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APV Baker

Hygienic
Design
Handbook

APV Baker
World Engineering Standards

Contents

Disclaimer
The purpose of this handbook is to provide statements of principle
and generic guidelines which may be of assistance in the design of
hygienic and easily-cleaned equipment. It has been produced
primarily for use by experienced engineers within APV Baker.
While APV Baker trusts that this handbook may be of general
application and assistance, it is neither intended nor designed to
replace detailed engineering advice in any specific case.
APV Baker would be happy to agree terms upon which such
engineering advice could be provided.
The reader should be aware that, while every effort has been made
to ensure that it is so, this handbook may not be complete or
accurate. The handbook may not be appropriate in all instances and
may be subject to a number of differing interpretations. Any use
which any reader makes of the information set out in this handbook
is undertaken solely at the reader's risk and the reader may make
no reliance upon APV Baker in so doing. All and any liability which
APV Baker may have as a result of any act or omission undertaken
based upon the information set out in this handbook is hereby
expressly excluded, to the fullest extent permitted by law.

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

Contents
Disclaimer
Introduction
Acknowledgements
Hygiene for profit
Design specification
Key principles for hygienic design
Materials of construction
Surface finish
Support and frame structures
Fabrication
Mechanical fixings
Covers and guards
Transparent covers
Conveyors
Electrical installation
Control panels
Hinges
Hardware - handles, knobs, latches and handwheels
Ventilation
Feet
Castors
Instruction and identity plates
Motors, gearboxes and transmissions
Seals and gaskets
Platforms, ladders and handrails
Tanks and containers
Pipework installation
Equipment siting
Food scrap

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

Contents

Introduction
Improved standards of hygiene are being demanded by food
producers, retailers and legislation. This handbook gives practical
guidance for the design of hygienic and easily cleaned equipment.
It deals primarily with open processing where cleaning methods
vary from dry wipe to high pressure washing.
The principles are developed from:
Research with APV Baker customers.
APV Baker experience in a variety of food industry sectors.
Food producers' hygiene specifications.
Research establishment recommendations.
Current legislation.
The contents form part of APV Baker World Engineering
Standards and wherever possible should be adhered to by APV
Baker designers and external suppliers including sub-contractors.

Contributions are welcome and design advice is available from:


Industrial Design
APV Baker
Manor Drive
Paston Parkway
Peterborough
England
PE4 7AP
Tel. +44 (0)1733 283000
Fax. +44 (0)1733 283001

Second Edition - May 1996 - Revised January 2001


Copyright - APV Baker

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

Contents

Acknowledgements
APV Baker Industrial Design would like to thank the following
companies who contributed to the research for this handbook:
Allied Bakeries
British Bakeries
Burtons Biscuits
Cadbury Ltd
Cadbury Schweppes Plc
Cereal Partners UK Ltd
Consolidated Biscuit Company
De Vau Gesundkostwerk GmbH
Elkes Biscuits
Frito-Lay Inc
Interbake Foods
Jacobs
The Kellogg's Company of Great Britain Ltd
Leaf UK Ltd
Mars UK
M & M, Mars USA
McVities
Mrs Bairds Bakery
Nabisco Biscuit Company
Nestle Rowntree
Northern Foods
Pepperidge Farm
Thorntons Plc
Warburtons

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

Contents

Hygiene for profit


Research confirms that hygiene is an increasingly important
consideration in the design of equipment. This is because:
Retailers are demanding improved quality from food producers.
Food producers must be confident that their products will not be
contaminated microbiologically, chemically or by foreign materials.
Cleaning is expensive in terms of both plant downtime and labour.
Operator empowerment and clean-as-you-go policies are gaining
popularity.

Difficulties in cleaning are often encountered and hygiene policies


compromised because:
Access is inadequate.
Materials of construction and finishes are incompatible with actual
cleaning methods.
Electrical equipment and services are inadequately considered.
Plant and equipment design lacks detail thought.
Methods of cleaning vary widely. Dry machines are often washed
down.

Ultimately, our customers stand to lose production and market


position through inadequate consideration of hygienic design.

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

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Design specification
Hygienic design must eliminate all microbiological, chemical and
foreign material hazards.
Hygiene is not an optional extra nor an add-on feature.
It can only be designed in.
Hygienic design and cleaning must be considered throughout the
design process, particularly during concept and detail stages.
The proposed and likely methods and frequency of cleaning should
be understood.
Design must meet relevant hygiene standards including,
BS EN 1672-2 "Food Processing Machinery; Hygiene
Requirements". Also industry specific standards, both European and
American eg. standards compiled by the 'Baking Industry Sanitation
Standards Committee' of America - (BISSC). If FDA approval is
required, seek further guidance.
The Food Area
The 'food area' can be defined as any area that touches,
is near to, is above or below the path of food as it passes
through the machine.
The 'food area' may also be referred to as the 'product zone'
or 'food zone'.
The differing requirements of the 'food area' and the 'non-food area'
should be considered.

