Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 120








Describe whether management is a science or art?

1. Management may be defined as the science or art, reaching the given end
with utmost economy (of) means.
1. The theory with principles and techniques constitute the
science component, while skills and talent required for the
use of the principles constitute the art.
2. In simple terms, management is what manager does.
Mary Parker Follet called management as: the art of
getting things done through people.
3. The function of the management is to achieve certain
objectives, in a systematic fashion.
4. According to James A.F. Stoner: Management is the
process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling by
using organizational resources to achieve stated
organizational Goals.
5. Organizations engaged in business or non-business use
the inputs to produce output (may be product or service).
6. The various inputs are to be judiciously and effectively
used to produce output.
7. To achieve the objectives every organization use inputs
like materials, machinery, money and service of men.
8. Management as a discipline has both the elements of
science and art.
10. It is clear from the above, effective management plays a crucial role.
Management as a Science
1. Science is the branch of knowledge involving
systematized observation and experiment (like physics,
chemistry, engineering etc).
2. Its phenomenon based on cause-effect relationship.

3. Since management is a dynamic subject, in that it has

drawn heavily from economics, psychology, sociology,
engineering and mathematics, to mention a few.
4. It is multi-disciplinary in nature.
5. By considering its subject matter and practical utility,
management may be considered as science.
6. Inputs for any organization needs people i.e. human
resources. People attitudes, aspirations, perceptions
and behavior can not be standardized.
7. Factors like, technological, economic, socio-cultural
and political are also to taken into account.
8. Hence too many complexities and uncertainties render
management an inexact science.


Management as an art
Art refers to the know-how to accomplish a desired
The focus is on doing things.
Practice makes a man perfect. Constant practice of
theoretical concepts (knowledge base) contributes for
the formation of skills.
The skill can be acquired only through practice.
A management graduate from best institutes may not
be effective in practice..
It require, ingenuity, correct understanding of variables
in the situation and finding creativity in finding

. Here science and art are not mutually exclusive, but complementary.
By considering all factors, it may be conclude that Management is both
Science and Art
2. What do you mean by profession? .Examine the recent trends
towards professionalization of management India.
In simple terms, profession is an occupation with higher knowledge in a
particular area or field. Required advanced education and special training
in his specialized field/ profession. He is an Expert in his own
profession, ex: law, engineering, accountancy.
1. At present Management, emerged as highly respected

2. The characteristics of a profession according to

McFarland are:
Existence of
-an organized and systematic body of knowledge,
-an apex level body with professionalization as its goal,
-an ethical code, regulate the behavior of the members of the profession.
-Charging of fees based on service,
-A concern for the social responsibilities.
3. Management as a profession does not strictly conform to the above
criterion, unlike medicine or law,
4 There is no uniform code of conduct that governs the behavior of
5 The apex level body, All India Management Association (AIMA)
provides only guidelines and does not have any controlling power over
the erring members.
6 Compared with other professions like engineering, medicine,
accountancy, etc, the management entry position is not restricted to any
special degree.
7 The subject weather managers are born or made is a widely debated.
8 The native wisdom coupled with their vision and ingenuity in
organizing enterprises, helped them to earn name and fame.
9 Business history of any nation is fully replete with many rags-to-riches
10 Marwaris and Parsees in the north and Chettiars and Naidus in South
india, offer classic example of such success stories.
11 There has been a sea change in the business environment.
12 Modern business has become more complex due to uncertainties
arising mainly from:
-Rapid technological changes,
-Increases sophistication in technology,
-Expansion in the size of organizations and consequently the market.
Professionalization of Management in India
Recently the awareness about the contributions of professional managers has
been increasing, consequently, phenomenal growth for professional
The following factors seem to be mainly responsible for the growing demand
for professional managers;
1The liberalization polices persuaded by the government opened up new
vistas for the Indian organization.

2. As a consequence, competition has increased in all the sectors of Indian

3. Both private and public sectors interested managerial activities to the
professional managers and sought qualified managers.
4 Apart from the manufacturing concerns, public utilities like transport,
telecommunications and many service organizations are recruiting
professional managers.
3. Discuss the important functions of management.
Management is widely regarded as a process. Following
are the four basic functions via:
-leading an
1. Planning in simple terms, is outlining a future course
of action.
2. It involves deciding the objectives, formulating the
policies and procedures to achieve them.
3. Effective planning provide answers to questions like:
-What to do?
-How to do?
-Who is to do? And
-when to do?
4. Planning is a function performed by managers at
all levels.
5 Plan made by top managers have wider scope and
normally cover longer period, while middle and lower
level managers relate to divisions or departments
and usually cover a short period.
6 Systematic planning helps in facing the
uncertainties of future with less embarrassment.
1. Organizations achieves objectives by using
physical and human resources,
2. The managers task in organizing aims at creating
a structure that facilitates to achieve goals.
3. Organization involves:

-Determination of activities required to achieve

goals:- grouping of these activities into
-Assignment of such groups of activities to
-Delegation of authority to carry them out and
-Provision for coordination horizontally and
vertically in the organization.
4 Organizing the affairs of the organization
influenced by the size and nature of the activities
involved. type of environment and the overall
business strategy.
A large organization with huge market needs a
different structure compared to small organization.
1 Once plans are finalized and the structure of the
structure of the organization is determined, the
next step is to help the people to achieve the
2 This involves directing or leading the activities of
the people.
3 The manager directs the activities to his
subordinates and helping them to perform to the
best of their ability.
4 In leading the people, the manager performs the
following three distinct tasks:
Communication- Passing the information to the
Leadership- the process by which a manager
guides and influences the work of his subordinates
Motivation - the act of stimulating the people.
5 Leading is a function predominantly
interpersonal in nature. If the manager fails in
leading the people towards better performance,
any amount of effective planning and organizing,
may not help the organization.

1. Control is a managerial function, facilitates to
know to know whether the actual performance
is in order or not.
2. In the event of deviations appropriate corrective
measures is essential.
3. Thus, controlling implies measuring and
correcting the activities for the conformation of
required parameters.
4. It involves four main elements:
-Establishing standards of performance,
-Measuring the actual performance and
comparing it against the standard performance.
-If any deviations, correction to be taken at the
appropriate time,
-Take corrective measures.
4. Present a detailed account of the levels of
management that are commonly found any
large scale organization. What are the
important skills at each level?
1. In any company/organization the management job
require many skills and talents.
2. The job of a manager is divided and subdivided and
implies different levels of management.

Exhibit 2 from page 12

3 The three levels of management that are commonly found in any
organization are:
-Lower or Front-Line,
-Middle and
-Top Managers.
4 Frontline / Supervisory Managers;
I This is the entry level job in the management and manager direct the
operating employs (workers).
ii Job involves supervising the activities of operatives and close to the action.
Iii Front-Line Managers are called; foreman, supervisor, inspector and so on.
5 Middle Level Managers;

I In many organizations, Middle management levels includes, more than one

Ii Middle level managers are in between lower and top levels.
Iii Category includes: Departmental heads, Regional managers, Zonal
IV Report to top managers.
V Responsibilities are to direct the activities to lower managers who
implement the organizations polices.
6 Top level Managers:
I Level consist of a small group of executives,
Ii Chairman, Managing Director and the top functional heads and divisional
heads comprise this level.
Iii Responsible for the overall management of the organization.
Iv Decide- the enterprise objectives, polices and strategies,
V Provide direction to the organizations with respect to its environment.
1. Management job is different from other jobs.
2. Job becomes increasingly complex at each higher level because of the
increase in the scope of authority and responsibility.
3 As level goes higher, requires increased knowledge, broader perspective
and greater skills
4. To execute the managerial job successfully, every manager requires types
of skills;
-Human and
-Conceptual skills. All the skills are not mutually exclusive.
5. The proportion in which these skills are acquired varies from one level to
the other.
6 Technical skill and human skill are always
demand at the base.
7 Conceptual skill is peak is greatest at the peak
of the period.
Technical skill:
I Technical skill is the ability to use the:
-Techniques and
-Knowledge of a specific field.
2 It requires proficiency in a specific field of activity.

3 Important for lower level managers, because their job involves supervision
of the workers.
4 Any supervisor without a sound knowledge of the job cannot make an
effective supervision.
5 The relative importance of the technical skill as compared to the other
skills diminishes as one move up to higher levels of management.
Human skill:
1 Human skill is the ability of the manager to work effectively as a group
member and to build co operative effort in the team he leads.
2 It is the ability to understand the work and also to motivate the people.
3 Skill is primarily concerned with persons, as contrasted with things.
4 He can foresee the behavior of the attitude of his workers.
5 His skill should be natural and continuous while working with groups and
does not apply it in random or in inconsistent fashion.
Conceptual skill:
1 This skill also called design and problem-solving skill. It involves the
ability to:
-see organization as a whole,
-understand how its parts and functions mesh together and
-foresee how changes in any one of these may affect all the others.
2 It is a creative force within the organization.
3 A high degree of conceptual skill in analyzing the environment and in
identifying the opportunities and threats.
4 The following sectors have amply demonstrated this skill in gaining a
competitive edge over their competitors;
-Larson &Toubro,
-Asian paints,
-Bajaj Auto in private sector and
-National Dairy Development Board in public sector.


1. Management is oldest of the Arts and youngest
of the sciences Discuss.
1. The practice of management is as old as human
2. The irrigation systems, existence of public utilities,
construction of Taj Mahal, Egyptian pyramids, the
ancient civilizations Mesopootamia, Greece, Rome are
the marvelous results of good management practices.

3. Industrial revolution in the mid 18th century has

immensely contributed for the development of
management thought.
4. Over the years, it has drawn heavily from various
disciplines like economics, psychology, sociology,
operation research and so on.
5. The industrial revolution brought about the substitution
of machine power for man power through several
scientific inventions.
6. The scientific and technological inventions in the
production goods and services resulted in:
-Mass production in anticipation of demand,
-Advent of corporate form of organization for large scale
-Spectacular improvements in the transport and
communication facilities,
-Increase in competition for markets,
-The establishment of the new employer-employee
relationship and so on.
Thus industrial revolution had sown the seeds of
modern management.
7. Evolution of management may be divided into: i PreScientific Era ii. Scientific management Era.
1. Industries in the early 18 and 19 centuries confronted with many
problems in managing the organizations.
2. The concept of automation and the consequent mass production were
totally new.
3. They were in need of standard systems and procedures.
Notable early thinkers are: Charles Babbage and Robert Owen.
Charles Babbage:
1. The British professor of mathematics and regarded as
father of Operations Research.
2. In the early 1800,s he was convinced that the
application of scientific principles to work process would
both increase productivity and reduce expenses.
3. He introduced work measurement methods, profit
sharing and bonus plans.


4. He invented the differential machine for mathematical

calculations almost identical to modern computer.
5. He had published a book titled On Economy of
Machinery and Manufacturing.
6. Our modern assembly line in the manufacturing
concerns is based on Babbages ideas.
Robert Owen:
1. Robert Owen, an entrepreneur and manager of several
cotton textile mills in Scotland introduced many reforms
to improve the working conditions of the employees.
2. He built better houses for workers, reduced the working
day to 10 hours and refused to hire children under the
age of ten.
3. He considered workers as vital machines and
introduced rating system to evaluate the employees
work on daily wages.
Similarly, James Montgomery in Scotland and Henry Varman Poor, editor
of the Rail road journal, created good impact on management practices at
that time.
Scientific Management Era:
1. F.W. Taylor (1856-1915) contribution to the
management movement should be remembered for
2. He developed the body of knowledge what is called
scientific management.
3. He defined managing as the heart of knowing exactly
what you want men to do- and then seeing that they do
it in the best and cheapest way.
4. He emphasized doing things scientifically and he is
often called as the father of scientific management.
5. Thus by the end of the 19th century, adequate ground
was prepared for a more systematic effort for the study
of management.
6. From the above descriptions, analysis and factors, it is
revealed that management is often described as oldest
of the arts and youngest of the sciences.

2. Analyze- the contribution of F.W .Taylor and Henry Foyal to Modern

Management Thought and discuss how they differ in their approach.
Taylor conducted various experiments to find out, how
human beings could be made more efficient by
standardizing the work. The experiments have provided
the scientific management.
Salient features:
i.Sepoeration f planning and doing:
1. He insisted that planning should be left to the
supervisor and the worker should concentrate on doing
the work.
ii Functional Foremanship:
1.Seperation of planning from doing resulted in the development of
supervision system.
2. He evolved the concept of functional foremanship based on
specialisation of functions.
iii. Job analysis:
1. F.W. Taylor analysed the various jobs, to do best way of
doing the things with the help of Time, Motion and
Fatigue studies:
a) Time study involves the determination of time,
takes to complete movement. The movement which
makes minimum time is the best one.
b) Motion study involves the study movements, which
are involved in doing a job. This study eliminates
wasteful movements, while performing a job, only
necessary movements are essential.
c) Fatigue study shows the amount and frequency of
rest required in completing the work. He suggests the
fair amount of a days work requiring certain
movements and rest periods to complete it.
Iv Standardisation: Instruemts and tools, period of work, amount of
work, working conditions and cost of production have to be
standardized on the basis of job analysis and various elements

V; Scientific Selection and Training of Workers: Taylor suggested

that workers should be selected on a scientific basis taking into
account of their education, work experience, aptitude, physical
strength, etc. A worker should be given work for which he is
physically and technically most suitable.
Vi: Financial Incentives: Taylor introduced financial incentives to
motivate workers to put in their maximum efforts. He suggested that
wages should be based on individual performance.
Vii: Economy: While applying scientific management, not only
scientific and technical aspects should be considered but also adequate
consideration should be given to economy and profit. The economy
and profit can be achieved by making the resources more productive
as well as by eliminating the wastages.
Viii; Mental Revolution: Taylor strongly suggested that the mutual
conflict should be replaced by mutual cooperation. He also argued that
mental revolution is the most important feature of scientific
Taylors philosophy is simple. In his book The Principles of
Scientific Management he described the following basic
-the development of a true science of management, so that the best
method of performing each task could be determined,
-the scientific selection of workers, so that each worker would be
given responsibility for the task for which he or she was best suited,
-The scientific education and development of the worker and intimate
friendly co operation between management and labour.
Henry Fayol (1841-1925);
1. Henry Fayol was a contemporary of Taylor.
2. He was interested in the total organization.
3. He emphasised that management was not a personal talent but a
4 He opposed that the views managers were born not made.
5 Fayol divided six business activities:
Technical: producing and manufacturing products.
Commercial: buying raw materials and selling
Financial: acquiring and using capital.
Security: protecting employees and property.



Accounting: recording and taking stock of costs,

profits and liabilities, keeping balance sheets and
compiling statics
Fayals primary focus on managerial and felt that
managerial skills had been the most neglected

6 He defined management in terms of five functions-planning, organizing,

commanding, coordinating and controlling. (PO3Cs).
Fayols Principles of Management
1 Division ofLabour: The specialized people can work
more efficiently. This aspect is useful in modern
assembly line.
2 Authority: Managers must give orders so that they can
get things done.
3 Discipline: Organisation members need to respect the
rules and agreement that govern the organization. He
says , discipline will result from good leadership at all
4 Unity of command: Each employee must receive
instruction about a particular operation from only one
person. If an employee reported to more than one
superior ,conflicts and confusion would result.
5 Unity of direction: Operations within the organization
that have the same objective should be directed by only
one manager.
6 Subordination of Individual Interest to the Common
Goal; In any undertaking, the interest of the employees
should not take precedence over the interest of the
organization as a whole.
7 Remuneration: Compensation for the work done should
be fair to both employers and employees.
8 Centralization: Decreasing the role of subordinates in
decision making is centralization: increasing their role is
decentralization. Fayol believed that managers should
retain final responsibility, but subordinates should have
authority to do their jobs.

9 Hierachy: Organisation with grades of authority from

lowest to highest. Organisation chart runs in order of
rank from top management to the lowest level.
10Order: Materials and people should be in the right place
at the right time. People in particular should be in
proper positions suited to them.
11Equailty: Managers should be both friendly and fair to
their subordinates.
12Stability of the staff: A high employee turnover rate is
not good for the efficient functioning of an organization.
13Initiative: Subordinates should be given the freedom to
conceive and carryout their plans, even though
sometimes some mistakes may result.
14Espirit de Crops: Promoting Team Spirit will give the
organization a sense of unity. He suggested, in certain
situations verbal communication instead of written
communication increase the overall performance.
3.Examine the Significance of Hawthrone Studies to the development
of managerial thinking.
1.The term human relation is used to describe the employer-employee
relation in the organizational context.
2.The Hawthrone Experiments conducted by Elton Mayo and his associates
at the Western Electric Company from 1924-1933 provided new insights into
the human behavior. Mayos findings in these experiments marked the
beginning of the human relation era.
3. The studies attempted to investigate the relationship between the physical
conditions at the work place and the productivity of the workers.
4. By conducting various set of experiments and observed performance
by changing work related factors like:
-increase the wages,
-introducing rest periods and
-reducing working days/week.
Results were not satisfactory. It was found that a complex set of attitudes
were responsible for the productivity increase.
5 The fact that employees would work hard, if they were convinced that
supervisors pay special attention to their welfare was made abundantly clear.
This is often treated as the Hawthrone effect.

Elton Mayos studies in fact, contributed for a thorough change in the

attitude and approach towards training.
4. Asses the contributions of Chester Bernard and
Herbert Simon to the management thought.
1. Chester i. Barnards contribution is often described as
the Social Science Era in the development of
management thought.
2. His book titled The Function of the Executives is a
classic on management for ever.
3. From his experience and extensive readings in sociology
and philosophy, he had formulated his theories on
organizational life.
4. Bernard arrived at the theme an enterprise can operate
efficiently and survive only when both the
organisations goals and the needs of the individuals
working for it are kept in balance.
5. According to Bernard, an organization exists when the
following three conditions are fulfilled:
-there are persons able to communicate with each
-they are willing to contribute to the action; and
-they attempt to accomplish a common purpose.
6. He has identified three types of functions which an executive perform in
an organization. These are:
-Maintenance of organizational communication,
-the securing of essential services from individuals in the organization so as
to achieve the overall purpose; and
-the formulation and definition of organizational purpose.
7. Bernards views on the concept of authority are noteworthy. According to
him, the exercise of authority depends on its acceptance, which is possible
only when an individual;
-understands the communication,
-believes that it is not inconsistent with the organizational purpose,
-believes it to be compatible with his personal interest as a whole; and
-is mentally and physically able to comply with it.

8. The contribution of Bernard shows his perception of the organization as a

social system.
9 According to William Wolf, the book by Bernard The book is a
sociology of management was a high level discourse on management
Herbert A. Simon
Herbert A. Simon is an eminent American social
1. H.A. Simon born in 1916.
2. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978, in recognition
of outstanding contribution in analyzing the Decision
Making Process.
3. He laid emphasis on how decisions are made and how
they can be made more effectively.
4. He viewed an organization as a structure of decisionmakers.
5. He concentrated on facts, rigorous analysis and tested
factual statements, excluded value judgements.
6. activit
7. Simon divides the decision-making into three phases,
Intelligence activity: The manager should find out
the occasions calling decision, analyses the
environment and identifies conditions that need
Design activity: It includes identifying important
tasks, developing, analyzing and deciding
alternative courses of action.
iii. Choice of activity: Finally, the manager selects one
of the best sources of action available.
8. According to Simon every decision consists of logical
combination of facts and value propositions.
9. His views on human behavior is neither rational nor
totally non-rational and further he used two important
terms Bounded rationality and Satisfying to drive

Simons contribution is undoubtedly a major
breakthrough in the decision-making behavior of
6. Among the contemporary management thinkers,
Peter F.Drucker, perhaps outshines all.
1. Drucker is a highly respected management thinker.
2. He is a prolific writer and has published several books
and articles on the management practices.
3. His views on management as follows:
Management as a practice: According to Drucker
management has two important functions:
Innovation and Marketing.
-He has treated management as a discipline as
well as a profession.
-For him, management is mere practice and it is
always goal oriented.
-His view on innovation for the emphasis on new
product development and new products should
drive out the existing products.
-He described the modern worker as knowledge
workers considering their skills and innovative.
ii) Functions of management: Drucker points out three basic
functions of management. The actions of management should contribute to:
-the achievement of purpose and mission of the institution,
-make the work productive and the worker achieving and
-effective management of social responsibilities.
iii) Objective setting: Drucker has attached great importance to objective
-To make the objective setting and their achievement, he has given a new
tool, what is properly known as Mangement by Objectives (MBO).
-MBO is regarded as one of the important contributions to the discipline of
-He has discussed the concept in detail in his book titled the Practice of
Management (1954), whereby MBO is a process both superiors and
subordinates jointly identify the common objective, set the results to be
achieved by subordinates by assessing the contribution of each individual. It
is viewed more as a philosophy than as a tool or technique to achieve the

-iv) Orientation towards future: Drucker is a great visionary and futurologist.

