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No.

109

MADE

IN

ENGLAND

The Modern

SIGHT-READER
BOOK IJUNIOR CLASSES
BOOK 2SENIOR CLASSES
BEING

A COURSE OF UNISON EXERCISES


the Works of Classical
and Modern Composers

Excerpts fro?n

Graded and divided into " steps," to test the pupil's knowledge of the Staff and of musical signs in general, and to
encourage facility and fluency in sight-reading.
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Jhe Modern

VOICE-TRAINING
READER
Edited and A.rranged by

MAY SARSON
BOOK (JUNIOR)
I

CONTAINING
Unison Exercises taken from Classical and Modern Songs.
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(SENIOR)

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Classical

ONE

Songs
and Modern Composers.

SHILLING

NOVELLO AND COMPANY,

Limited

novello's

Music Primers and Educational Series

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC


AND

ELEMENTARY HARMONY
WITH TEST PAPERS

BY

ALBERT HAM

Price Three Shillings ai^^

London:

NOVELLO AND COMPANY,


MADE

<^

L^

IN

ENGLAND

Limited.

^
Presented to the

LIBRARY of the
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
from the

ARTHUR PLETTNER
ISA

McILWRATTH

COLLECTION

PREFACE.

THERE
of

are

excellent text-books on the

many

Rudiments

treated separately, but

Music, and on Harmony,

it

have the chapters dealing

will

with

be found very convenient to


Harmony under one cover, and treated together with

the Rudiments.

In this

little

and arrangement of the


some respects from many other

treatise the plan

various sections differ

in

text-books, and the author has striven

he has found to be the

For mstance,
eftbrt

connected

years of teachmg,

most students, and

of

noir

to

with especially lucid definitions.

meet them
great

hete

to deal particularly

many

with those special points which, in his

has

with

in

Part

been

I.,

dealing with the Rudiments, a

made

Time and

dealing specially with those

the

elucidate

to

Intervals;

subjects

and

contain

suggestions, the difficulties being discussed at

difficulties

chapters

the

many
some

helpful

consider-

able length.

In Part

II.,

which

treats

of

Harmony,

the author does

a very
not attempt to do more than touch the fringe of
treat
which
pages
those
of
study
A careful
wide subject.
cadences,
of
progression,
chord
elementary principles of
of the

of natural

to

develop

modulation and of melody

and

expand

what

is

will,

often

however, do much

termed

" INIusical

Instinct."

Albert Ham.

Toronto, Canada.

CONTENTS.

PART

I. RUDIMENTS.

Chapter.

Page,

The Stave or Staff, Notes, Clefs, Leger-Lines


...
The Great Stave, the C Clefs
The Semitone and Tone, Sharps, Flats, and Naturals

I-

II.

III-

Shape and Length of Notes and Rests


Accent, Bars and Measures, Time

IV.

V.

Syncopation
VII.

VIII.
.

...

...

...

IX.

...

Signatures,
...

...

21

...

...

28

...

...

-ja

...

...

37

...

...

41

Intervals

X.

43

Transposition

XI.

16

18
-

Unequal Division of Time ...


...
...
Major Scales and their Key-Signatures
Minor Scales and THEIR Key-Signatures
The Chromatic Scale...
...
...
...

VI.

10

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

XII.

Abbreviations, Phrasing, Etc.

...

...

...

...

5,8

XIII.

Graces and Embellishments


Musical Terms ...
...
...

...

...

...

...

66

...

...

...

...

73

XIV.

53

ADDENDA:
I.

How

II.

TO ADD Bar-lines and Time-Signatures to


Given Melody
...
...
...
...
...
To find the Key of a Given Melody
...
...

PART
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIIl.

II. ELEMENTARY

a
...

78

...

82

HARMONY.

Definitions and Triads

Triads in Succession ...


...
...
Triads
in
Succession (continued).
Sequences
Triads in their Second Inversions

84
...

...

Figured

XIX. Cadences
XX. The Dominant Seventh, Passing-Notes, Etc. ...
XXI. Modulation
...
...
...
...
...
...
XXII. Hints on the Harmonization yjv a simple Melody
Eight Test Papers on the Rudiments of Music
Test Papers on Harmony
...
...
...

Six

...

8g

Bass.
95
...

102

106
...

iii

..

120

...

123

...

131

...

139

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2010 with funding from


University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/rudimentsofmusicOOhama

PART

I. RUDIMENTS.

CHAPTER

I.

THE STAVE OR STAFF, NOTES, CLEFS,


LEGER LINES.
1.

By

Musical sounds

differ

the pitch of a sound

whether

it is

considerably from one another in Pitch.

is

meant whether

it

is

acute (or high) or

low.

Those sounds that vibrate rapidly are

high,

and those that

vibrate slowly are low, in pitch.

To

2.

distinguish

sounds

of

alphabet are used

letters of the

different

pitch,

the

first

seven

A, B, C, D, E, F, G.

1234567

3.

pitch,

These seven sounds follow each other


and are repeated again and again.

in ascending

order of

an eighth sound is added to this series it is called the octave


first note, and has the same letter-name
A.
4. Musical sounds are represented by characters termed Notes,
which are written on the lines, or in the spaces, of the Stave.
If

of the

The

ordinary Stave or Staff consists of five parallel lines and four

These

spaces.

Fig.

Lines.

5.

_1

To

lines

and

5/0^^5 are

counted upwards

I. (a.)

(b).

=Z

Spaces.

determine the name and pitch of notes written on staves,

signs called Clefs are used.


particular line

from which

Each
all

Clef {Fr. key) gives a

other notes are named.

name

to

The two

principal clefs are the

Fig.

and the

Note.

F clef or Bass

These and

all

2.

clef

(a.)

clef or Treble clef:

other clef signs are merely corruptions of old forms of

certain letters of the Alphabet.

Reckoning from G, on the second line, it will be found


names of the notes on the Treble Stave are as follows

6.

the

that

Treble Stave.
5
-<S>

Tl

Fig- 3-

B
7.

The Bass

(or

F)

clef is placed

on the fourth

of the notes on the Bass Stave will be as follows

line,

so the

names

9-

with

In the following examples the notes are


lines

and

EDCBA

Fig.

6.

i^^
^

"^

in

alphabetical order,

spaces alternately:

' "^

-H

"~b c

-F-

"*"

5~

w-

F G
-

T"

Fig.

A B C

.^-*-

\
I

T'

7.

^-^
G F

J--J-

j:

E D C

CHAPTER

II.

THE GREAT STAVE. THE


lo.

we

If

place the

treble stave

C CLEFS.

above the

bass stave

double stave used for pianoforte and organ music

we

get the

i
w
Fig. 8.

I
II.

By

inserting a line

stave of eleven lines

is

between these two staves, a continuous

formed, termed the Great Stave.

Fig. 9.

12.

Middle

The
C.

C,

note
It

on the middle
about the middle of

written

stands

(6th)

the

line,

is

called

keyboard of

pianoforte or organ.
13. For practical purposes it would be very confusing to read
from so extended a stave as the one of eleven lines so it is broken
by the omission of the centre line, as in Fig. 10:
;

^Fig. 10.

'Middle C.

:E
14. It will readily be seen that the treble and bass staves are
merely sections of the Great Stave. The five tipper lines form a
separate stave for the Treble or right-hand part, and the five lower
lines form a separate stave for the Bass or left-hand part, a leger
line being used for the middle line, C.
15. To avoid the use of a number of leger lines, other sets of
five lines drawn from the Great Stave are used in vocal and in
For this purpose another clef the C clef is
orchestral music.
clef
is placed on the thiyd line, Fig. 11 (a), it is
this
When
used.

and when
Tenor stave

called the Alto stave,


it is

called the

1 6.

The

it is

(b)

(b)

Tenor.

by the C clef, upon whatever


middle C, and therefore a note placed upon the

pitch of notes indicated

placed,

is

third line of Fig. ii

(a),

equivalent in pitch to

or the fourth line of Fig. ii

would be

Middle

Besides

(b),

Fig. 12.

17.

placed on the fourth line

is

Alto.

(a)

line

it

those

already

other

considered,

staves

may

be

formed but most of these are of secondary importance.


Fig. 13 shows all the possible staves of five lines, and the
numerals preceding the lines denote their relative positions on the
Great Stave of eleven lines
similarly

Fig. 13.

Treble,

Clef.

11

i
Soprano,

Clef.

10

"t Mezzo

Soprano,

Clef.

Alto or Contralto, C

Tenor, C

Clef.

Clef.

74y6

S-

Baritone,

Bass,

'M
'

The

clef

Clef.

Clef.

-<5>-

was sometimes written on the

first line

i8. Fig,

14

how

illustrates

sounds on different staves

to

express or represent the same

Fig. 14.

Treble.

i
p^
Soprano.

Mezzo-Soprano.

H^Alto or Contralto.
(S>

4fe=#

13
2o.

parts

Formerly in writing
were indicated by the

customary

to use the

for

alto,

tenor,

and bass voices, the


names. It is now

clefs bearing those

Treble clef for soprano (or boy trebles),

and tenor parts, and the usual clef for the bass.
written an octave higher than it is sung, and
the

The

this is indicated

direction "

Fig. i6

{a)

).

alto,

tenor part

8''^
lower " being inserted against the stave
This direction is now, however, often omitted

is

by
{see

Fig. 16.

Soprano.

Ml
XA

God
Alto

(a)

Tenor.

{Sve louver.)

Bass.

21.

'A3^

m
w

^=P

1=1=
9.

save

our

gra

ciousKing,

ciousKing,

B:

God

sa\-e

our

gra

God

save

our

gra

cious King,

God

save

our

gra

cious King,

fefes:
:*;

6*5
^gJS*

'm

The

(alto

older method of writing the music of Fig.


and tenor) clefs would be as follows

i6,

using the

Fig. 17.

Soprano.

God
Alto.

our

gra

si^
s^*
God

Tenor.

save

J^9^

cious King,

--p=^
save

our

gra

J=3E

ciousKing

azi^p:
:

Bass.

God

save

our

gra

cious Kins

God

save

our

gra

cious King.

ii*i
i=iE

^-

ti

M
22.

The term

*'

octave

" is

not only applied to two notes which are

bearing the same

eight degrees distant from each other, though

alphabetical name, but

from any note

eight notes,

also applied to a complete series

is

it

of

to its octave.*

on the second leger line below


The next octave is called the
Small Octave. That beginning with middle C is called the Oncemarked Octave. That beginning with the C in the third space of
the treble stave is called the Twice-marked Octave.

The octave beginning with

the bass

is

the

called the Great Octave.

Note that each C begins a fresh octave.

Fig. i8.

Great

Small

8ve,

8ve,

Four-foot octave.

Eight-foot octave.

Once-mapked

Twice-marked

8ve,

Two-foot octave.

8ve,

One-foot octave.

^&^

P
W-

^.rj

^^-

-.<s^=^

^^

'-

CDEFGAB

cdefgab

cdefgab

cdefgab

_C2

Note. The notes of the octave beginning with the


degree above the stave, are called in alt.

The octave above

Sixteen-foot

this,

C (=CCC),

beginning with

is

^
^

Tenor C

^P^

treble G,

is

is

called

The Octave was formerly termed

altissimo

'^-^

8va.

in

Diapason.

IS
*,*
Italian,

For the sake of completeness, the names


French, and German, are given below
:

English.

of

the

notes in

English

i6

CHAPTER

III.

THE SEMITONE AND TONE, SHARPS,

FLATS,

AND

NATURALS.
23.

The

semitone

smallest

or

half-tone

recognised
(

112,

difference
113).

in

pitch

The musical

is

called

difference

a
or

distance from one note to the next above or below on a pianoforte


to F {see Fig. 19)
\s called a semitone, as from

Fig. 19.

III

II
F

24.

The

Natural Notes.

distance from one note to the next but one, as from

a tone or whole-tone. It includes two semitones.


25. A Sharp (J) written before a note raises its pitch a semitone,
and a Flat {?) written before a note lowers its pitch a semitone.
On a pianoforte or organ the note on the immediate right of a given
note is its sharp, and the note on the immediate left is its flat
to

{see

D,

is

Fig. 20)


17
26.

Natural

(Jj)

restores to

accidental or key -signature

27.

Note.

28.
is

If

a note

a note

When

to

M,

the double-flat lowers

or sometimes

be raised to one

flat

it

is

is

it

it

a semitone

a semitone only.

to be reduced to one sharp,

by ^ only.

When a double-flat

indicated by

tf7,

it

note

or sometimes by

The in either case is now usually omitted as unnecessary.


The influence of the signs fc 7, X> ^'^> t]" extends throughout
tj

the bar in which they are written


the

double-sharp raises

the

already sharp,
flat,

and a

a tone.

a double-sharp note

only.
29.

is

already

is

indicated by

is
I?

If

it

by

flat.

Double-Sharp (X) raises a natural note a tone

Double-Flat (p7) lowers

only.

original pitch a note that

its

has been made sharp or

each sign affects every note of

same alphabetical name and octave

contradicted
^

Fig. 21.

in

that bar, unless

it

is

()

(b)

g^^-pE^^^^^^Mf-j^^^^^r^p-^ p-^^fl
.

At (a) the E7 in the first group affects the E in the second group,
making that note also a flat, and the CjJ in the first group aff"ects the
signs
other C's in the second group. At (b) in group No. 2 the
contradict the sharp C and the flat E, lowering the C^ to C, and
tj

raising the Et^ to

E.

If the last note of

a bar

is

the note accidentally altered, and the

next bar begins with the same note, the influence of the accidental
extends to that second bar

but

it is

better that the sign should be

repeated.

These signs should be written on the same

notes to which they belong.

line or

the

same space

as the


i8

CHAPTER

IV.

SHAPE AND LENGTH OF NOTES AND RESTS.


30.

shape.

music

The relative length or duration of notes is indicated by their


The following are the seven kinds of notes used in modern
:

Fig. 22.

English.

19
In vocal music the joining together or grouping depends on the syllables,
thus

^^^P

Fig. 24.

so

in Christ shall

all

be made

same way contains two

half-note in the

quarters, four eighths,

eight sixteenths, or sixteen thirty-second-notes


Fig. 25.

And a

|0

*^: or^##f:

or

00^^0000:

etc.

quarter-note contains two eighths, four sixteenths, etc.


Fig. 26.

p = p

ox

etc.

this,
32. The stems of notes may be turned up or down
however, does not affect their time-value.
33, If single notes are written high up on the stave the stems
should be turned down, and if written low the stems should be
;

turned up

Fig. 27.

Note. The stems of notes written above the third line should be turned down; and the
stems of those below the third line should be turned up. Those on the third line may be turned
up or down. This plan is not always followed when notes are grouped. See Fig. 27,
bar I Fig. 54 and Fig. 115.
either

34.

Thus

dot placed after a note

A second

makes

'

ct
\

half

as

long again.

or

dot adds half the value of the

it

first dot.

Thus

third dot is worth one -half the value of the second.


Instead of using dots to increase the length of notes, a sign called
^ may be used. The tie indicates that the sound is to
a Tie '
be continued for the total length of the notes joined. Thus
:

20

equal respectively
<3

Note. Only notes of the same fitch may be


be tied provided they are of the same pitch.

flat to

Notes of different names may


sharp maybe tied to D flat, oi

tied.

sharp.

silence in music.
35. Rests are signs used to denote periods of
Each note has its corresponding rest.
36. The rests in the following are of the same time-value as the
notes written over them
:

Fig. 28.

Whole.

The

Eighth.

Quarter.

Half.

other form of the quarter-rest

Thirty-second.

Si.xteenth.

E^l^
which

is

coming

less easily

into

more general

Fig. 29 shows the


corresponding rests

rest.

frequently

less

advantage of being

use, has the

confused with the eighth

used

notes

and

their

Fig, 29.

Breve.

^=
or Double-whole.

Half sixty-fourth.

Sixty-fourth.

called a Pause is sometimes placed over or under


a note, chord, or rest, in order to increase its length. The amount
of time given to the note, chord, or rest, so marked, must be left to the
37.

sign

''^

discretion of the performer

Fig. 30.

{see

Fig. 30)

Note. The terms Lunga Pausa and G.P. (Gran Pausa) imply that the pause
must be of unusual length.

31

CHAPTER

V.

ACCENT, BARS AND MEASURES, TIME-SIGNATURES,

SYNCOPATION.
In music, Accent

38.

is

the natural stress that falls on certain

notes.

There are two degrees of Accent

39.

the strong, and the medium

or secondary.

The

40.

line, called

is shown by placing before it a perpendicular


drawn through the stave (Fig. 31) (a)

strong accent

bar-line,

Fig. 31-

^r~ ^^

(a)

(a)

(a)

"y
-^.

Bar.

Bar.

IT
^ -

Bar.

Bar.

Accent divides music into small, equal sets of notes. These


For example, the
music contained between any two of the bar-lines in Fig. 31 is
called a Bar or Measure.
41.

equal sets or groups are called Bars or Measures.

Note. The word " bar " is used in two distinct ways one, meaning the line
drawn through the score, and the other as meaning all the notes, or rests, contained
between two of these

Every bar

42.

lines.

is

number of equal parts


seme what resembling the division of poetry

divided into a certain

called Beats or Pulses,


into feet.

A single note may contain more than one beat, and a beat
be subdivided into notes or rests of lesser value. In Fig. 31

43.

may

there are two quarter-notes or their equals in every bar or measure.

Some of the beats


made up of two

are

made up

of a single quarter-note, others are

eighth-notes,

sixteenth-notes, but the bars are

and some are divided


all

of equal time-value.

into

four


32

44-

melody or tune often begins on some other than the

first

beat of the bar (Fig. 32).


In such a case the first bar will be
incomplete, and the final bar of the same sentence or section will

be incomplete.

also

example, the
beats

and

{h),

first

two

these

If

together, the result will be

di

incomplete

bar or measure.

full

bar has but one beat

bars

added

are

In the following

the last bar has three

(a),

the other bars have four beats:

all

Fig- 32(c)

<.b)

()

m^

45.

double-bar

made

is

as at

(c),

Fig. 32, and

is

the end of a composition or of an important section.

used to mark

double-bar

does not affect the accent.


46.

The

Time-signature or Time-sign

is

represented by the figures,

or the letter C, placed at the beginning of the stave, immediately

following the key-signature (99).


47. The figures used in the ^mis- signature are fractions of the
whole-note (semibreve) or standard-note, from which all time is

The upper

reckoned.

figure indicates the niimher of notes or their

For example,
= three eighth-notes, ^^ = nine sixteenth-

equals to a bar, and the lower figure the kind of notes.