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Key principles for hygienic design


1

Consider changing or refining the food process to make it


as clean as possible.

Ensure containment of the food process within the designated


food area.

Ensure any potential contamination is visible and accessible


for cleaning.

Generally
Provide adequate access for cleaning in and around equipment.
Avoid dead spaces, crevices, joins and horizontal surfaces which
may trap food, prevent effective cleaning and harbour
contamination.
Select materials and finishes to resist corrosion.
Minimise obstructions to cleaning.
Eliminate cleaning hazards eg. sharp corners, edges and
protrusions.
Insulation materials must be accessible for cleaning or sealed to
prevent infestation or contamination.
Be aware of relevant safety standards eg.
BS EN 292-1 & 2 - Safety of Machinery;
OSHA 1910.613
ANSI Z50.1
Safety and noise requirements are often in conflict with hygiene.
Try to achieve a balanced solution.

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In the food area


Construction materials should be inert to food and cleaning agents.
Surfaces should be smooth and non-porous.
Surfaces should be readily visible or easily dismantled for
inspection.
Surfaces should be accessible for manual cleaning,
or clean-in-place techniques should give equivalent results.
All surfaces should be self-draining or self-emptying in washdown
situations.
Food should be protected from external contamination.

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

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Materials of construction
Many countries have codes of practice covering the composition
of materials in contact with food. Ensure that materials are
permitted under existing or pending legislation.
Select materials to resist wear and corrosion.
Select materials to avoid electrolytic or galvanic corrosion.
Many materials are permitted but not suitable for all foods
eg. aluminium, brass, bronze and copper.
Generally stainless steel grades 304, 316 and 316L offer sufficient
corrosion protection. 316 is preferred for food contact, due to
improved corrosion resistance.
Aluminium rubs-off-black and should be avoided, unless a
protective coating is used.
Cadmium, zinc, lead, antimony, bismuth, mercury and alloys
containing these must not be used.
Vitreous enamel, nickel plating and electro-chromium plating should
not be used.
Plastics and plastic coatings containing free phenol formaldehyde
or plasticisers should not be used.
Wood must not be used.
Glass must not be used.
Be aware that some clean-in-place solutions promote corrosion.
Be aware that salt may be present in the process.

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Surface finish
Self -finish surfaces are preferred wherever possible.
Do not use paint on surfaces in or above the food area.
All surfaces must be smooth to touch.
Appearance quality, cost effectiveness and customer preference
should be considered. Consistency of finish on unit machine
components and throughout a plant should be considered.
Blackodising or Parkerising should not be used.
Surface measurement techniques are unreliable methods
of determining cleanability.
Stainless steel finishes
Brushed or super satin
(Opti-sheen)

Ideal for large surface areas as material is


pre-finished. Difficult to blend and refinish
after welding.

Bead blast

Ideal for small and intricate components.


Can be used on larger components and
fabrications but care is needed to avoid
sheet metal distortion.

Orbital sand
(DA-Dual Action)

Ideal for large sheet metal fabrications,


especially in washdown situations as
appearance is maintained, even after
repeated cleaning.

Mild steel finishes


Electroless Nickel Plate Generally used to finish components in or
above the food area. Can be used on side
frames, size permitting and is resistant to
cleaning with scrapers.
Paint

Use in non-food area where damage from


cleaning and maintenance will not occur.

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Support and frame structures


Maximise access for cleaning, in and around equipment.
Minimise the number of legs, especially when considering total
plant - can adjacent equipment share legs?
Minimise overall plan area.
Minimise the area in contact with the floor.
Minimise frame support structure.
Ground clearance should be no less than 200mm or equipment
should be sealed to the floor.
Seal hollow sections by welding.
Plastic plugs should not be used.
Do not penetrate tubular sections eg. with fasteners. When
fastening to hollow sections give preference to welded plugs.
Welded studs and tapping plates are not recommended.
Rectangular hollow section and fabricated sections should be
angled at 45o to eliminate horizontal surfaces in washdown
situations or where they are likely to be contaminated or for visibility.
Recommended stretcher options for washdown situations
45

Welded or bolted from behind

Angled

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3 Minimise frame support


structure
2 Minimise number of legs
1 Maximise ground clearance

4 Minimise plan area


5 Minimise floor contact

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Fabrication
Weld rather than bolt wherever possible.
Welded joints in the food area must have the same characteristics
as the surrounding materials ie. surface finish, appearance, quality,
etc.
Weld fillets in the food area should have a minimum radius of 6mm.
If the material is less than 4mm thick the minimum radius should
be 3mm.
Internal corners should have a minimum radius of 6mm.
All welds should be continuous or filled.