-His views on the many facets of modern corporations have almost all
become reality now.
-He described the present age as the :age of discontinuity on his own
v) Federalism: Drucker has advocated the concept of federalism.
-According to him, federalism, involves centralized control in a
decentralized structure.
-Federalism has certain positive values over the other methods of organizing.
These are as follows:
i). It sets the top management free to devote itself to major policy
formulation and strategy development.
ii). It defines the functions and responsibilities of the operating people.
It creates yardsticks to measure the twin
success and effectiveness in operating jobs and
iii) It helps to resolve the problem of continuity
through giving education to the managers of
various units while in an operating position.
4. Druckers realistic way of looking at the organizations
and society has earned him the status of
management Guru.
5. His contributions have made tremendous impact on
the management practices all over the world.
6. His books on competitive strategy suggest the ways
and means that help organizations and nations to
gain competitive edge.

Course: 1.4

Managing the Self


1. What about the anatomy of the Self?

1. Our life revolves within narrow limits, distinctions and

desires as we play the game of labeling ourselves
and others only on physical characteristics.
2. We divide the people of the world according to sex,
race, creed, nation, age and social status and put
every one into his or her little box.
3. Because of such division there is a conflict in and
around us as we seek to defend the territory thus
established-whether it is a role, a job, a position in
society, the family name or a nation.
4. By looking without body-consciousness to the judge
the world, we need for some effort.
5. To experience the self in its true light requires a
detailed understanding of terms processes used.
6. Physical body consciousness limits and experiencing
the inner self or soul is the essence of life.
7. Ignorance of the self, results in disorder and tension
of an individual, at social level and the world.
8. The mind stays without rest, running, jumping and
churning aimlessly, lashed by waves of feelings and
9. We become entangled in nets, like a spider caught in
its own web from our own ignorance about the
fundamentals of life.
Self-Awareness Theory.
1. Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection
and the ability to reconcile oneself as an individual
separate from the environment and other
2. Self-Awareness Theory states when we focus our
attention on ourselves , we evaluate and compare
our current behavior to our internal standards and
3. When we become self conscious we become
objective evaluators of ourselves.

4. Various emotional states are intensified by selfawareness, and people sometimes try to reduce or
escape through television, video games, drugs etc.
5. People are more likely to align their behavior with
their standards when we made self -aware.
6. People will be negatively affected, if they dont live
up to their personal standards.
7. Self-awareness develops systematically from birth
through the life span and it is a major factor for the
development of general inferential processes.
8. These faculties of thinking and forming ideas,
desiring and deciding are non physical and yet
9. Indeed perceptible to us comes from two sources:
what is detected by physical senses and
What arises from the impressions recorded on
these subtle faculties.
Things that we can see, taste, hear, smell,
and feel, as well as the body itself, are formed of
But the subtle faculties of mind, intellect and
personality are manifestations of what is called
Consciousness is another word for self or soul
or spirit. The spirit. The spirit is a subtle entity that
cannot be measured by any physical process or
I or soul is perceptible only at the level of
mind and intellect.
Stepping into the dimension of the spirit is a
very subtle process, mainly because the mind is
locked into a vision of reality that excludes:
matter, the senses, and things of immediate
interest so out dominate our thoughts that the
very nature of existence becomes distorted. We
see the world not as it is but as we are.

There are none among them either men or
women; this distinction only exists between the
bodies, and not between incorporeal beings. The
following words are essentially synonyms for the
word soul: Spirit-Being-Consciousness- Inner selfLife energy- Essence-I.
2. What is the cyclic process with in the Self?
All actions create a sub-conscious impression in the
sanskars which is our innate personality. The innate
personality or Sub-conscious impressions again create
thoughts, emotions, and desires. The process is cyclic.
Management Information System (MIS)
It provides information needed to manage organizations
efficiently and effectively. Management information
systems involve three primary resources:
a) People
b) Technology
c) Information.
MIS are distinct from other systems in that they are
used to analyze operational activities in the
organization. Academically, the term is commonly
used to refer to the group of information
management methods tied to the automation or
human decision making, e.g. decision support
systems, expert systems, and executive information
The following are some of the features that help attain
different types of Management Information System.
-The company is able to highlight their strength and
weakness due to presence of revenue reports,
employee performance, methods etc,
-Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as
a communication and planning tool.
-The availability of the customer and feedback can help
the company to align their processes according to the
needs of the customers,

-Information is considered to be an important asset for

any company in the
Managing self with Mind, Intellect and Sanskars (MIS)
and managing others with the Management Information

Managing Self with Mind Intellect and Sanskars (MIS):

1. It highlights the strengths and weakness of the
employees to be managed.
2. It helps in understanding external sources (Human
Resources) which are to be managed effectively.
3. Information about the specialties of HR, statistics of
organization is an helping tool for effective
4. External power of others to be managed.
3. What is consciousness? Explain in detail.
1). The soul is a conscient energy, aware of its own existence. Consciousness
can be described as the feeling I am or I exist. If you examine any
thought decision-action process, you will find that, there is always the
feeling, I am something or the other.
2) Consciousness is thus the springboard for thought, decisions and actions.
In other words the soul reacts to external circumstances according to how it
regards itself at that particular moment.
3). For example, a surgeon is able to perform surgery when there is the
consciousness of being a surgeon. That very consciousness unlocks or gives
the soul access to all the information and experience related to being a

Awareness Thoughts
I am father, My son
consciousness I know

Decision Action
I will
teach him argues

Ill feeling


I am a soul
consciousness my natural
state is
love and

listen to
me as he
is my own
flush and
My son is
a soul too.
As a soul
he is my

a lesson

with son father and


I will
his idea

and son


4).The soul when it has the consciousness of being a soul is able to have
instant access to its own original qualities.
Definition of Consciousness
1). It is something, which is conscious of it self and is conscious of
surroundings. We are normally conscious of the surrounding but the
meditation process begins with becoming conscious of our selves. The tool
used to be conscious of ourselves is introvert thinking and visualization of
our thoughts. Thinking is the first faculty of soul-the consciousness.
Nightingale and Einstein rightly said You become as you think and
the forefather of everything is a thought
2) . Pure Thoughts and Elevated Consciousness
There are four types of thoughts. They are as follows;
a) Positive, b) Necessary, c) Waste, d) Negative
Positive thoughts are pure, elevated and powerful. Rajyoga meditation is
an art of creating positive thoughts and experiencing elevated
consciousness. The consciousness, attitude, outlook, action, and
environment are related in a serial manner.
b) Necessary thoughts are essential, thought to lead our
every day life. It is inevitable and it is the plan for the
days work.
c) Waste thoughts does not allow us to utilize the present.
Many of us brood over the past and destroy the present.
Past is past and a full stop is necessary. Rajyoga
Meditation helps one to effectively put an end to waste
d) Negative thoughts are thoughts are thoughts based on
negative attitudes and emotions such as hatred, anger,
jealousy, lust etc. This drains the energy completely.

Psychological Dimensions for Decision Making

1). Psychological dimension in decision making such as the knowledge
about self concept, risk profile, tolerance for ambiguity and orientation of
mind and locus control.
2) . Having deeper knowledge about self concept and learning the process of
evolving the self will certainly improve our values and perceptions.
4). Sub Conscious Mind
The key to make our subconscious mind work for us is in our attitude.
Having a positive self-esteem and confidence in our self can go a long way
towards achieving the goals that we have set in our mind.
1). The subconscious mind is an amazing resource that is able to store
memories that is able store memories that have been long forgotten.
2) It has a strong effect on the conscious mind, although it it is not able to
think or reason, taking direction from the conscious mind instead.
3) However, it is possible to reach the subconscious mind and make it work
for us. Many methods are available for doing so, such as through hypnosis,
subliminal programming and positive affirmations.
4) The most common and easy way to master the technique of reaching the
subconscious is through positive affirmations. For losing weight or
increasing self confidence, positive affirmations can be applied to any aspect
of life.
5). For example, positive affirmation simply activates the subconscious mind
to allow it to function at its peak. Handling the everyday matters. It is able to
do so by imprinting messages into your subconscious through constant
6). Unlocking the power of our subconscious mind is a simple process,
requiring only our willingness and effort. Below are two simple steps we can
start our subconscious mind work for us.
a). What Drives Us
Identify the reason that motivates us to work hard and excel in life. Without
knowing what makes us to work, we will be unable to recover the same level
of drive when faced with setbacks or discouraged. Ability to unlock our
subconscious mind depends on knowing what we want, before we can
achieve it.
b). Create a Strategy
1) The term subconscious is used in many different contexts and has no
single or precise definition. In everyday speech and popular writing,
however, the term is very commonly encountered, as a lay persons
replacement for the unconscious mind, which in Freuds opinion is a
repository or storing area for socially unacceptable ideas, wishes, desires,

traumatic memories and painful emotions put out of mind by the mechanism
of psychological repression.
2)Unconscious thoughts are not directly accessible to ordinary introspection,
but are supposed to be capable of being trapped and interpreted by
special methods and techniques such as meditation, random association,
dream analysis and verbal slips, examined and conducted during
3). The idea OF THE SUBCONSCIOUS as a powerful or potent agency
has allowed the term to become prominent in the New-Age community,
techniques such as autosuggestion affirmations are believed to harness the
power of the subconscious to influence a persons life and real-world
outcomes, even curing sickness.
4) For example-The person who wants to learn how to drive a car. At the
beginning he wouldnt be able to hold a conversation with anyone while
driving as he would be focusing on different moves involved.
5) Thats because hes still using his conscious mind to drive. The
subconscious mind is our autopilot few weeks later driving becomes a
natural habit that happens automatically without the need to think about it.
That person could even start using his cell phone or talking to his friends the
driving. This happened because the driving habit has been transferred to his
subconscious mind and so conscious mind becomes free.
5) Program the Subconscious Mind
When the information about driving is stored in our subconscious mind its
stored as a program. Think of our mind as a computer and the driving
information as a software that can be run automatically whenever needed. By
programming the subconscious mind with new programs, we can fix many
problems in our personality programming our subconscious can be done
through hypnosis.
6) Rules of the Subconscious Mind
In order to best use the power of our subconscious mind we must first know
how the subconscious mind works. The subconscious mind is governed by
many rules.
7). Ego defense mechanisms
Just like our body has got its defenses against physical wounds and injuries
our subconscious mind has got its defenses against emotional shocks and
wounds. These are called ego defense mechanisms or unconscious
8) Forgetting about someone
The main reason people stay broken after breakups is that they have false
beliefs about relationships stored in the subconscious minds
9) Using our Conscious and subconscious Mind together

1). The conscious and the subconscious mind can make a great team, if we
use them together. The first can handle some tasks then assigns them to the
second while the second can send feedback and messages about the task in
the form of emotions to the first. Emotions are no more than messages sent
our subconscious mind in order to notify us about something.
2). The basic principle is that what ever your mind can imagine it can
create. How does our mind do this? What our mind thinks, sees, believes,
and feels it is sent to our subconscious mind-its great partner, the real power
within you.
3). Our subconscious mind then works with the universe and creates our
reality based on the messages in our mind. But its not enough to simply
imagine we can achieve it-but we need to know how to use the power of our
mind and sub-conscious mind.
4) Our mind can create wonderful things for us, if we know how to use that
power and how to send the right messages to our subconscious mind.
5) Doctors now firmly believe that 75% of all sickness and disease start in
the mind, scientists have long said that we only use 10% of mind power. If
we learned to use 90% of our minds power correctly then imagine if we
could properly direct our subconscious mind then result would be beyond
our belief. It can be achieved by conditioning our subconscious mind.
6) In order to create the things we want in life we must take control of our
mind. Many people ruin their lives because they dont want to use the power
of their mind. By properly training and directing both conscious and
subconscious mind, then we can develop the power to create the life we
4. What do you mean by the states of awareness? And how it works?
One important function of the intellect is to regulate your state of your state
of awareness. The two possible states of awareness are:
1. The experimental identification with the self as a soul.
2. The experimental identification with the self as a body.
When one is conscious of his own self, his great self-esteem emerges and
one becomes very powerful within. He acquires a lot of optimum and
courage. In that real-original-natural consciousness various great thoughts
will further enhance the self assertiveness to be in ones real life.
In the original state of peace, purity, self-awareness and power, you naturally
conscious of yourself as a soul.
Part of meditation practice is to monitor your own state of awareness and
affirm consciously your identity as a soul. Identification with the body may
be conscious or unconscious, but identification with the soul is conscious. It
leads to the inner experience of being essentially pure and positive, inspiring
you act in a state of awakened self-awareness.

This state of self awareness help you visualize the process of repeatedly and
consciously waking up or becoming self-aware.
To be soul-conscious means, there is both intellectual and experimental
consciousness of the self as soul. It is compared to being switched on.
To be body conscious means the sense of self as a soul hardly exists. There is
preoccupation with sense of perceptions. It is compared to being switchedoff.
As your awareness moves towards body consciousness, then the light of the
intellect becomes dimmer and dimmer and at last it reaches the state of
switch off, which is total body-consciousness. The on position is total soulconsciousness.
If you are attentive to your inner light, you keep creating the thoughts
necessary to remain switched on.
5. What is soul consciousness and Body consciousness?
Soul conscious means, there is both intellectual and experimental
consciousness of the self as a soul.
Body conscious means the sense of self as a soul hardly exists.
Contrast of Soul and Body- Awareness
Virtues are dominant
Anti-values are dominant
Detached observer
Caught up in whats happening
Not self-aware
Emotionally independent
Emotionally dependant
Able to forgive and forget
Can let go
Bears grudges for a long time
Will avoid escalating a situation
Angry, irritable, easily provoked
Rigorous self-analysis
Denies personal responsibility
Your mistake is my mistake
My mistake is your mistake
Attitude of brotherhood
Prejudiced,e.g. racist, misogynist
Will apologise for mistakes
Will deny mistake and never

Sweet natured
Feelings of security and comfort
Content with self and
Happy to see others progress
Not possessed by possessions
Clear ethical policy for the self
Lives according to own values
Honest, integrity in interactions

Feelings of insecurity and worry
Discontented, dissatisfied, wanting
more and better
Easily becomes jealous and envious
Possessed by possessions
Critical of others behavior
Acts against espoused values
Deceptive in dealings and

6 What are the innate and acquired qualities of

Everything we see has what can be called its acquired value and its innate or
inherent value. Spiritual wisdom also helps us to develop the innate and
acquired values.
Self-empowerment means, is taking the power from within to control
ourselves at the right time through process in the right manner.
The acquired value is that which it has picked up directly by association
throughout its existence. The acquired qualities are the qualities which we
adopt in our self when we are in childhood. Mother, father and other
relations, teachers, school friends are playing dominant role in educating in
the self.
The major acquired qualities are:
The innate value is what it always has irrespective of its appearances.
The innate qualities of the soul are those that are the most fundamental. They
are so basic that they themselves are the basis of all virtues and powers.
1) Peace,
2) Knowledge,
3) Happiness,
4) Love,

5) Purity,
6) Power,
7) Bliss.
Meditation is to empower my own innate attributes so that my behavior can
be naturally virtuous. Spiritual orientation deals with the process of
educating our innate qualities and experiencing elevated consciousness.
The innate qualities of the soul are generally overlapped with the acquired
qualities and create identity and the role of the self. They are as follows:
a) How we were when we came: The innate qualities when we took the
body are the primary aspect. Slowly, we developed the qualities at a later
stage and it is termed as acquired qualities which can be identified with the
and role of our personality.
b) What we get in childhood: The acquired qualities are the qualities which
we adopt in our self when we are in childhood. Mother, Father and other
relations of the house play a vital role in educating the qualities in the self at
the time of childhood. The other important roles are teachers, school friends
and other relatives.
c). What we get in youth: It is the prime period during which we acquire
many qualities from the friends and society. The acquired positive qualities
will create a positive personality. If guided in wrong path, it will lead to
acquiring negative traits and attributes which spoils the entire career and life.
d) .What we get as we grew up: Many qualities are acquired at the growing
stage from youth to older age. All attitudes make our personality and by the
same we decide our destiny in life.
e). What we get later: Attributes which are formed by later will be at the
top most surface. The inner qualities and attributes are covered with the
acquired qualities and attribute. It is the main cause that we will experience
ourself as Role what we are performing rather than understanding our real
identity. Body conscious takes over and we forget the original innate
qualities and attributes.
Spiritual Orientation deals with the process of educating our innate qualities
and experiencing elevated consciousness. We can thus integrate our IQS with
AQs to increase our circle of influence and enhance our efficiency.
7. How does Understanding of self helps in the field of Management?
For leading a successful life and for being a successful personality, one
needs certain mental, moral and spiritual powers. These are very essential for
maintaining inner and outer harmony, for better relationships, for ones own
peace of mind, for facing difficult situations and for doing ones personal

and professional duties successfully. There are many such powers needed in
life. Some of the most important ones are:
a) .Power of Tolerance and Endurance.
b) .Power of Love and Co-operation.
c).Power of Assessment, evaluation, differentiation and discrimination.
d).Power of Discerrnment or Judgment.
f). Power to Expand, to enhance or to spread.
g). Power to face difficulties or to overcome difficulties.
h). Power to Accommodate, Power to Withdraw like a tortoise.
i). Power of Purity.
j). Power of Renunciation of negative thoughts and making sacrifices.
k). Power to bend or focus thoughts according to will.
l). Power of unity of ones mind and intellect.
m). Power of maintaining unity with others.
n). Power to adjust.
If one does not have the power to put stop to ones thought on one subject
and to take up another subject as when he needs it, then ones time will be
wasted in redundant thoughts. There are many occasions in life when one
has to give up instantly the thought with which his mind is occupied and to
take up another which has presently gained more importance. So, the power
of self-control and the power to focus according to will are both
These powers are inherent in the practice of meditation and are the
fundamentals of philosophy. So, a meditation practitioner gets these and
many other mental, moral and spiritual powers and these give him success in
day-to-day life and in the field of management also.
1. What is the thinking process? How a thought
pattern is developed?
Thought refers to any mental or intellectual activity involving an individuals
subjunctive consciousness. It can refer either to the act of thinking or the
resulting ideas or arrangements of ideas. Thoughts create impressions on our
self and it is stored in memory.
A thought is a source of power or an idea that exists in the form of subtle
energy. The thoughts are created or generated from the faculty of the mind.
This subtle energy in the form of a thought or an idea can be transformed
into a powerful force through speech or action. In general, every thought is
like a seed and has the potential to manifest itself into a word or physical
serviceable product for sustenance of all life forms as well as for the
maintenance of the creation. Thoughts can also be transmitted to other

people in any part of the globe by the process called mental telepathy or
thought vibrations.
In general, the world is now waking up to the possibility that thought power
may be much more powerful than cumulative potency of all the existing
nuclear arsenals that now threaten human civilization.
Thoughts play an important role in our life. It is imperative to understand the
importance of the thoughts.
Sow a Thought- Reap a feeling
Sow a Feeling- Reap an Action
Sow an Action- Reap a Habit
Sow a Habit - Reap a Character
Sow a Character- Reap a Destiny.
The quality of our thoughts determines our happiness or unhappiness. The
ideas rule this world. Your greatest treasure is your thoughts. This treasure is
LIFE. Thoughts empower you to place yourself in a state of happiness, peace
and ecstasy.
Transformation of thought pattern is an easier process if we develop self
determination and will power. Due to lack of the same, it becomes an
herculean task to transform ones thought pattern from negative to positive.
Action for Transformation
a) Positivity, a Path for Self Progress. In ones
personal life, positivity is the foundation of progress and
b) Positivity Brings Happiness in Relationship. It
creates harmony and closeness in relationships. The
extent to which we adopt a positive attitude in
relationships, is the extent to which we can enjoy
happiness in relationships.
c) Positivity, Brings a feelings of Responsibility. With
positivity, we develop a feeling of responsibility towards
a given task. A person with such an attitude when given
a task, does it with full sincerity.
Challenges in the path of Transformation of Thought.
There are many challenges and hurdles that creep up in ones way.
These challenges can evolve from the following:
a) Self. Every individual has his own inherent weakness
along with some good qualities. When he tries to
overcome his weakness by becoming good, his own

negative tendencies come in his way. Ex: a person who

was always arrogant in his behavior, he realized it is
wrong and become a soft spoken person.
b) Relations: We come across a lot of imbalance,
bitterness, discord in our mutual relations. Such
relations may become a hurdle for us. For ex. an
individual, who has the habit of coming late at home,
because of his bad company, wants to improve upon
c) Prevalent Environment: Prevalent Environment of the
society becomes a cause of obstruction in ones path. At
home a child sees the father smoking. Media has also
become a major factor. Habits like that of gambling,
taking bribes etc have ruined many a houses. If one
does not indulge in such activities, he is considered
2. How the Transformation of thought process
To transform, we basically need five things. It comprises
five things viz:
First and foremost thing required is to have an internal desire that I want to
transform myself definitely. Then specifically make this desire as your aim
towards transformation. Further aim becomes very strong when once one
understands why transformation is necessary i.e. the aim becomes very clear
and a person works towards it with earnest zeal, if he has the knowledge of
how to do it. When we clear about our Aim and also have knowledge
(about the benefits that will get on account of the change), then only we can
find the process of transformation easy.
However, for the process of change to succeed, we also need competence
capacity and capability in addition to a strong DESIRE, a clear aim and

