thc s pirit is ,villing but the
_ tlcsh IS ,vc-ak.
h will , that of the spirit
Math. XXVl.41). To do o ur o,vn v.rill is to be passive; to cooperate
,vith the spine IS to be u1 act. cf. note 69. n ,ac tbc narural man LS .in
auto m ato n lS admirably de monstrated in S. 111.66-67 (sec HJAS IV,
1939, p.135).
92. Samprayat, to 'pro ffer', co rrelative o f Vr to ' woo
93. 1.c. para,ir JYOltrtipa sampadya 1ve11a riipn,ia abl,1114padya11te
(CU Vlll. 12.3).
94. AB. Vll.1 5. S.1.6 1~2. A .IJ.4S-49, sec my 'The Pilgrun's Way'
u, )BORS XX III and XXIV, 1937, 1938.
95. Thomas Ke mp~. 11ie lmi1a1io11 ofC hrist Ill chap. X III-There ~
no w o rse, and no mo re g rievous enemy to thy soul than thyself, 1f
thine flesh be not w ell agreeing to the will of the spirit. '
'X1. C f Walt Wrutman--'M y d inner, dr,..,\, a~sorutt~. looks .. , the:
sickness o f o ne o f my folks or o f myM:lf, or ill do111g or IQ1;S o r lack of
money, o r dc:pr~sions o r cx.ilutions... these come to me d.iys and
n1g hcs and go from me again. But they arc not this Mc n1ysclf. Apan
fro m the pulling and hauling sunds what I am. : . .Both 10 and out of
the game and watching and wondcrmg at 1t.
97. The whole of this symbolism recurs in Plat<> (Phatdn11246. 247,
ccc.) and H ermes Trismegistm (l.llf.: etc. ).

98. How is the victory to be won m eh.is Jchid? Our _self IS the
enemy (Die before you die), in its ignorance of _and o ppos!tion to n-s
self lS the enemy to be conVUlced. The way is one of 1n tcUcaua.l
On the M~. -

P1u1o .~pc<- Loeb Lrb.


f 22






Spr:JUT U n

lrcna<.-us (I. 13.3) quotes the gnostic M k

bndc co receive a bndcgroon1 tl,at tho ar os, Prepare thyself

u n1ayc~t b
.s a
w hat thou art' Cf. VS. V III I () l\n111 -,. .
c w 1lat I an, and I
n Ilic f1,1'sJgc '' pcruncnt both to tJ
le sto ry o fndr ,
1nc111 (c U. V lll.7- 11 ) and to that of hi f: IJ .
a~cn 1ghtcn(UJ ) Vll.54f.).
s a ,Ind apokatastasis

hat chey had four tutors, respectively most wise,
Persian pnnccs, c pcratc and most brave. The first taught him the

sc n,ost rem
rr,ost.JU l~rc* of Zoroaster, the second always to be truthful, the
Magian b r, less and chc third ' noi to be mastered even by a single
fourth to . c cdar chat he may acquire the habit of being a free and real
I sure in or er

P ea
K.ing one w 1,o I5
d.il b Ii
' r
d ot their slave' (A lcibiades 1.122). We can rca y c eve

f Kingshi p were in dccd alike,

lun1sch, an n

chat tI1c l c ' ~
f h
I. 91- N o r can anyone be
t e
C( C ,ccro,
d' . lin

ho beforehand docs not understand t 1e g reater isap e
Pcdrs1a~s wee' And on the Graal King" Sec Philo, QE 105, Goodenough
an scien .
p. 11 3.
. .
u 'd tl
91. T he 'free-will' that Christian doccnnc assc_rcs 1or a IS cv, en Y
'self-will' but rather a freedom to resJSt or consent co the
not th c

h O h
higher will, that of the spirit ('the spirit is _willing butt_ c es 1s we ,
I X XVl.41 ). To do our own will is to be passive; toI cooperate
M ac.1.

with the spirit is co be in act. cf. note 69. That the natura man is an
automaton is admirably demonstrated in S.lll.66-67 (sec HJAS IV,
1939, p.135).

