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CE6451 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

What is Fluid Mechanics?


First, what is a fluid?
Three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
A fluid is either a liquid or a gas.
Fluid:
A fluid is a substance which is capable of flowing. A fluid
may be classified in to Liquid, gas and Vapour.

Next, what is mechanics?


Mechanics is essentially the application of the laws of
force and motion. Conventionally, it is divided into two
branches, statics and dynamics.

Fluid Mechanics:
It deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of
rest and motion. It may be divided in to three parts: Statics,
Kinematics and dynamics.

UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

Units and dimensions Properties of fluids mass density, specific weight, specific
volume, specific gravity, viscosity, compressibility, vapor pressure, surface tension
and capillarity. Flow characteristics concept of control volume application of
continuity equation, energy equation and momentum equation.

Fluid Properties:
1.

Density

2.

Specific Gravity

3.

Viscosity

4.

Surface Tension

5.

Capillarity

6.

Compressibility

7.

Bulk modulus

8.

Vapour pressure

Density:
Mass density or specific mass:
The density of a fluid is defined as its mass per unit volume at
standard temperature and pressure.

Mass of the fluid


=
Volume of the fluid
=m/v
unit , kg/m3
For water, = 1000 kg/m3

Specific Weight or weight density: w


It is defined as Weight per unit volume at
standard temperature and pressure

Weightof fluid
Massof fluid
w=
=
g
Volumeof fluid Volumeof fluid
w = g ;Unit: N/m3 ; w for water=9.81 kN/m3
Specific Volume: v
It is defined as Volume per unit mass of the fluid.
v=V/m
= 1/
Unit, m3/kg
1 m3 = 1000 litres

Specific Gravity : S
It is the ratio of the specific weight of the liquid to the
specific weight of the standard fluid.

specific weight of the liquid


SpecificGravity =
Specific weight of the pure water
Weight Density of Liquid= S X Weight density of water
= S X 1000 X 9.81 N/m3
Density of Liquid= S X density of water= S X 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity:
Dynamicviscosity:
Viscosityisdefinedasthepropertyoffluidwhichoffersresistanceto
flow.

du
,
dy

du
= ,
dy

Unit:Ns/m2 ;1Poise=(1/10)Ns/m2;1Centipoise=(1/100)Poise

Kinematic viscosity:
It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and
mass density of fluid.

Units: m2/s ; 1 Stroke = 10-4 m2/s

DynamicViscosity
Force

du

dy

Shearstress()

Area

= Slope of line

Shearrate(du/dy)

Shearstress
IdealSolid

Types of Fluids:

Shearrate

du/dy

IdealFluid

Ideal Fluid:
A fluid, which is incompressible and is having no viscosity, is known as Ideal
fluid. It is only imaginary Fluid
Real Fluid:
A fluid, which is having viscosity, is known as Real fluid. All fluids are Real
fluids.
Newtonian fluids:
These fluids follow Newtons viscosity equation. For such fluids does not
change with rate of deformation. Exp. Water, Kerosene etc.,
Non Newtonian fluids:
There fluids which do not follow the linear relationship between the shear
stress and the rate of deformation. Exp. Polymer solutions, Blood et.,

Compressibility:
When a fluid is subjected to a pressure increase the
volume of the fluid decreases. It is known as compressibility. It
is reciprocal of bulk modulus.
Compressibility = 1/k

Bulk modulus:
It is define as the ratio of compressive stress to volumetric
strain.

dp
k =
dv v
The negative sign indicates the volume decreases as pressure
increases.
Unit :
N
m2

Surface Tension of Liquids


The phenomenon of surface tension arises due to the two
kinds of intermolecular forces. Surface Tension is caused by
the force of cohesion at the free surface.

(i) Cohesion : The force of attraction between the molecules of


the same liquid. Surface tension is due to cohesion between
particles at the free surface.
(ii) Adhesion : The force of attraction between unlike molecules
of a solid boundary surface in contact with the liquid

CaseI Waterdroplet:
Let, P= Pressure inside the droplet above outside
pressure
D= Diameter of the droplet
= Surface tension of the liquid

P d2
i. Pressure force =
4 and
ii. Surface tension force acting around the circumference
=x d
Under equilibrium conditions these two forces will be equal
and opposite,

P d 2 = d
4
4
p=
d

CaseII Soapbubble:
i.
ii.

2
d
Pressureforce=,and
4
Surfacetensionforceactingaroundthecircumference=2(Xd)
2
P d = 2( d )
P

8
p =
d

CaseIII AliquidJet:
i.

Pressure force = p x l x d , and

ii.

Surface tension force acting around the circumference =X 2l


P l d = ( 2l )
2
p =
d

Capillarity:
Capillarity is a phenomenon by which a liquid rises into a thin
glass tube above or below its general level. surface relative to the
adjacent level of the fluid is called capillarity.
This phenomenon is due to the combined effect of cohesion and
adhesion of liquid particles.

For water = 0
For mercury = 1400

Expression for Capillary Rise:


=Surfacetensionoftheliquid

=Angleofcontactbetweentheliquidandglasstube

=Densityoftheliquid
Theweightoftheliquidofheighthinthetube=(Areaofthetubexh)x xg

=
Verticalcomponentofthesurfacetensileforce

Equatingthesetwoeq.

d 2 h g

= ( Circumference) cos
= d cos

d 2 h g = d cos

If isequaltozero

4
h=
gd

d cos 4 cos
h=
=
2
gd
d g
4

Expression for Capillary Fall:


=Surfacetensionoftheliquid

=Angleofcontactbetweentheliquidandglasstube

=Densityoftheliquid
Intensityofthepressureatthedepth=(Areaofthetubexh)x xg

=
Verticalcomponentofthesurfacetensileforce

Equatingthesetwoeq.

d 2 h g

= ( Circumference) cos
= d cos

d 2 h g = d cos
h=

d cos
2
d g
4

Formercuryandglasstubeis138o

h=

4 cos
gd

Vapour pressure:
All liquids have a tendency to evaporate when exposed to a
gaseous atmosphere. The vapour molecules exert a partial
pressure in the space above the liquid, known as vapour pressure.

GasLaws:
BoylesLaw
At a given temperature for a given quantity of gas, the product
of the pressure and the volume is a constant.

P1V1=P2V2
IdealGasLaw:
IdealGasLawrelatespressuretoTempforagas
P=RT
T=AbsolutetemperatureinoKunits
R=Gasconstant=287Joule/KgoK

UniversalGasconstant:
PV=mRT
Where,
M=Massofgasinkg;
V=SpecificVolume.
P=Absolutepressure;
T=Absolutetemperature

PressureinaFluid

p = gh

Pressure:
Force per unit area: 1 N/m2 = Pascal = Pa
Standard Atmosphere P = 101.33 kPa = 101.3 kN/m2
=10.3 m of mg