One should firm up his aim with full knowledge of his capacity and
capability (competence). Without proper efforts there could be no
Further, one can achieve transformation provided one maintains balance
between all the five steps, -Desire, Aim, Knowledge, Competence and
If out of these five essential components of transformation, even if one
component is weak, then one will start vacillating on the path of
There are actually quite a number of ways to get a negative thought pattern.
The basic idea is to replace the old pattern with new one. Instead of trying to
resist the negative thought pattern, you will redirect it. Take the energy of the
negative thought and re-channel it into a positive thought.
3. What are the External influences on thoughts?
The external influences of thought pattern are affected
as follows:
As per Indian rituals, there is a prominent saying that
there is effect of negative thoughts on the body and
materials. If any one has a negative thought on
someone then it may cause damage to the body or the
material. It is commonly termed as Nazar Lagna in
Hindi and similar meaningful words in other languages
of India. Sometimes, many of them ignore the same as
it comes under superstition but it has its own impact.So,
it is evident that there is a negative impact of the
thoughts on the material. Generally, they adopt many
means to supersede the same like putting black spot on
the cheeks of the child, wearing black crystals etc. It is
nothing but creating positive thoughts and confidence
in the person who negates the negative impact of the
negative thoughts. So, creation of negative thoughts
will be negated by positive energy and it has been
scientifically proved that the positive thoughts have a
positive impact on the man and material.
A water crystals structure and presentation can
actually be altered by prayer. Even polluted water can

be changed into crystals of beauty. The power of prayer

is real.
Most tap water from great cities will not crystalize when
frozen, but results in crystalising beautiful forms comes
from pure water.
4. What are the power and effects of thoughts?
We are responsible for our own thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Thoughts
have great power. We can create and experience thoughts. We choose to
think. Frequent repetition of the same type of thoughts create your beliefs
and attitudes. Thoughts are like seeds, you plant in your mlnd. The more you
hold on to a particular thought, the more power you invest in it. Positive
thoughts generate energy and strength. Negative thoughts rob us of power
and strength and makes us feel tired and drained. What we believe come true
for us. It takes time to change and transform those old patterns of thinking.
Be patient with the self.
Positive Effect of the Thoughts
The power of thought vibrations can treat bodily ailments with amazing
success using pure elevated thoughts. The spiritualist strongly believe that
elevated concentrated thought power in the form of faith and will power
have the capability to alter the rate of body metabolism to bring it in
harmony with the rest of the body organs. This is because all cells and
organisms have coded innate intelligence that function in a symbiotic
manner. All the sensory organs cooperate with each other to balance in the
body for optimum performance. Most of these organs function in voluntary
as opposed to external as opposed to external actions of the body.
Dr Emoto has conducted an experiment on the power of thought on water
and found out miraculous results about the power of thought. It proves that
positive thoughts will have an impact on the material. If we create positive
thoughts then naturally all our bodys illness will be negated to farthest
extent. Many of the diseases caused in us, is due to psychosomatic disorder.
So creation of positive thoughts has prominent role in present scenario.
Creating a powerful Atmosphere
It is now widely accepted that the personality of a man is based on the
quality of his thoughts. A noble thought elevates the min and grows a pure
heart, whereas a base thought excites the mind and renders a morbid and
dark feeling.
Without the benefit of a powerful intellect, a weak soul is at the mercy of the
atmosphere. Whatever the atmosphere, so will be the emotions and thoughts

evoked from the sanskars, whether person enjoys that emotion or not. At
such times, it is impossible to escape from the effect of the atmosphere.
To be detached from a negative atmosphere and to be instrumental ln
creating a powerful positive atmosphere, one must:
a). Have powerful attention to ones own true nature,
b). Use the intellect to clear the mind and become introspective,
c). Look deep into the self and choose the purer, more elevated human
emotions of peace, power, contentment, or whatever quality is needed and
retain that in the mind.
d). Instead of expecting situations to give some personal benefit, the soul see
how it could give benefit in any situation, thus creating a powerful
atmosphere of benefit.
e). Where there is expectation there is always the possibility of
disappointment but where there is an attitude of giving benefit there can
never be disappointment.
f). When the soul has the power to maintain its chosen positive experience in
the mind, it generates a powerful pure atmosphere.
g) More powerful a soul, greater the number of other souls experience the
same, and more powerful the corresponding atmosphere becomes.
5. What are the principles of positive thinking? How does it help in the
field of management?
The highest power is mental power through which you can make any soul
experience the power of attainment in a second. Through your mental power,
you can change the line of anyones fortune and give courage disenchanted
Thinking is the most subtle form of action. A refined mind is intuitive and
sensitive to vibrations, unspoken thoughts, intentions and attitudes in an
environment, even at great distances. This is sometimes called sixth sense.
Positive thinking demands that you create positive thoughts. Cultivating
positive thinking together with a regular practice of meditation generates an
accumulation of internal power or determination.
Most people today are in a state of spiritual depletion. Each day spiritual
energy is used simply in the business of living. If the thought is positive,
then you create a positive inner experience.
When you pay attention to your state of consciousness, however, and you are
in your internalized stage of self-respect, then your consciousness is
spiritual. The speed of thoughts varies from chaotic when they are negative
to fast when they are waste, to slower when they are ordinary and finally to
still when they are serene and positive. The more positive the thoughts are,
the more you experience tranquility.

6. Evaluate the benefits of positive thinking and

methods to change thinking.
The following principles of positive thinking can help you to determine
your thoughts are indeed positive. They are reminders that your selfrespect is the key to your approach to all situations. It is necessary to
maintain an attitude of self-confidence and willingness to find benefit.
1. The foundation of positive thinking is to have selfrespect and to be contended.
2. Self-respect mean to be assertive and to set boundaries
about what is acceptable and what is not.
3. The aim is to reach a stage of neutrality where your
mind is purely positive because your thoughts are
completely free from the opposition or resistance of
4. Positive thinking is about seeing the negative for what it
is and thereby neutralizing its power over you. If you
dont identify it clearly then you are influenced by it.
5. Positive thinking is the consistent refusal to engage in
projection. That means to refuse to project onto others
the lures and entrapments of negativity which lurk in
your inner world. It also means that you refrain from
seeing the world through rose-colored glasses and
getting dazzled and impressed. Projection distorts your
perception and skews your vision of the world.
6. Positive thinking is to be free from worrying about
7. Positive thinking is to develop an attitude of enlightened
self interest. This is opposite to selfishness. It means to
come to in terms with your self and not be deceived by
your own weakness.
8. Spirituality defines you are pure, peaceful, powerful
jewel in the heart of God. Positive thinking is to respect
yourself by refusing to adopt someone elses negative
vision of you. In this way you also avoid the powerful
negative force of self-doubt.
9. A positive thought is produced in the face of many
things that are negative. Sustained positive thoughts

lead to neutrality. A neutral thought is produced when

there is no further negativity to content with.
Self respect means that you consider it
inappropriate to criticize others. You consider it
cowardly to feel threatened by someone else. You view
everyone as responsible for their own behavior.
Self respect is to affirm that you are pure,
and peaceful soul. From this spiritual sense of identity
you resist pejorative thoughts about your personal
value and integrity from within and from without.
Self-respect implies self-confidence. You
maintain regard for yourself independently of praise or
defamation, successes or failure. You maintain an
attitude of love, peace, faith, courage, perseverance,
enthusiasm and happiness.
Your contentment allows to have a large
heart, magnanimous feeling towards others and a
comfortable relationship with the social environment,
free from fear.
Respecting yourself gives you the power to
discern when someone wants you t buy into lie: you
A positive thinker has a personal ethical
policy of honesty. This ensures that the faculties of
intuition and perspicacity are reliable. An honest person
can detect when someone is lying. You have regard for
your discernment and therefore are hard to deceive. At
the time of deception the others effort will be to
persuade you to disregard-what you know dont.
You are not deceived by things that feel
positive but are in fact negative. Negativity is subtle
and invisible. It occurs both within the self and through
other people. Your thoughts of contentment are not
based on appearances.
Positive thinking is independent thinking
based on higher principles and values. It is not a

reaction to appearances or being dependant on people,

places and things being as you expect.
Positive thought in a simple way is a form
of denial because it ignores the web of negativity and
the selfish motives of others around you. Unless you
discern others selfish motives you will get duped.
By considering the impact of culture, tradition and societal norms on your
perception of positivity and negativity can be ascertained.
Positive Thinking Originates in Self Respect
Self respect implies that you are aware of the essential truth about yourself
and know on a deep level that any negativity within you is acquired and not
original. This level of discernment occurs when you have attained the stage
of a witness, or detached observer of your mind.
Generating a Stream of Positive Thoughts
1. Select a theme from the spheres of self-respect.
2. Be creative and generate a list of thoughts associated
with your chosen sphere of self-respect.
3. It may help you to write down to your list.
4. Consider your list and picture the associated images or
feeling in your mind.
5. Savour the feeling and meaning of each item on the list.
6. Be attentive and focused.
7. Whenever you lose the thought, gently bring back to
8. Thoughts which might arise to distract you.
9. Notice what is going on in your mind.
Focus on your sphere until you experience
the positive meaning.
Cultivate your faith in that sphere of selfrespect through analyzing and practicing it.
Be firm and stable in that stage of selfrespect.
The spheres are also keys of self-respect. You may be
familiar with the expression pressing peoples used to
describe proactive behavior that arouses responses in
those who are lacking in self-respect or emotional
maturity. The spheres of self respect can be used as
keys or buttons to neutralize those of negative buttons.

You will experience many other benefits when you take

the time to develop the practice of generating stream of
positive thought.
7. How the process of cycle of thoughts occurs?
Relate the same in management perspective?
To understand the internal cycle of the thoughts, how the process is cyclic,
we have to understand how the cycle of negative thoughts and positive
thoughts are formed.
Cycle of Negative Thought
If any input of negative information enters into our mind then it creates
negativity in the self. To understand the the cyclic process of the Negative
Thought pattern, one needs to understand the consequence of creation of
each negative thought.
a). Creation of Negative Thought. It is primitive stage of the cycle, suppose
if we create a negative thought it helps in creating a negative vision and from
their the cycle starts.
b). Creation of Vision. After creation of a negative thought in our mind,
then it forms a negative vision of thought. Then we will visualize the same
and we will transfer the same into our memory. If we often create negative
images then accordingly it will be retained in our memory.
c.) Creation of Memory. Continuous formation of negative vision will be
retained and stored in the form of negative memories. At times it will be so
hard and it is very difficult to erase the same. Each and every negative
memory gives raise to feelings.
d). Creation of Feelings. Deeply imprinted negative memories gives rise to
negative feelings of the same negative thoughts which may create fear in
ones own mind due to uncertainty or other relevant negative reasons.
e) Creation of Fear. Due to creation of negative feelings, one can easily
bring the same into action. All these type of actions based on negativity i.e.
fear gives rise to negative actions. It often seems to be repetitive in nature.
f). Creation of Action. When feelings are of fear, naturally all the actions
performed will be negative in nature. All negative actions naturally leads to
negative results.
g). Creation of Result. When the actions are negative, the negative results
are the final products of the same. Repetitive negative results often lead to
h). Creation of Reaction. When the results are negative, the negative
reactions are the bye products of the same. It again gives raise to creation of
the negative thoughts again.

So, the process is cycle in nature. If we want to change the same, we have to
stop taking inputs of negativity rather than allowing them in primitive stage
and let them grow to change our attitudes.
Sketches in 69 & 71 cycle of negative thought & cycle of positive thought.
Steps to Change cycle of Change of Thinking
The process of cycle of positive thought is same as negative thoughts. But
the nature of thought is different. If any input of positive information enters
into our mind then it creates positivity in the self. To understand the cyclic
process of the positive thought pattern, one needs to understand the creation
of each positive thought.
a) Creation of Positive Thought. It is the primitive
stage of the cycle, suppose if we create positive
thought it helps in creating a positive vision and from
there the cycle starts.
b) Creation of Vision. After creation of a positive
thought in our mind, then it forms a positive vision of
that thought. Then we will visualize the same and we
will transfer the same into our memory. If we often
create positive images then accordingly it will be
retained in our memory.
c) Creation of Memory. Continuous formation of positive
visions will be retained and stored in the form of
positive memories. It acts as a foundation of generation
of positive thoughts again and again in future. Each and
every positive memory gives rise to positive feelings.
d) Creation of Feelings. Deeply imprinted positive
memories give rise to positive feelings of the same
positive thoughts which may create confidence in ones
own mind due to will power in the self or other relevant
positive feelings, emotions and reasons.
e) Creation of Confidence. Due to creation of positive
feelings, one can easily bring the same into action. All
these type of actions are based on positivity i.e.
confidence gives rise to positive and fruitful actions.
f) Creation of Action. When feelings are confident, then
naturally all the actions performed will be positive in
nature. All positive actions naturally lead to positive



Creation of Result. When the actions are positive, the

positive results are the final products of the same.
Repetitive positive results often lead to reactions.
Creation of Reaction. When the results are positive,
positive reactions are the bye products of the same. It
again gives raise to creation of the positive thoughts

So, the process is cycle in nature. If we want to change, we have to stop

taking inputs of negativity and allow them in primitive stage and let them
grow to change our attitudes.
1. What is the Power to withdraw and power to pack
A power is an overwhelming force, determination or
might that cannot hidden in a person. Success is based
on using the right power at the right time and right
The power to withdraw your thoughts is possible even while you perform
activity. Naturally your thoughts must be involved, but during any task you
can withdraw and check yourself with the consciousness of your inner peace
even for a brief second. Always check for defects and correct if necessary.
Like the tortoise who withdraws its legs and take protection with in its hard
shell on hearing unfamiliar sounds or detects impending danger, so too,
withdraw and go deep within and regain your inner strength using the innate
values as protection. When there are obstacles or impending danger and
difficulties, look first for the solution internally and not externally.
With full awareness that Self is an entity different from our body, we can
withdraw from the senses whenever Self wish and become a point of energy.
In the same way tortoise retreats into its shell in a moment of danger, or just
to rest. We must also able to retract our self from any situation and remain
protected. Going within at regular intervals enables us to both to
accommodate and draw on our resource of inner strength.
Impact of Power to withdraw in the Field of Management
The power to withdraw plays an effective role in the field of management.
When we attached to any position or stick to any situation, then it is very
difficult to take decisions. When we withdraw completely and feel as a

separate entity then our attitude towards the situations, people will change.
When we are always away from the influences on us by withdrawing our self
then we can see the whole situation as a whole and take effective and wise
decisions. At times, when we feel to detach from the whole scenario then our
perspective and percept towards the situations will be changed completely. It
doesnt have any impact on us in any form.
The Power to Pack-Up
The power to pack up is to dispose of all idle, waste and negative thoughts
and act on only positive thoughts. When you apply the power to pack up
waste thoughts, it means you are then travelling light and then you practice
the incarnation of economy which means that you get the optimum
returns with least expenditure. In reality, there is absolutely no wastage in
life. Wastage of any kind is the geneses of pollution, be it mental or physical.
This practice in economy brings power creating completely positive outlook
and successful life. Difficult tasks become easy and impossible ones
suddenly become possible.
Those who have an easy nature are easily able to adopt the power to pack up.
They will also be co-operative with others. Mental distractions will confront
them less. They are loved by all.
Cleanliness attracts everyone towards self. Cleanliness means honesty as
well as being clean. They will be honesty and cleanliness only when you
have easy nature.
All our obstacles will finish automatically. Keep everything short and also
sort out everything.
Any situation that comes to us, make our foundation strong. Therefore, do
not be afraid of the same. If we think too much ,we lose the power to decide
and we should practice applying a full stop in one second when there is any
external situations distracting.
The power to pack up practice over a long period of time will make us to
face the challenges and situations ease.
Impact of Power to Pack up in the Field of Management
With the ability to go within, we are going to learn how to pack up all
wasteful thinking in a second, so that there is a lightness and freedom from
burdens and worries in the field of management. At the time of discharging
our duties there will be full attention, concentration and economy of thought.
During that time practical use of power, thoughts or speculation about
worldly obligations do not intrude. We have an automatic escape-valve of
going deep into the self, checking thoughts on a subtle level and
experiencing a relationship with God. Preoccupations with limited external
activities, past, present or future, and packed-up attitude and the selfs

unlimited consciousness are revealed. It helps in tackling various issues in

managing resources.
2. Compare and Contrast the power of Judgment
and Power of Discrimination
The Power to Decide (Judge)
The power to judge allows one to take and make quick, clear, accurate and
unbiased decisions consistently/correctly. One must have clear understanding
of what is spiritually right from what is morally wrong. This needs
clarity of thought when there is harmony of mind and intellect with a
detached perspective. Never set out to look for the defects in others first.
Clarity of thought enables one to be part of the solution and not part of the
problem. It creates the opportunity to stand back and view the problem
from a distant.
Through this self-adjustment, we can accurately assess any situation with
clarity and confidence. In a detached, impartial state of mind we judge our
own thoughts, words and actions to see if they are beneficial to the scene in
which we find our self. We become the judge of our self, never the judge of
others. This is reflected in a balance of love and law; spiritual love for all
others and the discipline to keep our self within the boundaries of the highest
code of conduct. If others are acting wrongly, we can correct them self
through example
We are only able to judge with scales accurately when the pointer is
absolutely still, when fluctuation has finished and both the scales are equal
The same way, only those whose pointer of the meditation of the intellect is
still, and whose intellect doesnt have any upheaval, those who have a stage
that is free from sinful thoughts, who have the balance of love and power,
only such judges are able to give an accurate judgment.
Judgment is important aspect in each and every decision, thats why
management will be successful if they take right decisions at right time with
power of judgment.
The Power of Discrimination
The power to discriminate is to apply the correct values to the thoughts,
words and actions of the self and others. Just as a jeweler can discriminate
false from real diamonds, so you should be able to keep positive, worthwhile
thoughts and discard the negative harmful ones. It is the negative thoughts,
which often cloud the true power of discrimination, because it induces loss
of objectivity and clarity in thoughts when the motive is selfish, injurious
and deceitful. You aim should be like a swan who can pick out the gems
from among the stones with immaculate and constant accuracy.
Through practice of discrimination, we can become victorious in many
respects. We need to practice of discrimination in the present, and in the