to woo...
92. Samprayat, to 'proffer , correlaove of
93. i.e. parmi, jyotin'ipa sampadya svena n1pe1,1a abl11111wadyante
(CU . Vlll.1 2.3).
94. AB. VII. IS, S.1.61---02, A.U.48-49, see n,y 'The Pilgrim's Way'
in ]BORS XXIII and XXIV , 1937, 1938.
95. Thomas Kempis, The Imitation ofClirist Ill chap.Xlll-'There ~s
no worse, and no more grievous enemy co_ thy soul than. ~ysclf, if
thine flesh be not w ell agreeing to the will of the spmt.
96. Cf. Walt Whicn1an-'My dinner, dress. associates. looks ... the
sickness of one of my folks or of myself, or ill doing or loss or lack of
money, or depressions or exaltations . . . these come co me days and
nights and go from me again. But they are not this Mc n:1yself. Apart
from the pulling and hauling stands what I am... Both Ill and ouc of
the game and watching and wondering at it.'
97. The whole of this symbolism recurs in Plato (Plwedrns 246, 247,
etc.) and Hermes Trismegistus (1.1 lf.. etc.).
98. How is the victory to be won in this Jch~d? Our -~If is ~ e
enemy (l)ic before you die). in ics ignorance of .and oppos1oon to its
self is the enemy to be convinced. The way 1s one of 1ntcllcc1ual

88 PlJto recognizes two kinds or parts of the ,
1 111 us or

1vc~ or ~c vcs. n1orta and 1111111 ortal with

One or t C Other of th
'd ' f '
I t't1t1 y o ursdvcs'. The n,an governed by his d . . . (- _ csc we
csircs is eu011 hem11011)
su ~ccc to 1umscl , i.e. co the self that says ' I wa 11 t'

110 govern5
h'is d c.."l>1rcs
is (rrc,11011

hea11to11) i.e. 'n1astcr of hi,nsclf
f h
, (
1.c. o t c self that
says want. LAws 645, Rcp11blic 431 , etc.). In the fi rst eac h h
su.bJCct pr~di_cate_d by etto~ _:ind Kf)E~rrwv creitton) identificss
with the sanra 011111111 (b/1111at111an), 'overco1ne' by likes
d d. lik
(MU.IH.2), in the second case with the imperturbable aas'nana ~t es
- )
" a 111011
. ~h: form.er condition is o ne of 'ignorance', avidya) the
latter one of wisdon1 (vidya') (Protagoras 358). The welfare of th


:whol.e soul' depen_ds upon the harmony of its pares and the;
una11Jrruty as co which shall rule' (Rep11blic 432 c). All this is the sa me
for the Stace and in the individual economy.
~9: C( Mw;1<;l. U. 111.I.4. The language is equally applicable to the
poliocal economy of Regn um and Sacerdotium, and to the individual
economy of the 'two selves', Outer l{jng and Inner Sage.
For rhe kamacarin cf. RV. IX.J 13.9; JUB.111.28.3; CU. Vlll.5.4;
Taitt, U:lll 5'. D. ~.172; John X .9: and HJAS.IV. 1939, p. 35.
As Jt iS pnmaril y the Gale of the Spirt that 'moveth as it will'
(ya'.l~vaia,n, RV.X.168.4; a11i/o viya yatha kama,n, J. V. 418; John 111.8),
so it IS only one 'gone with the wind' (Kau~ U .11.12, etc.) in the sense
~.e requiem gacchatu vatam atmti (RV. X. 16.3) that can be called
free , or to use the language of NT., only those who are 'in the spirit'
(p11euma11) that can 'pass in and out'.
90. ~imilarly the Buddhist D.!. In, forming part of the instruction
of~ ~g. in the 'Advantages of the M onastic Life': the servant of
des1re IS his own slave
_ .
, not s own master nor able to go where he
will (,,a yma katnam gan,o = 11a ka11uicari11), while the man ' the doors of
~vhose senses arc guarded (i11driyes11 gutta-dvaro = allagutto, Dh. 379) is
,:is own master, freed from hi J
. .
's a very ua$avya mutto, asura nature) and
th e to io w ~re ~ will . In almost identical language Plato describes
ose .w o arc subJcct to themselves (sec N ote 88) as ' freeman onl in
rwne (Republic 431C). He tells us also regarding the cducatio: of




on 1hc Magi.


