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Woody plants have stems with secondary growth

• Vascular cambium gives rise to secondary xylem and secondary phloem to replace the primary xylem

Secondary grow occurs where primary growth no longer exist

Woody plants have stems with secondary growth

• Cork cambium produces periderm (outer bark: the replacement for epidermis) (dermal tissue)

– Cork cells (formed outside cork cambium); dead at maturity; have waterproof walls; protect the stem ( – Cork parenchyma cells (formed inside cork cambium) store water and starch granules

Lenticel: Permits gas exchange the periderm

Secondary Growth: Woody Eudicots (periderm replace the epidermis)

Division of a vascular cambium cell

Division*of*a* Vascular* Cambium*Cell*
Division*of*a*
Vascular*
Cambium*Cell*
Primary and secondary growth in a two-year-old woody stem Pith Primary xylem Vascular cambium Epidermis Primary
Primary and secondary growth
in a two-year-old woody stem
Pith
Primary xylem
Vascular cambium
Epidermis
Primary phloem
Cortex
Cortex
Primary phloem
Epidermis
Vascular cambium
Ray
Primary xylem
Secondary xylem
Pith
Secondary phloem
First cork cambium
Cork
Periderm
Most recent cork cambium
Cork
Bark
Secondary
phloem
Layers of
periderm
Secondary
xylem

Not all plants have secondary growth

Three ring analysis: Dendrochronology is the study of three root Tropical rings does not change because they have the same weather condition

Overview*of* transport*in* vascular*plants% Most water that a plant absorbs is transpired through stomata into the atmosphere.
Overview*of*
transport*in*
vascular*plants%
Most water that a
plant absorbs is
transpired through
stomata into the
atmosphere.
Sugar molecules manufactured
in leaves by photosynthesis
are transported in phloem sap
throughout plant, including
into roots.
Once inside roots, water and minerals
are transported upward in xylem to
stems, leaves, fowers, fruits, and seeds.
Roots obtain
water and
dissolved
minerals from
soil.

The xylem only has one direction (UP)

Sugars are made thought photosynthesis

Transport inside vascular Tissue • Water transport: tension-cohesion model movement of water from root stem leaf atmosphere Sugar transloca5on: pressure-fow model sugar transport from site of manufacture the rest of plant

 Dead at mature
Dead at mature

Angiosperm are going to relay in tracheid’s

The tension= cohesion model for water transport Source* Sink*
The tension= cohesion model for water transport
Source*
Sink*

Sink is the area where the sugar is being move thought the plant

XYLEM PHLOEM SOURCE Leaf cell The*pressure–* flow*model:* Companion cells Sieve tube element Sugar*transport** SINK Root cell
XYLEM
PHLOEM
SOURCE Leaf cell
The*pressure–*
flow*model:*
Companion cells
Sieve tube element
Sugar*transport**
SINK
Root cell
Vessel
running through
length of plant
Sieve tube
running through
length of plant
  Companion cell are going to load sugar and need Atp Water increase the
Companion cell are going to load sugar and need Atp
Water increase the