\

= two quarter-notes,

notes to a bar, respectively.


48.

The

in

a bar

in

a bar.
49.

three principal kinds of time are


Triple

three

These may be

beats in a bar

Duple * = two beats

Quadruple *

simple times the

upper figures used are

Compound time means two,

2, 3,

In key-signatures of

and

three,

:]

|.

In time-signatures of

certain kind in a bar, or their equivalent.

which equal two,

4, e.g., |

three, or four dotted notes of a

and 12, e.g., |,


and four dotted notes respectively.!

compound time, the upper figures used are

four beats

Simple time means that there are two, three, or four notes of

a certain kind in a bar, or their equivalent.

50.

simple or compound.

6, 9,

^, ['^,

Duple and Quadruple, the even times, are often called Common times,

t It

should be remembered that a group of three notes of the same value equals

one dotted note next higher

in value,

g.,

J J ^ J

and J J J ~

23
51. In

Compound time

there are as

many

beats to the bar as there

upper figure, e.g., %, , and ^% are Compound


On
dtiple times, because there are two threes in the upper figure.
because
times,
triple
Compound
the same principle % and ^^ are
Similary ^^ and } g are
there are three threes in the upper figure.
Compound qaadyuple times, because there are four threes in the
upper figure.
are threes in

tlie

Diagram of the Time-signatures

in

Ordinary Use.

Fig. 33-

Duple.

8 >

3
8

4:

'

6 r

Quadruple.

Triple.

8
9
i

16^

f=>

f=>

24

clearly

is

The ^

56.

Alia Breve

an

is

The term
2 is a Duple time with one accent.
sometimes applied to this kind of time, but to do so

error.

Modern

composers Elgar,
Tchaikovsky,
Chopin, and
amongst others have used |, \, and | time.
Such
combinations are sometimes expressed by two time-signatures, as
57.

Brahms,
5 5

I or

Quintuple time.

In Duple time there

58.

is

one

on

accent,

the

first

beat,

Fig- 34-

()

In Triple time there

one accent, on the

is

first

beat,

(b)

Fig. 34.

In Quadruple time there are two accents, one (the strong) on the
first beat,

and the

other, a secondary or

beat of the bar, (c) Fig. 32.


Note. The strong accent falls on the

beat only

in

the pace

6o.*In slow

medium

is slow, (d)

Compound

kinds of time.

Fig. 34.
time, when the beats are subdivided, a

accent falls on the

first

part of each beat

however, still retains the strong accent, {e) Fig. 34.


The accents in Compound time fall exactly as
(a^),

all

In simple Triple time a medium accent occurs on the third beat

59.

when

first

medium accent, on the third

{b%

(c^),

in

the

first

beat,

simple time,

Fig. 34.

Fig- 34S.
(")

accent, weak.

=^=^

(2)

in

accent, weak.

()

accent, weak, weak.

ic)

P^
(b^)

m
M.

:i

accent, weak, weak.

In
{d)

M.

accent, weak, accent, weaJk.

'

S.

M.

accent, weak, accent, weak.

i^zcz:
it

-y~-"~y -

sloti'

(c^

time.

S. accent,

weak, M. accent.

(^)

M.

^
:&
3

For further information see the author's

M.

3E
4

" Outlines of

Musical Form."

25
(^)

M.

s.

^31

M.

M.

^^^

^-

-I

ig

(a)

34
doubled

be
(see

time

counting

In

{see -Fig.

Fig. 34

simple

in

The whole-note

61.

to

the pace

If

time

and

count one

each

for

heat

number may
compound time

slow the

is

trebled

in

for the latter).

(e)

bar, Fig. 35

usual

is

it

(c)).

(b)

12

II

rest, Fig. 28, is also

used as the rest of one

Fig. 35-

^
ik:

Rests of two or more bars are generally written as in Fig. 36.


the number of bars' rest is great, it is customary to express

62.

When

this as at (a)

and

{b),

Fig. 36

Fig. 36.

The Breve

rest

or 2-bar rest.

>

20

4-

IEEI=
When

63.

following are

all

incorrectly written

24

(b)

lEl:

writing rests in Triple or in a

should be taken to begin every new

(a)

Compound

heat with a

new

time, care

Thus

rest.

the

Fig. 37

-M
;

and

(d)

{c)

(6)

ipc

K T^

fi:

&

3.)

Corrected, the above examples would be as follows

Fig. 38.
{h)

{a)

fcp

{d)

Kc)

r r~P

n r ^ r

EBBq
?h^

^-ng

64. In simple quadruple time a half-bar or two-beat rest


used at the beginning or at the end of a bar. Thus

may

Fig. 39.

Correct.

Correct.

4=prp
3bE:

^==

M:

Incorrect.

Incorrect.

V^-'ff^^
iizi

4=:

be

26
65. In Compound Time a sound equalling a whole bar in value may
be written as one note, Fig. 40 {a). Sounds of lesser value must be
arranged so as to show the beats (h) (c) (d)
:

Fig. 40.
(b)

?3-r-r?-

Hnr^tZIl

The

{d)

E^3^^=

1=21

bar at

(c)

-<-7-r-f7^

should not be written thus

^ ^

^n

because that does not show where the second beat begins.
66. The notes in the following examples are correctly grouped
according to the value of the beat
Fig. 41.

123

12

1234

1234
Note. Sometimes in |-time the eighth notes are grouped in sixes, and in
J-time they are sometimes grouped in fours, as in 2-time.

27
6j. Syncopation involves

This

hidden or false accent.

is

brought

about by emphasising the weak beats, and so causing a displacement


of the natural accent

m
Fig. 42.

[a)

{b)

()

f)

(c)

22:

When

68.

an

producing

beat, and is sustained over


thrown back on the weak beat,

a sound begins on a weak

acceyited beat,

the stress or accent

syncopation,

Fig.

42

is

(a).

when a sound begins on one bar and


Fig. 42 (b), or when a weak beat
Fig. 42

is

Syncopation also follows


tied over into another bar
tied to an accented beat

(c).

When

6g.

is

the sound begins on the second part of a

held on into the next

beat,

there

is

(5^^

and

beat,

Fig. 43

(a)

is

3Ei:

Fig. 43.

syncopation

and before the tie, bind, or ligature came


were expressed as in Fig. 44. (Compare

70. In ancient music,

into use, syncopations

Fig. 42

(b)

Fig. 44.

i ^

"r

P"

tr

Note.

The tied or syncopated note should be specially


or

often indicated by the signs

71. Slurs

may

This

is

be used in such a manner as to disturb the regular

accent, producing the effect of syncopation

Fig. 45-

emphasised.

sf, sfz, ;=-,


28

CHAPTER

VI.

UNEQUAL DIVISIONS OF
72.

Triplet is thvee notes played or

two notes of

the same

Fig. 46.

kind.

Thus

sung

TIME.
to the strict time of

29

The

duplet

is

marked with a '^,

Fig. 4..

77.

When

time, they

ii^^^

is

three, in

compound

Sextolet or Sextnplet is a

Fig. 52-

group of

5lv notes

played in the

zizi

Besides the foregoing, which are the more important of the


groupings of notes, there are many others which occur in
music, e.g.

irregidar
florid

=i p-

called a Quadruplet

time of four notes of the same kind

79.

four notes are used in place of

form what

Fig- Sc

78.

e.g.

Fig. 53-

=P=^

(i)

fi=jtp:p:5t:p:iL7i:t:pac|

-^-1
!

'
!

[-

-t

Fig. 53 (a).
Here are examples of the Quintuplet, a group of
notes played or sung to the time of four notes of the same kind*

80.
five

Fig. 53 (b) shows a group of seven notes, called a Septimole or Septolet.


They are performed in the time of six notes of the same kind.

At Fig. 53 {c) is another example of the Septolet, which should be


played or sung in the time of four notes of the same kind.


30
8i, Irregular groups of nine, ten, eleven, up to fifteen notes are
played in the time of eight of the same kind
:

82. Groups of seventeen to thirty-one notes are played in the


time of sixteen notes of the same value.
83. Music which is written in simple time may also be expressed
This
in compound time or in another smiple time, and vice-versa.

process

is

termed Time -transcription


()

Fig- 55-

(a^)

d-

=100.

:p:

(*)

;=ioo.

31

85.

The passage

Quadruple time at

at

(b)

Fig.

56

(a)

is

re-written

in

Compound

Fig. 56.

>-4^

=if=4^

^
u-

y * a
f>

r~pi
"

(&)

^^E^^^^Eg
:^cz=p

^^^zrr

thorough knowledge of the subject-matter in this Chapter


and in Chapter V. is necessary to a perfect understanding of
86.

Time-transcription.

32

CHAPTER

VII.

MAJOR SCALES AND THEIR KEY-SIGNATURES.


87.

scale

is

number

of

sounds following each other


its octave above or below.

in

alphabetical order from any note to


88.

There are two kinds

8g.

Diatonic scale

of scales, the Diatonic

consists

of

chiefly

and the Chromatic.


A Chromatic

tones.

scale consists entirely of semitones.


90. Diatonic

scales

have two forms or modes, the Major and

the Minor.
gi. In

these

which has

its

scales

own

there

are

eight

degrees or notes, each of

particular technical name, as follows

Octave, or 8th

7th

Tonic
Leading-note
Sub-mediant

Dominant
Sub-dominant
Mediant
Supertonic
Tonic, or
92. In

Key

note.

a Major scale the eight notes include

five tones

and two

semitones, the semitones falling between the 3rd and 4th and the
7th and 8th degrees of the scale

The above

scale

so-called because
93.

which
94.

Each

it

(Fig.

57)

is

the Scale of

scale takes

its

name from

is

called the Key-note or Tonic.

scale-passage of four notes

Lower Tetrachord.
(

Fig. 58.

Natural

or

scale,

consists entirely of natural or open notes.

is

II

the note on

which

called a Tetrachord

Upper Tetrachord.
1

it

begins,


34

This process

gS.

may

be rarried on through

all

the scales used.

99. It is customary to place the sharps or flats proper to any scale


or key * in regular order on the stave, immediately after the clef

beginning of a composition. These sharps or flats, so


arranged, form the key -signature, and they indicate the key in which
sign, at the

a piece
100.

written.

is

The name

of a note

may

be changed without altering

its

For example, on a pianoforte or organ E flat is the same


sound as D sharp, F is the same sound as E sharp, and C doublesharp is the same sound as D. All such are called Enharmonic

pitch.

changes or Enharmonic equivalents.

Note.
three
[see

With one exception only,

different

Fig. 61)

Fig. 61.

Bx

names.

The

each note on a pianoforte may be called by


is G sharp = A fiat, which has but two

exception

:
; :
:

35

Key
I

Key

of G.

sharp

Key

Flat Keys

Sharp Keys.

Fig. 62 (contd.).

F.

of D.

I flat

P1=

Key

2 sharps: F, C.

Key

of A.

3 sharps

F, C. G.

B.

B?.
B, E.

of E?.
3 fiats
:

^fe

B, E, A.

imznz

of Ai.
4 fiats
:

B, E. A. D.

F, C, G, D.

(")

^=

of B.
5 sharps

^ffi

Key

Key

m
1

Key

Key of E.
4 sharps

F. C. G. D. A.
Enharmonic of C7.

of

2 fiats

of F.

Key

of

:2:^

D7.

5 fiats.

B, E, A, D, G.

Enharmonic

^ti*;

of

Ci,

lElf^

24^?--

t*-J

Key

of

Key

F*

6 sharps
F, C, G, D, A, E.

Enharmonic

Key

of Gj?.

B, E, A, D. G, C.

iij*^

of FJ,

Key

of C?.
7 flats

of C^.

^
^-[T-

F. C, G, D, A, E,
of D;?.

G?.

Enharmonic

7 sharps.

Enharmonic

of

flats.

zz

B, E, A, D, G. C, F.
Enharmonic of B.

^ir^-H
:tl 9-Q-

36
loi. In the foregoing table

should be noted that each sharp hey

it

is

a perfect fifth above the one preceding

is

a perfect

sharp in the signature

each new flat

is

is

a perfect

it,

one preceding

helow the

fifth

a perfect
fifth helow

fifth above

and that each

it.

Jiat

the preceding one, and

the preceding one.

The sharps and flats in each key-signature are written


The newly added sharp or flat is placed on the
those already standing. The key-note is always one semitone

02.

definite order.

of

the last

The

added sharp, which


scales of

is

key

Similarly each new

in

right
above

the leading-note of the scale.

and C?, of C^ and D7, and of

Fi^

and G7, are

enharmonically alike in pitch.


Note.

[a)

having fewer sharps than C^* has


often used than C7

flats,

the key of

is

more

Scale of

Fig. 63.

major

Scale of

C7

major.

^w^^^^mmr^^^^b.
(b)

D7

having

fi\'e

flats, is

more frequently used than

Cjt

which has

seven sharps.
(c)

Fit (six sharps)

and

G7

(six

flats)

are

often

interchanged for

convenience' sake.

* The only two sharps or flats ever written off the stave are the Gjt in the
Treble (the third sharp used) and the F^ in the Bass (the seventh flat used). All

ethers are placed on the stave.

37

CHAPTER

VIII.

MINOR SCALES AND THEIR KEY-SIGNATURES.


The Minor

is made up of Tones and


forms of Minor Scale are in use at the
present time, one known as the Harmonic and the other as the
Melodic or Arbitrary.

103.

Two

Semitones.

104. In

Scale, like the Major,

different

the Harmonic Minor Scale the seventh sound

dentally raised, both ascending and descending.


tones, three semitones,

and an Augmented

2nd,

semitone greater than the whole -tone (^24)


Tone.

/:
P**'& "4.

Semitone. Tone.

Tone.

i.e.

a 2nd that

is

one

Semitone. Aug. 2nd. Semitone,


ri

The Augmented 2nd

is

^=^^=^=^^

Note.

acci-

is

contains three

It

i<^

:^

a chromatic interval, therefore this scale

is

not

purely diatonic.

above scale of A minor the tones fall between the


and 2nd, the 3rd and 4th, and the 4th and 5th the semitones fall
between the 2nd and 3rd, the 5th and 6th, and the 7th and 8th, The
Augmented 2nd falls between the 6th and 7th degrees.
106. In a Major Scale the third note is four semitones (a
Major 3rd) above its tonic or keynote, but in a Minor Scale the
third note is only three semitones (a Minor 3rd) above.
105. In the

ist

The

third is the characteristic note of a scale.

107. In the Melodic or Arbitrary Minor Scale the 6th and 7th
sounds are accidentally raised ascending, but in the descending scale
only the normal notes of the scale are used, that is, only the sharps


38
flats, if any, that are placed in the signature are to be used.
The
Melodic Minor Scale has five tones and two semitones. In the
above scale, Fig. 65, the semitones fall between the 2nd and 3rd and

or

7th and 8th ascending

but in the descending scale they

fall

between

the 5th and 6th and 2nd and 3rd.

Every Major Scale has its Relative Minor, and both scales have
same key-signature. Every key-signature therefore stands for
two keys one a major and the other a minor.
log. The Relative Minor of a given Major Scale is the 6th sound
108.

the

or submediant of that major scale


scale of

major, therefore

minor

i.e.,

and both keys have the same signature


Fig. 66

G
no. The minor
major

is

called

its

major.

minor.

which begins on the same note as a given

scale

Tonic Minor

(a).

The

(6).

-^9

major, the Tonic Major of

minor, the Tonic Minor of

minor.

major.

key-signature of the Tonic Minor has three more

fewer sharps than the Tonic Major


flats in

its

E major has

G major,

major, the RcLitivc Major of

Fig. 67

the 6th sound in the

one sharp

of

minor, the Relative Minor of


Fig. 66

is

-|^=pz

(a).

-^-t-=:^zz^=zl
E

the Relative iSIinor of

is

signature, therefore

four sharps in

its

its

e.g.,

Tonic

C major

flats or

three

has no sharps or

Minor has three flats;


its Tonic Minor has

signature, therefore

one sharp; G major has one sharp in its signature, therefore its
Tonic Minor has two flats in its signature, one omitted sharp being
equivalent to one added flat.


39

The

following

an example of a Major Scale (D) with

is

its

Relative and Tonic Minors:


Fig. 68

Fig. 68

{a).

Ip^ESE^ES^I

5
^

,r-

^-m
r

T^

minor, the Relative Minor of D.

Fig. 68 (0.

The

major.

gp^-^^^^^
D

III.

{b).

minor, the TowjV Minor of D.

third note in a

Mz'wr scale

is

the keynote of the Relative

Major.

Minor Scales with Sharps.


Key-signatures and
Key-notes.

Fig. 69.

C major

minor

minor

major

B minor

major

is

the Relative Minor to

minor

major

Cjt minor

major

GA

major

Fjt

minor

*D* minor

Ei7 minor, the enharmonic equivalent,

is

major

'4--

ij|

m m
"(^EMfc^iE^j'

generally used in place of

D* mmor.

40

Minor Scales with Flats.


Key-signatures and
Key-notes.

Fig. 70.

F major

minor

minor

B? major

'^

minor

E? major

'rTT'* [Trz

minor

aI?

major

fe ^JT

B7 minor

D?

major

lEKXTll:^"

G>

major

:(S'-fa?:^^=

C\f

major

fefcfc
i^ o:
-^ igrlT^

is

the Relative Minor to

tz^--

:d? -k

El7

minor

,,

A? minor

..

~
|l

Fig. 71.
l''),

4Q^r-^n^fe4^ :^=a:

:z3:

|J#:

.li^Q^^-^^^^I^

55;&fe=^;

i^hq:

r^:^^^
^tl:

single sharp
above, and cf.

KoTE. The
sharp

{see (a)

G|

is

now

considered sufficient to contradict the double-

28).

minor, the enharmonic equivalent,

is

often used in place of

A? minor :


41

CHAPTER

IX.

THE. CHROMATIC SCALE.


A

112.

Chromatic Scale consists of

semitones only.

When

the

two notes forming a semitone have two consecutive letters of the


alphabet as E-F, F^-G, G-Kj
it is called a Diatonic Semitone.
113. When the two notes forming a semitone have the same
letter-name as B-Bjf, E-Eg, G^-G it is called a Chromatic Semitone.
A Chromatic Semitone cannot occur in any Diatonic Scale.
114. There are two ways of writing the Chromatic Scale
the
Harmonic and theMelodic.

.Note. A knowledge of the correct notation, or naming of the sounds of a


Chromatic Scale, is very important to the student of Harmony.

115.