!'hi.lo Sptc Loeb L,b. 632f.






preparation, moral discipline, leading and conte I


words, at th e same time a theory and a way of li .
Ot er
The intellectual preparation is philosophical (the wor;)n~~ . .
phy' was understood by the ancients. The proper object
in this sense is stated in the words of the Delphic orac~ fKn osophy
Self (~1101/,i sea111011).
ow thy

99. Plato, 'God is our guardian, and we are his possessio (P''




100. An identical interpretation of 'sleep' will be found in H


T nsmeg1Stus
, .I. 1. T?c Outer Man, whom we think of as 'awake' is
really asleep and drcanung; the Inner and contemplative Man wh
';:e think
. . o f as asIeep' when _we fail to understand the metaphysical
inaction IS really awake and m act, in the sense that the Buddha is
literally the 'Wake' and the anagogical (paramartl,ika) sense in which
Agni IS 'wakened at daybreak' (11~ar-b11dl1).
101. For the 'person in the (right) eye' see BU.IV.2.2, 3 and IV.4.1,
CU.I. 7.5, MU. VIl.11.1 -3. This image seen in the pupil of the eye is
the fonn of our real being and that of the 'Person in the Sun' who is
called variously Death, Breath, and usually 1ndra; the 'Person in the
Sun' being '1ndra; Prajapati, Brahma' (Sacerdotium) (KB. VIII. 3). In
SB.Ill.1.3.15 it is Su~i:ia that becomes the pupil of the eye.
The symbolism of the 'person seen in the eye' is probably ancient.
Plato (Alcibiades I. 133) uses it in a slighcly differen t way, but for him
also it is a form analogous to what in us is most like God.
102. Atial,anda, usually interpreted to mean 'beyond desires', but
re.illy with n1ore direct reference to the d1a11dtii1si ~vhich are the means
of our metrical re-integration and the wings on which the Spirit
ascends to the Sun (AV. VIIl.9.2, AB. VU.27, etc.). 'Yonder Sun is the
Disposer; and it is inasmuch as he hath gone unto the uctennost of the
Quarters that there he stands and glows.... The Metres arc the
Quarters' (diio lry ettii dui11dti1Jsi, SJ:l. IX.5.1.37, 39). Arialtandti (for
tiricd1a11da111) in BU.rV.3.21 is, according to Samk.ara, beyond desires';
but I think that the reference is co the \vhole and complete' form, like
that of the Fire-altar, titiuha11das in SB.X.5.4.8, where the meaning of
the word is certainly 'hypermetrical' o r 'super-metrical.' so in
TS. V.3.8.~'all the metres are the Aticchandas; verily he piles it with
all the n1ccres. The Aticchandas is the highest of the metres.... '
103. '~ the cm~race of this sovran one which naughts the separated
self of thmgs, bemg 1s one without distinction. . . One and one
uninng, void shines into void ... so does the soul in God tum into