future, and in any situation. Only those who do not have a lot of waste
thoughts are able to discriminate situations/ others accurately. Those who
intellect is engaged in remembrance of God, in the task of one and who are
in constant stage will be able to discriminate others very quickly. Waste and
sinful thoughts make the intellect tired. Any person who is tired will not be
able to discriminate and make a decision accurately.
A swan discriminates and separates jewels from pebbles and imbibes the
jewels. In the same way one can discriminate a required specialty, or virtue,
at a given time, this is known as power of discrimination.
In life situations and job come constantly to test the self and so falsehood
comes disguised as truth many a times to examine ones level of progress in
management. Only with discrimination power can we see through the
disguises and act confidently in the positive way.
3. How Power of Tolerance and Accommodation help
in harmonious relationships?
The tolerant person is always cheerful in any situation.
Such a person is free from upsets, sadness, depression,
worry, pain confusion, pique, loneliness and boredom.
Tolerance enables the self to grow and blossom even in
unfavorable conditions and to overcome all obstacles.
Tolerance builds bridges across the chasms of human
misunderstanding. With this virtue pain can be
transcended and old wounds are allowed to heal.
Tolerance is the sign of a cheerful mind.
Development of Tolerance
To develop true virtue of tolerance, it is essential to have constant practice of
soul consciousness. Develop merciful vision by experiencing the Supreme
love deeply, and having mercy on the self. Understand the philosophy of
karma, the law of reciprocity, the law of action and reaction, and the
knowledge of the Creator and the Creation (law of destiny). Be loving and
detached. Develop and experience the value of self-respect. Imbibe the virtue
of humility. Maintain stability in times of crises. Then empower the self with
the virtue of tolerance. Tolerance is more divine than intellectual.
Impact of Power of Tolerance in the Field of Management
Tolerance and easiness will make any task successful. Those who have the
power of tolerance will also definitely be deep and mature. Those who are
mature go into the depth and those who go into the depth will never be afraid
of any task. They will attain success by going into depth. Those who have
the power of tolerance will not allow either the vibrations of extroversion, or

the thoughts that are created in the mind to confuse them or make them
afraid. With their power of tolerance, they will be able to face it.
The Power to Accommodate
The power to accommodate is the power to be above any clash of personality
or nature. It is to be able to adjust and change negative situations into
opportunities without creating conflicts. To accommodate means that there
should not be slightest trace of any gross feelings of any situation even in
your thoughts. Words that cause a loss should not be spoken and such are the
qualities of a world benefactor. Imbibe and inculcate how to transform a loss
into benefit as well as how to transform defamation into praise. Do not be
influenced by might is right and become careless. You must always
maintain the right path. Use the power to accommodate and co-operate.
To accommodate means that there should not be the slightest trace of any
gross feelings of any situation still remaining, even our thoughts. Words that
have caused a loss are not spoken. Whilst seeing anyones defect, transform
that defect into a virtue with in one second. Transform loss into benefit.
Transform defamation into praise. Only someone who constantly has such a
vision and attitude can have the power of accommodation.
Power to accommodate and faith will help us to gather power and unity
through which will all waste thoughts would finish. There should be much
faith in one another. Never compare sanskars of the past with those of the
present time, that is, do not make the past our present. Whatever we see or
bear, merge that completely within our self and then have the spiritual vision
and benevolent feelings.
Adopt the power to accommodate and fill our self with all treasures and use
them in service of the self and others. By using these treasures we will
become an embodiment of experience. Our sanskars should not merge under
any circumstances, in hunger or thrust, winter or summer or any extreme
conditions. Even nature can deceive us certain times. Therefore, merge all
our nature, thoughts and sanskars. This is known as having the power to
accommodate. Practice the same over a long period of time to have power to
Just as the ocean accepts all the different rivers that flow into it, whether
polluted or clean, we must be able to adjust our self to all that is happening
around us. Just as a person dresses fit for an occasion. We learn to dress
our self with the appropriate knowledge for a person or scene and thereby
maximize each opportunity to create benefit.
In management, do not make the mistake of seeing the mistake of others.
Each one should take the responsibility to remain on the right path and
someone else is doing something wrong, use the power to accommodate that

is, make him full and complete with cooperation and we will become a world
transformer and the team successful.
4. How the spiritual powers contribute to the
management practices?
The soul has eight core powers available for man kind
to deal with any and every conceivable problem that
may come in lifes journey. These powers are a constant
source of inspiration to others so that they too can
benefit from its vibrations so as to cause the inner
transformation and also become powerful. These
powers harness the innate values of the soul to bring
out the sterling qualities of a person leaving a legacy
for others to emulate. The eight powers are such that in
any situation there will be at least one of these powers
available for use. The correct choice of that power will
depend on the clarity of thought, calmness of mind,
orderliness of the intellect and in general, harmony and
cooperation of the mind, intellect and resolves. Success
is based on using the right power at the right time and
right situation.
The eight main powers of the soul
The eight powers available to all human beings are the
powers to Pack up, Tolerate, Accommodate,
Discriminate, Judge, Face, Cooperate, and Withdraw.
There is however a relationship between Values, Quality
and a Power. Values are virtues, ideals and qualities
on which actions and beliefs are based. Values are
guiding principles which shape our world outlook,
attitudes and conduct. Values however are either
innate or acquired. Innate values are our inborn
divine virtues such as love, peace, happiness, mercy
and compassion as well as the positive moral qualities
such as respect, tolerance responsibility, cooperation,
honesty and simplicity. Innate values are common to
every soul. Acquired values are those adopted at your

place of birth or place of growth and are influenced

by the immediate environment. Examples of acquired
values are made of dress, the way you bless, customs,
habits and tendencies. A Quality is a characteristic
which can be seen, admired or appreciated in someone,
but the admirer may or may not feel or experience that
quality in comparison to a power.
Eight spiritual powers are developed to lead a
successful life is as follows:
a). The powers that empowers the Self and develops
the attitude is as follows;
i). Power to Withdraw
ii) Power to Pack-up.
b) The powers that help to help harmonious relations
and helps to change our behavior are as follows;
i) Power to Tolerate
ii) Power to Accommodate.
c).The powers that develop work culture and increase the logical
thinking are as follows:
i) Power to Discriminate
ii) Power to Decide or Judge.
d). The powers that helps in tackling the situations
easily and increase the emotional stage are as follows:
i) Power to Face
ii) Power to Cooperate.

To withdraw

To pack up

To cooperate



To face

To tolerate



To decide

To accommodate

To discriminate

5. How the Pro-activity and Inter-activity work in

mental Powers?
Being proactive means having total mastery over your
own mind, emotions, and behaviors. It begins with selfawareness. Being proactive means taking conscious
control over life. Setting goals and working to achieve
Being proactive can be understood by understanding its
opposite: being reactive. Being reactive means basing
your feelings on what happens outside of you. Reactive
behavior is on the belief that your actions wont affect
your circumstances. Being proactive means you take
the initiative to make things happen and believe you
have the power to make positive choices that can
change negative existing circumstances. Proactive
means that instead of merely reacting to events as they
happen, we consciously engineer our own events. Most
people think reactively. And reacting to certain events is
well and good. But it becomes a problem when that it is

a persons life and nothing more than instinctively

reacting to stimuli.
Theres a gap between stimulus and response, and
within that gap lies the potential for us to choose our
response. Four special human endowments give us this
a) Self-Awareness: The understanding that we do
have a choice between stimulus and response. If
someone insults us, we can choose not to be angry. If
we are offered a do out, we can choose not to eat it.
b) Conscience: The ability to consult our inner
compass to decide what is right for us. We can make
decisions based on unchanging principles, regardless
of what is socially favored at the moment.
c) Creative Imagination: It is the ability to visualize
alternative responses. By using our imagination, we
can mentally generate and evaluate different
d) Independent Will: We have the freedom to choose
our own unique response. We arent forced to
conform to what others expect from us.
The difference between proactive and reactive can be
viewed in terms of what degree of mental
processing occurs during the gap gap between
stimulus and response. A proactive person will apply
four endowments to choose response (or to choose
no response at all). But even more than that, he will
invest the time to make conscious life choices and
follow them.
Interactivities of Power
Interactivity is a very broad term and used with great
liberty. Ultimately it refers to the process by which a
user initiates an action and receives a response based
on that action.
Since people experience their lives through
interactivity, it is a little wonder that we respond with
the most interest and comfort. Interactivity plays an

important role in conversion. As technology increases,

along with internet usage, it is crucial to consider if we
are taking advantage of todays opportunities to
interact with prospects.
A positive experience naturally leads to satisfaction with
the action taken, and a willingness to take additional
steps. This is why interactivity is so crucial to
Yet to really feel interactive, the reaction must occur
the way it does in the real world-in real time.
Interacting with the self will explore spiritual treasures
in our life. Interaction with the self, enhance the
confidence and will power for the transformation of self.
When it is being practiced then it will become a power
and empower the Self.
Note that Intext Questions of chapter 3 is
repeated in chapter 4. Hence chapter 4 Questions
and Answers are not appeared.


1. What are the communication Skills?
Enumerate the significance in Management.
Communication: To give by speaking or writing or any other means.
Communication means to pass something along. Communication suggests
merely that it becomes a common property of giver and taker. It emphasizes
giving to another a share of what one has. It means to exchange ideas and
Communication is the art of transmitting information,
ideas and attitudes from one person to another.
Communication is the process of meaningful interaction
among human beings.

As per world book dictionary- To make known, transmit

or pass information.
Communication skills are:
Knowledge or share, unite with someone (communion)
Discuss: The word discuss came from Greek word
discuss which means a weapon used to cut off head: in
Latin discutier which means to argue.
Dialogue: The word dialogue came from the Greek
which means dia is to flow,or logos is to meaning. It
indicates flow for a meaning.
The ways of communication is as follows:
1. Spoken words
2. Written words.
3. Visual Images.
4. Body Language.
Levels of communication
The levels of the communication are as follows:
a). Communication with others
b). Communication with Self
c) Communication with God.
Importance of Communication in the Field of Management
The Importance of communication skills in the field of Management are as
-Everything a manager doe involve communication,
-Ineffective communication skills can lead to problems for the manager,
-Communication of content to the channel of people under his chain and
-Supportive communication between the staff and management,
-It is a process of sharing by which messages produce desired results,
-It involves sender, receiver, encoding, decoding of messages,
-Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect, is a means of
circumscribing the field of communication theory.
2. What is the importance of Body language in
communication in present scenario?
Body language is an outward reflection of a
persons emotional condition. Each gesture or

movement can be valuable key to an emotion a

person may be feeling at that time. The key to
reading body language is being able to
understand a persons emotional condition while
listening to what they are saying and noting the
circumstances under which they are saying it.
Most people, however, are remarkably unaware of
body language signals and their impact, despite
the fact that we now know that most of the
messages in any face-to-face conversation are
revealed through body signals. Most of the basic
communication signals are the same all over the
world. When people are happy they smile etc.
There are basically five types of body language.
We will probably be able to recognize the more
obvious signs:
Closed-Agressive body language:
-Hand on hips,
-Leg too wide-too much,
-Invading personal space-too close,
-Standing over someone,
-Over firm handshake,
-Eye balling-outstaring,
Closed-Defensive body language
-Crossed arms or legs,
-Hunched shoulders,
-Poor eye contact,
-Leaning away,
-Tight voice.
Closed-Nervous body language
-Nail biting,
-Dry throat-swallowing/coughing,
-Weak handshake,
-Avoiding eye contact.
Closed-Bored body language
-Looking around the room,
-Looking at watch,
-Drumming fingers,

-Shifting weight,
-Rubbing face.
Open-Interested body language
-Firm handshake,
-Good eye contact,
-On the same level,
-Confident stand,
-Confident gestures-chosen gestures,
-Showing interest-head nod/slight lean in
Improving Body Language-Tips
-Keep appropriate distance,
-Touch only when appropriate,
-Take care of your appearance,
-Be aware-people may give false cues,
-Maintain eye contact,
-Smile genuinely,
-Selectivity due to time, attention, context,
-Tendency to forget general comments but
3. What are the dos and donts in
Communication is the art of transmitting
information, ideas, attitude from one person to
another. Communication is the process of
meaningful interaction among human beings.
Communication means to exchange ideas and
thoughts. It suggests merely that it becomes a
common property of giver and taker.
Essentials of Communication: Dos
-Always think ahead about what you are going
to say,
-Use simple words and phrases that are
understood by everybody,

-Increase your knowledge on all subjects you

are required to speak,
-Speak clearly and audibly,
-Check twice with the listener whether you
have understood accurately or not,
-In case of an interruption always do a little
recap of what has been
already said,
-Always pay undivided attention to the
speaker while listening,
-While listening, always make notes of
important points,
-Always ask clarification if you have failed to
grasp others point of
-Repeat what the speaker has said to check
whether you have
understood accurately.
Essentials of Communication Donts
-Do not instantly react and mutter something in anger,
-Do not use technical terms and terminologies not
understood by majority of people,
-Do not talk too fast or too slow,
-Do not speak inaudible surroundings, as you wont be
-Do not assume that everybody understand you,
-While listening do not glance here and there as it might
distract the speaker,
-Do not interrupt the speaker,
-Do not jump to the conclusion that you have
understood everything.
4. How Time Management is more important?
Five things influence an individuals life to a greater
extent. These are:

-Good deeds,
-Health and
People hardly pay any attention to thoughts and time.
They are the greatest assets of life.
Time: Time is a unique resource which can never store
or replaced. It is only resource which each one of us has
in equal measure, i.e. every one has 24 hours.
It is your time. You should be its Master and do not
allow it Master you. Time will not change. It is time for
you to change. Time Management is Self-Management.
Time cannot be managed as time flows of its violation
i.e. choice or wish. One can neither speed it up nor slow
it down. One cannot even stop its expedition. By time
management, we mean that we manage our
activities in such a way that we are able to stop
wastage of time.
Time is good healer. It tends to equalize good and evil
and to right the wrongs of the world. The man who
wastes his own time may be no less a thief than the
man who steals other peoples property. Nothing is
impossible with time. Time, the most universal doctor,
can cure all human ills, and most of them very quickly.
Time is too precious to be wasted in foolish arguments
of discontent. No man is paid for his time, but he may
be paid for the use he makes of it. Only used time is of
Aspects of Time
a). Time never stops: Time cannot be retrieved. This
is why the incidents that happen during a period cannot
be reversed or undone. What is done is done, it can not
be undone.
Four things can not be reversed:
-The spoken words,
-The released or shot arrow,

-The lost opportunity and

-The passing time.
b) Time is a precious Treasure
Those who have succeeded in life always believed that
every day is a doomsday, the day of calamity or the last
day. Live each day as if, it were last and youll develop
keen respect of time. The total wealth of the world can
neither purchase nor borrow a single moment of time.
One can not even store it. This is why we should always
remain alert and take care that we do not misuse or
waste even a single moment.
c).Misuse of Time: If we do necessary activities at
inappropriate time, it ie mere misuse of time. Only right
things can be done at the right moment bear fruits and
the time is not wasted.
5. Wasting Time: Time has three phases-the past, the
present and future. We all know it pretty well that it is
the present that is in our hands. However, the people
waste their time in worrying about the past or planning
about the future. If we control waste thoughts, we
should experiment with positive thoughts. Past is past,
there is no point in regretting about it. We should think
of what can, now, be done?. In the same manner, we
lose a lot of time in mere dreaming about feature.
e). Two Enemies or Adversaries- Laziness and Langour: Those who
utilize and manage time believe that the two adversaries of time Laziness
and Langour.
i) Laziness: Any undue delay in doing a work or in taking decisions is
Laziness. We forget that we alone have to assign time to the job, we are
responsible for completing the job.
ii) Langour: We do not give proper attention to the job and shift
responsibility. It leads to tendency of averting work. The habit leads to loss
of many opportunities. It also causes accumulation of work and the pressure
increases. Ultimately the efficiency of the person declines.
Causes of Time Management
Causes are:
-Killing the time,
-Throw the Time away,

-Wasting the Time,

Other factors causing Time Management
Factors are:
-Poor communication,
-Improper understanding of work,
-Debates and discussions,
-Unplanned work,
Monkey habits.
Better Time Management
Follow the following principles for better Time Management:
-Work for Eight hours,
Rest and sleep for Eight hours.
Observe the following points;
a)Keep a Time-Log,
b) Planning and Reviwing,
c) Sequencing,
d) Understanding the work,
e) Work according to the biological clock,
f) Delegate the Work,
g) Clear communication,
h) Other Important aspect of Time Management Tips are:
-Thoughts are the smallest denominators of time. Thought management is
the best way of Time Management.
-There is time for everything and every thing takes its own time,
-Time is the great healer and teacher,
-Time is a fair ruler and big equalizer.
5. Explain the verbal and non verbal communication.
In general human beings communicate using two main forms: Verbal and
non verbal communication
Verbal Communication;
Verbal Communication is any form of communication that uses words in
order to convey meaning or transmit messages. Essentially verbal
communication is either speech or writing. There are four main skills that
human beings put into practice when engaging in verbal communication:
reading, writing, speaking and listening. Any verbal communication involves
at least two skills. Language is the one thing that all four verbal
communication skills have in common; it is a specially human form of
communication that uses symbols to represent ideas and concepts.
Non-Verbal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication is the form of communication that does not

involve the use of speech or writing. In effect, non-verbal communication is
the use of voice, space, objects, movement, time and the five senses to
convey meanings without using words. Because the types of non-verbal
communication focus on physical actions and manipulations to convey
meaning, they are often referred to as communicative behaviors.
Communicative behaviors comprise the following:
Vocalies refers to the use of voice in communicating messages. This does
not include actual words, but modulations in tone of voice, rate of speech,
pitch and non verbal utterances. Because vocalic is often used in conjunction
with speech communication, it is often referred to as paralanguage.
Proximics is the use of space to communicate. Standing close to someone
may indicate that you like her; likewise, changing seat during an exam may
indicate that you suspect your neighbor of cheating or some sort of
Artifacts are objects that convey some sort of message about you. These
include clothes, jewellary, home decorations, books, bags etc.
Movement incorporates several movements of the body-eye contact, facial
expressions, posture and gestures all communicate information. Failing to
meet eye contact when speaking to a parent may indicate nervousness,
shame or possibly untruthfulness; sitting straight in a chair could indicate
Chronemics refers to use of time. By being early for class you show respect
for the teacher and fellow classmates.Similarly, a teacher who arrives
constantly late for class is exhibiting a lack of respect for her students and
The five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell) are also used in nonverbal communication. For example, a normally good cook who over-salts a
dish for her cheating spouse may be using taste to indicate her unhappiness
or displeasure.
Visual Communication
Image Clothing
Frown, Smile,
Eye Movements
Looking away
Intentions, state
of mind
Leaning in

Tactile Communication

Pat on the back

Gentle touch on

Support and

Vocal Communication


How things are

said Vocal

Loudness, pitch,
rate Rhythm,
pitch and clarity

meanings eg.