Scale

is

simple method of constructing the Harmonic Chromatic


Write the keynote, the Fifth, and Octave once,

as follows

and every other note of the scale twice (51?^ Fig. 72 (a) ). Then
add the necessary accidentals to make the scale one entirely of
semitones
Fig. 72

{see

TD

CJ'

22

Fig. 72

(b)

{a).

116.

Fig. 72

'-G&^:2^-

33

44

-t>o-i?c?^^

^Q

Fig. 73

()

Fig- 73 (*)

of C.

^1^

The Harmonic Chromatic

ascending

Harmonic Chromatic Scale

(6).

Scale

-prv-t^o

is

the

^^^g^=gzi|

same descending as

42

At Fig. 73 (a) (b) there are examples of the Descending


Harmonic Chromatic Scale of A, with and without the keysignature.
117.

The

variety of

Melodic or Avhitrayy Chromatic Scale

ways

ascending, and
Fig- 74-

the

common

flats or

practice

is

is

written in a

to use sharps or naturals

naturals descending

43

CHAPTER

X.

INTERVALS.
An

119.

Interval

the difference of pitch between any two sounds.

is

Intervals are termed 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, &c., according to the

number

of consecutive letters of the alphabet included, or according to the

number
Thus

of degrees they occupy on the stave.

the

first

Fig.

interval in

C D,

76,

includes two letters of the alphabet.

because

it

C G

a 5th, and so on

^'^g-7^-

is

includes three letters of the

2nd.

a 2nd, because

is

is

C E is a third,
alphabet.
C F is a 4th,

Similarly

3rd.

4th.

5th.

:qi

120.

Intervals up to and including the octave are called Simple

Intervals.
121. Accidentals do not alter the numerical

thus

name

of

an

interval,

()

3rd.

{/>)

Fig- 77-

the intervals

{a)

and

3rd.

ifcoi

[h) in

Fig. 77 are both 3rds, since they contain

or include three letters of the alphabet.


122.

Accidentals do

interval of the 3rd at


123. It

is

customary

being always

named

affect

(b) is

(a)

The

intervals at

{a)

of

an

interval,

thus the

{a).

(P)

3:

Fig. 78.

lov/er note.

q-aality

reckon intervals upwards, the lower note

to

first

the

greater than that at

and

{b),

Fig. 78, are both

G E,

as

is

the


44

Any interval formed by two unaltered notes of a Diatonic


termed a Diatonic Interval.
Chromatic Intervals are those that can only occur in a
125.
Chromatic Scale.
The Augmented 2nd, a Chromatic Interval, is used in the
Harmonic Minor Scale. {See 104.)
126. The ]\Iajor Scale is the standard by which the quality of an
interval in measured.
All intervals reckoned upwards, from a given keynote to any
127.
other sound in that same scale, are Major or Perfect.
128. The term Perfect, which is the equivalent of Major, is
applied to the 4th, 5th, and 8''^ only.
{See Fig. 80 and footnote.)
Taking C as a keynote, it will be found that the interval
124.

Scale

is

C D

is

C E

a Major

2nd because

D is the 2nd sound

3rd

in the scale of C.

45

There are three

131.

varieties of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th,

two of which are Diatonic, and one Chromatic

Intervals.

f-

Diminished

Perfect

Augmented

Minor

Major

Augmented

Unison.

Unison.

Unison.

2nd.

2nd.

2nd.

-%^'

-t^o-

C.

c.

C.

Diminished

Minor

Major

Diminished

Perfect

Augmented

3rd.

3rd.

3rd.

4th.

4th.

4th.

=i

ICEZ.

:tS2;

C.

Diminished

Perfect

Augmented

5th.

5th.

5tli

-^Q-

31^8
C.

Minor

Major

Augmented

Diminished

Minor

Major

6th.

6th.

6th.

7th.

7th.

7th.

Ulcz:

Diminished
8ve.

Augmented

Perfect
8ve.

8ve.

:ia2:

7th,

Table of Diatonic and Chromatic Intervals.


Those marked C are Chromatic

Fig. 80

and

Theoretically

all

intervals

may be both augmented and

diminished, but only

those in Fig. 80 are employed in harmony.


f

The

unison,

although

etigmented and diminished

not

strictly

therefore

it is

speaking

an

Interval,

is

sometimes

included in the above Table of Intervals.

46

132.

To

invert

an interval

upper, or vice-versa
(a)

(c^

(b)

Major

Perfect
Fig. 81.

to place the

is

lower note above the

id)

6th.

5th.

{.)

Augmented

Major

Minor
3rd.

5th.

3rd.

Intervals.

-?S-

Perfect

Minor

Minor

Diminished

Major

4th.

3rd.

6th.

4th.

6th.

Inversions.

Note.

'-^-

An interval

the higher note

is

made

greater

and similarly

it

by lowering the lower note or by raising


less by raising the lower note or by

made

is

lowering the higher note.

133.

An

nine, thus

interval

and

Fig. 81

(a)

its

the interval

= 9. At (b)
a 3rd, and 6 + 3 = 9. At
is a 6th, and 3 + 6=9.
4th,

and

134. All intervals,

when

the case of the Perfect

inverted

(Fig. 81.)

make up

inversion together
is

the interval
{c)

a 5th, and
is

the interval

its

a 6th, and
is

the

a 3rd, and

become

their Opposites

(b)

Major

intervals

become Minor.

{e)

Minor

Major.

[d)

Augmented

Diminished.

Diminished

Augmented.

is

inversion

its

its

inverted, change their quality

and

number

inversion

inversion

except

a
is

e.g.,

in

when

Perfect intervals remain Perfect.

(a)

The inversion of a Minor 2nd is


Augmented 6th is a Diminished 3rd

a Major 7th

the inversion of an

the inversion of a Perfect 4th

is

Perfect 5th.
135.

An

octave of sounds includes twelve semitones, and as an

mterval and

an interval

its
its

inversion together

inversion = twelve

make an

octave,

semitones.

it

follows that

47

The
in

following table will

each interval, and

Fig. 82.
Interval.

show the number

in the inversion of

of semitones contained

each interval


48

The

140.

intervals (a)

(b)

are

Fig. 83

in

{c)

they include five letters of the alphabet,

5ths because

all

irrespective of accidentals

B, C, D, E, F.
It should be remembered that the standard of measurement of an
In dealing with the
interval as to quality is the Major or Perfect.
intervals of the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th, the Major should first be found

and

with the intervals of the 4th,

in dealing

should

is

The

B.

in the scale of

B Ff

sharp, because that note

interval at

by one semitone, therefore

interval at

cancelling

and 8"% the

Perfect

be found.

first

Perfect 5th above

sound

5th,

Fig.

(b)

a diminished

is

it

By

also a diminished 5th.

is

double-sharps or

is

the fifth

smaller than

is

The

5th.

a process of

when

possible to simplify the reckoning

is

it

83

Fig. 83,

(a)

single- or

are placed beside both notes of the interval.

flats

141. If the same kind of accidental is taken away from both notes
forming an interval, the quality of that interval remains unchanged.
F at
Thus if the double-sharps are taken away from the notes
The interval at {c) Fig. 83, is a
(5) Fig. 83, the interval is the same.

is

the fifth sound in the scale of

Fig. 83,

is

a Major 3rd because

Perfect 5th because


interval

at (d)

in the scale of

The

A.

interval

at

Fig. 83,

(e)

is

The

flat.

C?^ is the third

sound

a Minor 6th,

does one semitone less than F D, the Major 6th.


142. When the lower note of a given interval is a double-sharp or
double-flat, or is a seldom-used key-note, such as C sharp or

containing as

sharp,

first

it

it

easier to determine the quality

is

finding the quality of

interval at

discovering

below,

(a)

its

inversion

its

inversion

double-flat to C,
(b)

Fig- 84.

is

Interval.

Augmented

6th.

(b)

G- A

sharp

is

readily found by

Q
^=|q:=iz=;
_a

Fig. 85.

first

Diminished 3rd.
3rd, therefore

A sharp G is a Diminished
an Augmented 2nd :

Similarly (Fig. 85)

by

the quality of the

Inversion.

From C to E Double-flat is a Diminished


flat to C is an Augmented 6th.
that

of the interval

^^^^^
(a)

e.g.,

Diminished

7th.

double-

7th, for the reason

=^=|^
Augmented 2nd.

49
143-

To

write an interval below a note

first

write the inversion of

the required interval above, and then place the note thus found an

For example,

octave lower.

a Major 6th above

flat,

it

and a Minor 3rd below

Major

n^i
Fig. 86.

Minor 3rd helow G flat, find


Major 6th above G flat is

to write a

(Fig. 86

(a) ).

flat is

flat

Minor

6th.

n-=~
M)

!?r3

(Fig. 86

{b)

3rd.

(^

-^<^-

-?s-

On the same principle, a Minor 2nd below D is C sharp, and a


Major 7th above D is also C sharp a Major 7th below E is F, and
a Minor 2nd. above E is also F a Perfect 4th beloiv B is F sharp, and
;

a Perfect 5th above


144.

The

also

is

student should

sharp.

now be

able to find the various kinds of

2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths, and 7ths in any scale

Major or Minor.
Major Scale there are seven ands, five of which
The Major 2nds fall between the i 2,
are Major and two Minor.
6
2
degrees,
and the Mmor 2nds fall between
and
5
7
4
6,
5,
3,
the 3
4 and 7 8 degrees. Similarly of the seven 3rds in a scale,
The Major 3rds fall between
three are Major and four are Minor.
7 degrees, and the Minor 3rds between the
the I
6, and 5
3, 4
2
5, 6
8, and 72 degrees.
4, 3
145.

Thus

in a

Of the seven

and

4ths, six are Perfect

,,

^ihs, six

6ths, four are

7ths, two

Note.
146. In the

,,

,,

,,

Major and

one

Augmented

of

Diminished (or Imperfect).

three

five

(or Tritone).

Minor.

"

All the Octaves are Perfect.

Harmonic Minor scale there are seven 2nds,


three Minor, and one Augmented.

three

of which are Major,



Augmented, and

between the i 2, 3 4, and


between the 2 3, 5 6, and
4
2nd
falls
between the 6 7 degrees.
Augmented
the
degrees
8
7
Similarly, of the seven 3rds of a Minor scale, three are Major
Those between the 3 5, 5 7, and 6
and four are Minor.
3, 2
degrees are Major, and those between the i
6, and
4, 4

The Major 2nds

a scale

fall

5 degrees; the Minor 2nds

fall

in

2 degrees are Minor.

Of

the seven 4ths, four are Perfect, two

Diminished.

one (7

3)

50

Of

the seven 5ths, four are Perfect, two Diminished, and one (3

7)

Augmented.

Of
Of

the seven

6t\is,

four are Major and three are Minor.

the seven yths, three are Major, three Minor, and one Diminished.

Note. All the Octaves are


147.

The Diminished

3rd,

and

its

Perfect.

Augmented

inversion, the

6th,

are pecuhar to the Chromatic Scale.


148.

An

might belong

interval

EG

This fact can be


example. The

to several scales.

demonstrated by taking the mterval

EG

as an

it has already been shown


Minor
3rds
in
Major
scale, and that these occur
a
that there
four
between the 2 4, 3 5, 6 8, and 7 2 degrees. It follows, therefore,
that any two notes forming a Minor 3rd may occupy the 2
4,
2 degrees of a Major scale.
3
5, 6
8, or 7

interval

is

a Minor 3rd, and twice

a.re


Thus the interval E G may be the

in

Major, or

3 in

Major, or

S in

Major,

in

IMajor.

Harmonic Minor

149. Again, as there are four ?\Iinor 3rds in a


scale,

and these occur between the

degrees of a scale,

That the

it

3,

150.

interval

In this

way

4,

6,

and 7

follows

E G may

be the

4
46
2
i

3 in

IMinor, or

in

IMinor, or

in

Minor,

in

Minor,

Minor 3rd

or

it

proved that the Diatonic Interval of the

is

E G, may

or

be found in eight scales

four

^lajor and

four IMinor.
151.

In Fig. 87

The
The

interval at

(a) is

intervals at

an Augmented 5th

(i) {c)

gesting the Minor scales of

The

interval at {d)

F
Fig. 8;.

is

in

jMinor.

contain hoth a sharp and a

and

an Augmented 2nd

in

double-sharp being the leading-note

iZ^|=|^^^^=|fg^E|:

flat,

sug-

respectively.

G sharp minor,
:

5t

How

152.
first

place,

to

of Semitones in a given Interval.

In the

should be remembered that intervals of the same

quality contain

contain

Number

find the

it

number of semitones i.e., all Major 6ths


all Augmented or Tritone 4ths contain

like

nine semitones

six semitones.

153. All the intervals in Fig. 88 are

but

it is

evident that

the example at

{c)

it is

Augmented
number

easier to find the

than in those at

{a)

and

{b)

Fig. 8S.

The

interval

Fig. 89.

The

semitones

()*

Fig. 90.

:*^

3450

^fi^^^^^

^-i

interval at

sharp contains six semitones

therefore the intervals at


154.

of semitones in

{c)

:JSc2i

CF

[h)

or Tritone 4ths,

[a)

(a),

and

{b)

Fig. 90,

contain six semitones.


is

a Minor 3rd, containing three

52
1^5- Where the wider intervals are concerned, it is better first to
determine the number of semitones in the inversion of the given

For example

interval.

Interval.

[a]

Fig. 92.

-f^G-

-9-Gh-

2 semitones.

10 semitones.

156. Fig. 92 [a)

shows an Interval;

It is infinitely easier to find

interval.

the inversion

{h)

Inversion.

(b)

at [h) is the inversion of that

the

than in the wide interval

number
itself

of semitones in

(a).

The

inversion

contains two semitones, therefore the original interval contains ten

semitones (135).

A compound

157.

an octave

interval

is

one

beyond

the

compass

of

Compound

interval.

Fig. 93-

A Compound

A Compound

2nd

158.

same

When

3rd

5th

the two sounds forming an interval are heard at the

When
is a Harmonic interval (Fig. 94 {a) ).
sounds are heard one after the other, the result is a

time, the result

the two

A Compound
or I2th.

or loth.

or gth.

Melodic interval (Fig. 94

{b)

Intervals,
(a)

Fig- 94-

Harmonic.

fs

(&)

Melodic.

53

CHAPTER XL
TRANSPOSITION.
159. Transposition

key or
160.

clef to another

The

means changing a piece


key or

of

following rules should be observed:


Insert the

1.

new

music from one

clef.

when

key-signature

another key.

transposing

to

separates the new


or interval
Find what distance
then raise or
transposed,
the
piece
to
be
key from the key of
lower the notes the required interval i.e., the same interval
that exists between the two key-signatures.
2.

When

3.

accidentals occur in the original, there should

same notes when transposed.


Find what effect or influence each accidental has over the
note to which it belongs in the original, and then place an
accidental that will have the same power against the
always be accidentals against the

corresponding note in the transposition.

Example I. Transpose

this

melody

key of

into the

Key F.
Fig- 95-

3
S>^E'^a^

I
:

^'tj--.

'

be found that the new key (G) is a 2nd


lower than the key of the given piece
therefore it might be transposed a 2nd higher or a
It

(i.)

will

higher or a

(F)

^^

7th

But as it is usual
lower with equal correctness.
otherwise
stated, we
unless
distance
smaller
the
choose
to
will write this example a 2nd higher.
7th

(ii.)

thus
M

Fig. 96.

Write

all

the notes a 2nd higher without accidentals,

Key G. Without

accidentals.

aS5^^^i=i^=S=g^=^S
EEE

'

54
Insert the necessary accidentals

(c)

Fig 97

With

fe

accidentals.

5^

4^

The sharp in bar one of the original piece raises the note
a semitone, so the corresponding note in the transposition
must be raised a semitone by a sharp.
(ii.) In bar two of the original the natural raises the note
B flat (note the signature flat) a semitone, so the note C in
bar tiuo of the transposition is also raised a semitone by
(i.)

means

of a sharp.

(iii.)

note

In bar three of the original piece, the fiat lowers the


a semitone, so the note E in bar three of the

transposition

Example

II.

is

also lowered a semitone

-Transpose the following a


Key

Fig- 98.

by means

2iid

lower

of a flat.

F.

^F^

The key a 2nd lower than F is E, or E flat, either of


(This power of selection holds good
which may be selected.
at all times, unless the quality of the interval is

asked

for)

Transposed into the Key E.


Fig- 99-

Example

III.

3:
32::^:

-<S>--5

-LI

Transpose the following a semitone lower

Key E.
Fig. 100.

%m%^

^"
sn

-G>-

The foregoing passage in the key of E, Fig. 93, may be


transposed a semitone lower by merely altering the keysignature and the accidental, thus
:

Transposed into the Key


Fie. loi.

flat.

'

55

Example IV. Transpose


Minor

the

Key
Fig. 102.

3i

following passage into

sharp

minor.*

liz^.";^

^n

^:

tp2Z

Transposed into the Key of

sharp minor.
'-=\-

tig. 103.

'4^^

161. In transposing

Middle

rx.

from one Clef

in all the Clefs should

Middle
Treble.

to another,

the position of

be clearly understood
C.

Tenor.

Alto.

Bass.

-o-

Tf
>

NoTE. All
Chapter

{set

I.

ri-fcr

the notes in Fig. 104 are one and the

on Staves and

Example V.
(i.)

r:;r-&

Transpose

the

(3.)

Into the

(2.)

Into the Bass Clef an Octave lower

Key B
Fig. 105.

following fragment of

same pitch;

Into the Alto Clef, at the

at a 3rd lower

"

flat.

The Maple

Leaf.

pitch

j^^Key B

melody:

Tenor Clef

'

a"i:

Alto,

same sound or

Clefs).

etc.

flat.

V=W^
Tenor, Key G.
^-^-

fe84^=i
Bass,

Fig. 108.

Key B

etc.

flat.

m^^.

^^^==z

It

==g^^^
-)

etc.

vtrt

should be taken for granted that the piece given

is

already in a Minor key.

56

Example VI. Transpose the following a 4th higher in the


Treble Clef. This fragment, written in two parts, is in the key
of C, and is placed in the Tenor Clef
:

Canada."

ty-

SI

Fig. 109.

The
than

transposition, Fig.

and

is

Fig.

162.

Some

placed

-X=:=-1r\

no,

in the

chants,

chorals,

in

is

key of

the

Treble Clef

no. YK"?-' 4e=

Major and a Minor.

etc.

^=L

^is
&c.,

The one can

will

F a

4th higher

etc.

admit of two

versions

scarcely be called a transposition

of the other.