God.' Eckhart, English trans. of Pfeiffer's version by C .dc B. Evans,

368 380
. (esscnn'all y eh e same as PIato ' s .immanent
)04. On the Syntcres1s
I s daimo11, and hegemii11, and or 'con-science' but with far more than
: : merely moral values that this latter word now implies for us) see
O. Renz. Die Synteresis 11ach dem l,eiligen Tliomas von Aquin Munster,
l911. 'Syntercsis' is etymologically Skr. samtaraka v'tr), 'One who
enables another to cross over' (to the farther shore'), and so 'savior' or
105. For this expression see Masson-Oursel, ' Une connexion dans
l'esthctique de la philosophic de l'Inde, ' Revue des Arts Asiatiques II,
1925. A connection in the aesthetics of Indian Philoophy .'
106. The i11driya11i arc the five organs of sense, the five corresponding internal faculties, and the mind (monos); these correspond to what
are called by C hristian writers the 'po~vers of the soul.' They are
properly called indriya1.1i because of their belonging to 1ndra, whose
they are (cf. TS. I. 6.12.1, SB. VI. 1.1. 2). They are, in fact, the ' powers'.
(sticil.1) by \Vhich 1ndra is 'empowered' (sacivat) and is the 'Lord of power'
(sacil!) as he is of1ndrar:u (i11dra,;,1m .. ... ptitil!, RV .X .86. 11.12). Taken
together, the sacilJ and Saci; the i11driya,;,i, the powers of the soul, the
soul herself. The marriage of 1ndra and 1ndrar:u is that of the Sun and
Moon, Eros and Psyche.
Righcly curbed, the indriyani are ' powers of rule,' but allowed full
rein, arc the 'ruling passions' to which we are subjected.
'The place of rulers is held by those who exercise authority over the
sense.' Philo, De Agricultura, 58.
107. Apo llonius, Epistle and Valerium-archon aristos, ho an hautou
proteron ard1e.
Bonaventura, De Do11t1e Sancto Spirito, IV .10, t. v.p. 475,-'No one
can have an ordered household unless h e himself is ordered. lf anyone
wishes to have chaste servants, and he himself be not chaste, it cannot
be.' See also Cl11~a,1g Tzu, p. 148; Bchmen, S11perse11s11al Life, p. 229,
and Marcus Aurelius 14, 15, on 'Self-government.'
108. Krts11a1i1 hi sastrarn idam i11driya-jayal.1.
The co~ccpt of 'Victory' is of the utmost irnpomncc in the
traditional theory or Kingship. Exoterically it is by an actual or
irn plied victory over o thers that a King obtains . the throne,. but
esoterically he is the true Victor who subdues his own passions,
allying himself with the Self against himself. In Islam this becomes the
concept of the 'Holy War' (ji/Jtid) as distinguished from n1ere wars of




conquest. The 'heroism' (virya, andreia) expected f h

(~rnya), whether as King or as the Mona) Soul and~ t c Knight
then no longer a matter of mt>rely physical 00 utcr lvbn, lS
urage (such as
possess), but a symbol and cvidcnCt" of self-c
__,,. --- I-A~
ha ve seen being the onqUt"St md
:,cu-ouwv.~ui;e; autonomy, as we
O utward tall

of an mward Self-control. Whoever has thus found Hi . I .Y

necessan.ly both fear!~ and 'invulnerable' (AV.X.8.44, BG.~~~-~
When the rrurtyr says: I have fought the good fight', this good fight is
the Holy War. This docs not m ean that the two wars must be
separately fought; the man-at-arms may be w aging a war that 15

humanly speaking 'just', and, if he be a Comprchensor, at the sam

time one that is ' holy'. In the latter case the battle itself becomes :
sacrificial rite. It is in this way that it can be said o f War th at 'Some he
has m arked out to be Gods, and some to be men, some to be enslaved
and some to bt> set free' (H eracleitus, Fr. XLIV). It is one thing to be
'free' to do what o ne likes; o nl y to have th e ' Victory over pleasures'
(lie 1011 liedonon 11iki) Plato, Laws 840 C is to be really free.
It IS clear from the great king Asoka's Thineenth Edict that he had
und=tood the real meaning of 'Victory'; for after recounting his
politial VJctorics and expressing his det"p regret for them, because of
die suffering milicu:d on the conquered, he continues (line 7), 'And
this is die foremost Victor y, the Victory of the Dharrru, ; while (line
10. l l J he enJOUlS upon his successors to 'regard as 'Victory' the
Victory of the Dharma, which avails for this world and the o ther.'
In the begmnmg. it was rhc B rah rru- Y~a that ,von the
Victory (over the Asuras) fo r the D evas, and it is asked: 'Can he be
conquered who is a Comprehensor of chat Great First-born Ya~a.
who know s that Brahma to be the Truth?' (TS. VI.S. 7.4, JUB.IV. 21,
Kena U p.W.1( , etc.).
109. ' What is the best thing of all for a ,nan, that he may ask fro n1
the Gods? "That he may be always at peace with himself.'"