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Welded

Bolted

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Mechanical fixings
Where possible eliminate mechanical fixings.
Allow sufficient space around fixings for cleaning (minimum 25mm).
Use stainless steel or dull-nickel plated fixings as specified in the
fixings and fastenings handbook.
Use blind holes in preference to through holes.
Do not use plastic fixings where there is a risk of contamination,
as they cannot be identified by metal detectors.
Do not use socket head screws in the food area or in frequently
cleaned areas.
Avoid split pins, self-tapping screws, spring tension pins
and pop-rivets.
Use spring washers only where necessary.
Avoid exposed thread and knurling.
Avoid fixings smaller than M6.
Avoid counterbores.
Avoid slotted and countersunk screws with pockets that are
difficult to clean.
Be aware of customer preference.

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Not recom mended

Alternatives
- Weld
- Bond
- Stud mount
- Combine components

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Covers and guards


Ensure gaps between covers are adequate for cleaning and that
safety is not compromised. The recommended gap is 25mm.
Avoid panel joins in horizontal surfaces and provide overlap where
possible.
Avoid surfaces which allow liquid to stand. Minimum draining angle
should be 5o
Avoid covers and guards which must be totally removed for
cleaning. They will be damaged or not replaced.
Sliding covers are non-preferred.
Avoid internal trays which are difficult to clean.
Eliminate upturned flanges particularly on doors.

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25mm

5 o Minimum

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Transparent covers
Select appropriate material for the task.
Consider impact strength and rigidity for shatter resistance. Acrylic
(eg. Perspex) should be at least 12mm thick and Polycarbonate
(eg. Makrolon and Lexan) should be at least 5mm thick.
Ensure compatibility with cleaning agents.
If clear material is required, ensure clarity is maintained over the life
of the machine.
Follow manufacturers guidelines for manufacture and assembly.
Polycarbonate is especially prone to cracking, allow for high
expansion rate.
Avoid using clear plastic covers where flour or oil are present.
Avoid using clear plastic covers if frequent removal is required.
Avoid using Expamet and woven weld mesh, except for the
underside of machines and perimeter guarding.
Be aware of safety legislation, especially BS EN 294 Safety of
Machinery - Safety distances to prevent danger zones being
reached by the upper limbs.
Be aware of customer preference.
Each guarding application must be judged on its own merits seek Industrial Design advice.

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Clear guard materials


Bar hinge

Bonded 3M VHB doublesided adhesive tape

Frame

Space and mount


from one surface only

Open designs
Bar guards

Punched

Weld mesh

40/50% open area - max

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Conveyors
Minimise the number of rollers (especially those in contact with
food surfaces).
Rollers should have flush sealed ends.
Conveyor belts should be readily slackened allowing them to be
raised for cleaning.
Belts should be a food approved material, non-toxic and
non-absorbent.
Cantilevered rollers allow belts to be removed quickly and easily.
Return side of conveyor belts should not be allowed to run through
or over contaminated material build up.
Component removal for cleaning may be necessary, preferably
without tools.
Avoid webbed or spoked pulleys.
Bearings should be outside the food area and should be sealed or
self-lubricating.
Use food approved lubricants in the food area.

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Access for cleaning


Cantilevered rollers
for easy and fast
belt removal

Lift -out rollers

Belt too close to structure

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Electrical installation
Consider electrical installation early in the design process - aim to
design-in trunking, connection boxes, etc.
Electrical boxes should be spaced away from mounting surfaces larger boxes require greater clearance.
Position trunking away from surfaces.
Mount trunking with lids on the side.
Services should enter equipment at high level, preferably on
a vertical face.
Use of structural hollow section for wiring normally reduces
component count and improves cleanability but must have internal
conduit and effective sealing.
Avoid using sealant.
Avoid using ribbed flexible conduit.
Trailing conduit in contact with the floor must be avoided.
Light bulbs, lamps and tubes must be shatter resistant or protected.
Be aware of IP ratings and NEMA standards.
Be aware of customer preference.
Be aware of EMC requirements.

