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Biology

The systematic study of life


We have encountered only a fraction of
the organisms that live on Earth
Scientists constantly discover new
species
Extinction rates are accelerating

Branches of Biology
Cytology
Gr. Kytos
(hollow)
- study of
structure and
function of cells

Embryology
Gr. Embryon
- study of the development
of an animal from
fertilized egg to birth or
hatching

adult,
three years
old

transformation to
adult nearly
completed

sexual reproduction
(meiosis through
fertilization)

cleavage

zygote

organ
formation tadpole

Histology
Gr. histos, tissue
- study of tissues as revealed by the
microscope

Anatomy
Gr. anatome dissect/separate
- study of structure of the entire
organism and their parts
dorsal surface

anterior

midsagittal plane

posterior

frontal plane

transverse plane
ventral surface

Parasitology
Gr. Para beside; sitos-food
- study of animals that live in or another
organism at the expense of the host

Molecular Biology
- study of the
subcellular details
of animal structure
and function

Genetics
Gr. genesis origin
- study of the mechanism of transmission of
traits from parents to offspring

duplicated
chromosome
chromatin

Physiology
Gr. Physis nature
- study of the function and activities of
living of organism and their parts

Ecology
- study of the interaction of organism
with their environment

Systematics
- study of classification and
evolutionary interrelationships among
animal groups

Paleontology
- science of the forms of life existing in former geologic
periods, as represented by their fossils.
- study of fossils

Fig. 17-4d, p.262

Entomology
- study of insects

Growth and molting

young

egg

adult

Incomplete metamorphosis

Types of
Insect Development
egg

nymphs

adult

Complete
metamorphosis

egg

larvae

adult

Herpetology
- study of amphibians and reptiles
adult,
three years
old

transformation to
adult nearly
completed

sexual reproduction
(meiosis through
fertilization)

cleavage

zygote

organ
formation tadpole

Protozoology
- study of protozoa

long flagellum

chloroplast

contractile
vacuole

mitochondrion

eyespot
ER
pellicle

Golgi body

nucleus

Ichthyology
- study of fishes
Cartilaginous fishes
Most are marine
predators
Cartilaginous skeleton
Main groups:
Skates and rays
Sharks
Chimaeras

(ratfishes)

Bony fishes
Three subclasses:
Ray finned fishes
Lobe finned fishes
Lung fishes

Ornithology
- study of birds

Mammalogy
- study of mammals

Invertebrate
Zoology
- study of animals
without backbone

Vertebrate Zoology
- study of animals
with backbone

Animal Classification
Taxonomy

- field of Biology that deals with classifying organisms


- Systematic Biology
- names, groups organisms according to:
a. Characteristics
b. Evolutionary History
Importance:
1. Universal system for naming and classifying organisms is
necessary to have clear communication among scientists.
2. Eliminate the use of common names and confusion in
the scientific world.

Carl Von Linne(Linnaeus)

- Swedish Biologist established a simple system


for classifying and naming organisms
- Father of Taxonomy
- Hierarchy or Ranking System
- morphology
- established a system of groups called TAXA
- category into which related organisms are
placed

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genera

Species
King Philip Came Over For Grandmas Soup

What is the Scientific Method?


tool or method used by scientists to find answers to

questions
logical process of learning facts through observation and
experimentation from which certain conclusions or
theories are drawn
Data- information gathered from making observations

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Two types of Data


Quantitative data
numbers
obtained by measuring or counting
Qualitative data
descriptions and involve characteristics that cannot be

counted

Steps of Scientific Method

Step 1: Identification of the Problem


scientific question to be solved
scientific problem starts with observation

using all the senses


How much water can a tap root absorb?
What is the effect temperature on the frogs
heart rate?
Why do plant stem bend toward the light?

Step 2. Formulation of Hypothesis


a set of assumptions or possible explanations

to the problem
preliminary conclusion
scientific guess about the problem
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Step 3: Experimentation or testing of


Hypothesis
special procedure used to test

the hypothesis
factors in an experiment that
can be changed are called
variables
Temperature, amount of light,
concentration and tonicity of
solutions
Controlled experiment only
one variable is changed at a
time
All other variables should be
unchanged or controlled

Independent Variable
factor that is manipulated
Example: Effect of

temperature on frogs heart


rate
IV: temperature

Dependent Variable
variable that is measured or observed
changes in relation to the independent variable
Example: Effect of temperature on frogs heart rate
DV: frogs heart rate

Controlled Variable
Factor that are kept

constant throughout an
experiment
Example: Effect of
temperature on heart
rate of frog
CV: species of frog

sex of frog
size of the frog

Step 4: Analysis and Interpretation of


Data
Data or results must be gathered during and after

experimentation
Records collected during the experiment
Tables and graphs

Step 5: Generalization or
Formulation of Conclusion
based on analyzed data
theory may be formulated and supported by

experimental evidence
experiments must be repeated over and over
results should always be the same before a valid
conclusion can be reached