Space Communication


Body closeness

0-2 feet
Large pieces far

Feelings of
Formal and

UNIT-VI Relationship Management

1. What is relationship? Write the importance of
relationship in our life?
Relationship means, condition of belonging to the
same family. It is being connected by birth or
Relation is not about how you are. But what kind of
a person we think we are, and how we feel about us.
Man is not the tiny organic system. He is essentially a
spiritual being. The core is a confederation of three
powers: Thouhts,Intellect and Power of SelfExpression. These powers manifest through the
organic outfit. Thoughts create emotions and desires.

The intellect discriminates and decides. And out of

this one develops the way and form of actions. Action
leave traces in the self-the SOUL. This forms of
expression or latencies. This luminous , conscient
energy source in individuals is inter-related as
brothers under the fatherhood of one God. This is the
reason why an individual yearns for quietitude, love
and for being loved. These are the natural traits of
human soul. The consciousness of brotherhood is
dormant now and hence individuality is not growing
into personality to manifest the capacity to integrate
oneself with others.
In the present context, the supreme energy
source, the FATHER of all souls is training the
individuals on the technique of spiritual growth. This
is a growth from which issue, as by-product moral
values, aesthetic sense, ethical awareness with its
concern for other individuals, a spirit of service and
dedication and a capacity for team work.
Human beings are social beings. They have to live in the family and move
with the society. A person, who cannot maintain his good relations, is unable
to enjoy life. Life becomes meaningless for him. Relationship means caring,
sharing, acceptance and trust
We are individuals in a society primarily. But the
individuality has limited dimension. We have to
interact with fellow human beings and that is where
we get social responsibility to shoulder.
Happiness and joy in a family is the by-product of the
harmonious interaction of the individuals in the
family. Similar is the case with the world as a whole,
for, the house holders constitutes the world.
The solidarity of human kind is in the offing. The need
of the hour is; as said in Gita raise yourself by yourself
and raise others from the slumber of ignorance; make a
man-ward and GOD-ward journey; for the time is very
short. Swami Vivekananda, quotes Teach yourself,

teach every one, his real nature; call upon the sleeping
soul and see how it awakes. Power will come, glory will
come, purity will come and everything that gives us
excellence will come, when this sleeping soul (of man)
is roused to self-conscious activity.
The process of establishment of a World Religion, a
World Government, a World Family system is very
much essential to achieve harmonious relation ship in
the World.
Importance of Relations in Life: Relations are
Associated with life
Relations continue to exist as long as life is there. One may be in any
profession, at any place and any age but can never sever i.e. cut off from
relationship as he needs someone or other to interact with him.
To a greater extent our experience in life with regard
to success or failure, pain or pleasure, happiness or
sorrow, depend on relationships.
Relations are like thin cotton thread which snap easily
and at the same time, they are like a rope. Relations
are hard to break. Even when we break the same, the
positive or negative aspects surely follow us.
Harmony in relationships leads to peace and
happiness. Relationships enhance security, power
and happiness through the pure energy of love.
2. What is the role of Self-Esteem in nurturing the
Role of Self-Esteem: It can be defined as the way
we feel about ourselves. Self-Image is the way we
see ourselves.
-Self-Esteem does not mean having a big ego.
Unless a person is at peace with himself, he cannot
be at piece with others.
-Self-Esteem is a major component in determining
success or failure. High self-Esteem leads to a happy,
gratifying and purposeful life.
-When we feel good, our productivity goes up.

-Keep reminding yourself on daily basis. Every day in

every way I have to become better and avail every
opportunity, which comes my way towards betterment.
-Whenever alone reflect on your achievements.
-Write a personal journal specifying your virtues and
weaknesses. Browse through this frequency.
Congratulate yourself on pluses in your personality.
-Have a look at your original nature of peace, harmony
and practice meditation.
Characteristics of People with High and Low Self
The differences between the people of High and Low
Self Esteem are as follows:
High Self-

Low Self-

Talk about ideas
Talk about people
Caring attitude
Critical attitude
Accepts responsibility
Blames the whole
Willing to learn
Known it all sensitive
Enjoys decency
Enjoys valgarity
Concerned about
Concerned about
3. How to recreate relationship and have better
relationship management?
Re-establishing Relationships
Concentrate in finding relationships on the foundation
of appropriateness. The fact is that both management
and staff are equally responsible. Irrespective of who is
responsible for this state of circumstances, we should
think what is the responsibility of a staff towards
management and vice-versa. Even if it is accepted and

agreed that the staff did not do their duty is

management doing right thing?. The current situation is
that neither management nor staff fulfills their duty. It is
like if they are wrong, I can also be wrong. But one
should remember that two wrong cannot make one
Psychology of Relationship Conflict
1. Conflict develops because of:
a). Clash of sanskars,
b). Conflicting desires, opinions or interests,
c). Negative feelings of hatred or anger
2. It is facilitated by lack of communication.
3.It is aggravated by stubbornness and willingness to
compromise or forgive.
By neutralizing the above conflicts and Re-establishing relationships in
management is absolutely essential in any industry/ organization.
4- Relations A Pulling String Explain and
Once the element of bitterness enters in the
relationship, it is hard to re-establish the same loveful
and respectful feelings for them. A feeling of hatred
increases and worsens the relationships. By adopting
deep understanding or attitude one can have good,
harmonious relations. Take one relationship and analyze
it from different view points such as:
-What type of attitude in a particular relationship do I
-What type of attitude it should be?
-What should I do harmonise that particular
-A persons attitude towards his organization.
Type of attitude at
As a care taker
As a duty

Type of attitude it
should be

Callous i.e. heartless and

Take over the benefits

Obedient and dutiful

To bring a good name to

Case Study
In the present times it is not necessary that a person
always has harmonious relations with everyone in the
field of management. There was a managing body,he
brought organization up well during his early younger
age. The organization flourished and grew with years
and got its reputation and well established in market.
Managing body wishes in their mind that workers should
support the management and has huge expectations on
In the process of establishing as reputed company,
managing body has to take some decisions and
concentrates on customer relationship than harmonious
relationship in the organization.
Staff has their own wishes and desires. The managing
body has also their own ambitions. Though the
managing bodies are not disinclined to fulfill their staff
desires, they are not in a position to fulfill their staff
wishes due to competitive market.
Managing bodies get disillusioned because their staff
could not fulfill their wishes to establish organization
and regain its reputation. They feel sad and miserable.
Their mentality becomes unforgiving and unrelenting
due to their obsession. They feel that their staff is
responsible for such situation.
Inferences of Case Study
If we analyze the situation, we understand that the
managing body has his own responsibilities, business
etc. He is not happy with whatever happens around
him. He doesnt want his staff to suffer and feel angry
on this account. He doesnt want other customer
relations to suffer either. He feels ill at ease and losses

mental peace. Staff is right in their own way, however,

no one is in a position to find any solution to the tangled
situation. This affects interpersonal relationships. They
get strained, tense, bitter and struggle prone.
5. What are the levels of relationship? Explain
There are different levels of relationships. It can be
broadly categorized into six types. They are as follows:
1.Relation ship with family: Various relationships
comes under this category such as Mother-Father,
Brother-Sister, Husband-Wife, Son-Daughter and others
like Uncle, Aunty etc. It is so significant and plays an
important role in anyones life. If one is able to maintain
harmonious relationship with entire family, then they
can lead a happy life.
2. Relationship at work place or Profession:
Relations under this category are juniors, seniors,
colleagues, customers etc. It paves the path for success
in ones professional life. The interaction and better
understanding is the main foundation of the
relationship. Personal status,dignity. Personal health,
well being are the important aspects of the relationship
at profession. Make the other person feel important in
order to maintain a cordial relationship. Carrier progress
and advancement can be achieved with harmonious
relationship and results in regard and respect of
3.Relationship with society: Relations under this
category are friends, neighbors, Teacher-Students and
others like servants, shop owners, laundry persons,
maids etc. Respecting others refers to the ability to
assess the value within them. Living together is only
possible when there is co-operation and detached love.
In all the relationships what we are maintaining may
pave a way for harmonious value bases society.
4. Relationship with Self: Relationship with self is the
important aspect of life. Understanding the self plays a

vital role as we wear the mask of body consciousness

and act accordingly which has created an identity
crises. One should love the self. Self is our own best
friend and also own worst enemy. To reconnect with
myself I need self knowledge and greater awareness. If
one is in the state of connection with spiritual energy,
then spiritual powers flows within and empowers the
5. Relationship with God: It is an important aspect in
ones life. It empowers the self and gives confidence in
life to face any situations. The most effective method to
achieve this is through the practice of meditation. The
Supreme father fills me with responsibility, as a teacher.
He shows me the right path, as a friend he shows me
the beauty of trust and magic of love.
5. Relationship with nature or environment:
Situations around us indeed change constantly, with
greater or lesser importance. If we really want to cope
with changes without losing a lot of energy and
happiness, we need deeper understanding, clarity and
development. It ia an important aspect of the life. If we
maintain the effective relationship with nature it will
serve as good servant or otherwise it will destruct the
whole humanity. To maintain ecological balance and to
face global warming one has to maintain good
relationship with the nature.

Unit 1: Ethical Values.

1. What does Ethical values mean to you?
2. Ethnics are based on a set of moral and ethical values.
These are based on valuable.
3. Ethics is a system of accepted beliefs which control
behavior, especially

4. Ethical values are a set of moral principles that apply to

a specific group of people, professional field or form of
human conduct and interaction.
5. Ethical value denotes somethings degree importance,
with the aim of determining what action or life is best to
do, or at least attempt to describe the value of different
6. Ethical values respect:
- human rights through self-restraint,
-justice and honesty.
3. In the hierarchy of values, spiritual ethics and morality rank among
the highest.
4. It deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly, or
at least relatively highly, valuable action or may be as good, and an action of
low, or at least relatively low, value may be regarded as bad.
5. A person with ethical values can be trusted and will be respected and
6. These values presuppose moral courage and the power to act according
to ones moral convictions even at the risk of financial, emotional or social
2. How is integrity important in Ethics?


1. What does Family values mean to you?
1.Family values are political and social beliefs that hold the nuclear family to
be in the ethical and moral unity of society.
2.The purpose of family living in a social system is to be healthy and happy.
3. Familialism is the ideology that promotes the family and its values as an
4. Family values:
-support the quality of life,
-being loving and caring,
-being supportive and protective,

-being available for one another during times of special need, like illness,
death, accident,etc.
5. Having strong well defined family values helps solidify the foundation for
a strong, tight knit family.
6. If there is love, there is hope:
-to have real families,
-real brotherhood,
-real equanimity ,
-real peace.
7. The family structures are threatened and often breakdown, if the love
within your mind is lost no matter how much material progress is made,
only suffering and confusion ensue.
8. Strong and consistent family values are important in building trust and
confidence in each family member.
Course:1.6. Healthy Life Style For Managers
Unit 1. Diet and Nutrition
1.As the food, so is the mind Do you agree with this statement?
Substantiate your view.
I fully agree with the above statement and my views are as follows:
-This is an ancient saying signifying food is an essential ingredient for
human beings,
-Our body is made up of five elements and the food we eat is also made of
five elements. Without food we will starve and die. Therefore, food plays a
very, very important role in our life.
-We take food daily and we considered that the God is the anna data-giver of
-Food is composed of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and
trace elements. A diet must provide all of these elements on the condition
that it is well balanced.
-Food is one of the very important sources of requirements for sustenance of
the body and life. Clean food purifies the mind and body.
-In respecting and caring our body our diet require deep consideration.
Vegetarian diet is found to be the best food for promoting the best physical
health. Food can be considered as the medicine for the body.
2. Is it necessary to become vegetarian? Support your conclusion with
the benefits of being vegetarian.
Millions of people in the world have a vegetarian diet. The benefits are;
Vegetarians live longer than meat eaters,


Lowest risks of cancer. heart attack and other chronic

degenerative diseases,
Vegetarians are slimmer than meat heaters,
Women with vegetable heaters risk of breast cancer
is 20-30% less.

-Vegetable proteins are much lower in fat and calories and its meals will
taste delicious.
-Vegetables are endlessly interesting to cook and a joy to eat, says
Deborah Modison, founding chef of Green restaurant in San Francisco
and author of Vegetarian Cooking for everyone (Broadway Books
1977).Its an ever changing parade of flavors and colors and textures and
tastes. Every one can enjoy them, but vegetarians are more likely to think
about cooking and eating vegetables.
-In caring for our body, we require deep consideration. A vegetarian diet
is recommended for both moral and health reasons.
A good vegetarian diet is one:
a) It provides adequate protection,
b) It contains right choices of starches,
c) It reflects knowledge of the value of saturated and
unsaturated fats,
d) It provides good quantity of vitamins,
e) It provides the essential amino acids and trace
elements for the multiple functions of the body,
f) It includes essential complementary/supplementary
Health is wealth. Vegetarian diet is found to be the best food for
promoting the best physical health.
-Experience tells us that ones diet is closely connected with ones
thoughts. A wise man has said, Tell me what a man eats and I will tell
you what character he has.
-The saying goes, The mind is as the diet is, or in another way,
Speech is of the same character as water one takes. The mind becomes
fickle when the diet is exciting, intoxicating, inebriating and the character
consequently declines.

-Sattvic foods are produces positive effect. Everything we ingest has an

effect on the metabolism and in Particular on the brain.
-A person who wishes to improve spirituality should take vegetarian food,
in achieving his object and abstain from the rest of the food as
-It is important that we should remain vegetarian not only from the point
of health and nutrition but also from the point of spiritualism, ethics,
compassion and economics.
3. How the state of mind should be while eating?
-Mental health has a role in creating better social health and spiritual
health. It is also known that the mind plays an important role in
maintaining complete health.
-We must eat in peace. Hence, we should eat the food in the remembrance
of the Lord. The God is the anna-data- giver of God.
-We must be happy that the God has provided us for the food the day.
When we eat the food chewing each mouthful and enjoy the taste, such
food will digest properly, convert into blood and that will give us bodily
strength. The enzyme in the mouth will mix with the food and such food
will easily digest in the stomach.
-We should not eat food when we are disturbed, stressful and sorrowful.
In such situations, such food will not digest properly and there is a
possibility that the food may become poison. Therefore, we must
mentally prepare to enjoy food irrespective of the situations we are
-Since food prepared in remembrance of God is called as Brahma
Bhojan and that purifies mind and body. If it is not food cooked in
remembrance, then it can cause fluctuation in consciousness. Food
prepared and taken in remembrance works as a medicine and also as
-It is also necessary to know the answers for:
i) What is your mind while you eat?
ii) What kind of environment are you eating in?
iii). Are you eating at a noisy dining table with children dancing around?

If this is the situation, it is generally possible that one does not eat at all.
-Before you eat, give drishti to your food. This means to sit with God
in meditation and look at the food with pure loving relationship with God
in your in your mind. This vibration will then enter the food. This is an
opportunity for you to come closer to God. Again this is also principle of
healthy eating since proper digestion can only be had if you heat slowly.
4. How to prepare and offer food to God?
-It is known that the relation between the mind and body is delicate. Caring
for our body helps to keep our mind pure and free from wasteful or negative
thoughts. While preparing food, it is necessary to give attention to love, care
and attention. If we cook in remembrance then our pure relations are
absorbed by the food, also impurity is removed automatically. Further any
thought vibration present will have an effect on food: a regular mediator
makes certain that he/she has most elevated thoughts, centered on the
Supreme. This purifies the food. It keeps impure vibrations from outside at
bay. Physical hygiene is also of course essential.
-By Gods remembrance, food cooked, offered and eaten has been
completely purified. When we only offer the food to God, we might have
good meditation, eat slowly and remembering God while eat. We offer this
pure food to God and only such an offering shows full regard to the
Bestower. We have the consciousness, God, this food, which we shall eat,
is from your kitchen. It is not our food. You are feeling us. It is yours. We are
offering it to you so that if there is any impurity it is purified. If any
impurity still remains and we eat in remembrance then our powerful
vibrations will eradicate any impure vibrations.
5. What is the effect of food on mind and behavior?
Satvic means the highest and purist. Since, the body comprises of what we
eat, we should take care to eat only that which is pure and produces a
positive effect. Everything we ingest has an effect on the metabolism and in
particular on the BRAIN. Therefore, great care should be taken to avoid that
food might have an undesirable effect. Meat, poultry, fish, egg, stale food,
spicy and pungent foods such as onions and garlic should be avoided. So,
satvic food items are good for maintaining better physical health. Another
aspect of satvic is the consciousness that one has while preparing and eating
food. While preparing the remembrance of God is required to get the purity
of the food.

The effect of food on mind:

Tamasic food: The foods are intoxicating, heating, stale, pungent, heavy,
decayed or not easy to digest that induces sleep and lethargy. Wine and
smoking are also included under this head. All these cause mans
Rajastic food: These are such food that tackle and palate and are taken,
when one is under sway of ones senses; are aphrodisiac in effect and make
ones senses fickle.
Satvic food: Fruits, vegetables and food cooked in the spiritually right
manner. Some of these good foods are: Dairy products, milk, butter milk,
skimmed milk, cream, butter, fresh cotton cheese,
Honey and Cereal foods are comes under satvic food.
Dietary influences on behavior
Even though spiritual health is the basis for all other health components,
with a close look we can understand that mind plays an important role in
maintaining complete health.
From the published journals, it is seen that specific neurotransmitters are
released in the brain following the intake of food substances. Some of these
neurotransmitters produce excitement in the brain neurons, while others
produce a sedative effect. Animal diet produces an aggressive behavior. This
is the main reason for increasing the violence and destructive attitude among
the peoples mind is the prime factor for indiscipline in the country.


1 What are the benefits of regular exercise?
-Scientific research has shown that people who exercise regularly are
healthier physically and mentally, have more energy, think more clearly and
sleep better.
-It helps to maintain and improve muscle strength, improves balance,
coordination, reaction time and flexibility; can even improve mental
-It improves mood and reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety.

Additional benefits of Regular Exercise are:

-Improves physical health and quality of life,
-Increases energy levels,
-Helps to manage the body weight,
-Promotes better sleep,
-Exercise improves mood and can be a fun to spend time.
-Prevents muscle decay. Inactive people lose muscle fiber at a rate of 3 to
5% every decade after age 30 which amounts to a loss of 30% of muscle
fiber by age 60.
-Reduces incidence of many illness.
-Relieves symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and therefore
reduces the need foe medication,
-Helps control hypertension, high blood cholesterol and diabetes,
-Reduces the risk of accidental injury and shortens the recovery period from
accident and illness.
2. What is the difference between Physical exercise and Green exercise?
PHYSICAL EXERCISE is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains
physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various
reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system,
honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose
of enjoyment.
Physical exercises generally grouped into three types, depending on the
overall effect they may have on the human body:
Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improve the range of motion of
muscles and joints.
Aerobic exercises such as cycling, swimming, walking, skipping rope,
rowing, running, hiking or playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular
Anaerobic exercises, Such as weight training, functional training, eccentric
training or sprinting, increase short-term muscle strength.

Sometimes the terms dynamic and static are used:

Dynamic exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of
the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to improved blood flow.
Static exercise such as weight lifting, can cause the systolic pressure to rise
significantly during the exercise.
. Green exercise refers to physical exercise undertaken in relatively natural
3. How to make exercise regular? How it affects mind?
Regular exercise improves your mood and reduces the likelihood of
depression and anxiety. Physical activity stimulates various brain chemicals
(endorphins) that usually leave you feeling happier and more relaxed. You
will feel not only feel better, but look better when you exercise regularly
which, in turn, boosts confidence and self-esteem.
Though the benefits of regular exercise are many, its regularity is the vital.
Tips for getting Regular Exercise are:
1. Before you begin any exercise routine, especially if
youve been inactive for a long time, or over 40 years
old, be sure to consult your doctor. Also never continue
an activity or exercise if you feel persistent or severe
muscle or joint pain, chest pain or if you have been
exhausted. Again consult your doctor.
2. The type of exercise is not important as just getting into
consistent routine.
It can be comprised of both aerobic or strength training.
Even thirty minutes a day of moderate exercise, such
as brisk walk can be helpful and provide health benefits.
3. You can start small and build up to more. Incorporate as much as you
can slowly by parking further from the office, taking stairs instead elevator,
and by walking instead of driving whenever you can.
4. Stay healthy, aim to exercise between four to seven days each week. Keep
in mind also that very intense activities burn more calories in shorter time
low intensity activities. Remember to stay hydrated.

