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1 Introduction

Process of exchanging ideas thoughts and information to others
Communication skills:
Communication skills are how we give and receive information and convey
our ideas and opinions with others. Ability to communicate effectively
Effective Communication:
Communication is considered effective when it achieves the desired reaction
or response from the receiver.


is a two way process

involve active listening
utilize feedback
is clear
How a baby will communicate?

Communication Cycle



Use Projector




listening /

Load shedding

Not Watching

Sender / Encoder
While sending a message, you are the encoder, the writer or speaker,
depending on whether your message is written or oral
Encoder decide which symbols best convey your message and which
message channel will be most
effective among the oral and written media (letter, memo, telephone, etc)
The message is the main idea that you wish to communicate; it is of both
verbal (written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal (unspoken) symbols. First
decide exactly what your message is

It means the way by which a message is communicated

You can choose electronic mail, the printed word
The choice of medium is affected by the relationship between the sender and
the receiver

Receiver / Decoder

The receiver / decoder of your message is your reader or listener.

Receiver decode perception

Feedback can be oral or written; it can also be an action, such as receiving in the
mail an item you
ordered. Sometimes silence is used as feedback, though it is not very useful.
Senders need feedback
in order to determine the success or failure of the communication.


People in the world are not exactly alike. Cultures or countries are not the same.
These differences,
however, can cause problems in conveying your meanings. Each persons mind is
different from others. As
a result, message senders meanings and the receivers response are affected by
many factors, such as

Semantic barriers
Conventions of meaning
Physical Barrier
Psychological barriers
Emotional barriers
Perceptual barriers
Barriers involving values attitudes etc

Semantic Barrier
A basic principle of communication is that the symbols the sender uses to
communicate messages must
have the same meaning in both the senders and receivers minds. You can never
be sure that the message in
your mind will be clearly sent to your receiver. The world is full with errors, as a
result of differences in
semantic (meaning) understanding.
Conventions of meaning
A denotation is usually the dictionary definition of a word. Denotative meanings
name objects, people or
events without indicating positive or negative qualities. Such words as car, desk,
book, house, and water
convey denotative meanings. The receiver has a similar understanding of the thing
in which the word is
A connotation is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the usual
definition. Some words
have connotative meanings, that is, qualitative judgments and personal reactions.
The word man is
denotative, father, prophet, brother are connotative. Some words have positive
connotations in some
contexts and negative meanings in others. For example, slim girl and slim chances.

Physical Barriers
For Writing
There is a whole barrage of possible physical blocks, jammed or jagged margins,
fingerprints or smudges,
unclear photocopies, unreadable word processor printout, water or coffee, tea
spots etc
For Speaking
Mumbling, not enunciating, speaking too quickly, noises, blowing air conditioning,
ringing telephones, slamming doors etc.

Psychological Barriers
Because of the changing world, everyone has his own concept of reality. Also,
human beings, sensory
perceptions touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste are limited, and each persons
mental filter is unique.
Perception of Reality
The perceptual problem is that people think differently
Perceptions in Communication
We all communicate with our own filter
Our Individual perceptions are the filter through which we communicate
Visual Perception
In a picture there may be two perspectives both perspective are possible and
both are valid
Language Perspective

A women

without her

man is nothing
A women without her,

Emotional Barriers

man is

Barriers Involving Values, Attitudes

A receivers attitude toward a message can determine whether it is accepted or
rejected. The effectiveness is
influenced also by the values, attitudes, and opinions of the communicators. People
react favorably when
they receive agreeable message. Receivers views of the information will affect
their response. This response
could be what the sender desires or just the opposite.
Occasionally people react according to their attitudes toward a situation rather
than to the facts.
Imran khan

Face to face communication
(Baby cry when hungry - communicating even not using words)
Non verbal part of communication such as tone of voice and non verbal
gestures has more importance as compared to spoken words. People are more
likely to believe your non verbal communication as compared to verbal
communication if the two are contradictory.
Tone of voice:

I didnt said he borrowed my book

I didnt said he borrowed
Verbal (Words):

my book


Body Language:
Angry person saying I am not angry
Nonverbal communication consists of that part of a message that is not encoded in
words. If the verbal message does not match the nonverbal communication, people
tend to believe the nonverbal message.
Personal Nonverbal communication involves kinds of nonverbal behavior
that are unique to one person. The meaning is also unique to the person
sending the message. One person may laugh due to nervousness or fear,
while another may cry
Cultural nonverbal communication, by contrast, is characteristics of, or
common to, a group of people. It is learned unconsciously by observing
others in the society group.
Universal nonverbal communication is behavior that is common to
humankind. It shows happiness, sadness or deep-seated feelings for
example, a smile or tears.
Unrelated nonverbal communication, such as a sneeze, is unrelated to
the verbal message. It can distract from the verbal message