The

one version
is an interesting specimen,
major and the other in E minor its Tonic minor

following chant

being in

Fig. III. Original Key,

Major.
J

^Mi
*^fe
-^=W'
^cL

%^^^

E.\RL OF MORNINGTON.
L

^Pi

'P"

J_Q_

-1=3: J.

"C3"

3^:

P:

-O?2-

&

&~

57
Fig. 112

Key

Earl of Mornington

Minor, the Tonic Minor Key.

r-

i^

p-r^

^m

:?=:

^^1^

-J^-

:z2:

-*g--

^=--^==^5

r-r

Note.
the scale

is

3^

It will be observed that in the Minor version, wherever the 7th of


used as an essential note of a chord it is accidentally raised.

Major key become the Minor Srd and


Minor key.
the second section of this Chant, in the Minor version,
6th of the

6th respectively of the

The Treble part of


based on the descending melodic minor scale hence the unaltered 7th
first bar of this section, which is an unessential ncte.

is

^S^B

?=:

The Major 3rd and


Minor

J=i

_0_

=L=d:

in the

18

CHAPTER

XII.

ABBREVIATIONS, PHRASING,
163.

The

following signs are used to facilitate and expedite the

work of composers and music-printers, and


and other MSS.
164. Repetitions of groups of notes

or

^S, r",

Etc.

or by the use of the

word

to

are
Siinili

condense orchestral

shown by

writing^ii

Fig. 113.

Written.

m^^^
F^

Played.

zm

J-_J

j*i<z::3

Fig. 114.

Written.

Played.

^^

4^r^

4.-^-'-=^-'

Fig. 115.

Written.

Played.

-3.

simili.

^M
^s^M^

^^

Mz^=M:

59
(a)

Written.

(b)

lib^I
yig. ii6.^

(<;)

Flayed.

Written.

4z^

Played.

Written.
(i)

:4=^

^=P-

b^EM^

:M:

Played.

?^

-4=

<>

* * g g

Fig. 117.
(a)

Written

(6)

Written.

(f)

(ft)

Written

trem.

4^^

lii
:

Played
etc.

i^^^
>

Fig. 119.

Tremolando.

Written

Played

Written.

Trem.

(or)

Tremolo.

'

<.

6o
Fig. I20.

Written.

Pianoforte.

Played.

165.

may
1

the

When

it

is

desired to repeat a note a

be expressed as at

(a)

66.

In such cases,

sum

total of all the

it

(b)

will

number

of times,

it

Fig. 116.

(d),

(c)

be seen that the note which equals

repeated notes

is

written.

The number

of

determined by a stroke or strokes written over the


whole-note or through the stem of other notes, one stroke
the 1^
reiterations

is

and two strokes


167.

= the Z

The groups

at

{b)

{a)

Fig.

{c),

117,

though

each case

Thus

necessarily written as two notes, have the value of one'only.

The

168.

abbreviation

(a)

[b)

[c)

= one whole-note.
= one half-note.
= one half-note.

Dots were formerly placed over notes

divisions into repeated


i6g.

that as

notes of lesser value

The word Tremolo


many repetitions as
The manner

171. Repeats.

possible

piece, or

and Fig.

When

indicate that the music

to

show

e.g.,

"^

their sub'=

Trein.)


signifies

should be played in the time of

(a)

{b)

).

performance for Violin, and

of

illustrated in Fig. iig

or Treniolando (abbrev.

the given note or chord (Fig. 118


170.

for Pianoforte, is

120.

dots are written before a double-bar


is

to

they
be repeated from the beginning of the

from the previous double-bar

or

Fig. 121.

172.

When

"~=

-^^^^

dots are placed after a double-bar, they indicate that

the music up to the following double-bar

Fig. 122.

is

to be repeated

6i
173. In repeating, a different

the second time of performance.


(ist timet,
in

and 2da

ending

The

volta or Seconda volta

connection with such repetitions

The

first

marked 2da
174.

ima

volta.

volta.

--^^r'-*-^^r-#

should be played instead.

a short passage which comes in the middle of a

section has to be repeated,

Us (= twice)

zda

up to the double-bar are played at the


marked \ma volta is omitted, and the bar (or bars)

volta

When

for

(2nd time) are often used

time, the notes

the bar

repetition,

'

sometimes necessary

Fig. 123.

is

signs \ma volta ox Prima volta

is

used

it is

enclosed in a bracket, and the word

Da

Capo (= from the beginning), when

Fig. 124.

The

175.

sign, D.C., or

placed at the end of a section of a composition, means that the music


is

to be repeated

from

the beginning,

and sung or played right up

to

the double-bar marked by a Pause sign r:^, or by the word Fine


(= end). Should there be any repeats in the section, they are
in the second performance.
Beethoven's Sonata Op. 27, No. 2.

5^^

disregarded

Allegretto

from

When

a repetition is not absolutely from the beginning of a


%, points out the exact position from which the repeat
The terms used to denote repeat in this case are
is to be made.
In
Segno,
and D.S., or Dal Segno (= From the sign).
al
Capo
Da
all such cases the portion is played again without observing ordinary
176.

piece, a sign,

repeat marks.
177.

The Use of

(abbrev.

pressed

The

down

the

Pedals

of the

Pianoforte.

The

word Pedal

pedal on the right should be


and held in that position until an asterisk * is reached.

Ped.)

indicates

that

the

function of this Right foot. Forte, or

Loud

pedal, is to

remove the

producing a greater or richer volume


The words Una Corda indicate
of tone as well as sustaining power.
that the pedal on the left should be pressed down, and held in that

dampers from the

position until the

strings, thus

words Tre Corde are reached.

62

(= Without
and the words

In old Pianoforte music the words Senza Sordini

178.

dampers) indicate the e^nployment of the right pedal,

Con Sordini (= With dampers) signify the

release

of the right-foot

pedal.
179.

The term Una Corda

arose from the fact that in pianofortes

mechanism governed by the left,


hammers so that they struck but one string

of older manufacture, the

or soft

pedal, shifted the

instead

of three {Tre Corde).

Con Sordino, as applied to the " string " orchestra, means playing
with the tnute, which is a simple attachment placed on the bridge of
a violin, viola, or other stringed instrument to

damp

or muffle the

tone.

music for keyboard instruments i.e., the organ, the


harmonium it is sometimes necessary to indicate
whether the right hand or the left hand should be employed.
181. The following: words and abbreviations are used for this
180. In

pianoforte, the

purpose

Italian

/ Mano Divitta
\

f
{

Mano

Sinistra

Main Droite
Main Gauche

=
=

(M.D.)
(M.S.)

=
=

R.H.
L.H.

=
=

Right hand.
Left hand.

=
=

(M.D.)
(M.G.)

=
=

R.H.
L.H.

=
=

Right hand.
Left hand.

182. When the notes of a chord are marked as at {a) {h). Fig. 125,
they should be played in Arpeggio (in a harp-like manner), as at [c),
each note being held as it is played
:

or

()

Fig. 125.

183.

note

is

The

;g
sign - or

be held

to

{c)

{:,)

B3SB:

t placed over a note or notes means that each


length, and is to be played with a firm but

its full

gentle pressure.
184. ^va (ottava alta)

written over a passage

note must be played an octave higher than

The continuance

When
word

^va

loco

is to

of ^iva

is

shown by

it

is

means

that

each

written.

dots, or

by a wavy

line.

be contradicted, and the notes played as written, the

= in the place

[i.e.,

as written)

is

used.

63
Fig. 126.
loco.

^-l^^f^
b^

Written.

Played.

32:
=t2=E

i=:

185. 8va (ottava bassa or ottava sotto)

that each note

is

to be played

used i^/ow a passage means

an octave lower than written.

Sometimes the figure 8 {not 8va) is placed over or un-.ler a note.


means that the octave above or below is to be played with
note,

i.e.,

in

octaves

Fig. 127.

It

the

64
the description
1 88. The term Phrasing may be summed up in
Musical Punctuation, as applied to the symmetrical grouping and
arrangements of musical sounds. The singer or the player who
brings into due prominence the grouping of motives, figures, or
phrases, and
is said to "

who

phrase " well.

189. Phrasing

f Staccato
or under

duly observes the proper breaks in their continuity,


indicated by various

is

^,

Legato,

etc.

marks and words, such as

curved

line ^

a series of notes of different sounds, or the

implies that the notes must be performed smoothly.


190. The word Staccato means short, detached, and
dots placed above or below the notes

is

placed over

word

Legato,

indicated by

Ficr. 128.

Another degree of Staccato

is

marked by dashes

^=M=f^

Fig. 129.

These dashes imply that the notes must be made

very

or

short,

staccatissivio.

third degree of Staccato

sign,

implies

that

Staccato

notes

the

is

a combination of the Slur, or Legato

This

and the Staccato.

should

is

called

be

the

Mezzo-Staccato,

performed

slightly,

or

and
half,

^^

Fig. 130.

tf-

When

the Staccato

and the word

simile

is

long-continued, the

first

bar only

is

marked,

= similarly, or the words Sempre staccato (= Always

Staccato) are added.


191.

made

When

notes are slurred in twos the second of each pair


and the first of each is slightly accented;

slightly staccato,

Fig- I3I'

Written.

Played.

^:^-

is


65
iy2.
stress

By
may

the use of this legato sign or slur, the natural accent or

be displaced.

example of phrasing the stress should be


under the phrase-mark or slur, instead of on
part of the ist and 3rd beats of the measure

193. In the following

placed on the
the

Fig

first

first note

132.

Accent.

194.

The

natural accent

See Chapter V. (61).

Accent.

may

also be displaced by Syncopulivn


6&

CHAPTER

XIII.

GRACES AND EMBELLISHMENTS.


195. Musical

sounds

may

be ornamented

by the addition of
which are the Appoggiatiira, the
the Gruppetto or Turn, the Trill or Shake, and the

Grace-notes or Graces, the chief of


Acciaccatnra,

Mordent or Passing-Shake.

The

196.

Appoggiatnra

{It.

Appoggiare

to

lean upon)

small note written before a principal note, from which

value

it

is

takes

a
its

Written.

Played.

It
1

in the music of the great masters of the


This grace-note usually takes one-half the time- value

chiefly found

is

8th century.

of the principal note,

and the principal note retains one-half

its

own

Fig. 134 (a) (b)).


When the principal note is dotted, the
grace-note takes two-thirds of the value away from the principal

value

(see

note, thus leaving the principal note only one-third of its original

value

(see

receives

When

Fig.

more

134
stress

(c)).

In

than the

all

cases the

principal

note

Appoggiatura itself
which follows it.

written before a chord the Appoggiatura should be played

67

with the other notes of that chord,

"exactly

embellishes

{see

Fig. 134

[d) {e)

except the note

it

Fig- 134-

[b)

(rf)

f'-)

Written.

Played.

Si-^

^^iiSii^^i
(/)

:fiz^:z=ii
^zii^t:

_-^..

:^_::

197.

An

important modification of the foregoing rules is to be


is tied to another note of less

noted i.e., when the principal note

value, the Appoggiatura receives the entire value of the principal

note
In

(5^^

Fig. 134 (/)).

modern music the appoggiatura

is

nearly always written as an

ordinary large note.


198.

The Double

Appoggiatura consists of two small grace-notes

preceding a principal note.

The

first

of these

from the principal note, but the second


below it {see Fig. 135 {a), [b), {c) ) :

is

may

be at any distance

only one degree above or

Written.

Playe_

199.

The

Acciaccattira {It. Acciacarf

with a stroke cutting through

its

stem.

= to
It

crush)

is

a small note

should be played or sung

68

and as closely as possible

AS quickly

should never be accented

{sec

Fig. 136

but

to the principal note,

(a)

it

Fig. 136.
(f)

(0)
:

fe
w

Written.

Y^

"

,A

Played.

200.

When

principal note,

2or. In

placed a semitone below the

the

Acciaccatura

it is

sometimes termed a

is

modern music a small note

beat {see Fig.


is

136

ic) ).

generally played as an

Acciaccatura.
202.

Turn, or Gruppetto ^, consists of a principal note, one

The

note above, and one note below,


203.

The speed

of the

Turn always depends on

the tempo of the

music.
204.

When

written thus

When
Fig. 137,

the
I

Turn
is

it

an

is

written thus

inverted

'^,

it is

a direct turn

placed immediately over the principal note, as at


it is

an unprepared turn

when

Turn.
[a}),

{or),

Fig. 137[d^).

;:z=i1:

Written.
Allegro.

Andante.

Played.

but
^.

when placed

after

the principal note, as at

(o), (h),

prepared Turn, and begins with the principal note:


Fig. 138.
ib)

Written.

:q:

Played.

ir^zz::

d^z::.

Fig. 138,

it is

69

A Turn

205.

is

frequently placed over or after a dotted note;

rendering generally includes a


equals the dot

Fig. 139

{see

and the

triplet,

note of the

last

its

Turn

{a), (b)

Fig. 139(a)

(b)

^=ii=g^=i

Written.

Played.

206.
(5^^

The

St^

Inverted Turn

Fig, 140, 141)

is

:t=:

the

reverse

of

the

Direct

Turn

:
Fig. 140.
(b)

Written.

Played.

Fig. 141.

^1

Written.

Played.

m''^"

will be according to the key of the


Should accidentals be necessary, they
Those written above
are written above or below the sign -w or ^
affect the higher note in the Turn, and those below affect the lower

The

207.

notes of the

Turn

piece in which they occur.

note:

Fig. 142-

Ja)
Written.

Played.

^
I

^
(b)

.
,

70

When

2o8.

an unprepared turn

with the principal note

is

preceded by a

rest, it

should begin

Fig- 143-

^.

Written.

Played.

2og.

word

The

Shake,

written

-frhzX

tr.

(an

abbreviation

of

the

Italian

shake or trill) is the rapid alternation of a principal


note with the note one degree above. The length of the shake is the
value of the principal note ; as many notes as possible should be played
trillo= a

in the time.

2IO.

The Shake

usually begins with

the

principal note

{see

If the Shake is intended to begin with the highest


Fig. 144 {a)).
note, this is generally indicated by a small note {see Fig. 144 {b)
:

Fig. 144.

W
Written.

Played.

tr

tr

fe
P^
-

I'll -^I

211.

l^ss

long Shake usually ends with a Turn, which

indicated by two small notes

Fig- 145tr

Written.

Played.

is

sometimes

71

212.

notes

(see

Prepared Shake

Fig. 146 (a\


Fig. 146.

(b)

is

one that

is

preceded by three small

(a)

^^

Written.

Played.

Fig. 146.

(6)

Written.

eIe

Played.

213.

The note above

accidental,

214.

time.

which

the principal note in a

written above the

is

Shake may occur on two

This

is

a double, or a

triple,

tv sisrn,

Turn may have an

thus

,*

or

or on three notes
shake

at the

same

tr

Si
HrFig. 147.

215.
at the

In a succession or chain of Shakes, the Turn

end of the

last

one

Fig. 14S.
tr

Written.

Played.

1^^^

tr

is

only added

72
2 1 6.

The

Passing Shake, Mordent or Pralltriller, written w", consists

of a given note

and the note one degree above, followed by the

given note.

The

two should be played very quickly, and the

first

principal note

should always receive the

accent

final

the

Fig. 149.

Written.

i
w

Played.

F^F=:ttz!^

217. The Inverted, or Lower, Mordent, written /{, consists of a


given note and one note below, followed by the given note
:

Written.

Played.

218. The Slide, Coule,


Upper Mordent {see Fig.

or

Schleifev,

151, 152):

is

somewhat akin

to

the

Fig. 151-

Written.

Played.

(6)

q5^

^H^-

Ei^Si:
Fig. 152.

i^s

Written.

Played.

i^i^

Note. For further information regarding Musical Graces, etc., see the author's
"Musical Ornaments and Graces," and their interpretation, as used by Bach,
Handel, and other composers of the 17th and i8th centuries.

73

CHAPTER

XIV.

MUSICAL TERMS.
2ig.

Many

words, mostly Italian, are used to indicate pace, force,

style, etc.
I-

Terms

upwards
Grave

denoting pa^e (beginning with the slowest, and going

to the quickest)

very slow, solemn.

Adagio"^

slowly, leisurely.

Largo

slow, broad.

(Larghettoj-

rather slow.

Lento

slow.

A ndante

going slow, but graceful.

Andantino\

not so slow as Andante.%

Moderato

moderate.

A llegro

merry,

Allegretto j-

not so fast as Allegro.

Tempo comodo
Tempo giusto
I Tempo ordinario
Vivace

fast, lively.

at a convenient pace.
in exact time.
in ordinary time.

with

life,

quick.

Con moto

with motion, quick.

Presto

fast.

[PrestissimoX

verv

fast.

* Opinions differ considerably as to the tempo of an Adagio movement.


There
no doubt that a much quicker pace obtains to-day than formerly. The same
remark applies to Andante.
t The ending -etto or -ino is called a diminutive, and it diminishes the force cf
the meaning of a word to which it is applied, e.g. La) ghetto is not so slow as Largo

is

Allegretto not so quick as Allegro


\

Anaantino not so slow as Andante.

The ending -issimo is a superlative, and corresponds to our word very.


Some authorities consider Andant'nio as being slower thaa Andante.

74
II.

Terms denoting a temporary alteration

Accelerando or

Ad libitum
A piacere
A

or ad

lib.

after a modification to return to original time.

i""

decreasing the pace and the power of the notes.

Calando
Rallentando or

Ritardando or
Slentando

vail.
rit.

Stringendo

('gradually slower.

-*

pressing or hurrying the pace.

220. Uistesso tempo

same

pace:

[at pleasure, at will.

tempo

Tempo prima or

in

increasing the pace.

accel.

="

In the same time;"

though the time-signature

in value

i.e.,

the beats to remain the

That is to
same as a J

itself is altered.

to q a J. in the latter to be the

say, in changing

from 4

in the former.

The same thmg could be expressed by J. = J


Rohhed time," i.e., the hastening or slackening

Tempo rubato =

221.

''

of the time, or dwelling

on certaui chords or notes

to

heighten the

expression.
III.

Terms relating

to degrees of loudness, softness, or


soft,

{Piano, p.

Mezzo -piano, mp

moderately

Pianissimo,

very

/Forte,
\

pp

soft,

soft,

loud.

Mezzo-forte,

[Fortissimo,

.
fp

force:

moderately loud,

mf

very loud.

loud and then soft immediately,

(gradually louder,
Crescendo,

cres.,

or -=^

iincreasmg

Decrescendo, decres..