Works 11otcd in A.K. Coomaraswamy's

copy of the First Edition as additional

F.W. 8ucklcr.

W.W. C omfon
R.E. Dennett
I. Engnell
C. A.M . Fennell
J. N . Figgis

: Ep ipl1a11y of the Cross, 1938.

: Firdaiui's Sluihnamah and the Gcmeolog1a Regm
Dei, Su pplement to the JAOS, N o. 1, 1935.
: Chretien de Troyes, Everyman's Libray.
: At the Back of the Black Man 's i'vfi11d, 1906.
: Studies in Divine Killgship--1he Ancient f',:ear
East. Uppsala. 1943.
: Pi11dar, 1899.
: TI,e TI,eory of rl1t Divine R,ght of K111gs,

C. U. P.. 1896.

: Divine Kiugsltip i11 rite A11C1tnt Near East,

Review of Religion, Vol. lX, 1945.
E.R. Goodenough : An lntrod11ction to Pliilo ]11dae11s, 1940. Hellenistic
Kingship, Yale Classical Studies. l. 1928.
Ki11gsl1ip, London, 1941,
. . Ho cart
Les Castes, Paris, 1938; Castl'-A omparar,ve
Study, London, 1950.
Gualtherus H. Mees : Dltamia and Society, The Hague, 1935.

T . H . Gaster

Contest of Homer and Hesiod, 320.

K. V . Rangas,vam1
R. Sh amasisuy
J. Go nda



Rajadl1arma, Madras, 1941.

Kautilya's A rtl1astisrra , Mysorc. 19:, I. .
Ancie,11 /11dian Kin(!ship f rom the Relig1011s
Point of View, from,N VMEN . Vols. Ill, IV .
1966, Brill, Leiden.



Tu1po n,



The 'heroism' (vi,ya, 01uln-ia) expeaed of

).:). "hether as King or as the M ortal So ul and
the Knight
utcr Ma n, IS
U}CI) no
co uragc
__ ,__ , _ _,_anger a ) matter o merely physical
.uunwn- .u,,O possess , but a symbol and eVJdence of self.
self- knowledge; autonomy, as we have seen being the -conquest and
d S If.
OUl"\vard tally
o f an mwar
e -control. Whoever has thus found Hi
necessarily both fearless and ' invulnerable' (AV. X .8. 44 BG m setf is
.11, etc.)
When the martyr says: 'I h ave r:,ough t the good fight', this, good
fight i~
the H oly War. This docs not mean that the two wa rs must be
separately fo ught; the man-at-arms may be waging a war th
at IS
h um an) y s peaking ,.JUSt ' , an d , 1'fh e be a Com prehensor, at the sam
time one that is ' holy '. ln the latter case the battle itself becomes :
sacrificial rite. It is in this w ay that it can be said of War that 'Some he
has marked out to be Gods, and some to be men, some to be enslaved
and some to be set free' (H eradcirus . Fr. XLfV). It is one thing to be
'free' to do \Vhat one likes; o nly to have the ' Victory over pleasures'
hi IL>tt hido,wn 11iki) Plato, L11ts 840 C is to be really free.
It is clear from the great king Asoka's Thirteenth Edict thac he had
understood the real meaning of 'Victory'; fo r after recounting his
political ";aories and expressing his deep regret for them, because of
the suffering inflicted on the conquered. he continues (line 7), 'And
tlus is the foremost Victory, the Victory of the Dharma,; while (line
10, 11) he enjo1DS upon his successors to ' regard as ' Victo ry' the
Victory of the D harma, which avails for this world and the other.'
ln the beginning, it was the Brahma- Yak~a th at won the
Victory (over the Asuras) for th e Devas, and it is asked : 'Can he be
conquered w ho is a C omprehensor of that Great First-born Yak~a.
w ho knows that Brahma to be the Truth?' (TS. VJ. 5.7. 4, JUB.! V.21 ,
Kena Up. 111. I , etc. ).
109. ' What is the best thing o f all for a man, that he may ask fro rn
the Gods? "That he may be always at peace with himself '"
Contest of Hotrtff and Hesiod, 320.