Regular exercise improves your mood and reduces the likelihood of

depression and anxiety. Physical activity stimulates various brain chemicals
(endorphins) that usually leave feeling happier and more relaxed. You will
not only feel better, but look better when you exercise regularly which, in
turn boosts confidence and self-esteem.
4.What is needed to begin an exercise program?
In order to begin an exercise program things are needed are:
Two things not needed to obtain the benefits of exercise are investing in a
health club membership, or purchasing extravagant exercise equipment.
Likewise, while vigorous and sweat inducing activity is good, psychological
well-being does not depend upon the intensity or duration of a workout.
More important is the ability to maintain an exercise routine. If you can keep
up your program for a minimum of two months, youre your way to reaping
benefits. Not only will it easier, but you will probably end up enjoying it and
will want to continue.
5. What are the three types of exercises/ Explain in detail.
Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the
overall effect they have on human body.
Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improve the range of motion of
muscles and joints.
Aerobic exercises: Aerobic: energetic physical exercises, often performed
with a group of people to music, which make the heart, lungs and muscles
stronger and increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. It includes, such as
cycling, swimming, walking, skipping rope, rowing, running, hiking or
playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance.
Anaerobic exercises: Anaerobic : not needing or oxygen. Such as weight
training, functional training, eccentric training or sprinting, increase shortterm muscle strength.


1. What is the art of being a spiritual Student?

-Spiritual knowledge or Truth puts an end to delusion

and blind faith and guides the soul towards Liberation
or Liberation in life with the help of the Ocean of
Knowledge, the God. By assimilating every aspect of
the knowledge, the soul becomes healthy. Every word of
the spiritual wisdom becomes the food for the soul. The
spiritual knowledge really reveals the personality of the
-It is necessary to become a spiritual student to know
God as He is. The divine versions of the Lord give a
deep insight into His benevolent character.
-In order to proper use of Godly relations it is to
concentrate and emerge in the mind on a given point
and also while performing actions. .
-There are two ways of listening to the Godly knowledge. Firstly one
can listen it as a routine, secondly he can sit with the thought that I will
become this day.
-Regular spiritual class and Raja yoga meditation practice are the main
pillars for ones spiritual progress. Any person who is interested in spiritual
knowledge, it is necessary to attend Raja yoga meditation centre class
regularly in the morning time between 6.30-8.00 A.M. The morning class
will have a half an hour group meditation followed by a spiritual knowledge
class of Godly versions, commonly called as Murali (The flute music of the
God to His spiritual children).
The knowledge class will consist of points:
-For self progress,
-Meditation experience,
-Karma and its consequences.and
-The real history and geography of the world.
2. How to listen to the Godly version?
-Godly versions mean spiritual food. That kind of food keeps soul alive
and constantly dancing. Mental tiredness and hopelessness weakens of

the staleness of the soul. Hence nourishment of spiritual food (Godly

versions) is essential.
-The godly revelations really reveal the personality of the God. It gives
the power to develop all relations with god. It also enables one to know
the God. To come close to Him is to make such effort that we make
worthy of His love. The versions give deep insight into the sanskars of
the Supreme.
-Ask a question before listening to the versions:
How God is a perfect friend or perfect beloved?
The answers that come during the versions provide the basis for our
churnings during the day on that particular person. Morning meditation
during Amruth vele is very powerful, because we have prepared the ground
of consciousness during the day churning this particular point in the intellect.
Things to listen for:
We need to have specific attention at the time of listening. We can be
listening with the aim of noting:
1. The virtues that God is recommending for me to
practice today.
2. What particular experience we will aim to have in
meditation today?
3. What type of service would be appropriate to churn and
work on today?
3. What is meant by nourishment of both mind and intellect?
Nourishment is an essential/necessary ingredient for life, health and keep
-We have many examples of people who rose from being ordinary human
beings to very well known personalities with the powers of both mental and
-There was a time when the mind and intellect of human beings were at the
highest peak of their progress. In present times, humans lost their humanity.
They have lost bliss and have become more sorrowful.

-When the progress of the mind and intellect was at its peak, those humans
were valued as deities.
-The original nature was purity. By coming in contact with nature, the soul
forgot its purity and started falling into purity. The vices of lust, anger, ego
etc. emerged in the soul due to which the power of mind and intellect got
destroyed. The vice of lust gave physical happiness but gave birth to anger
and ego, which made the mind impatient and weakened the intellect.
-We know that the mind is subtle power of the soul which creates thoughts.
When a person learns to control the speed of thoughts to one thought per
minute, then powers will increase immensely. Ancient saints used to
meditate in peace of mind, with increase their mind power. Increasing in
power of spirituality due to mind and intellect and those are the faculties of
the soul.
-Who ever wishes to make their mind and intellect powerful, should refrain
from bad habits. Wake up one hour before sunrise since breathing fresh air
purifies the mind and increases mental power.
-Many philosophers know that lots of dormant powers are available in a
human being, which have to be awakened. If we awaken dormant powers,
then human beings will speed up on the path of progress.
-It is also necessary to discard or neglect hearsay things by other person, i.e.
take lightly, it will not matter what the other says.
-We must control our mind only by ourselves.
-We have to imbibe the habit of enjoying happiness of the present and see
that the past incidents do not gain control over us.
4 What self analysis means? And how to do it?
Let me confront myself with a series of questions:
1). Do I have a desire for name and fame
Yes. Is it right on my part to long for self praize?. My desire should be to
glorify Baba, appropriate the work of Babas children, the work of Baba and
those connected with world welfare. My state of mind should be Ichcha
matram avidya (a state of absence desires) I am selected by God to carryout

a special mission of world transformation for Him. There is no question of

neglect by human beings. I am not working for them. I am working for God.
When the Lord js with me there is going to be only success, even though
some time it may look like failures but success is hidden in such failures.
2) .Why should become jealous of others?
Let me ask myself what is the use of becoming jealous of others. I am only
polluting my mind, de-stabilising my state of existence and becoming
unhappy. Instead, let me appreciate others good work by which I am going
to fill in more and more enthusiasm to others. That is how they are going to
be my well wishers and a force for world transformation.
3).Life is boring me, Why?
Am I going deeper into the mind thrilling versions of God and churning on
it. I am not boring deeper into it. I am not mentally involving myself with
Baba in His remembrance to experience the ecstasy of His spiritual embraces
and trying to know better. I am not able to appreciate the importance of the
present time in the cycle of 5000 years and seriously know that this is the
ripe time to know God as to what really He is. Let me devote my time and
energy to become introvert, maintain silence to dive deeper into Him and His
knowledge to experience the param ananda stage in this very life. He has
given me the mantra, yantra and thantra to reach him.
4). I have no self confidence; a kind of inferiority complex has developed
in me. What should I do?
God says, I am with you; You are Master Almighty; God and I can finish any
job however hard and difficult. I may look care of. Let me keep faith in this
golden version. Let me place myself at the disposal of the Lord and be an
instrument. The inferiority complex is a combination of mainly four vices
such as lust, attachment, ego and greed.
5 How to check ones chart of progress?
To chart the movement of our and not lose smile is
victory in itself. For it says we are not caught, but coolly
watching, eager to change, but not unhappy. And
solutions come as silent rewards for happiness kept in
the face of everything. We can do a chart on paper but
as easily, we can watch the chart given by our body, by
your friends and family. Our life is pictured on them and

watching it shift and change, we take responsibility for

how it is. And even if there is already, their design on
the paper, which seems beyond what we can deal with,
we can add or take from that and that becomes chart. A
chart is not depressing. It is deepest expression of
optimism a person can make, for it is saying against all
the odds of our weakness or ours, there can be a
Some of the checking points for a spiritual person
1. Are my dealings pure and honest?
2. Do I accept bribery in the form of praise, favors
and wealth?
3. Is my service /role//product totally beneficial? Is
there an adequate research to monitor the effects
of my activities and readiness to seek positive
4. Am I maximizing my time and energy and
resources for the company/nation? Can these three
work currencies be better used by me?
5. Do I maintain a personal standard of integrity and
The soul who balance in self-checking and ha a sense of
professional worth and responsibility.
6. What are the benefits of Foundation on
Faith needs a foundation on which to stand. When we have faith there is
success also. It is born of definiteness of purpose operating in a positive
mental attitude. It is a moving force. Life is based on faith.
Faith can move mountains said Bible. It gives courage and enthusiasm. Since
it is a positive attitude through which we can create faith in others.
-Is a knowing and inner certainty,

-Means that you feel confident in relying upon yourself, Supreme and the
beneficial outcome of events.
-It brings an inner sparkle of joy in your thoughts, words, behavior and
shines face,
-It brings victory and success.
-It gives strength to face challenges,
-It never diminishes through use, but it increases thereby,
-It is different from delusions of grandeur
Faith will not bring you what you desire, but it will show you the way to go
after it for yourself.
Your faith will be tested externally through people, places and things and
internally through your own mind and personality traits.
This is very rare commodity in these days. Whatever we have faith there is
success also. But one thing is clear. Life is based on faith, at different times
and at different levels, but at all times, subjected to change in object, may be
a person, thing or place. The consciousness of being with inter-relatedness
is necessary to foster this value. It is a moving force. It is said that faith can
move mountains.
Faith can move mountains said in the Bible also. Faith gives courage and
enthusiasm. Faith is a positive attitude through which we can create faith in
others. Faith helps to overlook others weaknesses and mistakes and to help
them to correct themselves. But in these days there is more suspicion than
faith. We are doubtful of each and every activity of those who come in
contact with us. We may sometime have faith and half suspicion. Hence the
value of faith becomes valueless. Faith becomes lame and crippled.
Faith is a knowing and inner certainty. Faith means that you feel confident in
relying upon yourself, upon the Divine Supreme Being and upon the
beneficial outcome of events. This brings an inner sparkle of joy in your
thoughts, words and behavior and your face shines. Your faith will be tested
externally through people, places and things and internally through your own
mind and personality traits. You apply faith by realigning yourself with your
spiritual values and your beliefs in the process of your own development.
Faith is your support as you face your challenges. It brings victory and
success. When you have faith that you have faith that you have to do

something, you will definitely do it. The more you have faith in yourself, the
more you attract the help and support of the Divine, and the more you are
assured of a bright future. This is not the same as having delusions of
grandeur, Which are characterized by actions that are based in anti-values
and cause harm to others.


1.What is authenticity means? How to lead a authentic life?
Authenticity means genuineness. It is a condition enjoyed by a person who
has rigorously removed self-deception, ego and fear. Authentic means to be
true to be yourself.
To lead an authentic life person must have the following characteristics:
An authentic person is able to discern external pressures that influence their
thinking and action in particular ways. He continues to and according to his
inner clarity whilst heeding the voice of conscience. An authentic person is
hard to intimidate or coerce. He knows the balance of giving respect and
maintaining self-respect. He also do not compromise their truth or
perceptions even under the influence of encouragement and intimidation.
This is possible when the conscience is clear and defined your ethical policy.
2 . What are benefits of celibacy in individual life?
Celibacy: a person who has taken a religious vow of chastity. In simple terms
Celibacy means single life. It is the state unmarried living. Pure love is the
key to celibacy. It brings a shine to the face and will often experience a
healthier and longer life.
Advantages of celibacy in individuals life are as follows:
1. Bodily: and zeal for continuous work and power to
develop immunity to several kinds of diseases. This
result in optimism, cheerfulness, endurance, courage
etc. in life.
2. Mental: It brings determination to ones thoughts,
develops will power and increases concentration. One

can easily cross the gross or subtle hurdles on the way

to progress and happiness.
3. Intellectual: If intellect grows to a greater extent, then
it is an undeniably great achievement.
4. Moral: By this ones outlook, thoughts and habits are
purified and he gets over other temptations and
allurements. Thus he reaches the heights of
3 How self respect is important in the foundation of purity?
Self- respect means, a proper sense of ones own dignity and integrity. By
understanding the different aspects of the self one can move forward with
greater peace and understanding.
Internal conflicts give an opportunity to go inside and look for a right
solution. By staying in self one becomes humble. By understanding the
different aspects of the self one can move forward with greater peace and
1.God sees in complete stage
God sees the present in Angelic form, the future in Deity, the worship worthy
form. He sees each jewel in their original and final stages and recognizes the
value of each one as one in the multi millions, one of the lucky handful. See
your self on one hand and the millions of souls of the world on the other
hand and by seeing the contrast find your true worth in the eye of the
Almighty. At this time you are the towers of peace like a God. The vision of
all is drawn towards the tower of peace.
2 God has made responsible instruments
So when will you, corporeal Angels, take your
incorporeal form to remove all sorrows of the world and
to create the land of happiness? Did you ever imagine
even in your dreams that you would come and find such
a father after being separated for so long? God has
selected his children from all corner of the world and
brought them together in the bouquet of this one family.
3 On religion we praised God

Sometimes we would praise others and think that we

were no good they are better than us, for many births
we have been putting ourselves down. Comparing
ourselves with others we become extremes of either
thinking superior that I am better than others or feel
inferior by thinking I am unworthy for something. Both
of these tendencies give depressing results. The soul
isnt able to become the image of success as it should
be. What happens to ones stage because of this? The
souls are either not contended nor gives contentment
to others. All these things are happening simply
because of left off only one word. Whilst making effort
for your own progress, or making plans for service, you
should first stabilize the self in self respect, then create
the plans and then apply them in practice.
4 God reminds our specialties
God reminds us of our potential, our qualities and specialties and helps us to
bring these specialties into our practical life. He reminds us of our deity form
and gives us a vision of the three aspects of time-the past, present and future.
In todays society people praise the virtues. They look at physical beauty,
wealth or position. It is as if we see ourselves through the eyes of others and
so we do not appreciate what we have. And so, now God is reminding us of
our specialties. To have self respect means to give respect to yourself you
have the intoxication of your elevated stage.
5). Respecting the self
Have you ever become angry with yourself or hurt deeply by thinking
negative about the self. As a person with different needs, views and values
one often find him caught up with internal conflict. Such internal conflict
can become an opportunity for learning more about the self. Such internal
conflict often causes stress, tiredness, confusion, illness and helplessness
which in turn cause to put off decisions and become lazy, angry and lonely.
When internal conflicts are analyzed with the spiritual microscope one will
learn more about him and experience intoxication, energy, good health and
7). Self-respect beyond ego

Let the soul be stable in self-respect which is the highest on high. And
remember who belongs to you- the Father of humanity-at present moment of
the most auspicious confluence age when you are becoming the highest
among human beings. By staying in this one elevated stage of self-respect
many varieties of body consciousness are then automatically and easily
How can one stay in the state of self respect and not to have ego? What
effort can we make for that? When there is honesty, obedience and constant
cheerfulness, there will be respect in the hearts of everyone for you and you
will be able to conquer others hearts. Such a soul will have the
determination that they cant come down quickly for any reason. No matter
how difficult the situation may be, they will not let go of self respect.
The priceless gift of self respect
Probably one of the most personal and priceless gift given to His children is
self-respect. When the soul accepts the titles given by God, it will experience
6). Situations lead to experience disrespect about self
What is the result of the self not being in the image of success, or not
attaining success? By making a great deal of effort and moving with labour,
the soul becomes tired, then the zeal is reduced and laziness comes. Just as
God doesnt come alone. He is revealed together with his children. So too
this doesnt come alone. It comes with its companions, which is why all the
other vices come back to the soul and many different instructions are
disobeyed. Often as spiritual students we have very high ideals. We react
strongly to signs of conflict within the self. Following are the examples.
1. Sometimes we withdraw our thoughts or energies from
situation or person causing this internal conflict.
Sometimes this can help both but often it just shelves
the problem and it simply continues to grow or
2. Other times we make a decision. Hoping for the best
rather than thinking about it.
3. Withdrawal from situations. When it is inappropriate or
done in the wrong manner then it is not yoga power. It
results in depression or sadness or may be encourages
you to develop an uncaring attitude towards the self.

7). Disrespecting your own feelings

Another way of wrongly dealing with internal conflict is through
suppression. Like misunderstood child does not really deal with the conflicts.
Some example of this are I suppress inappropriate feelings or thoughts
because I dont know how to deal with them.
I dont want to deal with the issues to which they are related.
I am afraid of the unknown.
I act as if nothing is the matter
I keep going on and ignore the issue
I set out to prove myself wrong.
I criticize and refuse to listen to my point of view. Or ignore it completely.
I dont know how to deal with them.

4 How to have purity in thoughts, words and deeds?

Purity of mind is considered as a measuring rod for good health. Pure
positive thoughts are true health. The main aim of Raja yoga is to stay in the
stage of the original self. By practicing yoga one is able to understand the
sanskars of others. There will be then be introversion. Avoid speaking
inauspicious or wasteful things, because words have a deep impact on the
soul. Those who pay attention to their thoughts and attitude, their words will
be such that they reflect what is there inside.
In self respect you remove the word self and then having removed the
word self you desire respect. Incognito reasons are the causes for many
illnesses. If we are able to control the mind we can detach thoughts from the
body. This reduces the pain by 99%. Entertain the mind with good pure
company of thoughts or friends to give courage and enthusiasm. Dont allow
negativity in the form of complaints, worry, depression or regret. Tolerance,
discrimination, cheerfulness, detachment, humor, silence and goodwill are
qualities which prevent illness and help us to face it, if it comes to mind.

When a person need method to maintain of his inner stability and state of
love, peace and joy is to avoid a vision based on the consciousness of the
For the matter of diet control pure thoughts are the healthy diet for the mind.
Creative thoughts are like vitamins and positive thoughts provide proteins
that build will power. Negative thoughts are like poison and wreak mental
health, eroding our ability to make the right judgment, take correct decisions,
to tolerate negative situations or to face adversity. The most elevated
thoughts arise in the state of meditation, when the soul in establishes a loving
mental link with God. Through this link our mind fills with virtues like
contentment, courage, compassion, mercy and divinity, which elevate the
soul and ultimately lead it to a divine status.
Co-operation, encouragement, good wishes and elevated vision are signs of
purity a relationship a God makes His friend. Purity has a magnetic
attraction which is the basis of service.
5. How to maintain balance in relationships?
W hen the relationship is that of a more experienced
person and a less experienced or younger person, then
it is difficult to tell how much care and love the younger
one requires. They are, because of their youth, quite
dependant and vulnerable. They can be easily
influenced by situations and others. They are also easily
impressed and quickly co-operative. It is necessary to
give as much, if not more sustenance to that soul,
because they are less experienced. Sometimes we will
give too much attention without showing them the
discipline of Rajyoga and knowledge. Without this firm
foundation they wont be able to survive as yogis.