Diminuendo, dim.

Morendo
Smorzando

in loudness.

gradually softer.

decreasing in loudness.

-dying

away

in

time and in tone.

Pevdendosi
softly, sweetly.

Dolce

ISfovzando,
Forzato, fz

Sfor sat 0,

sf,

or A

strongly accented or emphasised

forcing the tone.

sf.

The combination
known

as the

Mezza

di voce.

of these

two signs

is

75

IV. Words indicating Expression, or Style of Performance:


A,

A
A

a.t;

for

with.

church

cappella, in the

by

poco a poco, Httle

style.

httle.

Affetuoso, affectionately.

Agitato, in

an agitated manner.

Amabile, amiably.
Amorevole, Con amove, or Amoroso, lovingly.

(See Con anima.)

Animato, animated.

Appassionata, impassioned.
Arioso, in the style of

an

air or song.

Assai, very.
Attacca,

go on immediately.

Bene or Ben, well.

Ben

marked.

marcato, well

Brillante, brilliantly.

Brioso or

Con

brio,

with vigour

with brightness.

Cantabile or Cantando, in a singing style.

Col or Colla, with the.


Col arco, with the bow.

(Violin or other stringed instrument.)

Colla parte or Colla voce, the

accompanist

to

keep closely with the solo

voice or instrument.
Con, with.

Con amove, tenderly lovingly.


Con anima, with soul with feeling. (Compare Animato.)
Con hvio, with brightness vivacity.
Con delicatezza, delicately.
Con dolove or Con duolo, with grief.
Con energia, with energy or force.
Con espressione, with expression.
Con forza, with force.
Con fuoco, with fire.
Con gvazia, with grace.
Con gusto, with taste. (Compare Gnisto.)
Con moto, with motion.
Con sordino, with the mute. (Violin, Viola, or other stringed
;

ments).

Con
Con

spivito,

with

tenerezza,

spirit.

with tenderness.

instru-

76

with decision and precision.

Deciso,

Delicatamente or Delicate, delicately.

Dolce or Dolcemente, sweetly

Con

Dolente, Dolorosa,

dolore,

tenderly.

or Con duolo, with grief.

E, and.
Energico or Con energia, with energy or force.

Con

Espressivo or

Fieramente, with

espressione,

with expression.

vehement energy

with

fire.

Forza, force or emphasis.


Ftioco, fire.

Furioso, impetuously

with fury.

Giocoso, Giocosaniente, or Giojoso, jocosely

Tempo

Giusto, exact.

giusto

in

gaily.

exact or

strict time.

Glissando, a rapid slur in Violin, Viola, or other stringed instrument

playing.
Playing a rapid passage on a Pianoforte or Organ
by sliding the tips of the fingers over the keys instead of by
striking them with separate fingers.
Grandioso, grandly.
Grazioso, gracefully.
// or

La, the.

Legato, smoothly.
Leggiero, lightly.

Lusingando, soothingly

Ma,

enticingly.

but.

Maestoso, with majesty.

marked
hammered

or emphasised.

Marcato, well
Mavtellato,

Meno,

Meno

less.

Mesto, sad

mournful.

Mezzo or Mezza,
Molto,

or forced out.

Allegro, less quickly.

much;

Mezza-voce

half.

half- voice.

very.

Moto or Mosso, motion,

Meno

Mosso, less motion,

i.e.,

Non, not.
Ossia, or.

Parlando or Parlante, in a recitative or speaking style.


Pastorale, in

a quiet, pastoral

Pesante, heavily

style.

weightily.

Ptacevole, pleasantly

agreeably.

slower.

77
Piangevoh, sadly
Piu, more.

plaintively.

more motion,

Piii tnosso,

Pizzicato iPizz.), very detached.

Poco,

Poco a poco,

little.

Quasi, as

if

like

little

i.e.,

quicker.

Plucking the string


by little.

(violin, viola, &c.).

almost.

Replica, repeat.
Risoluto, boldly.

Scherzo or Scherzando, playfully.

Sempre, always.
Senza, without.
Simile, like

Senza Ped., without pedal.

in the

Soave, delicately

same

style.

gently.

Solo, alone.

Sostenuto, sustained.

a subdued manner in an undertone.


a loud, boisterous manner.
Stretto, pressing on = quicker.
Sul or Sulla, on near by.
Sul G, D,or A, play only on the G, D, or A strings
Sotfo voce, in

Strepitoso, in

Sul

Tanto, so

(violin, viola, Sec).

play near the bridge (violin, viola, &c.).

ponticello,

much.

Teneremente or Con tenerezza, tenderly.


Tenuta, Tenute, Tenuto, or Ten, hold on,

or note.
Tosto,

quick

In

modern compositions

i.e.,

it

for the full value of the

chord

often implies a slight pause.

rapid.

Tranquillo or Tranquillamente, tranquilly.

Troppo, too
Tntti, full.

Un

too much,

(Full

or Una, a

hlon troppo, not too

much.

band or chorus.)

one.

Veloce, rapidly.

Viooyo%o, vigorously.

Vivo or Con vivacitd, with vivacity; with


Volante,\Vi a light
Voltt subito or

For a
Terms.

complete
'

V .S., turn over

list

(Messrs.

life.

manner.

of Musical

Novello.l

quickly.

Terms,

see

Stainer and Barrett's Primer, " Musical

78

ADDENDUM
HOW
The

NO.

I.

TO ADD BAR-LINES AND TIME-SIGNATURES


TO A GIVEN MELODY.

following hints and suggestions will be found useful

careful study of the context will materially assist the student


to

determine the correct positions of the bar-lines.

Work backwards from

the last note,

from

i.e.,

right to

left,

instead of from left to right.

The
The

and

last bars will

following

tisually

sometimes be incomplete.

indicate Simple time

Double-dotted notes

(i.)

Fig.

first

I.

(ii.)

Fig 2

^-

ZZ5=it

:z2i

Groups

of

two or four equal

?^

:4:

1^=^

IPZIZE

|.

2:

notes'''

^m

(b)

r2Z

'SJr^:.

B2E
(iii.)

Two

Four notes

beat, are often

Fig.

4-

or

more half-notes

when preceded by a
Compound time

of equal value

found

in

in succession

rest,

the whole forming a

etc

79

The

following usually indicate

(i.)

^'^' ^'

Dotted notes

_____

^">

Compound time

tied to shorter notes

zM^^^dz

^-

^-n

(6)

ES

li
P^

(ii.)

*"

-1

s>
1-

etc.

Successive dotted notes or repetitions of unequal notes, the


second being one half the value of the first
:

(a)

Fig.

6.

-m

I^H

i^

K^)

S^

-jct.

The following also usually indicate Compound


may indicate simple triple time

time, but

they

(i.)

Groups

of three notes of equal value*

Fig. 7.

-=^

^W=i

* Three notes of equal value, when preceded by a rest of


used in simple Duple, or Quadruple time

like value, are often

Fig.

S.

z2l

SE :p=p:

r-

H-

3^

qzTL- etc.


8o
(ii.)

Groups

Fig. 9.
()

?i-iF^>=<^

:*= T-ZT

-9q

of six notes of equal value

(b)

11

ee:3


8i

Bar-lines are often


or separate

members

drawn through a

tie,

of a group of notes

but not through a note,

(a)

Fig. 14-

(b)

^s^M=*=*a5

W=^

Correct.

(0

:?^E
Incorrect.

Incorrect.


83

ADDENDUM

NO.

II.

TO FIND THE KEY OF A GIVEN MELODY.


A THOROUGH
is

knowledge of the number ana names of sharps and

belong to the various keys

flats that

The

note representing the Major Scale with the greatest

of sharps or the least

example

Of

three only,

Of

number

has

and the scale of

the notes

the scale of

of flats,

flat,

five sharps,

flat,

has but one

number
For

the sharpest note.

is

the notes A, B, C, the note

because the scale of

absolutely necessary, as also

is

the ability to recognise the sharpest note.

is

the sharpest note,

whereas the scale of

has

none.

and F, the note F is the sharpest, as


whereas the scales of E flat and

flat,

have three and six flats respectively. Also F is a natural


and a natural note is sharper (or higher) than a flat note.
It is a simple matter to prove which of two notes with doublesharps or double-flats is the sharper by cancelling the double-sharps
or double-flats as the case may be, and then finding the sharper of
flat

note,

the two natural notes, thus


beside

Fx and

Cx.

it

will

two, and therefore Cx

is

two notes

Similarly, of the

After cancelling the double-sharps

be found that C
sharper than Fx.
Fl7t>

and

is

Ct?t>,

the sharper note of the

the sharper

is Ct>>.

The first note will probably be either the ionic, mediant,


The final note will be either the tonic, mediant, or, less

or dominant
frequently,

the dominant.

The

The
sharpest note will most probably be the leading-note.
is the same in both major and minor keys, and is

leading-note

always a semitone below the


Intervals of the

tonic.

Augmented 2nd and Diminished

inversions, are characteristic of a minor key

Fig.

4
z:

,
f

<2

m^=:^=i

4th,

and

^_ ^

K*-,

Q-

their

83
F, C, G,

be

in

are the

first

all natural notes,

these are

a sharp key

Now B

four sharps used in music.

In Fig.

therefore the key of this melody cannot

major or minor.

natural

is

the sharpest note present, suggesting that

it

might be the leading-note in the key of C. This idea is strengthened


by the fact that E, the first note, is the third of C major, and the
The A flat is a chromatic
last note is the fifth of the scale of C.
note.

In Fig.

2,

sharpest note,

between

the

key, and the

natural shows that this piece

natural shows that


G^i ascending

G^ and F

the

first

collectively, sure signs of the

Fig. 2.

^^

to

note

A
A

key of

^i"^

:G^

it

is

the

flat

key.

The

diminished 7th existing

and the
minor

not in a sharp

is

not in a

last

note

are, taken

E^

The predominance of flats in Fig. 3 naturally suggests a flat key.


This idea is strengthened by the fact that the first note is B!? (the
The Augmented 2nd, E? F** in bar
first flat used in music).
No. I, and the Bi7 F^ in bar No. 3, suggest the minor key of G
with two flats Fjt being its leading note. The melody begins on
the 3rd and ends on the tonic of the key of G minor

Fig. 3.

^i=^^^^=p^

=p=^

^^

"

84

PART

II. HARMONY.

CHAPTER

XV.

DEFINITIONS AND TRIADS.


223.

Melody

a well-ordered succession of single sounds, of

is

varied pitch and rhythm.


224.

Harmony

the art of classifying and arranging

is

sounds,

according to the rules of musical grammar.


225.

The word Hartnony

also implies the combination of different

sounds.
226.

A Part is

the series of sounds performed by each voice or

instrument (Fig. 153


Fig- 153.

Harmony

in

{a), (b),

Two

(c)):

Harmony

Parts.

(a)

in

(b)

" Scots,

Three Parts.
" Vive la Canadienne.

wha hae."

Harmony

in Four Parts.
" A la claire fontaine."

etc.

227.

Chord

(Fig. 154(a),

is

a combination of at least

three different

(&)):*

{b}

_(^^)

Fig- 154-

One

of these notes

is

sometimes omitted.

sounds

228.

and

Common

Chord-''

Perfect 5th (Fig. 155

a note with

is

(a), (b)

Major

its

Minor 3rd

or

(b)

()

Fig. 155-

Major. Minor.

229.

Triad

is

a note with

its

3rd and 5th, Fig. 156

There are four kinds

of Triads

Augmented, and the Diminished

_^g

J^

^\^

The Major

and

Common

are

(b)

the Major, the Minor, the

Fig- 157(a)

(b))

:8=i

Fig. 156.

230.

(a),

(dh

9.B-orzz^

Chords.

Triad consists of a Major 3rd and a Perfect 5th

(Fig. 157 (o)).

Minor Triad consists of a Minor 3rd and a Perfect 5th


(Fig. 157

An

{b) ).

Augmented Triad consists of a Major 3rd and an Augmented


5th (Fig. 157

{c) ).

Diminished Triad consists of a Minor 3rd and a Diminished 5th


(Fig. 157 (^))-

Note From

the above

Triads are not

all

231.

Common

Concord

is

it

is

evident that

all

Common Chords

are Triads, but

Chords.

chord

consisting

entirely

of

consonant

intervals (136).

232. Concords are more or less satisfactory in themselves, and do


not necessarily require any other chord or chords to follow them.

Common

Chords

{i.e.,

the Major and

Minor Triads) are Concords

all

other combinations are Discords.


233.

The

Root of a Chord

is

3rd above 3rd, and after which


called the
*

Some

four notes,

Common Chord

of

the note on which a Chord


it

is

named.

is built,

Thus, Fig. 154

(a) is

F or F Major.
"Common Chord"

theorists apply the term


made up of the ist, 3rd, 5th,

and octave.

only to a chord of

86
234' Since a
only,

Common Chord

chord

{see

Chord

of

Fig. 158

with

(a)

its

three notes

three notes

termed doubling one of the notes of a


(b) the Common
the Common Chord of F

This

must be used twice.

is made up of
Harmony one of these

or a Triad

clear that in Four-part

it is

is

root doubled)

Fig. 158.
(c)

(b)

-Jdr

fczi^izz
As a rule, the best note to double in a Common Chord is the
and the next best is the 5th. The 3rd of a Minor Common
Chord {i.e., one with a Minor 3rd from the Root) may be doubled
{see Fig. 158 (c)), but the Major 3rd of a chord, except under
235.

root,

conditions to be hereafter explained (252), should not be

certain

doubled.

The Triad on this note


Note. The leading-note should not be doubled.
demands special treatment, which will be dealt with in a succeeding chapter.
236.

The

5th of a chord

may be

omitted

Fig. 159-

i
Se^
237.

Chords may be written

extended harmony.
part

harmony

harmony, or

in

lie

When

either

in

close

harmony

or

in

the three upper notes of a chord in four-

close together,

a close position

{see

the chord
Fig. 160

said to be in close

is
{a)

Extended Harmony.

Close Harmony.

SZT-

Fig. 160.

In extended harmony, the parts are further apart from each


i.e., in an extended position {see Fig. 160 {b) ).

other,

87

The

238.

so

as

far

best disposition of the notes of a chord

equal

at

possible,

is

to place

from each

distances

them,

other

{see

Fig. 161 (a)):


(a)

(b)

I
Fig. 161.

m
If this is not practicable,

s^;

ICZL

then the widest interval should be, so far

as possible, between the lower parts

P
Fig. 162,

j^.

Note.

In Fig.

161

(a)

Common Chord

the

of

(No.

i) is

written with

The same chord may be written with the 3rd or


any other part as may be most convenient {see Fig. 162).

the highest part.


highest, or

C m

5th in the

239. The following example shows that a Triad may be written


upon every degree of a Major Scale
:

23456
Major Scale of C.

Fig. 163.

Triad

Tonic

Quality

Major.

Mediant. Subdominant. Dominant. Submediant. Leading.note.

Supertonic.

Minor.

Minor.

Major.

Major.

Minor.

Diminished.

Of the first six, three are Major and three Minor Common Chords.
The one on the seventh degree is a diminished Triad.
The Triads on the Mediant and Leading -note are rarely used in their
direct position.

Similarly a Triad

Scale

may

be written on every degree of a Minor

Minor Scale of

C.

Fig. 164.
Tonic.

Supertonic.

Mediant. Subdominant. Dominant. Submediant. Leading-Note.

xlt
Quality

Minor.

S;
Diminished. Augmented.

Minor.

^
Major.

-O
Major.

Tl

<^

Diminished

Tl

Of these, two are Major and two are Minor Common Chords.
The Triads on the Supertonic and Leading-note are Diminished,
that on the

Mediant being Augmented.


the Mediant Triad are rarely used

The two Diminished Triads and


in their direct position.

240. The Primary Common Chords are those on the Tonic,


Dominant, and Subdominant.
These are written in the order of
their relative importance.

Common

Chords are termed Secondary Common Chords.


are the more important, as they define
and maintain the key the Secondary Triads exert only a secondary
All other
241.

The Primary Triads


;

influence in defining the key.

89

CHAPTER

XVI.

TRIADS IN SUCCESSION.
Two

242.

three

more notes

or

of a chord

may

succeed each other

in

ways :

Fig. 165.

Similar motion.

(a)

(6)

Contrary motion,

{c)

Oblique motion.

3^i

CT
(a)

When

(b)

When

two or more parts move

in the

same

direction, they

are said to be in Similar motion.

two or more parts move

in opposite directions,

they

are in Contrary motion.

When

{c)

one or

stationary, the

more parts move and another remains


movement is known as Oblique motion.

Note. In part-writing too much Similar motion is not good. It should rather
be used as a contrast to Contrary and Oblique motion. In arranging successions of
chords, the student should vary the kind of motion as much as possible.

When

a part moves up or down by the interval of a 2nd,


Step ; but when a part moves up or down by an
interval greater than a 2nd, it is said to move by Skip or Leap,
243.

it is

said to

move by

The former
movement

is

called

Conjunct

movement, and the

latter Disjunct

Conjunct movement.
Fig. 166.

^r

Disjunct movement.

22:

3=S

244. Those chords follow each other best and easiest that have
one or more notes in common. For example, the note G belongs
both to the chord of C and to that of G {see Fig. 167 {a) )
:

^^W^^^^
Fig. 167.

j^

90

These chords follow each other with good


have the connecting link of a note or notes

All chords that

effect.

common

in

are termed

Conjunct chords.

Those chords which have


Disjunct chords

a note

not

common

in

termed

are

ih) ).

When

245.
it is

Fig. 167

{see

two Conjunct chords follow each other consecutively,


is common to them in the
with the other parts moving as conjunctly as possible

generally best to keep the note that

same

part,

(a)

{c)

=P

Fig. 168.

-^-

:gr

--g:

m:
:?2:

(a)

The chord
note

of

is

kept

is

followed by the chord of


in

same part

the

the

common
The

of both chords.

Treble and Alto parts move Conjunctly.


(i)

The chord
notes

of

A minor

is

E, which are

followed by the chord of C.

common

to

The

both chords, are kept in

the Alto and Treble of both chords.

The Tenor moves

Conjunctly.
[c]

The chord
kept

of

is

followed by the chord of

Alto part.

in the

both C's are

The Treble and Tenor

parts

move

Conjunctly.

In the use of Disjunct Triads it will be found necessary to move


one or more parts in Contrary motion and by Skip, in order to
avoid some grammatical error (252).
246.

Two

parts

must not

overlap

()

i
Fig. 169.