Works 11oted in A.K. Coomaraswamy's

copy of the First Edition as additional
F. W. Buckler.

: Epiplra11y of tl~ Cross, 1938.

: Firda.usi's Sluih1uvnal1 a,ul tl1t C tntolog1a Rtg111

Dei, Supplement to the JAOS, No. I, 1935.

: Chretien de Troyes, Everyman's Libray.
W.W. Comfort
: AI 1!1t Back of the Black ,\lfa11 's .\1ind, 1906.
R. E. Dermett
: Studies in Divi11e I011gshir-tl1t Ancient Near
I. EngneU
East. Uppsala, 1943.
: Pindar, 1899.
C . A. M . Fermell
: T he Theory of tire Divine Riglrt of Ki11gs,
J.N . Figgis
C .U P ., 1896.
T. H. Gaster
: Divi,re Ki11gsltip i11 tire Ancient [\'ear East,
Review of Religion, Vol. IX. 1945.
E. R. Goodenough : An Introd11ctio11 to Pl1i/0]11dae11s, 1940. Hello11s1ic
Ki11gsl1ip, Yale Classical Studies, I, 1928.

Ki11gship , London, 1941 ,

Les Castes, Paris, 1938: Castt'-A Compara11ve
Study, London, 1950.
Gualtherus H . Mees : Dhanna atul Society, Tite Hague, 1935.

A. M . Hocart

K . V. Rangaswam1
: RaJadlianna, Madras , 1941.
Ka11tilya's Arthasiistra . M y~orc. 1951. ..
R . Shamasastry
Ancient I11dia11 Kiu.~sliip f rom rl,e Re/1g1011 s
J. Gonda
Point of View, front NVMEN. Vo ls. Ill. IV.
1966. Brill. Leiden.

ri K~,ha\'r.im N. fc:ng:z:
trom Bomba u-.....,....,,..... -~.
.1nd !1.taherru a .i Gc:w'Cl~:::!:::~'1
Archnuc: He
F c:deral lnsu :.c
S 1.1erbnd f
protesstor.a C.tffc .a.
nd::::a:c:~ 2:Sl~r:..z
~l.1dr.1s. he -.a, :usocu:ci:! - ....,_f;dl;:3

Banc:alorc: An .mu~:.c1..,
iln~er, Sn lc:n _a Ha apooc:;;
Ch.ir<An.J of fiind


Dr Ram.a P. U>Qm.aru...am;
only surv1v1ng .on of 0;
Coomara~,.,a.mv He ~ r M ~ f.~x:::r led ii
School in 1952 ar.d as v.1,,,.ec=ici~ :;""a:=ed and
certified 1n Ge:-.cral u ~! u ~ TDOanc and

Cardio Vascul.ar St: .?t':""f u:c. ~ a:s

Associate Professor of S:-':.e-:, at~ A.Ge~
Einstein CoUege oi ~ieG:.cu;.c, . ~ ,(o.rt... At
present, he is Profnsor o: E.cdeuu-.x,. Haswr,
at the St. Thomas r..<j ... -as ~a:-y -:.
Connecticut. He fu.s ,~;LO;CC OC"e ~: a~J-.ln in
the surgical research field .u ..-dl u ~.....merable
articles in theology ar.c :: - !mo- ..: .

ISBN O 19 5631-419


No three representatives of Asia have done

more to reveal eastern culture to the west than
Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore and
A. K. Coomaraswamy. The illuminating writings and lectures of A . K . Coomaraswamy have
brought the east and west together in a meaningful dialogue. His mind encompassed the
sum total of tradition in the east and the west.
It ranged from ancient Greece, the World of
Islam, and that of medieval Europe to the
present situation. Measured against his knowledge, the modem mind confronted him in its
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the perennial IOUl'a of .......

'Philotophia Pennail',