6 How love is mistaken? What is spiritual love?

Love is the basic trait of human beings. Pure love is devoid of lust. Love is
powerful emotion which can change the sanskars and character of others.
There are four common confusions about LOVE which most of us will
assimilate at an early age. They are innocently passed down from generation

to generation. They are built into our language and our culture. Yet they only
serve to take to take us further from love as they create stress within our self
and conflict within our relationships.
1. Mistaken for desire
True love doesnt want anything. Authentic love is
already complete and its only intention is to connect
and to give, not acquire.
2. Mistaken for attachment
Love is not attachment. If for no reason than all
attachment causes fear, and fear in this dualistic world
is the opposite of love. Fear is love distorted by
3. Mistaken for dependency
Love is not dependant on anything. We are really saying we believe
some things make us happy. They seem to, but its not authentic
happiness, only a temporary stimulation or relief from suffering.
4. Mistaken for identification
Love does not identify with anything that is not itself, which is
everything!. Only by acts of selfless and kindness, unconditional
forgiveness and limitless compassion is love felt. When love is
realized, there are no needs. In reality, there never was.
Spiritual love
The highest and purest love is spiritual love. Spiritual love is unadulterated
love, full of blessings and healing powers. .it is Gods love that transcends
through you as an instrument. Spiritual love can only be accessed and
distributed with a pure heart. Spiritual life is the link to access your spiritual
resources. Where there is purity, there must be cleanliness of the heart, mind
and intellect. This is expressed with a spiritual smile and sweet words. There
are many varieties of love for many situations such as mercy, compassion
and forgiveness.


1. What are the types of meditation?

Meditation is a method to communicate with the supreme power with deep

love. It is a weapon to treat any psychomatic disease of human soul and may
cure the patient even up to 100%.It is well established that meditation
techniques help people to keep balance in life, gain peace and poise health
and happiness. It is also known the meditation is gaining popularity among
all strata of society and should reach to every one. There are various types of
meditations some of that are noted below and are in great demand.

Breath meditation
Dynamic meditation
Golden light meditation
Kundalini meditation
Preksha meditation
Transcendental meditation
Vipasana meditation
Witness meditation
Zazen meditation

Swami Vivekananda had done lot of research on Yoga and came out with
the Rajyoga in his own understanding. He tried to condense hundreds of
paths of yoga into four main streams viz, Jnana Yoga, Rajyoga, Bhakthi
Yoga and Karma Yoga and said that each path leads to divinity. He said,
Each soul is potentially divine. The goal of life is to manifest that
Divinity within by controlling nature internally and externally. Do it by
philosophy or psychic control or worship, by one or more or all of these
and be free.
2. What are the steps involved in Rajyoga
Meditation is a process to heal the mind. The basic principle of meditation
is being soul-consciousness. It allows to re-discover our true consciousness
as spirit or soul or pure awareness. The soul is situated between the
pituitary gland and hypothalamus which is near to forehead. Continuous
meditation will give one continuous power to elevate the stages of soul.
Meditation helps you generate the highest quality of thinking, which benefits
not only yourself but also your relationships and work.

3. What are all the benefits of meditation?

Meditation means to concentrate on spiritual thoughts. By concentrating on

spiritual thoughts, higher feelings naturally emerge. This awakens our
highest potential and character.
1. Meditation is introspective. Its practice enables you to
look within and make contact with your inner truth.
2. The conscience is awakened and refined which brings
us into contact with our intrinsic qualities. We discover
our natural sense of morality and justice which makes it
easy for us to follow the dictates of our conscience.
3. Positive thinking and emotional maturity are natural
outcomes of the regular and deep practice of
4. Meditation is sometimes referred to as a pilgrimage as
there are different internal terrains to cross on a journey
of continuous discovery where there are no short cuts.
5. Meditation is simply the management of your
thoughts. It is the practice to take control of our
6. There is little more to meditation than just learning a
specific technique. At its deepest level, the
understanding and practice of rajyoga meditation is a
pathway to personal enlightenment and true freedom.
7. If you that it may be an appropriate path to continue to
explore, there are some life style recommendations
which can ease your way towards that end.
8. The insights, knowledge and practice of Rajyoga
meditation are all integral to a process of spiritual
awakening, transformation and empowerment.
9. Regular daily meditation is the foundation of sustaining
our spiritual development. However the foundation
needs to be supported by a lifestyle that is conducive to
our spiritual growth.
Although is not physical activity as such, suitable
physical arrangements enhance your experience and
progress. The physical and spiritual are always tandem,
each influencing the other, therefore we must take this
into consideration for optimum results.

Meditation is said to extend your life span,
according to ancient wisdom.
It is said that your mind can be your greatest
friend or your worst enemy because everything
depends on the quality of your thoughts. Rajayoga
meditation is practiced with open eyes. While focused
internally on the light of the soul, look through your
eyes and let your gaze rest on the point symbol of the
Supreme soul.
Yoga means the connection of mind between you,
the soul, and God, the Supreme soul.
Meditation is cumulative. It is good to start with
short meditations of a few minutes at a time and build
up to longer periods. As you progress you will be able to
achieve good quality meditation for a long period of
time once or twice a day, interspersed with several
shorter periods during your activities.
Meditation fulfills many purposes. Some people
meditate for health reasons, for gaining greater
concentration to improve their performance in the arts
or sport.
Some meditate specifically for overcoming
character defects and developing their personalities.
Some meditate simply to become calm and
peaceful. Whatever the apparent reason, the underlying
purpose is spiritual.
Meditation restores spiritual awareness and power
to the human soul.
The discipline of meditation trains the mind to
become stable and elevated. Then the soul can soar to
the higher spiritual dimension and enjoy the bliss of
communion with God the Supreme Divine Being and
restore the virtues, powers, qualities and wisdom that
have been eroded over time.
Meditation is the pathway back to our original
nature of piece. It is an act of creating quality thoughts
and feelings and restoring love for our own self.

It is rediscovering the place of external,
unchanging stillness within and reaching the highest
level of conscious awareness by training the
consciousness with a disciplined and regulated exercise
of self awareness and channelizing the energy of the
mind in a positive direction.
Meditation is the best way for extremely busy
people to stay cool, calm and focused.
Meditation helps to relax the mind and enables us
to experience personal freedom from weaknesses. It
generates the power to respond more effectively to
people and circumstances. It increases the ability to
concentrate and focus our energy. Concentration of
mind enhances the creativity to be effective in problem
solving. It also increases the ability to self respect and
deepen our personal learning. There are four steps
involved in meditation:
First of all, withdraw your attention from the outer
being and external influences and senses. Then
contemplate and focus the attention on your inner self
as a divine point of light, an energy radiating positive
energy waves. Gradually, concentrate your attention on
a higher power or a Supreme Being and feel the energy
4 The effect of meditation on physical health?
In the spirituality demagnetized condition, the soul is completely at the
mercy of the surrounding physical and vibrational phenomena and its life
flows outward and is dissipated. In the body conscious condition the ageing
process and deterioration of the cells is accelerated through the hyperactivity
of the senses.
It is known that the soul has got 7 attributes such as knowledge, purity,
peace, love, happiness, bliss and power.
In the spirituality magnetized condition the reverse occurs. By shunning
grossness and remaining in the state of yoga with God, the body and brain

cells are rejuvenated as if by some spiritual elixir. A fathomless peace

descends on the mind which has the remarkable effect of cooling or deexciting the sense organs so that they dont impede spiritual progress. The
state of body is a reflection of the state of soul not only because of past
karmic factors but because theirs present state also.
The relationship between body and soul is the reason for most physical
diseases spring from a psychological origin. It stands to reason that any
lessoning of harmful secretions through diminishing emotional causes will
promote sound and lasting health.
Of course there are others factors which give rise to health problems;
pollution unhealthy life style, lack of exercise, morning diet etc. Through
meditation and its consequent positive life style and pure vegetarian diet, ill
health can be minimized. Health and order in the soul bring health and order
in the body.
Let us make a strong belief that meditation is the medicine through which
we can get our lost health back very soon as it gives happiness which is a
sure cure for all ailments.
5. What are the self empowerment techniques
under meditation?
Meditation or yoga is the art of training the mind. It is
the art of thinking properly and developing creativity. It
is a weapon to treat any psychosomatic disease of
human soul. Meditation is the technique to re-inforce
the innerself, replenish the inner energy level through
which one is going to achieve better efficiency. In the
work one performs. Continuous meditation will give one
continuous power to elevate the stages of soul. The
following steps can be preferred for quick results in
1. Observe silence. Everybody likes silence, music,
since it is a natural individual trait. A scientist in his
laboratory, an administrator in his chamber, an artist
with his pen, an artisan with his tools, give shape to
their respective ideas in silence. Once you take to
observing silence, silence will take you in its stride

and you will like to be speaking less, softly and

sweetly. This will start empowering the self.
2. Watch your thoughts. Practice to watch your
thoughts. It had its heydays. We were reeling under
its whirl-pool. The nature and quality of our actions
are clear amplifications of the nature of our thoughts.
We must watch our thoughts carefully, to achieve
inner potentialities and inner peace, i.e. called
sprouting and flowering of the qualities of the true
self. When we start to understand the nature and
quality of thoughts, naturally art of thinking is
3. Switch on to your own self awareness. Think
that you are a spark of metaphysical light in the
centre of the forehead, with mind, intellect and
habitual traits as your potentialities. Your original
nature is peace, love, bliss, purity and power. Tell
yourself that you are qualities personified. This
practice will form a path to your inner layers of
experiences and plough up the respective qualities to
the surface and these virtues will start shining.
4. Focus your mind to the Supreme Spirit of
Divine Light. The reservoir of all virtues and
powers is the Supreme Divine Light. Focus the eyes
of your mind on that DIVINE LIGHT just like T.V.
antenna is focused to the direction of the source of
T.V. signals. The Supreme divine light is the source
through which one can replenish his inner power, willpower, soul power, just like the physical energy
voltage is stepped by connecting to the generation
point of physical energy. Just like the physical Sun
provide power to its physical apparatus. Focusing the
mind results in generating thoughts would enable
one to enrich the self with the attributes of the
Supreme. Continuously thinking of him by mind

focusing one can reduce the speed of the thoughts

and experience joy and contentment.
5. Think that God is with you. Money and men
cannot with you always and everywhere. But God can
be with you always. Feel his presence always. You
can accomplish any task successfully by
remembering God with you because you are not
alone. With the God you will not fears and worries.
Have faith with him, you can handover your fears and
6. Keep contact with God. Even though you have lot
of relatives, friends well wishers and parents yet they
cannot be always available for your help all the
times. But God is perennial father and mother. He is
your unfailing friend, guide, grand father, teacher
and preceptor. If you have faith, express your feelings
and emotions to Him in the kind of relationship you
like. Speaking to the Almighty by sitting at a place
and by controlling your thoughts, you will get
powerful and positive thoughts.
7. Observe purity in food and body. Avoid
intoxicants and non-vegetarian diet etc, which
influence negatively. Vegetarian food will supplement
your efforts to stabilize your mind. This will help your
meditation practice because food purity leads to
bodily purity, bodily purity to mental purity, mental
purity to purity of intellect and ultimately helps in
purifying the self. Apure mind and intellect only can
contain and absorb the spiritual energy of God.
8. Render some service to others-Social service.
Try to send sometime in helping others at least on
week-ends. When you try to know others problems,
your problems, if there are any will be less burden.
The best service can be obtained by adopting selfconscious and supreme consciousness to release the
mental tension of the people.

This kind of silent thinking individually energise the

self. Silent thinking is a spiritual knowhow and this
technology through which inner human resources
and power can be tapped and utilized to achieve
grand success through management technique.
When one understands the real personality of the
Lord on the strength of ones observation and
experience, visualization, then one enriches the self.
This is perhaps the greatest of achievements in the
6. What is the role of Visualization in meditation?
Everybody in this world is a visionary. A person who
thinks and visualizes and supported with sincere and
honest efforts enriches greatness and goodness of the
Supreme Lord.
We are all artists and our mind is the canvas. If you
create a peaceful scene on the canvas of your mind,
and meditate on that scene, holding it in your mind
without becoming attached to it, investing it with depth
and richness, you will begin to generate powerful
feeling of peace and contentment from inside out
instead of outside in. At the other end of the spectrum,
if you envision your goals, your preferred future
achievements, and if you do not become attached to
them, then you will begin to attract towards yourself
and the energies and circumstances to make them
happen. Meditation helps you to concentrate and create
inner skills, which many of us have lost in our fast and
frantic media driven culture.

7. What is Rajyoga meditation?

Meditation means to concentrate on spiritual thoughts.
By concentrating on spiritual thoughts, higher feelings
naturally emerge. This awakens our highest potential
and character.

In the essence it is self awakening , unfolding and

revealing all that lies dormant, distorted and distracted
within the self to the self.
Steps of Rajyoga Meditation
- First of all, you make the decision to meditate
-Select a suitable meditation place, and sit with the
intention of meditating for a period of time and on a
particular theme.
-Carefully select your theme which needs to be of
interest to you,
-It is an internal conversation and communion with the
Supreme soul,
-Turn your attention within, you become aware of
original spiritual qualities,
The human mind is sensitive and influenced by sense
perceptions and memories of past incidents.
-In body consciousness the mind is filled with stimuli
from the external material world , so thoughts tends to
be gross, reactive, scattered and to mirror the external
-Only when the mind is disconnected from the influence
of the sense organs, it is possible to become responsive
to the extremely subtle experience of God, the Supreme
In meditation you begin by turning the mind within and
considering yourself to be a soul,
-At first it seems hard to focus on such thoughts as I
am immortal, invisible, a point of light, eternal,.
-Assuming that you are an extraordinary star of
consciousness, sitting in the centre of your of forehead,
-Think,I am a peaceful, pure, loving and powerful soul,
this is what it feels like to be you,
- You are at peace with yourself,

-Om Shanti, I am a soul at a peace, I am at peace with

myself,at peace with you, at peace with the world, at
peace with God,
-Then go further, think of yourself as completely pure,
pure means no flaws, no guilt feelings; pure means
completely natural,
-You are progressively changing your mindset from
gross to subtle, from material to spiritual, through
creating these thoughts,
-Audio and video meditation commentaries have been
created to help you.
The next stage of meditation is concentration,
-This clear focus comes as your efforts to create
thoughts about the soul cease to be strenuous,
-Thoughts come in an inspiring flow in which you feel
carried far beyond the pull of the every world, and you
soar in a flight of spiritual thoughts that seem to be
creating themselves,
-You will find yourself able to maintain such a flow of
thought for 10 to 15 minutes, perhaps half an hour or
even an hour,
-Meditation works on the principle that once you get
going, with a short period your concentration develops
and inspiring thoughts flow easily.
-It is as if the thoughts are flowing and circling steadily
through your conscious.
Relisation is quite and advanced stage. It comes once
the circling of the concentration stage becomes
completely stable. In this stage you are completely soul
-This is the stage you can make contact with Supreme
-This is communion with the Divine where you are in
endless beatitude, radiating bliss in a serene silent

-It is a very subtle and special process which continues,

which continues throughout your life.
Benefits of Rajyoga Mediation
Meditation is cumulative. Meditation is a progressive
Meditation is :
-About choosing and guiding your thoughts,
-Exploring the power of thought,
-Consciously flooding the mind with thoughts about
eternal truths,
-The art of deeply reflecting on the true self,
-The process of guiding your thoughts to create a
spiritual experience.
1. What are the types of selfless services you
A life without some kind of service is a narrow, perhaps selfish, life
in which satisfaction and contentment will be difficult and
sustained happiness impossible.
We should do selfless service in a liberal spirit, because it is really
undying and unlimited in its rewards. Selfless service refers to the
work that God has given us to elevate all souls up to their
respective highest stages. By thoughts, words and deeds we remind
others of their own degrees of closeness or separation from God,
and give them an introduction to the Supreme Soul and the
inheritance to be received from Him.
Different Forms of Services
Help someone in crisis: Real help is the help we
extend to someone in crises. That is the need of the
hour. W e must have empathy and imaginative
sympathy. Crises in the life of a person can also
cause crisis in the general welfare of the world. Life is

subtle. A subtle vibration of sorrow melancholy and

cries can upset the peace and solace in the world.
There is orderliness in the world. This orderliness is
disturbed when someone is in crisis and sorrow.
There is a perfect network of human relationship and
sense of belongingness in operation at all times. It
becomes our social responsibility to see that proper
and timely help is provided to those brethren who are
in crisis. Helping someone in crisis is an act of charity
of the highest order.
Serve someone on a daily basis: We have
innumerable ways to serve others. Service is an act
of charity. Serving others means making others
happy. If we want to serve others, we must first of all
serve us. We must create a mindset of humanness
mood for service. We must create interest for serving
others. We must create Pleasant thoughts and
feelings. We can give a word of solace and comfort to
someone who is in distress. We can give a powerful
thought vibration which can empower the mindset of
someone who has worries and stress. We can serve
someone with the knowledge of commonsense,
reasonable, and the reality of life.
Sometimes, we will also be serving others with our
moral, intellectual, social and spiritual interactions.
Inspiration is an unseen motivating factor which
others pick up from us by observing our life and life
style practices.
Mother Teresa was an embodiment of service. She
was a constant server. Her life was dedicated for the
service. She was chosen for the noble prize.
Give comfort and solace
First of all we must give comfort to us. When we are
disturbed, we do not have comfort and solace. Unless
we have comfort and solace, we will not be able to
give comfort and solace to others. Hence, we must

tune us to be in comfort and solace. We must avoid

waste, negative and vicious thinking. As is the
thought, so is the state of life. A thought can give us
comfort or discomfort, solace or no solace. Therefore,
we must be aware of the thoughts we generate. We
must tune us to a level of comfort and solace at all
times so that we will be able to give these to others
in different forms. It may be through thought, word or
act. The vibrations are carried to persons concerned
through the medium of our thoughts. Our thoughts
have indestructible sentient energy to carry the
vibrations of comfort and solace to anybody and
anywhere in the world cutting across all kinds of
physical and subtle boundaries.
Serve others and do not take service (work) from
True service is to be the instrument of filling
those who are weak in power.
This gives us the experience of unlimited happiness.
Service is not simply through words, as there is
service in every second, in every thought. Service is
your life. Always have the aim to do service. Those
who do service in the jungle of thorns are the ones
who will receive the most reward and they will get
help from God.
2. How to do service through the mind?
Service through the mind, that is through thoughts, is
the most powerful and eternal service. Through this
process one can transform the world. Through this
service one can destroy the weakness of others and
spread waves of peace once again in this world. By
speaking knowledge, words of peace one can bring
peace to others and through sweet words
happiness can be given. Through good and positive
words, zeal and enthusiasm in others can be
increased. In the same way, elevated thoughts which

emerge in our mind should reach others minds. Our

thoughts can give the message of God and the
experience of peace, power, happiness, zeal and
enthusiasm to others.
Special inculcation for doing service through
the mind
In order to attain success in doing service through
thoughts, first of all it is very important to maintain
the Soul conscious stage for at least 8 hours a
day. In our stage of meditation there should be so
much concentration of thoughts that our thoughts
can effectively reach the other soul. If there are
powerful, impure or negative vibrations between us
and the other person and we do not have the power
of concentration in our thoughts, then our thoughts
will get lost. Our thoughts need to be like laser
beams which cannot be stopped by any physical
energy. It is only then that one can be successful in
service. To do such subtle service there needs to be
purity in thoughts or complete power of yoga in
which the flow of vibrations cannot be stopped by
Three main inculcations for doing service through the mind are:
1. Complete purity
2. Complete destroyer of attachment
3. Double light.
If any one of the above is lacking then our thought power is weakened.
Experiencing with the service through the mind.
This service can be done especially at Amritvela and in the evening after
sunset the level of mental activity is less. You can actually serve the whole
world thoughts but, just for an experiment we can start focusing on a few
souls. If there is only thought nothing will happen, as there has to be the
power of yoga.
You can experiment with service through the mind in the following way:

-Giving the Godly message to others,

-Transforming the sanskaras and attitudes of others through pure feelings.
Vibrations of our pure feelings have an immediate effect on others. By first
filling with the power of yoga and then giving pure feelings, you can change
the feelings of others into the feelings of friendship. One can change the
strong sanskaras of others by giving them the power of elevated thoughts.
-Invocation of souls.
Methods to make thought powerful and do service through the mind:
1.Let the thoughts be selfless, filled with the feelings of being a Bestower,
constantly with feelings of mercy, co-operation And the feeling of increasing
courage in others. Thoughts are filled with good wishes and pure desires for
all souls.
2. Practicing solitude
a). Going into the depth of one God,
b). Free from the attractions of the world,
c). Concentration of mind, to remain in the remembrance of one God,
d. )Becoming introvert and free from the attraction of vibrations,
e) . Experience any one powerful stage,
f). Go underground.
3. Experiencing the power of silence:
a). Experience of being the sacrificial fire of peace,
b). Experience being the incarnation of Peace.
4. Master Sun Knowledge: Desires and feelings of world benefit should be
merged in each thought of every child. Let the souls of the whole world be
constantly in your awareness.
5. Accumulate the power of silence: Finish all the waste thoughts and remain
in one powerful thought. Pack up the thoughts and become essential. WasteExtrovert. Powerful- Introvert. To become introvert, pack up even the waste
sound of words and make it essential.

