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Meaning of Philosophy

a. Etymological Definition - The term philosophy is taken from the Greek word,
(phileo) meaning "to love" or "to befriend" and, (Sophia) meaning "wisdom." Thus,
"philosophy" means "the love of wisdom".
b. Comprehensive Definition philosophy, the critical examination of the grounds for
fundamental beliefs and an analysis of the basic concepts employed in the expression
of such beliefs.
c. Other definition - thirst for learning, love of wisdom, thirst for education etc.
Main Branches of Philosophy
a. Subject Matter of each sub-field

Metaphysics, which deals with the fundamental questions of reality.

Epistemology, which deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and

what we can know.

Logic, which studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation
Ethics, or moral philosophy, which is concerned with human values and how

individuals should act.

Aesthetics or esthetics, which deals with the notion of beauty and the philosophy
of art.

b. Different Question of each branch

Metaphysics What is out there?

Epistemology How do I know about it?
Ethics What should I do?
Logic What actions are permissible?
Esthetics What can life be like?

c. Main Contribution of each branch

Metaphysics Theology
Epistemology Science
Ethics Sociology or Psychology
Logic Mathematics
Esthetics Language and Art

Other Sub- Fields of Philosophy


Subject matter of each sub-field

Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of Religion
Political Philosophy
Philosophy of the Mind

b. Importance of Studying
Philosophy of Science, the study, from a philosophical perspective, of the

elements of scientific inquiry.

Philosophy of Religion, the


concerned with



appraisal of human religious attitudes and of the real or imaginary objects of

those attitudes, God or the gods.

Political Philosophy, branch of philosophy that





most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political

Philosophy of the Mind, reflection on the nature of mental phenomena and
especially on the relation of the mind to the body and to the rest of the physical

Characteristics of the science of logic


Logic, the study of correct reasoning, especially as it involves the drawing of

a. Two main divisions of logic
applied logic the study of the practical art of right reasoning.
formal logic the abstract study of propositions, statements, or assertively
used sentences and of deductive arguments.
b. Importance of studying logic

References: http://www.britannica.com/