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High level entry


on vertical face

Adequate space
for cleaning

Spaced

Lids on side
Smooth

Ribbed

Sealed

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Control panels
Position away from the food area.
Position so that the operator does not have to lean over the
food area.
Use membrane panels when possible as they are inherently clean.
If a push button panel is necessary, select easily cleaned
components.
Arrange components with space for easy cleaning.
Position any running adjustments, so that operators do not have
to touch food contact surfaces.
Be aware of ergonomic requirements.
Be aware of IP ratings and NEMA standards.
Be aware of customer preference.

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Panel on operator side

Membrane panel

Push button panel

Adequate space

Clean detail

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Hinges
Use as few hinges as possible.
Use hinges with the least number of parts.
Internal hinges are preferred for an easily cleanable exterior.
Hinges should have removable hinge pins or be lift-off.
Do not use continuous (piano) hinges.

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Concealed - with or without Emka seal

Emka hinge part no.1031-U2 S/Steel


Emka seal part no.1011-15

+ Machine looks clean


+ Stainless steel
+ Removeable door
+ Cheap
+ Worldwide availability
- Limited opening

Block

Pin

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Hardware - handles, knobs, latches and handwheels


Ensure all components are durable and will not corrode.
Ensure that moulded parts, especially handles and handwheels,
have no hidden crevices.
Be aware of ergonomic requirements.
The components illustrated represent the best currently available.
Please inform Industrial Design of alternatives.

Recommended components
Preference should be given to silver finished components.
Natural aluminum should have a protective finish.
Handles

Berger U-handle
GN 565 100/160mm

Elesa/Ganter - lever
handle GN 300 & 300.1

BL - bright tumble finish

Black epoxy resin coated.


Grey available on request
for sufficient quantities

Elesa VC.192 & 192p


VC.192s & 192s-p

Elesa/Ganter GN 5336

Black Duroplast plastic

Natural aluminum

Knobs

Latches

Southco International vise action

Mechanical Electrical Knob style T -Handle with


-hexagonal -triangular
or without keylock
All available in satin silver polyester powder coated finish
except for the knob style

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Back Handwheels

Selection criteria
- Diameter appropriate to the force required
- Integral spinner for several revolutions/foldaway
- Preference for female fitting
- Material, finish and quality appropriate to
machine and market
- Worldwide availability

Non-indicator type

Elesa VRTP & VDS without handle


VRTP+I & VDS+I with handle
VRTP+IR & VDS+IR foldaway handle

Elesa/Ganter
GN321 -solid
GN322 -spoked
with or without
handle/fixed or
foldaway

Matt black plastic

Aluminum

Clayton/Elesa - digital position indicators


for use with non-indicator type handwheels

Indicator type

Clayton/Elesa
VRTP, VAD & VDC without handle
VRTP+I, VAD+I & VDC+I with handle

Siko
HK, HKL, HS &HSL

Matt black plastic and black oxide steel

Aluminum

When small diameter indicator handwheels are appropriate for


fewer revolutions, consider the use of Elesa VHT (black)
and Siko HST and HST7 (silver/aluminum finish)

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Ventilation
Slots are the preferred solution when a filter is not required.
When a filter is required, Rittal is the preferred supplier.
Ventilation should be in a vertical or near vertical surface.
A baffle may be required to prevent tool access and deflect water
away from internal components.
Be aware of IP ratings and NEMA standards.

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Baffle

Cleaning space

Rittal filter

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Feet
Ensure feet do not create dirt traps.
Ensure feet are self -draining.
Threads should not be exposed.
Feet should be corrosion resistant.
Provide feet with fixing holes only if fastening to the floor
is necessary.
Provide an adequate range of adjustment.
Be aware of industry standards and customer preference
eg. ball foot is a dairy standard.

The components illustrated represent the best currently available.


Please inform Industrial Design of alternatives.

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Robo by Marbett International BV


UK distributor, Oadby Plastics Current dry food standard

Ball foot Wet industry


standard

Acceptable
only if grouted in

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Castors
Castors should not be used in the food area.
All materials should be corrosion resistant, self -finish or dull-nickel
plated. Paint must not be used.
Axle bolt ends should be flush and should not extend more than
two-and-a-half exposed threads beyond the retaining nut.
Washers should not be used between the horn and the axle
retaining nut.
Cotter pins and castellated nuts should not be used on the axle.
The wheels should have minimum clearance of 6mm all round.
Plate mountings and forks should be flat and free from crevices.
Wheels should have solid and flat webs.
The included angles between all surfaces should have a minimum
radius of 6mm.
Brakes and locking devices should comply with the requirements
above.
Be aware of BISSC standard.