6. Increase the power of pure thoughts: Store each point of Godly versions in
the form of power.
7. Vision constantly fixed towards the Aim: Aim is to be DOT. Dont see or
look at other things. See the essence in expansion. Dont see the waste and
dont listen to waste.
8. Merge in God, make God your world.
9. Clear connection with God.
10. Stability and concentration. The foundation of stability is introvertness,
far away from waste.
11. Be a Light house: Always have the attitude that my brothers i.e. the souls
should receive their inheritance from the Father. Elevated, selfless, merciful,
benevolent feelings will definitely bring results. Always water this seed of
elevated feelings with the elevated awareness.
12. Be a Karma yogi. Use the body to do karma. Donate power through the
13. Be free and liberated from all bondages.
A Special plan to make service through the mind more powerful
When giving visions of your angelic form you should
make a special plan to make the service through the
mind more powerful. Together with words, it is
service through the mind that will enable the
message to reach very far away.
Purification of 5 elements (Air, Earth, Water, Fire and
Ether) elements is also service of the mind. We have
to spread powerful vibrations so that the atoms are
influenced and begin to move positively. In this way
we can purify and change the elements. The
elements have been purified, and so have become
4. What is the role of values in the success of

Social service is the manifestation of the concern for

the other individual. It originates in the hearts of men.
Let us now to try to examine those spiritual values
which come into play, and should play a major role, in
social service.
1. Compassion and Imaginative Sympathy.
In spiritual consciousness one identifies the other
person as a spiritual conscient being and an inter
relatedness of brotherhood is felt.
Compassion creates an urge to serve others. This is
the triggering force in all individuals and social
service organizations. This is a spiritual value. It can
pool up men and material, open up sources and tap
resources. Love is the content in compassion. Love is
the natural trait of individuals.
2. Sacrifice.
It is also wonderful value content emerging from the
spiritual consciousness. It is out of love and
compassion, one is able to sacrifice for others. It
shows lot of mental strength in individuals. Sacrifice
is another motivating force for serving others.
People sacrifice a portion of their income, their
time, for the sake of others well being and
happiness. It is said that you create your fortune by
tyaga. But selfishness is getting into tyaga
making it infructuous.
3. Humilty
Social servant is expected to have tolerance and peace. This quality
Humility is made up of peace, tolerance and introspection. It is a
natural trait which sprouts from the self of soul consciousness.
Humility is a result of maturity. Humility indicates the greatness of
an individual. He has definite goals in life. He does it in the interest
of the world at large and also to those needy. The lives of Jesus
Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, Mahatma Buddha are some of the
examples before us.


When self is energized with the virtues of

compassion, love, sacrifice and humility, and
manifested when dealing with others, non-violence
comes to emerge as the plot form on which the self
positions itself to serve others. Ahimsa Paramo
Dharmah Non-violence is the highest of all the
virtues-becomes the inner core of the self. The
central theme of all religious is Ahimsa . In Yoga
Sadhana, Patanjali placed Ahimsa as the first limb in
Yama item in his Yoga Darshana. One has to
destroy his egoism to inculcate non-violence.one
who practices Ahimsa is a man of strong will. One
has to practice good intentions and think for others
well being. This will change violent situations.
5. Introversion
Spiritual development starts with introversion.
Thoughts are the creators of world situations. One
who introvert is always happy. He does not waste
his time, thought and breath. An introvert can swim
to his inner space to unlock the treasures of greater
wisdom and understanding. It is by being in the
inner recess of oneself, one is able to have mental
link with the God. He can communicate with God.
6. Contentment.
Happiness is a state of mind. Contentment is a
virtue of the self. One can experience contentment
in soul consciousness. Contentment is the sum,
total of the virtues such as introversion, peace, love
and humility. Contentment is the greatest
achievement in life. One who has contentment is
the richest in the world. One who has contentment
is not an idle man. Contentment develops
viveka,vairagya, and vichara. Be conscious your
spiritual nature.
7. Brahmacharya.
Brahmacharya or celibacy is a spiritual value and is a
natural virtue of the self. It is purity. This virtue is the

pedestal on which all other virtues can sprout and

blossom and sustain. It purifies the mind and
intellect. The self becomes a flawless diamond. In
Brahmacharya one is able to serve others.In
Brahmacharya there is freedom and power.
It is forbidden fruit in modern times.
8. God Consciousness and Meditation
It is said that Government work is Gods work. Social
service organizations serving human kind think that
they are serving God. Some even think that human
beings are the manifestation of God. God is the
greatest social servant. He serves human kind
without any expectation. In all religious there is
emphasis on charity and social work.
God is the Supreme Father of all souls. Every soul
likes to communicate with Him and to keep
relationship with Him. This act is what is called
Meditation. Meditation is possible in silence and
introversion. The act of meditation is called tapa
which empowers the self. A gain empowering the self
means the manifestation of the inner values,
overtaking the acquired values such as arrogance,
lust greed, extroversion, selfishness, and violence.
The consciousness of this relationship empowers
oneself to serve others as God serves humankind.



1. What does ethical values means to you?
Ethics; a system of accepted beliefs which control
behavior, especially such a system based on
morals. Ethics are based on the awareness that a
human being is essentially spiritual and
intrinsically valuable.
Ethical values are based on the combination of the
following salient features:
-Compassion ,
Ethical values are set of moral principles that apply
to a specific group of people, professional field or
form of human conduct and interaction. These
values respect human rights through self restraint,
non-aggression, integrity, justice and honesty. In
the hierarchy of values, spiritual ethics and
morality rank among the highest. A person with
ethical values can be trusted and will be respected
and revered. These values presuppose moral
courage and the power to act according to ones
moral convictions even at the risk of financial,
emotional or social security.
2. How is Integrity important in Ethics?

UNIT 1: Organisational Behaviour

1. Review the fundamental concepts that form the

basis of organizational behavior. Which concepts
do you think are more important than the
others? Explain.
In order to understand the subject of organizational behavior
comprehensively, it is needed thoroughly study the fundamental concepts
revolving around the nature of people and organization. A summary of these
ideas are as follows.
With regard to people, there are four basic concepts:
-Individual differences,
-A whole person concept,
-Motivated behavior,
-The value of the person.
Keith Davis analysis the assumptions about the nature of people as under:
All individuals in the universe are different from each other. This is a fact
even supported by science. The idea of individual differences comes
basically from psychology. Individual differences mean that management
can get the greatest motivation among employees testing them differently. If
differences were there, then some standard way of dealing with the
employees could be adopted. Thereafter minimum judgment would be
required. Individual differences require more an ethical philosophy than a
scientific conclusion. It recognizes that because people are of a high order,
they will be treated with respect and dignity. Every job, irrespective of its
nature, entitles proper respect and recognition in accordance with aspirations
and abilities. Organizational behavior always involves people ethical
philosophy in each action. Human decisions cannot be made apart from
In organizations the outcome from interactions among people .So with
regard to organizations, two key concepts are social entities formed on the

basis of give and take principle. The nature of organization embodies two
basic assumptions as quoted by Davis, relating to:
1.Social systems: The organizations are the social systems in which both
individuals and groups fill their roles and perform the activities therein.
These roles and activities are governed by social laws as well as physical
laws. The behavior is influenced by their group as well as their individual
drives and motives. In fact two types of social systems, one is the formal
social system and the other is the informal social system.
The existence of a social system implies that the organizational environment
is one of dynamic change, rather than a static set of relations. All the parts of
the system are interrelated, interdependent and subject to influence by any
other. The idea of social system provides a frame work for analyzing
organizational behavior. It helps make organizational behavior problems
understandable and manageable and finally to achieve the organizational
goals effectively.
Mutual benefits: It is necessary to have both people and organization for the
mutual benefit. Any organization irrespective of its nature and type has
human purpose. They are formed and maintained on the basis of mutual of
some mutuality of interest among their participants. Indeed, this mutuality of
interests provided a superordinate goal and forms a basis for mutual

Mutual interest provides a superordinate goal for employees and

Holistic Organizational Behavior
Holistic Organizational Behavior interprets people-organization relationships
in terms of the whole:

-Social system.
Issues are analyzed in terms of social situation affecting them rather than in
terms of an isolated event of problem.
Historical Origins
As quoted by Keith Davis in his book Human behavior at work that
although human relations have existed since the beginning of time, the art
and science to deal with in complex organization is a relatively recent origin.
In the early days people worked hard alone or in such small groups that their
work relationships were easily understood and handled. But actual
conditions were brutal and back breaking. People worked under intolerable
conditions of disease, filth, danger and scarcity of resources. They have to
work hard and very little time devoted to their job satisfaction.
Then industrial revolution came. In new industrial environment Robert
Owen, a young Welsh factory owner, about the year 1800, was one of the
first to emphasize human needs of employees. He refused to employ
children. It was the beginning of modern organization behavior. He was
called the real father of personnel administrator by an early writer.
Andrew Ure incorporated human factor into his philosophy of manufacturers
in 1835. He recognized both the mechanical and commercial parts and
introduced a third factor, which was human factor. He provided workers with
hot tea, medical treatment, a fan apparatus for ventilation and sickness
payments. The ideas of Owen and Ure were accepted slowly or not at all,
and they are deteriorated due to the recognition of the importance of people
at work.
Scientific Management Movement
In the nineteenth century human element in organizations attracted marked
attention. It was awakened by Frederick .W. Taylor in the United States. He
is often Called the father of scientific management, and the changes he
brought to management paved the way for later development of
organizational behavior.
Taylors main concern was with the efficiency of both workers and
management. He believed that his methods of scientific management would
lead to improved management-labor relations and contribute to improved
industrial efficiency and prosperity.

Taylor thinks that the workers were regarded as rational, economics beings
motivated directly by monitory incentives linked to the level of work output.
Hence, scientific management is often referred to as a machine theory
model. This movement overlooked the significance of interpersonal behavior
in work settings.
Both Taylor and M. Rose were opinions that the concept of a fair days pay
for a fair days work is not purely a technical matter. It is also a notion of
social equity and not in keeping with a scientific approach.
3 Define organizational behavior. Explain different key
elements in understanding organizational behavior.
Organization behavior is the study of the behavior of people within an
organizational setting. It involves the understanding, prediction and
control of human behavior and the factors which influence the
performance of people as members of an organization. It is a field of
study. This means that it is distinct area of expertise with a common body
of knowledge.
The term organizational behavior is a convenient form of shorthand to
refer to the multiplicity of interrelated influences on the behavior of
people and patterns of it within formal organizations. It must reckon with
motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication,
group structure and procedure, learning, attitude, development,
perception, change process, conflict, job design and work stress as well.
According to Keith Davis, organizational behavior is the study and
application of knowledge about how people act with in organizations.
In the words of Stephen P.Robbins, organizational behavior is the study
of the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior,
within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward
improving the effectiveness of an organization.
The key elements in organizational behavior are:

-The environment in which the organization emerges and operates. Each

of the four elements of organizational behavior will be detailed as under.

People: The success and failure of an organization mainly depends upon

the type of people with which it is working. People make up the internal
social system of the organization. People are the living, thinking, feelings
beings who work on the organization to achieve their objectives.
Organizations exist to serve people, rather than people existing to serve
Structure: Structure refers to the formal or official relationships of
people in the organization. Different jobs are required to accomplish all
of organization activities. There are managers and employees,
accountants and assemblers. These people have to be related in some
structural way so that their work can effectively co-ordinates. Managers
have to deal with and manage the structural aspects of the organization as
Technology: Technology is the mechanism by which the end product or
service of the organization is produced. It provides the resources with
which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The great
advantage of technology is that it allows to do more and better work, but
it also restricts people un various ways. Thus managing technology is an
important component of effective and efficient performance.
Environment: No single organization exists alone and isolated. Rather
all organizations operate within an external environment. Individual
organizations, such a factory or a school, cannot escape being influenced
by external environment. It influences the attitudes of people, affects
working conditions and provides completion for resources and power. It
must be considered in the study of human behavior in organizations and
more particularly in the work context.

4 In what areas has psychology contributed to

Organizational Behavior? Sociology? Social psychology?
Anthropology? Political Science. What other academic
discipline may have contributed to Organization

Organizational behavior is an applied behavioural science and as a result,

is built upon contributions from a number of behavioural disciplines: the
predominant areas of:
Social psychology,
Anthropology, and other fringe disciplines including
-Political science,and
Pyschology: As a science of behavior, psychology seeks to measure,
explain and change behavior of humans and animals. Psychologists are
broadly speaking, concerned with studying and attempting to understand
individual behavior. Those who have contributed to the knowledge of
organizational behavior are learning theorists, personality theorists,
counselling psychologists, and most important, industrial and
organizational psychologists.
Early industrial psychologists were concerned with the problem of
fatigue, boredom, and any other factor relevant to working conditions that
could impede efficient work performance. However, more recently, their
contributions and knowledge have been expanded to include learning,
perception, personality. Leadership effectiveness, needs arid motivational
forces, decision-making processes, performance appraisals, attitude
measurement, employee selection techniques, job design and work stress.
Thus the main focus of attention is on the individual as a whole person or
what can be termed the personality system.
Sociology: Whereas psychologists focus their attention on the individual,
as a science of society, the sociologists relate sociology to the social
system in which individuals fill their roles and to their fellow human
beings. More specially, sociologists have made their greatest contribution
to organizational behavior through their study of group behavior in
organizations, particularly formal organizations. Some of the areas within
organizational behavior that received valuable input from sociologists
include group dynamics, formal organization theory and structure,
organization culture and technology, bureaucracy communications, power

conflict, intergroup behavior and effect of industrialization on the social

Social Psychology: Social psychology is a discipline within Psychology,
but blends concepts from both psychology and sociology. It focuses on
the influence people on one another. One of the main thrust areas
receiving considerable investigation from social psychologists has been
change, how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance.
Additionally, we find social psychologists making significant
contributions in measuring, understanding and changing attitudes,
communication patterns, the ways in which group activities can satisfy
individual needs, group decision making processes and leadership.
Anthropology: As a science of man it facilitates group and organization
levels of analysis. Specifically, anthropologists study sociotics to learn
about human beings and their activities. It touches the fundamental
values, attitudes, socialization process and behavior between people in
different countries and within different organizational culture,
organizational environments, and differences between national cultures
are the results of the work of anthropologists or those using their
Political Science: As a study of individual and group behavior in
relationship to a political environment, political science provides an
understanding of organizations including structuring of conflict,
allocation of power, and how people manipulate power for individual
Now-a-days, it has become relevant to know that organizations are
political entities; if we were to be able to accurately explain and predict
the behavior of people in organizations, we need to bring a political
perspective to analysis and understand them.
Economics: Economics deals with distribution and consumption of
goods and services. It aids in the understanding of the phenomena of
decision and choice, effect of economic policies on the economic growth
of a firm, allocation of scarce resources of the firm to different competing
alternatives etc.
Therefore, in understanding organizational behavior one should see and
understand it in an inter-disciplinary outlook. Then only a comprehensive
and explicit understanding, predicting and controlling behavior of the
individuals can be possible at the work context.

5 How is an organization is a social system? Explain in

The socio-technical system is mainly concerned with the
transformation or conversion process. The relationships
between technical efficiency and social considerations
affect on the people. It was observed that new methods
of work and changes in technology disrupted the social
groupings of the minors. Due to this the psychological
and sociological of the old method of working changes..
As a result, the new method of work is less efficient
than new technology.
E.L. Trist and his associates of Tavtstock Institute of Human Relations, in
their study of changing technology, in the British coal mines, gave rise to
the idea of treating an organization as a socio-technical system. The
researchers saw the need for a socio-technical approach in which as
appropriate social system could be developed in keeping with the
technical system. They suggested that there are three sub-systems
common to any organization.
a) Technical system.
b) The sub-system of informal role structure.
c) The sub-system of individual members feelings or sentiments.
This form of analysis is taken a stage further by Kast and Roenzweig who
see the organization as an open social-technical system with five major
a) Goals and Values: The accomplishment of certain goals
determined by the broader system and conformity with
social requirements.
b) Technical: The knowledge required for the performance
of tasks and techniques and technology involved.
c) Psychological: The interactions of individuals and
groups and behavior of people in organizations.
d) Structure: The division and coordination of tasks, and
formal relationships between the technical and
psychological sub-system.

e) Managerial: Covering the whole organization and its

relationship to the environment, setting goals, planning,
structure and control.
While describing the organizational functioning Katz and Khan have also
identified five sub-systems. They are as follows;
a) Production or technical- concerned with the throughout
the work that gets done and the main productive
b) Supportive-environmental transactions relating to input
procurement or output disposal, or transactions
supportive of the productive process.
c) Maintenance- the equipment for getting work done.
Much of this equipment relates to performance of
people and to recruitment, socialization and rewarding
d) Adaptive-concerned with sensing external changes and
their effects on the organization and its survival for
example, research and development.
e) Managerial-organized activities for the direction control,
and coordination of sub-systems and adjustment of the
total system to its environment.
However, once these sub-systems are identified, it is the task of the
management to coordinate the sub-systems, and to ensure that the
activities of the organization as a whole are directed towards the
accomplishment of its goals and objectives. It can suggest, therefore five
main interrelated sub systems as a basis for the analysis of work
a) Task-the goals and objectives of the organization, the
nature of inputs and outputs, and the work to be carried
out in the transformation or conversion process.
b) Technology-the manner in which the tasks of the
organization are carried out and the nature of work
performance. The materials, systems and procedures,
and equipment used in the transformation or
conversion process.

c) Structure-patterns of organization, and formal

relationships and channels of communication among
members. The division of work and coordination of
tasks by which the series of activities are carried out.
d) People-the nature of the members undertaking the
series of activities such as their attitudes, skills and
attributes, needs and expectations interpersonal
relations and patterns of behavior. Group functioning
and behavior, informal organization and styles of
e) Management-coordination of task technology, structure
and people and polices and procedures for the
execution of work. Corporate strategy, direction of the
activities of the organization as a whole and its
interactions with the external environment.
Therefore, a manager must realize that in order to improve organizational
effectiveness attention should be focused on the total organization work
and on the interrelationships among the range of variables which affect
organizational performance. The open systems approach provides a
perspective in which to view different types of organizations and their
methods of operation.
How does hereditary influence personality Environment the situations?
The major personality determinants influencing individuals are:
Heredity: Among the above determinants the effects of heredity
comprises an extreme old argument in personality theory. Certain
characteristics, physical in nature, are inherited from ones parents,
transmitted by genes in chromosomes contributed by each parent.
Research on animals has showed that both physical and psychological
characteristics can be transmitted through heredity. But research on
human beings is inadequate to support this viewpoint. However
psychologists and geneticists have accepted that the heredity plays an

important role in ones personality. The importance of heredity varies

from one personality trait to another. For instance, heredity is generally
more important in determining a persons temperament than values and
Environmental: The environment that we are exposed to plays a critical
role in shaping a personality. Culture established the norms, attitudes and
values that are passed along from one generation to the next that create
consistencies over time. Heredity sets the parameters or outer limits, but
an individuals full potential will be determined by how well she adjust to
the demands and requirements of environment.