:::rzt=:


91
(a)

The

Alto and Tenor parts overlap because the C of the


in chord No. i is higher than the Alto of the next

Tenor
chord.
(b)

The Treble and


chord No.

in

No two

;247.

parts

consecutive chords.
or Parallel 5ths'^

Alto parts overlap because the Treble part


lower than the Alto in chord No. i.

2 is

may move up or down in Perfect 5ths in


Such progressions are termed Consecutive 5ths,

{)

{c)

(*)

-r-^-

"C?=~

Fig. 170.

=^
(a)

Forbidden Consecutive 5ths occur between the Tenor and


Bass parts.

The Consecutive

(b)

=gg=:=S

5ths between the extreme parts

{i.e.,

the

highest and lowest), and the Consecutive 5ths between the

Treble and Alto parts, are equally forbidden.

The

(c)

repetition of the same 5ths, as for

the Treble and Alto parts,

example those between

quite allowable.

is

when one

248. Consecutive 5ths are allowed

Diminished or Imperfect 5th

is

a Perfect 5th and

Fig. 171 (a)).

These,
however, should only be used between the inner [i.e., Alto and
Tenor) parts, or between the upper and one of the inner parts
the other

a.

(see

Good.

(a)

(b)

Bad.

=S=^

--^'

Fig. 171-

=r

3Zt.
1

The
extreme

student
parts

is

recommended

and

between

to

the

avoid these 5ths between the

Bass

and an

mner

part

{see

Fig. 171 {b)).


* Consecutive Perfect 4ths axe not permitted

between the Bass and an upper part.

92

No

two parts may move up or down in Perfect Octaves in


consecutive chords. Such progressions are termed Consecutive Octaves,
249-

or Parallel Octaves
(o)

{see

Fig. 170

{b)

The Consecutive Octaves between

the extreme parts are

forbidden.
{h)

The Consecutive Octaves between

the Alto and Bass are

equally forbidden.
250. Consecutive unisons are to be avoided {see Fig. 172 (a)), Treble

and Alto parts. The Unison when followed by an Octave


be avoided [see Fig. 172 {b) )

is

also to

ib)

()

3^E^=|=

Fig. 172.

251. Fifths, Octaves, and Unisons are not considered to be


Consecutives unless they occur between the satne parts. Thus, in

Fig. 173, the 5th between the Bass and Tenor of the first chord,
and the 5th between the Bass and Alto of the second chord, are
quite correct because they do not occur between the same two
parts

Correct.

^^^^
Fig. 173-

zct

m:

Note. ^Accidentals should be approached and left with the greatest possible
i.e., by Step of a Major or Minor 2nd when possible.
The parts should not
move by awkward Leaps such as the Major 7th or 9th, or by Augmented intervals.
If not used too frequently, the Leap of a Diminished 5th, 4th, or 7th is quite

care,

allowable.

These, however, are better descending than ascending, especially

case of the 4th or 7th.

by returning

In

all

in the

cases the Diminished interval should resolve

to a note within the Skip

(see

Fig. 174

(ii.).

itself

93
252.

The two most

of the Dotninant

and

difficult

Triads to use successively are those

Stibmediant

of a Minor Scale.

Triads follow or precede each other,

it

is

When

these

necessary, in order that

bad Skips of melody and consecutives may be avoided, to double the


Major 3rd (235, 245) of the Submediant Triad, and to move one
or more parts in Contrary motion or by Skip {see Fig. 174 (iii.) the
progression at (0) is correct, but that at {b) has an Augmented
2nd in the Alto part, and Consecutive 5ths between the Tenor and
;

Bass

parts)

{b)

()

I
Fig. 174.

^:

(d)

:^

ri

A
^

BEp

(ii.)

P=

Fig. 174.

(i.)

St
Fig. 174.

-o

{c)

(iii.)

=P2I

94

sharp or

in the
to

flat

is

in the

same

To

(Alto) part.

produce False Relation

Bad.
()

i
Fig- 175-

Note.

next chord, both notes must be in the

In the following example the

Alto part.

There

are

and the

flat

should be

separate these two Chromatic Notes

W^^

is

Good.
jC^I

-ct.

numerous exceptions to the above rule respecting False


is recommended to adhere to the strict rule and not to

Relation, but the student

confuse his mind with exceptions. When the rules are thoroughly learnt
a comparatively easy matter to deal with exceptions.

it

will

be


95

CHAPTER
TRIADS IN SUCCESSION

XVII.

FIGURED

{continued).

BASS,

SEQUENCES.
A

254.

chord

is

said to be in

when the root is in the bass,


Hence all the chords of C in

its Original,

Direct, or Root position

the lowest part, regardless of pitch.

i.e.,

Fig. 174

(i.)

are in the Original or Root

position.

Note.

The nature of

upper notes

[see

Fig. 174

each chord
(i.)

{a),

{b),

When some other note than


be

to

A
is

Fig. 176,
the

[d),

(/).

the Root

is

in the bass,

a chord

is

said

Inverted.

255.

chord

not affected by the varied positions of the

is
(c),

3rd,

Triad has two Inversions.

in the bass,
is
is

it is

the First Inversion of the


the

bass-note.

placed in the upper parts

When

the 3rd of the original

called a First Inversion.

The

common

The chord

at {a)

chord of C, because E,
remaining notes of the chord are

{see also {b), {c)

96
Inversion of the

common

The remaining

note.

parts

{see also (b), {c), (d)

Fig. 177.

chord of C, because G,

the ^th, is the bass-

notes of the chord are placed in the upper


:

(i.)

(b)

M)

=*F
Fig. 177.

{d)

^^-

~p=^-

(iii.)

n^cJ:

1=^-

5^

|5

b'7

257. Figured Bass, or Thorough Bass,

is

a system of expressing

notes by figures, added to a given Bass-part.

It

has been aptly

described as " a kind of musical short-hand."

The

figures used simply indicate the interval or distance of each

note from the bass-note.


258. All the examples in Fig. 174 (i.) would be figured
each contains a 3rd and a 5th from the bass-note.

Any of the

following represent a Direct Triad

not necessary to figure a Triad in


another chord on the same bass-note, or

It is

259.

there

is

after

it

{see

Fig. 177

(ii.)),

because

3, |, |, 8, g,

its direct
its

g,

*,

3_

form unless

octave, before or

or unless a note requires to be accidentally

altered.

Note.

When an accidental

is

placed before a figure, thus, 3^5, 77, it indicates


by the figure should be raised or lowered a

that the particular note represented

semitone

{see

Fig. 177

(iii.),

when placed below a note,

(a)

[bj

but an accidental without a figure beside it,


from the bass-note (see Fig. 177 (iii.) (c) ).

affects the 3rd

Stroke through a figure

{6,

4.)

affected should be raised a semitone.

implies that the particular note

97
260. Although the highest figure

usually placed uppermost,

is

it

does not follow that the note represented by that figure should occupy
the highest place in the chord.

Note.

When any note of

is

superfluous.

a chord

duplicated,

is

For example: the

this in the figuring.

first

is is

In the same Fig., chord No. 2

is

show

not necessary to

chord of Fig. 177


figured

|,

(ii.) is

figured

and not

e,

the

although

there are two 6ths in the chord.

The following chords in Fig. 178 are First Inversions


common chord of C, and are figured , because the
and C are a 3rd and a 6th above the bass-note

261.
of the

(255)

notes

Fig. 178.

-J

0-

2i:

W=^
A
and

First Inversion
it is

is

--i^-

commonly "known

as "the Chord of the 6th"

usually figured " 6 " only.

Second Inversions (255) of the


are
figured
and
common chord of C,
|, because the notes C and E
are a 4th and 6th above the bass-note
262. In Fig. 179 the chords are

Fig. 179.

22;

-o
6

Second Inversion

263.

The

is

figured or |.

rules for doubling, in the case of the direct

apply equally to First Inversions.


the root, and the next best is the 5th.

(235),
still

Inversion should not be doubled

chord

is

minor

it

may

be doubled.

if

common

chord

The best note to double is


The bass-note of a First

the chord

is

major, but

if

the

98
264.

The

bass-note of First Inversions of Secondary Triads

may

be doubled freely.

Second Inversions, the best note to double is the 5th (277).


Diminished Triad on the leading-note demands

265. In

266.

The

exceptional

treatment.

when

Inversion,

it is

It

is

rarely

used

except in

best to double the bass-note

Fig. 180.

its

First

{b)

(a)

i^^^^
1=^-=:^

:?2:ii4=

A.
-^=1.

The apparent root which is the leading-note must not be doubled.


The 3rd from the bass of a First Inversion of any Diminished
Triad should generally move down one degree {see Fig. 180 {h) ).
267. All the Triads of the Major Scale may be used in their First
Inversion

Major Key.

Fig. 181.

4=^
First
Inversions.

-&.

^t^-

Triad on

The Triads

of the Tonic, Supertonic,

Submediant and leading-note


Fig. 182.

Triad

in

Subdominant, Dominant,
may be used :^

a Minor Scale

Minor Key.

on^C

Note. -The treatment of the Mediant chord is best deferred until the student
has gained more experience in Harmonic construction.
268.

Sequence

Harmony on

is

the repetition of a progression of

Melody

different degrees of the scale or in a different key.

or

99

26g.

Melodic Sequence

Fig. 183.

^m

Harmonic Sequence

Fig. 184.

is

repetitions are in

one for two or more parts

etc.

Real or Chromatic Sequences.

Model

W
An

of

Fig. 184 (a)*

272.

etc.

-^

-^
^=fl

-jpr-

is

sometimes termed

Rosalia.

Sequential Progression will often justify the use of chords

positions

Note.

-d.

ascending Real Sequence

271.

make

^a^S^^
A

(see

3t=t:

all in the same key


a tonal one {see Fig. 184 {a) (6)); but when the
different keys the Sequence is a Real or Chromatic

Fig. 185.

or

^m

m-

the repetitions of a Sequence are

the Sequence

one

is

Tonal or Diatonic Sequences.

When

270.

one for a single voice or instrument

is

chords that

otherwise

might

be

objectionable

).

The original model should be quite free from blemish of any kind.
When

one part moves

in

Sequence

it is

generally advisable to

the other parts Sequential.

273.

The

extreme parts

unison by similar motion.


Consecutives.

may

not

move

to

an octave, 5th, or
is termed Hidden

Such a progression

By

filling in

octave

the missing notes in the part that Skips, the 5th. or

discovered

is

Hidden

Hidden

5ths.

8ves.

Fig. 186.

Hidden Consecutives are objectionable only between the extreme


parts.

exceptions are in progressions from


Dominant, or vice-versa {see Fig. 187 (a), (b) ) or from
to Subdominant, or vice-versa (see Fig. 187 (c), (d)), on
One other
condition that the higher extreme part moves by Step.
exception should be mentioned, e.g., Hidden Octaves may occur
274.

Tonic
Tonic

The more important

to

between

same chord

different positions of the

{see

Fig. 187 (e)):

Allowable Hidden Consecutives.

Fig. 187.
(a)

(^)

(')

jH"^-iG'-

(^

a^EE

()

:J^n

:r^

-^=i=i

275.

When

bass, the

6ths

another part
3rd

:22:i^

two or more

22^;

Chords follow each other on a scale

should be kept in the highest part, the 3rds in


in the

remaining part

should be alternately doubled

the root and

5th, or root

and

(a)

J:

r-F

-ih^~

m=it^

?^3^

gj

J^

m-

The

consecutive perfect 4ths between the two highest parts are


It is only when they exist between the bass and an upper

allowed.

part that they are prohibited.

Care must be taken not

to

double the leading-note.

The sequential character of such a passage justifies the occasional


awkward Skips and Doublings of the Major 3rd that sometimes
appear.
Note.
ascending

The
than

in

alternate

Doubling of root and 3rd

descending passages.

is

more

often

found

in

102

CHAPTER

XVIII.

TRIADS IN THEIR SECOND INVERSIONS.


276.

As already has been explained

Common Chord

a Triad or
I

(256) the

has the 5th

in the

Second Inversion
bass and

is

of

figured

or 6 ( 262).

The most generally used chords of the | in both Major and


Minor Keys are those of the three Primary Triads the Tonic, the
Dominant, and the Subdominant:

Tonic.

Dominant.

Subdominant.

()

Fig. li

Other Second Inversions are but rarely used, while they are often
would do well to give attention
solely to the above-named.

of doubtful effect, so that the student

277. The Second Inversions of the Tonic (a) and Subdominant {h)
Chords may be followed by dived chords on the same bass-note or
its

octave

{c)

Subdominant.

Tonic.

M)

_,

d=fl

^=-

^I

Tonic.

fo_j_
-I ft

Fig. 190.
zcr_

'-^'-

The bass note of a f i.e., the 5th of the root, should be doubled
The I should always be on a stronger beat of the bar than the ^
,

I03

that follows
should go to

and when a ^ is thus followed by a


and the 4 to 3, the bass note being doubled

it,*

^
in

the 6

both

chords.
278.

286)

(see

cadential

one that

^s

precedes

cadence

perfect

:
;-^-^-

:=qr

--^
Fig. 192.

:g:

^=F-

279.

5>

followed by a chord upon a conjunct bass-note,

termed a Passing
of a bar

^.

It

is

most frequently occurs on a weak beat

34-

i 2^=2:

etc.

Fig- 193-

^S
280.

//o?/

(i.)

(ii.)

When

apply

By
By

^(3

-g:

^_
:p:

approach a 2 chord.

It

may

a chord on the same bass-note


Step from another chord

(see

Inversion of another chord

[see

be approached
(see

Fig. 194)

Fig. 193), or from a First


Fig. 194)
;

another chord precedes the ^ on the same bass, this rule does not

:
Good.
-:=\-

3
W^0=i
Fig. 191.

-J-

m-

^
5

I04
(iii.)

By Leap from

another chord

in

form

direct

its

Fig. 195), or from another position of the


{see Fig. 196)

{see

same chord

i:=i^

Fig. 195-

Fig. 194.

.c^.

-^-?2:

{b)

5i
Fig. 196.

^ 4 i

Fig. 197.

..

:?2:

281.
(i

How to leave a
By a chord

,)

(o), {c)

(iii

.)

By

.)

The

32:

..^P2_

^ Chord.

It

may

be

left

on the same bass-note or

its

octave, Fig. igo,

or

a chord one degree above or below, Fig. 197


bass-note of a second inversion

more notes

of the

when

same chord

in

may move

{a), {b).

to

one or

Arpeggio, provided that

the chord changes it, at last, returns to the note


which originally had the %, or to a note one degree
above or below it
:

Fig. 198.


105
.

282.

The

only case

when

when two

chords can follow each other

the ^ chord of the

succession

is

that of the

Subdominant

Dominant precedes

in

or follows

Fig. 199.

Care must be taken not

to

move

in

consecutive 4ths with the

bass.

When

is followed by a common chord on the same bass,


customary to figure both chords (see Fig. 190.)
283. Hidden Octaves are allowed between the extreme parts when
approaching a f chord

or

its

a f chord

octave,

it is

Fig. 200.
(( );

Q ^: ^^pr-


io6

CHAPTER

XIX.

CADENCES.
A

Being
Cadence is the last two chords of a musical phrase.
284.
the last progression of a melody, it is sometimes termed a Close,

Cadences somewhat resemble the

\-arious

marks

of punctuation, as

used in reading.
285.

Cadences are of two kmds, Final and Middle Cadences.

Final Cadences, or Full Closes, suggest the end of a complete sentence,


Of these, there are two kinds, the Perfect and the
or section.

Both are formed of Primary Triads only.


Perfect Cadence is a progression from the chord of the
Dominant to that of the Tonic, both chords being in their original

Plagal.
286.

The

position

{see

Figs. 201, 202)

(g)

Perfect
Cadence.

Interrupted
Fig. 201.
I

Cadence.

'

J^2:

22:

M:

ia)

ib)

Perfect

Inverted
Fig. 202.

Cadence.

Cadence.
|

w-

-G>

Gh-

j:2.

^
m.
This Cadence

is

known

as the Authentic Cadence.

-^

ro7
287. In a progression from Dominant to Tonic, the leading-note
must always ascend one degree to the tonic {see Figs. 201 {b), 202 {b)).
288. The Plagal Cadence is a progression from the chord of the
Subdominant to that of the Tonic, both chords being in their direct
position

Plagal Cadences.
In

In
or

major.

C major
C minor.

In

minor.

'Si

Fig. 203.

This Cadence is also known as a Perfect Cadence. In modern


music the Plagal Cadence usually follows a Perfect (Authentic)
Cadence, hence

it

is

often called the Added Cadence.

use in Church music too, has earned for

it

Its

frequent

the term Cadenza +

Cappella, or Church Cadence.


289.
finality,

Middle Cadences are inconclusive in their effect and lack


therefore they cannot be used at the end of an important

section or

movement

of a composition.

The Middle Cadences might

be compared to the colon, semi-colon, or the comma, in reading and


writing.

The Middle Cadences are


290. The Imperfect or Half-Cadence, which
:

is

a progression from

the chord of the Tonic to that of the Dominant, being the exact

opposite to the Perfect Cadence

(see

Fig. 204 {a)):

{b)

()

Fig. 204.

Imperfect.
I

ic*-

JZti

m:
*

'M

122:

In rare cases the Subdominant Chord in a Plagal Cadence in a .Minor

made Major.
t The word

'

'

Cadenza

'
'

is

Key

is

also applied to an ad libitum passage of a florid

character, introduced into concertos, vocal

and other compositions.

"

io8
291. The Interrupted, False, or Deceptive Cadence is a progression
from the Dominant chord to some chord other than the Tonic
chord generally to the Submedient {see Figs. 201 {a), 205 (a) )

minor.

(b)

ia]

Fig. 205.
j

Interrupted.

^^^

231

m--

ipz:

292. A Mixed Cadence is a progression from the Subdominant


chord to that of the Dominant chord {see Fig. 206 {a) )

i^

Fig. 206.

1^)
,

minor.

=e

^Sg

zi:

=^*-U^

-ci

-d

@:

:?2=^

one of the two chords forming a Perfect Cadence is


is called an Inverted Cadence.
Inverted Cadence can only be used as a Middle Cadence,

293. If

inverted, the cadence

An
{see

Fig. 207

{a)

(a)

Fig. 207.

Inverted

(b)
j

Cadence,

:^

4=

294. The above melodies are written in the familiar


known as a Single Chant.
Each is divisible into two phrases, the first ending with

Cadence and the second with a Perfect Cadence.


Note.

In Final Cadences the chords are

all in their direct

form.