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6mm all round


clearance

Flat plate mountings

Solid flat webs

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Instruction and identity plates


If possible apply the graphic directly to the component, eliminating
the need for a separate plate.
If direct application is not possible, bond plate to component to
avoid mechanical fastening.
Graphic should be smooth eg. screen printed, engraved and filled
flush or 'metalphoto'.
Plates should have corner radii.
Do not use laminated engraved plastic eg. Trafolite.
Self-adhesive decals are appropriate for large graphics
eg. APV logotypes. Ensure material specification is
3M Scotchcal or equivalent.
Be aware of the need for good graphic design and legibility.
Consult Industrial Design.

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Motors, gearboxes and transmissions


Select easily cleanable motors.
Direct drive, flange or shaft mounted units are preferred.
Slide rails and screw adjusters are inherently difficult to clean.
Position motors, gearboxes and transmissions outside the food
area.
Do not mount directly above or below the food area.
Ensure food is not contaminated by chain or timing belt wear, etc.
Avoid using chains whenever possible.
Cover where necessary.
A minimum of 50mm clearance should be provided.
Provide good access to gearbox drain and fill plugs.
Ensure drip trays are visible, accessible, cleanable, drainable
and large enough.

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Flange mounted
with timing belt drive

Slide mounted
with chain drive

Open

Cover, leaving access


for maintenance
and cleaning

Mount drives
externally away
from the food area

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Seals and gaskets


Avoid using seals, gaskets and O-rings.
When seals, gaskets or O-rings have to be used they should be
impregnated for metal detection and non-toxic.
Design and position gaskets, seals and O-rings so they do not
create crevices.
Be aware of industry standards when using O-rings.
Exposed gasket edges must be minimised, trimmed and smooth.
Do not use liquid sealant, mastic or caulking in the food area.
Do not use liquid sealant on external surfaces.
If liquid sealant is necessary it must be food approved.
Ensure foam seals are closed cell.
Be aware of customer preference.

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Door seals

Preferred Emka seal/IP 65 rating

Rubber or closed cellular foams

Window retaining seals

3M VHB double sided


adhesive tape

Not recommended

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Platforms, ladders and handrails


Provide handrails. Ladder rungs should not be used as handholds.
Handrailing systems should have smooth junctions.
Handrails should be stainless steel.
Minimise the floor contact area.
Provide generous radii in corners of kickplates.
Ensure non-slip surfaces on platforms and stairs.
Prevent debris from falling onto food or equipment.
Do not use open grating for platforms and stairs.
Be aware of ergonomic requirements and safety legislation.

Non-slip surfaces
Step profiles

Minimal floor contact

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200 mm

Safety cage may be required


depending on height of ladder

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Tanks and containers


Ensure tank base design allows free draining of contents
and cleaning solution.
Arrange tank inlets to minimise splashing and foaming.
Ensure tank lids, hinges, handles, etc. are cleanable.
Internal tank corners should have generous radii.
Ensure tanks, pumps and motors have adequate ground clearance.
Position pumps and motors away from tanks.
Dead ends should be avoided.
Be aware of industry standards.

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Tank flanges

Not recommended

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Pipework installation
Position pipes away from surfaces by at least their flange diameter.
Allow space between pipes at least equal to the pipe or flange
diameter, which ever the larger, but never less than 25mm.
Pipes should hang rather than be supported above horizontal
surfaces.
Allow 2500mm headroom to underside of pipe runs.
Allow 300mm between pipe runs and ceiling.
Pipes and hangers should have the minimum of exposed thread.
Liquid ingredient pipes, valves and fittings should be take-apart
type, unless designed for clean-in-place.
All pipes and equipment should be self -draining to avoid liquid
retention ie. pitch pipework and provide drain valves, etc.
Pipework which may produce condensation, should not be
positioned above the food area nor above equipment.

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100mm
300mm

50mm

2500mm
100mm
100mm

100mm

100mm

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Equipment siting
Site equipment so that it can be easily cleaned.
Allow free access of at least 1000mm all round.
Be aware of site limitations - building constraints, existing plant, etc.
Avoid soil trapping ledges over the food area.
Be aware of BISSC installation guidelines.

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1000mm. minimum

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Food scrap
Minimise scrap production.
Design to allow scrap to drop through the machine onto the floor
and/or into trays. Ensure scrap trays are visible.
Ensure scrap trays are adequately sized bearing in mind frequency
of emptying and weight to be carried when full.
Consider the use of dual scrap trays for containment of scrap by
one tray whilst emptying the other.
Ensure safety is not compromised when scrap trays are removed.
Be aware of customer preference.

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

Contents

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On machine

Floor tray

Wheeled tubs

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APV Baker - WES Hygienic Design Handbook - Second Edition - Revised Jan. 2001

0/APV
APV Baker
World Engineering Standards