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Reticular Connective Tissue

forms a supporting internal framework in many organs.

2.Adipose connective tissue

stores fat and release when fuel for cellular use is needed. cushions
internal organs.
men: Cross
women: vertical

cells are called chondrocytes: secrete hard rubbery matrix.
supports skeleton.
Lacks: nerves, lyph vessels, and blood vessels (nonvascular)

consists mainly of calcium salts and collagen secreted by osteocytes.
highly vascular

5.___ bone surrounds ___ bone

compact; spongy

6.blood has the same origin as ___

7. red blood cells transport ___

8. white blood cells are used for ___?

9. plateleds are used for ____?

10. what is blood cells suspended in?

11. Muscle tissue is specialized to _______?

contract, pulling two structures close together

12. myofibrils consist of ?

myosin and actic proteins

13. skeletal muscle are attached to __?

bones of the body to move body parts and are striated. voluntary
14. Cardiac muscle is ___ control (thank goodness)?

15. Cardiac Muscle / Cardiac Muscle?
short, branched muscle fibers (cells)
- mononucleated
-striated, involuntary
--Intercalated discs(junctions)=structure integrity

16. Smooth muscle is ____?

Not striated and occurs in the internal organs

17. Nervous tissue controls ___?

muscles and glands

18. Nervous tissue?

receive and transmit signals

19. glial cells perform __?
Many functions to support, protect, and nourish neurons
20. synapses are __where the neurons communicate with each other. 100 billion in
the brain
21. Epithelial tissue
overs and lines the body
22. mucus membrane?
exposed to outside environment
23. serous membrane?
secreting fluids and not open to outside environment

24. Exocrine glands secrete ___?

product onto free surface (sweat glands)

25. endocrine glands release ___?
26. homeostasis?

maintaining a steady state with different stressors

27. conformer?

organisms that do not regulate their interior environment; they

change as their external environment changes
28. regulator?

maintain internal steady

29. negative feedback system?
a change in steady environment (hypothalamus)
30. thermoregulation
maintaining body temperature
can be behavioral
31. ectotherms?
animals that depend on environment for regulation
advantage: less energy needed
disadvantage: seasonal change may limit activity
32. endotherms?

mammals with homeostasis mechanisms to maintain body heat.

advantage: allows for rapid response to stimuli
disadvantage: high energy costs
33. Acclimization?
animals adjust to seasonal changes
34. torpor?
short term state in which metabolic rate decreases
35. hibernation?
long term torpor in response to winter

36. estivation?

state of torpor caused by lack of food or water

37. Epithelial coverings?

all external and internal surfaces of the animal body (may be

38. Vertebrate skin is derived from?
39. the dermis layer is the ___ largest?
1rst. second layer
40. Skeletal systems?

forms the framework of the body and functions in locomotion

41. hydrostatic skeletons?

fluid filled body compartments of soft-bodied invertebrates

Inner layer: lengthen
outer layer: longitudinal
42. organogenesis?
formation of organs, cells become specialized.
43. notochord?
mesoderm origin, rod of cells, replace by reiligral column, causes ectoderm
to thicken

1.As an organism's form develops, which of the following is the

last to develop

2.Animals with larger bodies have larger cells


3.Epithelial tissue is least likely to __


4.Which membrane type lines body cavities that open to the

outside of the body, such as the respiratory system?
mucus membrane

5.Which of the following is NOT a type of connective tissue


6.Bone cells called ___ help to continually remodel bone

7.Intercalated disks are junctions between cells of __ muscle


8. Both smooth muscle fibers and cardiac muscles fibers ___?

are under involuntary contraction
9. Which of the following is NOT a response that acts to increase

body temperature?
Evaporation of water from the surface of skin
10. The state of tupor caused by lack of food or water during

period of high temperature is called ____

11. Cartilage serves as the supporting skeleton in the embryonic

stages of all vertebrates.


12. In terms of body temperature, a mammal would be ___ and a

fish would be ___?

regulator, conformer
13. The human skull is ___?

an immovable
14. Hydra and earthworms both ___ ?

have hydrostatic skeletons

15. Animals lack any adaptions to ultraviolet rays?

16. Which statement about muscle contractions is FALSE?
During contraction, the muscle length does not change, but the actin and
myosin filaments shorten.
17. Bone is vascular tissue?
18. Cartilage is vascular tissue?

19. An example of an effector is a __?
20. Which of the following would NOT be considered part of the

peripheral nervous system?

spinal cord
21. Which statements about glial cells is true?
Ependymal cells line the cavities of the central nervous system
22. In a resting neuron ___?
the plasma membrane is polarized
23. An inhibitory post-synaptic impulse ___
moves the neuron away from firing
24. In the fire below point a is (look for picture)
the threshold level
25. In the figure above reaching step 2 involves

an influx of sodium ions into the cell

26. The all-or-none reactions means that ___
a neuron will only produce an action potential if it has been depolarized to its
threshold level
27. All of the following are evolutionary trends except?
simpler synaptic connections
28. The central nervous system contains ___?
a brain and a tubular spinal cord
29. The portion of the peripheral nervous system that regulates

the internal environment is the?

autonomic nervous system
30. If a physician wanted to collect cerebrospinal fluid, he/she

would place a needle?

between the archnoid and mater
31. The limbic system __?

All options are correct

32. Which of the statements about REM sleep is true?
During REM sleep, brain waves appear similar to those of a person who is
33. Synapic plasticity is the ability of the ___?

synaptic connections to change in response to experience

34. The pleasurable effects of cocaine are due to the fact that

Blocks the reuptake of dopamine from the synapse
35. After working several hours in a flower shop, you do not detect

the smell of roses? why?

Sensory adaption has occur

36. Mechanoreceptors include all of the following EXCEPT?


37. Auditory receptors are located in the ___?

38. The vertebrate and the cephalod eye provide an example of ?

convergent evolution

39. Which of the following statements about the compound eyes

of arthropods is false?

They detect form better than the vertebrate simple eye

40. The structure of the human eye that adjusts shape to focus

light on photoreceptors is the?


41. Rhodospin?

is activated by light
42. Lateral line organs in fish and human maintenance of

equilibrium both involve hair receptors cells.

43. Draw two neurons connected at a synapse. Label each part.

44. The process of cleavage is when the ___?

zygote undergoes rapid cell division with no growth

45. The four basic animal tissues are?

46. Which of the following is NOT a response that acts to increase

body temperature?
Evaporation of water from surface of skin
47. Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in that ____?

positive feedback responses intensify the change, while negative

feedback systems responses reverse the change
48. Hydra and earthworms both?

have hydrostatic skeleton

49. Which statements about muscle contractions is false?

During contraction, the overall sarcomere length does not

change, but the actin and myosin filaments shorten.
50. In chickens, active muscles such as the legs store a lot of
oxygen, are needed for endurance (as these birds walk around a
lot), and become dark; while less active muscles like the breast
remain white and are used in short bursts if the bird needs to fly
off rapidly (but these muscles dont sustain prolonged flight).
Slow-oxidative fibers, fast-glycolytic fibers
51. Neurogenesis does not occur in adult mammalian brains. T or
52. Tepinephrine, serotonin, and nitrous oxide are examples of


53. The portion of the peripheral nervous system that regulates

the internal environment is the ___

Autonomic nervous system
54. The left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of

brain. T or F?
55. The __ main lobes of the cerebrum are the ___ lobes
four; frontal parietal, occipital, and temporal
56. Which of the following about sensory receptors is false?

They interpret sensory

57. Which of the following are not matched correctly?
chemoreceptors; gravity
58. The thin layer of tissue (the innermost coat of the eye)

contains photoreceptors in the human eye?

59. Cerebellum, the second largest part of the brain controls

muscle coordination and movement

60. The Ceredrum is divided into __ parts for __
3; sensory, motor, and association
61. The____ ________is the elongated portion of the brain that looks

like a stalk
Brain stem
62. The thalmus is for ? relay center and sensory


those from the olfactory receptors )are delivered to the thalmus ,
where they are relayed bethween the spine cord and the
63. the hypothalamus is for ? controls autonomic nervous system
64. non-REM sleep is characterized by __?

lower-frequency, higher-amplitude waves

65. Intermediate Memory holds unimportant sensory
information for fractions of a second.
66. Short- Term Memory holds about seven pieces of
information for seconds or for a few minutes.
67. The ____ responds to internal changes to maintain
68. The ____ responds to changes in the external environment
69. 4 processes of neural signaling?

2. Transmition
4.Action by Effector
70. _________surround some vertebrate neurons?
Schwann cells
71. When a nerve is not transmitting a signal, the voltage will
read ___?
-70 mV (millivolts) = the resting potential
72_________ is when single neuron is controlled by signals
from two or more presynaptic neurons information is integrated
before action potential is transmitted.
. Convergence
73.___________ is when single presynaptic neuron stimulates many

postsynaptic neurons?
74. Most invertebrates have ___ while vertebrates have ____?

75. In Cnidarians two body layers work in ___?

76. The axial skeleton ________?
along the central axis of the body
77. Appendicular skeletal
bones of the limbs
78. Osteoblasts
bone-building cells; secrete collagen
79. osteoclasts
cells that break down bone
80. myofibrils are made of two types of filaments:

Actin and myosin