"

Form

a Middle

I09

Points to be carefully observed in the above illustrations are

That

most cases, three of the four parts in each cadence


and the final chord is complete. This is
very desirable whenever possible.
In Fig. 207 the melody of the final cadence, falling as it does
from the Supertonic to the Tonic, makes it necessary for the two
parts to Skip, and leaves the final chord without its 5th.
(i.)

in

move

(ii.)

conjunctly,

In the Mixed Cadence at Fig. 206

Cadence

at Fig. 205

move one

necessary to

by Skip (245),

to

(a),

and

as the Bass

[a],

in the Interrupted

moves by Step

it is

by contrary motion and


avoid bad progressions that would otherof the parts

wise arise (252).


(iii.)

The Middle Cadence

in Fig. 208 (o) is a progression from


a First Inversion of the Subdominant to the Dominant

chord.

The

final

highest part

Perfect Cadence ends with the 3rd in the

this is satisfactory, but. not so definite

when

conclusive in effect as

Tonic

{see

Fig. 208

{b)

the

and

highest part has the

ia)

(b)
1

Inverted

Fig. 208.

Mixed Cadence

2izzt
I

(iv.)

The Tonic chord

minor,

is

chord, with

here
its

of

the

that this effect

{see

its

i?:^

32;
23Z

Fig. 209

accidentally raised 3rd,

had

Z^

Plagal Cadence, in the key of

made Major

"Tiferce de Picardie," or

is

"Picardy 3rd,"

it

* See also Fig. 203, Plagal

Cadences No.

2.

as the

being alleged

origin in that Province

Fig. 209.

This

(b) ).*

known
:

(v.)

The
Fig.

progression of the leading-note to the Tonic, as in


206,

satisfactory

is

of

paramount

position

for

The most

importance.
leading-note

the

in

a Perfect

Cadence is in the highest part, when it proceeds upwards


to the Tonic {see Figs. 202 (b) and 206 (b) ).
(vi.)

After a Perfect Cadence the Plagal Cadence

may

be used

over a sustained tonic bass, and the notes of the cadential

chords

may

be

in

any position

(1)

Perfect Cadence.l

3^3^

3:^:

Plagal.

:=1:
-(S-

Fig. 210.

_Q
:f2:

or

{b)

Plagal.

P=

_Q


Ill

CHAPTER

XX.

THE DOMINANT SEVENTH, PASSING-NOTES,

Etc.

The Chord of the Dominant Seventh is constructed on the 5th


Dominant of a scale. From the root upwards it consists of a
Major 3rd, a Perfect 5th, and a Minor 7th* (the 5th is sometimes
295.

or

omitted)

Fig. 211.

Dominant
Root

7th.

Key C

296. This very important chord


of

intervals are dissonant.

its

is

a discord (136), because some

The

interval existing

root and the 7th, and the interval between the 3rd

between the
and the 7th,

are both dissonant.


297.

key

The Dominant

7th

is

the

same

in the

Major as

in the

Minor

Fig.
(a)

Root G,

Key C.

jOl.

Root G,
Key C minor.

l^==l
#

-JZt~

discord having a Major 3rd, a Perfect 5th, and a Minor 7th

Fundamental Discord.

is

known

as a


112

In the Minor key


the chord

{see

necessary accidentally to raise the 3rd of

is

it

Figs. 212 and 213)

The Dominant

7th in

^m

minor and Inversions, resolved on

22:

:ci:

Tonic.

ES

=ci:

Fig. 213.

-^-

its

--g--

_ci-

*6

*4

298.

discord

is

not satisfactory in

chord or chords to follow

Chord of Resolution

itself,

The chord

it.

but requires some other

that follows

it is

termed the

Fig. 214.

Tonic.

(a)

Tonic.

(b)

3t
'^

no:
i

-s>-

The Dominant seventh


in

C major and
C minor.

.Q-

^^H

gig
7

299.

The most

the chord of

its

natural

tonic

{see

chord to follow the Dominant 7th

Fig. 214).

note, should descend one degree

should ascend one degree.

termed

7th,

the 3rd, which

These two

notes of fixed progression

The

which
is

is

is

the flattest

the sharpest note,

notes, the 7th

and the

3rd, are

the other notes are free to

move

conveniently to notes of the Chord of Resolution {see Fig. 214).


300. In order that consecutive 5ths may be avoided, it is necessary
to

omit the 5th

in the

Chord of Resolution

[see

Fig. 214 (a)).

omitted in the Dominant 7th, then the Chord of


If the 5th
Resolution can be made complete :
is

Fig. 215.

113
'

Neither of the two notes of fixed progression should be doubled.

The

301.

full figuring of

of the lower figures, 5 or

the
3,

Dominant

7th

is 5,

but one or both

are usually omitted, the figure 7 being

considered sufficient.

302.

chord of the Dominant 7th has three inversions

(rt)

Direct
form.

(M

{d)

(c)

^^=S"

-0-7

Fig. 216.

6
4
3

Roots

(o)
(h)

The Dominant 7th in its root


The First Inversion with the
5th and

7th above,

position in the key of G.

3rd in the bass, and the root,

figured

figure

(the

usually

is

omitted),

The Second

(c)

3rd,

Inversion with the 5th in the bass, and the root,

and 7th above, figured

(the figure

usually

is

omitted).
{d)

The Third
root, 3rd

omitted).

that the

Inversion with the 7th in the bass, and the

and 5th above, figured

As

Chord

Note. When resolving

Chord

of Resolution

the 7th can only

may

of Resolution

must be

the Inversions of a

be

made complete

[see

(6)

P^=Q^

E^ ^=:g=:
"cr

Fig. 217.

-Q.

(i?h.)

Roots

in

is

usually

it

follows

4 (the figure

fall one degree,

an inverted

position.

Dominant 7th on the Tonic the


Figs. 213
{c)

=S^

and

217)

114

The Dominant 7th may be resolved on the Submediant


The notes of fixed progression must move as before, i.e.,

303.

chord.
the 3rd

must ascend one degree and the 7th must descend one

degree.

To

avoid consecutives, or bad Leaps, the 3rd in the Chord of

Resolution must be doubled

Fig. 218.

n ^

Fig. 219.

{see

Figs. 218, 219)

lis

Care should be taken


{see Fig. 220 (b)).

progression

in this

avoid an

to

oblique-

unison*

One

305.

position

of

the

follow another position of the

properly resolved

Dominant 7th may immediately


same chord, provided that the last is

(a)

(b)

d:

--gr

^_

dzz

exception to this rule

precede the direct form

is

when

must not
moves up one degree

that the last inversion

bass

the

Fig. 221 (&)).

{see

Note.
note

The

root of a

Dominant 7th

is

a Major 3rd below the sharpest

Sharpest note

v\g. 222.

a_ij.

The

7th

Sharpest note E.
(o

=^

x:fti

--%^
Root

306.

Sharpest note C.

sharp.

()

-^Q-

Root

may move

termed a Deferred Resolution

Root

flat

another note (the root, or 5th) of

to

the same chord before proceeding to


is

Not good.
-

:?2:

'ig. 221.

The

ff

its

Chord

of Resolution.

This

^^
-0-

Fig. 223.

To

proceed from a 2nd to a unison

oblique unison.

is

bad.

This progression

is

termed an

ii6

Here further reference must be made


Thorough Bass figuring.

307.

to the lines of continuation

as used in
It

should be distinctly understood that the lines which are drawn

more bass notes mean

horizontally under one or

chord over the

or lines extend

that the notes of the

bass note must be retained as far as the line

first
{see

The

Fig. 198).

sustained or repeated in the

same

^:
Fig. 224.

notes of this chord

or diflferent parts

may

be

i 3:
J-

^h
308. Passing-notes are passing or transient discords, being foreign
to the

harmony

{i.e.,

Fig. 225 passes from the


in the
harmony note

essential notes,

harmony note C
chord of F.

the passing-note

i^

They

chord) against which they are written.

The

pass from one harmony note to another.

is

in the

Fig. 225.^

Chromatic passing-notes.

chord of

The harmony

unessential

treble note

in

to the

notes are

Accented passing-notes
(= appoggiaturas).
*
*

most frequently on the unaccented part


occur on the accented beat, and they
are nearly always quitted by the Step of a 2nd.
310. When two passing-notes are used in succession they should
proceed in the same direction until a harmony note is reached
When an unessential note one degree above or
[see Fig. 226 {a)).
below returns to the harmony note, it is termed an Auxiliary Note
{see Fig. 226 {b) )
309. Passing-notes occur

of the measure, but they

may

117
311. Passing-notes do not save consecutives.

does not justify the consecutive octaves C-C,

Fig. 227.

The
A-A

passing-note

^^=^=^
-j^
!Bad.

ZSr/rzU

When

312.
is placed under the bass that
descends by Step from the Dominant to the Subdominant, the last

inversion of

resolved

a line of continuation

Dominant 7th

results,

and

this discord

must be

d:

5:
Fig. 228.

j^

:y^ Q

The corresponding
passing note

-:

note in the following example

is

merely a

i
w^
Fig. 229

j=L

E
313.

notes

The two lines of continuation in Fig. 230 imply that the two
and C (= ^) of the common chord must be sustained while

7, making a complete Dominant 7th and followed by


Chord of Resolution

the 8 goes to
its

('0

Fig. 230.

i
m^

^^
JCL

8
5
3

ii8

The Dominant

314.

common

7th can be used instead of the

a Perfect Authentic Cadence. It may also


any inverted cadence
be used in the Interrupted Cadence, or
having dominant harmony for the first of the two chords forming the

chord of the dominant

in

cadence, provided
315. Fig.

resolution of the

chapter.

of this

inversion
stationary

of

it

has a satisfactory

gives an

231

resolution.

of

illustration

a less frequently used

Dominant 7th than those discussed in the first part


Here the Dominant 7th is followed by an
subdominant

the

chord,

Fig, 231.

with

the

7th

remaining

-Igl-S--

316.

mental

Formerly

it

discords.

was considered necessary to Prepare all fundapreparation is meant the hearing of the

By

dissonant note as an essential note in the previous chord


Fig. 232, the

note

F m

the Alto of the

of the second chord

first

e.g.,

in

chord prepares the dissonant

Bz
Fig. 232.

jzL
^m--

:?2:

317. This preparation, although no longer necessary

where funda-

mental discords are concerned, ensures a smoothness which

is

very

desirable in part-writing.
318.

The

5th in the mediant chord, and the 4th in a f

are often most effective

Triad,

when prepared.

119

A note must not proceed by Similar Motion


octave on which the discord resolves:

319its

Fig- 233,

320.

When

consecutive
objectionable

the

4ths

to the note

or

i^

second of two 4ths is an Augmented


between the bass and upper part are

3:
Fig- 234-

K=(S=(i

4th,

not

CHAPTER

XXI.

MODULATION.
321.

Changes

composition rarely remains in the original key throughout.


key are made by the introduction of necessary accidentals.

of

This changing from one key to another is called Modulation. The


smoothest and simplest Modulation is to a related key.
322. The keys directly related to a given key are (i.) that with
the same key- signature, and (ii.) those whose key-signatures have one
sharp or flat more, or one sharp or flat less.
For example, the key of G major w4th one sharp will be related
(i.) to the key of E minor with one sharp, (ii.) to the key of D major
and B minor, both with two sharps, and to C major and A minor,
both without sharp or
Again, the scale of

fiat.

C major

(i.)

to

to

(ii.),

F major and D minor

minor, with neither sharp nor flat, is related


major and E minor with one sharp, and to

with one

flat.

above relative (sometimes called Attendant


or Auxiliary) keys is termed Natural Modulation.
324. Modulation to distant or unrelated keys is called Extraneous
or Chromatic Modulation, and when Modulation is effected by
enharmonically changing (100) one or more notes of a chord it is
323. Modulation to the

called Enharmonic Modulation.

Natural Modulation only will be considered here.


325. At least two chords are necessary to establish a new key, and
one of these must be the common chord of the new Dominant, or of

some other form


326.

When

chord which
is

sudden

is

Dominant Harmony.

of

the

Modulating

immediately

chord

follows

characteristic of the original key, the

Sudden Modulation.
Fig. 235.
to
ya)

major.

{b)

;=t:

v^

T-

to

minor.

some

Modulation

(c)

to

minor.

{d)

i =e^w^
^^

to

minor.

(e)

JSI

Fig. 235.

The modulating chord

(o)

of

of

of

of

gradual

is

the

Dominant

When

of the key

7th of the key

is

the

Dominant 7th

of the

key

is

the

Dominant 7th

of the

key

minor.

of the key of

common

Dominant 7th

minor.

The modulating chord

(e)

327.

the

minor.

The modulating chord

(d)

are

is

The modulating chord

(c)

major.

major.

The modulating chord

(b)

-A

P2;

to

W^

Ei^

JZl.
:j2:

is

the

Dominant Common Chord

major.

the Modulating chord follows a chord or chords which

both to the original and the

new

key, the Modulation

Gradual Modulation.
(a)

to

i^

major.

(b)

^
C

to

major.

^*

Fig. 236.

-PZ
6
4,

P3-

3^

is

(c)

to

Fig. 236.

minor.

(a)

(b)

(c)

{d}

Note.

minor.

chord.

The chords

The chords

of

common

both
(/)

of A minor, which is common to both C


and G, precedes the modulating chord (326).
The chord of F major, which is common to both C
and F, precedes the modulating chord, which is in
two positions.
The chord of A minor which is common to both C and
A minor, precedes the modulating chord, which is a

are
(e)

to

The chord

common
(d)

of

C and

and

to both

minor, the latter in 5 form,


minor.

C and E

major and

minor are common

to

minor.

This movement of a chromatic semitone down to the


Minor 6th of the new scale is a most effective
method of approaching a modulation from a Major
key to its Supertonic Minor.

Gradual Modulation

The chord

of the

is

preferable to Sudden.

Dominant 7th

is of the greatest value for


modulating purposes, because it so clearly defines a key.
329. The first Modulation from a Major key is usually to that of the
Dominant, and from a minor key to the Relative Major.
A careful study of the foregoing should enable the student to

328.

recognise natural modulations wherever they occur.

123

CHAPTER

XXII.

HINTS ON THE HARMONIZATION OF A SIMPLE

MELODY.
330. In Figs. 163, 164

formed

show
the

it

of notes of that key.

was seen

The

that the Triads of a

that each note of a scale placed in the upper part

accompanied by

three

Dominant

of the

different

5th

or

3rd,

root,

may

be either

therefore each note can be


a Triad
distinct harmonies, and by utilising the chord
of

7th, certain

harmonies

key were
however

illustrations in Fig. 237,

notes

may

be accompanied by four

Fig. 237.

ra

:Sz=rzS:
22:
Roots:

G>


124
It is desirable,

33 1-

when adding

select the best chord possible for

the chords selected

may

notes to a melody, not only to


each note of the melody, but that

follow each other satisfactorily.

332, All the triads of a scale

may

be used in their

excepting the Diminished triads and the INIediant


triads

may

triad.

root position,

The available

succeed each other in any order, except that the chord on


may not precede the chord on the ist (the

the 2nd (the Supertonic)


tonic)

triad

and the triad on the 5th (the Dominant)*


on the 4th (the Subdominant)
;

may

Not good.

it^r^
Fig. 238.

Not good.

not precede the

125

A melody usually ends upon its Tonic the last note, however,
might be the Mediant or Dominant {su Figs. 201, 208, 210 (c)).
The first note of a melody that begins on an accented beat,
336.
will generally be harmonized by a tonic chord.
337. Melodies that begin on a weak beat will often commence
with a dominant chord, especially if that melody note is repeated
;

Fig. 240.

338. It

is

good

for a

melody note

to leap

up or down,

to another

note of the same harmony, when the bass remains stationary.


first chord must be on the stronger, i.e., accented beat*

The

Fig. 241.

(P)

w^

{c)

SH^^
i^sEB

'^--

JQZT-

This point, however,

is

often disregarded at the beginning of a sentence

-=^-

I
Fig. 242

^3^a=
!

etc.
i

I
I

^1:

/^

r-"^

126
339- It

is

good

also

for a

The

over a stationary bass.

The

first

340.

melody

to

move from

may

be

5 6

chord must be on the accented beat

When

a melody note

is

repeated,

by another position of the same chord

it

or ^

{see

5 to 6 or 6 to 5
^, or vice-versa.

Fig. 241

(b) (c) ).

can often be harmonized

^
Fig- 243-

has already been shown,

341. It

disposition

and

ZZiL

S^PS

in

progression of the notes in

the utmost importance

the

mode

of

Chapter XIX., that

the

a Perfect Cadence are of

approaching this Cadence

is

hardly of less importance.


342.

chord of the Tonic root often precedes the Perfect

Cadence, and this generally happens when the melody descends,


scale-wise, through the Supertonic to the Tonic {see Fig. 244

when

the

and back

melody descends from the Tonic


to the

Tonic

{see

Fig. 244

(&)

to the

{a)

or

leading-note,

(b)

* ^=^

i
Fig. 244.

343.

When

the

moves upwards

to

melody leaps
it

to a Perfect cadence, or

when

it

by Step, the notes preceding the cadence may

127

be harmonized with especially good


triad in the ^ or position

by using the supertonic

&

P- J

effect

Fig- 245-

r-

~p:

EEE
8

nni
v

-I

-Ci

:j2z:=::

-h8

The chords of

Subdominant or Submediant may sometimes be

the

employed instead of the Supertonic.


344.

the

Perfect cadence should not be weakened by anticipating

Avoid dominant harmony

Dominant harmony*.

approach to a Perfect cadence

-^
'

the near

Good,

Bad.

in

1^

:4
nrpr

m-^-

Fig. 246.

-J-

^iif3:

345.

Two

full closes,

-i-

J
231

i.e..

Perfect cadences, should not appear in

same phrase {see Fig. 247 {a) ). If it is considered necessary to


use Dominant harmony followed by Tonic harmony when nearing
the

the Perfect cadence, the chords should be inverted [see Fig. 247

{b) ),

128
but

it

more desirable

infinitely

is

harmonies

to substitute a

new harmocy

or

(b)

(a)

Fig. 247.

Good.

Better.

Bad.

(c

'^

r-iS--

J."^
ElEES

^EE^

=T"

etc,

etc.
I

g;

Each note of a Dominant 7th may be placed in the melody,


however, being taken to resolve the notes of fixed progression

346.
care,

correctly

Fig. 248.

The melody

(a)

note

flat is

the 7th, and

it

resolves correctly

on A.

The melody

ih)

note

is

3rd or sharpest note, and

it

does not resolve at once, but

it

the

resolves correctly on F,

The melody

(c)

{d)

note

flat

leaps to another note of the same chord, which resolves


correctly on F, whilst the 7th reappears in the Tenor.

The melody
This

is

bears a

note

is

flat,

the 7th, which ascends one degree.

quite permissible, as the bass note of the discord


4,

and

it

ascends one degree to the First Inversion

of the tonic (304).

129

This could not be harmonized as a Dominant 7th, as the


following notes in the melody do not admit of a satisfactory

{e)

resolution.

The example at /
B flat. The E

(/")

deferred

Fig. 248) modulates to the key of

flat

is

final

the

7th,

chord

is

sometimes called an ornamental or a

It

the

until

{see

will not

the resolution being

reached.

This

is

deferred resolution.

be necessary to give further examples to show the

value of the Dominant 7th chord in harmonizing a melody.

In the harmonization
347. Passing-notes and syncopation in melody.
more florid character, it is not desirable

of melodic passages of a
that every note should

have a separate harmony, as over-harmoniza-

tion tends to triviality.

348. Generally speaking, there should not be

more chords than

beats to a measure.

The

introduction of passing-notes enriches a melody and

makes

it

less formal.

At

In Fig. 249 (a), (b), the passing-notes are marked with an asterisk.
[b) the lower parts move, and so mark the beginning of the second

Notice that the passing-notes move conjunctly

beat of the bar.

Fig. 249.

Fig. 250 gives an example of syncopation, the

going

in the Alto,

of the Triplet

is

Tenor, and Bass parts.

an auxiliary note

in-j^^j
Fig. 250.

movement being kept

Note that the middle note

ISO
Fig. 251, bar No.

i,

The rhythm

melody.

gives a further example of syncopation in the


is

kept up in the lower parts

3^

i
W^Fig. 251.

-^

Si*:

1^

Note.
(a)

In Fig. 252 the C in the melody

cadential

B,

is

a passing-note, joining

the melody leaps from the 3rd of the scale to the Tonic.

melody

in this case,

is

generally accompanied by a

^
a 6, the 7th

and 3rd resolving

B to

This

D.

less

At
used

Dominant ^ making with the note


.

in the usual

manner*;

(a)

Fig. 252.

349.

When

that note

is

two

sets of figures are placed

below a bass note and


by the figures takes

dotted, the first chord represented

the value of the Note, and the second takes the value of the

When

three sets of figures are

dot.

placed below a dotted note, each chord

takes a third of that dotted note.

When

an undotted bass note has three sets of figures placed


two of these sets of figures are placed close together,
signifying that half the value of the note is given to two of the
chords, and that the other half of the value of the note is given to
350.

below

it,

the third chord, thus

g^

Also

3>

'"'

known

as a

43*

Dominant

13th.

Ui

TESTS ON THE RUDIMENTS

OF MUSIC.
PAPER
1.

No.

I.

Define Stave, Clef, and Bar.

Write the Treble and Bass Clefs. Give their respective names
and name the lines on which they are written.
2.
3.

4.

Name

the letters of the Musical Alphabet.

What is meant by Pitch ?


Name the notes written on the third and fifth lines of the Bass
Name the fourth and fifth lines of the Treble Stave.
Stave.

5.

Why are

6.

Name

7.

'

'

Notes made of

different shapes

the different kinds of

Time

Write and name the four most important kinds


music. What is meant by the relative values

of
of

Notes used in
Notes ? Give

illustrations.
8.

Why

9.

What Note
?
Ledger Line below the Treble Stave ?

are Ledger Lines used

first

is

written on the

Define Tone, Semitone, and Scale.

Write the Ascending Scale

of C,

on both Treble and Bass Staves.

10.

Write the following Signs, and explain


ih), a Sharp; [c], a Pause.

11.

Give the meaning of

12.

What

is

Crescendo,

a Tetrachord

their use:

and of Diminuendo.

(a),

a Flat;

13?

PAPER
1.

Name

Note which

the

that
2.

What

3.

Write the Note that

4.

What
and

What

6.

Are

all

What

sl

Rest

(b)

an Interval

of a scale
8.

What

effect

9.

Name

the

belong

a Time-Signature

State the

What

Accent

is

number

of beats in ^, ^,

the value of the Beat in

the Steps in a Scale of the

is

and the note

flat,

meant by a Diatonic
7.

(b)

time respectively.

is (a)

E tlat.

equal to four quarter-notes.

a Pulse or Beat?

each case
5.

is

II.

a semitone above

a Key-Signature

is (a)

is

is

a semitone below

is

No.

same

size

Explain what

Scale.

What

from the highest

interval separates the lowest note


?

has a Dot when placed beside a note

first

is

Flat used in music.

To which

scale

ID.

Write the Key-Signature

11.

How many

12.

Why

of the Scale

flat.

Sixteenth Notes equal a dotted half-note

are Double-bars used?

does

it

PAPER
1.

What

2.

When

Simple Time

is (a)

number

33

No.

(b)

III.

Compound Time?
and thirty-second notes

of eighth, sixteenth,

follow each other consecutively

than to write each note separately.

you form each group?

better

to group

them

On what

principle

would

is

it

by taking

Illustrate

|,

j^q,

|,

and

I time.
3.

Write the key-signature and scale of


the Scale Semitones

4.

How many
fall

5.

What

is

an Interval

6.

Major, and mark where

by an X.

Tones are there in a

Comment on

Interval

fall

Major

scale

Where do

they

the term " Relative Major."


?

Simple Interval

Compound

Write a Major 2nd and 7th above

flat,

and a Minor 6th

above A.
7.

The

notes A, B,

sharp, D, form

scales does this Tetrachord belong

a Tetrachord

8.

Write a Chromatic Semitone above and below E.

g.

Give the meaning

Write Rests of one, two, and three

11.

What

a Triplet?

Name

eighth notes.
\2.

What

is

to

which

of Rallentando.

10.

is

the Great Stave?

bars.

one note that equals a Triplet

of

134

PAPER
1.

What

2.

Write an example

is

above B,
3.

What

" Inverting

meant by the term


of a

No. IV.

Minor

6th,

an interval

Major

"

and Perfect 5th

7th,

Invert them, and state the result.

are Consonant or Concordant Intervals

Give a

list

of

these.
4.

What

is

a Chromatic Scale

Scales of
5.

What

6.

Name

C and

Write the Harmonic Chromatic

E.

Clef other than the


the note on the

and

first line

Clefs

is

used

of the Treble, Alto, Tenor,

and

Bass staves respectively.


7.

How many
many

8.

What

is

Semitones are contained

are there in

its

Inversion

the effect of a Double-Sharp and of a Double-Flat

might be given

10.

What

is

a Duplet

How many
1^2

How

Write a double-sharp beside C, and

g.

a Major 3rd

in

to that sound
?

what

other

in |

and ^q time.

accents are there in each bar of ^, C, 0^

11.

What

12.

Give the meanings

^q, and

a Tie or Bind

13. Insert the correct

names

on a pianoforte.

Give examples

time respectively
is (a)

state

of Allegro

ih)

Slur

and Largo.

Time and Key-Signatures

to the following:

135

PAPER
r.

2.

Write a Minor 2nd and Major 3rd above and below B.

What

is

4th
3.

What
and

4.

No. V,

(a)

Transposition

(d)

an Arpeggio

(b)

Middle

an Imperfect

(c)

the value in beats of a dotted quarter-note, in \, \, \


g time respectively.

is

Write a

list

of

Chromatic Intervals.

Give the number of semi-

tones in each.
5.

6.

What

is

meant by

a Relative Minor Scale

(h)

a Tonic Minor

Write the Tonic and Relative Minor Scales of

Scale

and

flat

{a)

flat.

Explain the differences that exist between the Harmonic Minor,

and the Melodic or Arbitrary Minor Scales.

minor

7.

Analyse the scale of

8.

Write a 5th above

9.

How is a Repeat marked

Harmonic form.

then raise the lower note a semitone.

flat,

State the result.


?

What

is

meant by

placed over the notes on the stave


loco, his,

and

10.

11.

Write

a Direct Turn,

Unprepared Turn,
12.

8''*

higher "

when

sf.

The word "Pianoforte" is made up


What are their meanings ?
(o)

"

Give the meanings of

(d)

Explain Presto; M.D.

{b)

of

two

a Passing Shake,

an Appoggiatura,

M.G.; Ped.

{e)

Italian

{c)

words.

an Inverted

an Acciaccatura.

V.S.;

and Con

sordini,

Senza Sordini.
13.

Name

the

Key and

the

Time

in

which the following

^j^r=#^

is

written


136

PAPER
1.

What

is

Syncopation

No. VI.

Write an example

another example in ^ time.


I time, and
2. Transpose the two bars of melody below
Clef at the
(c)

pitch,

into the Treble

(a)

Tenor a 2nd lower


Re-write the same piece

the

into

(b)

Bass a Minor 6th lower.

into the

in I time

same

of Syncopation in

:-

--=t

:?2:

122:

-\

3.

4.

5.

What interval is it from G double-sharp to E double-sharp ?


What interval is it from C sharp to E flat, and from D flat
toB?
Comment on " Enharmonic Change," " Harmonic Interval,"
"Melodic Interval," " Sextolet," " Phrasmg," "Tempo
Rubato," and " Una Corda."

How many

Give the meaning of Staccato.


are there ?
Give examples.

What

6.

What

7.

Write a 6th on every degree

is

a Breve

kinds of Staccato

does " Alia Breve "

mean

of the Scale of E,

on every degree of the Scale

of

C Minor

and write a 7th

Name

(Harmonic).

the quality of each interval.


8.

g.

Write the Minor Melodic Scale which has F double-sharp for


its Leading- Note, and write the Major Scale having E as its
Dominant,

Give the meaning


Vocal Score "

10.

of Fine
"

D.C.

Rhythm

"
;

" Short-score "

Coda

"

Duple Time."

Name

(-)^
-t^

^f^^EEE

--^

4-=

XOL

^^m^^

^-

W:

(0

Open

the Keys in which the following are written, adding TimeSignatures where necessary
:

{i>)

"

ip *

-JiML

:fct

SEfe

137

PAPER
Where do

1.

^ time

the Accents

What

is

No. VII.

in the following ^, |, *, C, },

fall

the value of a heat in the foregoing

Transpose the following into the key of

2.

key of

flat

7th lower, and write

it

melody

the

Tenor Clef a 4th higher

flat

Write a short explanation

of the

6.

in

Minor, and into

-^^^^

Great Stave, and point out the

relationship between the various five-line

been used

Bass a

^^^^B2 ^^m^^^5.

the

into

in ^ time.

Transpose the following into the key of

4.

sharp and into the

Transpose the above fragment of

3.

and

staves that have

Vocal and Instrumental music.

Write one bar each

of

^q,

|,

\,

and ^^ using three


,

rests of

various kinds and not more than four notes in each case.
7.

Write a Harmonic Chromatic Scale from

flat,

and a Melodic

Chromatic Scale from D.


8.

What

9.

In what

is

a Metronome

Time and Keys


-

f-l

*^fe

l
I

Explain

its

use.

are the following written

138

PAPER
the

Insert

Time-Signatures and Key-Signatures to

proper

following

No. VIII.

Sir

the

-tJf2-

js-*

Si^^^^^fEE-^
h

i?y= j

l?#^

Hubert Parry.

^t=^

:IJri

?e:-^

^Elr^^EE^^^

^<S>-ii

lld

i^

bir

-J^-

Charles V. Stanford.

^ ==r=?=^^^=i^^^^^fe^T^3;M
Sir

:1^=

^=^^

^- p*

j^^z

'^

Arthur Sullivan.

Coleridge-Taylor.
.

^IztZi

IT

Sir Frederick Bridge.

fr^f,

.'
.

* r
-fc?

>^

g=r"^'g?''^'*P=^ -*

^-^

-<9-

::p^3czz^

:t=:

Sir Frederic

^gf:^r^^;_^=^^

Cowen.

139

TESTS ON HARMONY.
PAPER
Comment on

the following

No.

I.

Chord,

Discord, Concord, Triad.

Give one example of each in the key of B Minor.


Write four kinds of Triads on E. When is a Triad in
or original position
3-

its

direct

meant by the Inversion of a Common Chord ? Write


Common Chord on E flat and its Inversions.
Write the Dominant 7th in G and 01 G. What is the difference
between the two ? Compare Common Chord and Triad.
Define " Cadence " or " Close." Are all the notes in a Perfect

What

is

a direct Minor

4-

5-

Cadence, or Full Close, free


6.

7-

What
What

is

a Melody

is

What

is

in their

movement

Modulation

Explain.

a Half-Cadence or Imperfect Cadence

Complete

the harmonization of the chant, Fig. 202, and Figure the


Bass of every chord.
8.

Add

Treble, Alto, and Tenor parts to the following Figured

Basses

^m

2*r

()

5
3
(259-)

:?z:

-Q-

122:

-^

m
O

(347-

I-

#
{a

Get movement by repeating the higher notes

in

a different

position.
(b)

When

the Bass

otherwise

moves by

Step, special care

is

necessary

consecutives or other faulty progressions

will arise (252).


{c)

Grammatical errors can be readily detected by testing


the
(3)
(4)

Parts thus:
Treble - Bass,
Tenor-Bass.

(i)
(4)

Treble- Alto,

Alto

Tenor,

(2)

Treble-Tenor,

(5)

Alto - Bass,

I4<^

PAPER
I,

No.

II.

three parts above this Figured Bass

Add

(349)

E3^

^3:

:^

^E
6

m ^H 5654
6

3432

(350-;

^=P=S^

:^=p:

- =

izit.

z^=P

t;4

565
343

t>5

2.

Complete Chants

3.

Which

Figs. 201, 204, and 205.

note of the scale of

a Primary Triad
4.

Minor

a suitable chord

before

suitable chords after

may

a Dominant Seventh be used

6.

Give an exceptional resolution

Write the

last

Major and
8.

Harmonize

this

of the

Modulate from

Major.

Write

chord of G.

and write one or two equally

it,

In which Cadences

7.

common

it.

5.

Is that

Write the Second Inversion of the

key of

Submediant

is its

Inversion

Minor.

melody.

of

the

Dominant Seventh

to

Dominant Seventh

Resolve them

in

Figure the Bass

in the

Minor.
in

two ways.
:

Slowly.

^3=E

:p::^

-1=

4=

t--

To E

To B fiat.

flat.

iti^^rpis:

SE
9.

Write the

:!2*:

-h-

last

Use open
ID.

From

Inversion of the Dominant Seventh in

flat.

score.

the Treble clef-line write an ascending scale of G, one

octave.

Write

these correctly.

in

time, using eighth notes only.

Group

141

PAPER
I.

Define " Sequence," and

making

it

sequential in

justify

3.

Give rules

4.

Add

Modulate from

its

to

vocal score

minor

in

Major.

Dominant Seventh.

Write

four positions in the key of

Give roots

flat.

of every

Harmonize the following melody

in

Write

Minor.

in

open

"1-

^^
^
6.

Write an Augmented Triad on

7.

What

8.

Add

are

some

sharp.

of the features of a

good melody

three parts below the following melody.

in bars

te

in the scale of

Minor

three parts to the following melody.

chord used

any progressions that would

for the resolution of the

a Dominant Seventh in

Figured Bass,

Write the two Diminished Triads


four parts.

following

the parts, for several bars

otherwise be questionable

5.

III.

up the

fill

all

Does Sequential Movement


2.

No.

^ZTLZ

i, 2,

and

:=t

Use

three

chords

14-

PAPER
Do

the notes

Write

this

E,

sharp,

chord

No. IV.
sharp, form a

in four parts, (a) in

Common Chord

a good position,

(b)

in a

bad position.
2.

Comment on "Tierce

de

Picardie," "False" or "Interrupted

Cadence," "False Relation."

key of
3.

Harmonize

Give examples of each

this

melody

in four parts

To

3EE

Relative Maior.
:z2i

:g==ei:

-^-

3J-f--

zip-

:[=::

4.

Complete the harmonization of Figs. 206, 207, and 208.

5.

Make

the

Triad.
6.
7.

note

the 7th of a

(b)

Write

flat,

the

(a)

in four-part

(c)

the 3rd of a

its

Inversions contain

a Chord of the 6th

li

:i=p:

I*:

66

6 5
4 3

-4,

1^

3i==
*6

i:6

^m-.
fc?

:t=:

if2-

:B
6 5
4 3

Minor

Explain.

(a)

^E^-

Triad,

harmony.

Triads

all

3rd of a Diminished

Dominant Seventh,

Common Chords ?
Prove that a Common Chord and
Consonant Intervals. What is

Are

in the

Minor.

=?2:

all

the

143

PAPER
1.

Write an example

Define "Passing-Note," "Auxiliary Note."


of each in the

2.

No. V.

Add

key of

flat

Major.

Treble, Alto, and Tenor parts to the following Figured

Give the root

Bass.

mm
im^

of every chord

^~-

t{5

rpzzii

5666

1-

:*=t

6766|6 66
5

Fig. 252

1^5

f;zz:

3.

Harmonize the following melody

i S^^

ii

4.

In the Chord of the Dominant Seventh in B, which are the two


notes of fixed progression

6.

Under what circumstances may the Major Third be doubled ?


What is the only difference between a Perfect Cadence

7.

Write a mixed Cadence

5.

C Major and

B
8.

Add

in

C Minor ?

Minor.

three parts to the following Figured

Modulate from

Bass

to

jgEE^r^^fSfi^^
666'
666
6

3656

4
2

?=E
6665
4

9.

in

minor.

one

in

Write an original Melodic Sequence.

^1
C?6

144

PAPER

No. VI.

1.

Give two examples

2.

Write a Second Inversion

3.

may be approached in four different ways


What is a Passing | Chord ? What is a Cadential
What is Natural Modulation? Modulate from 1

4.

minor, to
5.

May
Add

flat,

to

of the

Chord

D, and <o

of

minor, and back to

flat.

Consecutive 5ths and 4ths be used between tht

parts
6.

of False Relation.

Explain

fully.

three parts to the following Figured Bass

W^

itp:
**^

-^

ii^

876
i

!^7

*-

3^Z=1
*
*
7.

Add

Figure the Bass

three parts below these Melodies.

u
i
^'^>

Cadence.

"

.t?

^-*-

3E
I

^
4

On

5
3

the Dominant.

Add

Plagal Cadence.

Perfect
I

Cadence.
I

(b)
i

Major.

zzt-

123:

D
32:

minor.

fe

izaii: