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Up

Run

Gradio

Down
Run

Temperature

Perforations

600

Production
Logging

Spinners

700
Flowmeter

800

150 BPD

80o

89o

90o

91o

Jan 1997
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

A.

B.

C.

D.

INTRODUCTION THE RESERVOIR


A.1

Introduction The Reservoir

A-1

A.2

Fluids

A-2

A.3

Fluid Flow

A-8

A.4

Perforation

A-12

A.5

Appendix

A-14

PRODUCTION PROBLEMS
B.1

Saturation

B-1

B.2

Cementing

B-2

B.3

Corrosion

B-3

B.4

Appendix Conditions Promoting Corrosion

B-5

MONITORING
C.1

Introduction

C-1

C.2

Saturation Monitoring

C-1

C.3

Cement Monitoring

C-10

C.4

Corrosion Monitoring

C-11

DEFINITION OF PRODUCTION LOGGING


D.1

Definition of Production Logging

D-1

D.2

History of Production Logging

D-1

D.3

Uses of Production Logging

D-1

D.4

Production Logging Measurements

D-3

D.5

Production Logging Environment

D-4

D.6

Logging and Interpretation Procedures

D-5

D.7

Production Logging Operations

D-7

(01/97)

Introduction to Production Logging

E.

F.

G.

FLOW VELOCITY: SPINNER TOOLS


E.1

Introduction

E-1

E.2

Spinner Tools

E-1

E.3

Calibration and Intrepretation of Single Phase Flow


Using Spinner Data

E-6

E.4

Slip Velocity

E-10

E.5

Special Considerations

E-11

E.6

Requirements

E-11

E.7

Examples

E-11

E.8

Answers

E-16

FLUID DENSITY MEASUREMENTS


F.1

Fluid Density Measurements

F-1

F.2

The Gradiomanometer* Fluid Density Tool

F-1

F.3

Other Effects

F-3

F.4

Current Gradiomanometer Tool

F-4

F.5

Nuclear Fluid Density Tool

F-5

F.6

The Capacitance (Dielectric or Watercut) Tool

F-6

F.7

Flowrate Calculations Using Fluid Density and a Slip Model

F-7

F.8

Summary

F-9

F.9

Examples

F-11

OTHER SENSORS
G.1

Pressure Measurement

G-1

G.2

Temperature Measurement Techniques

G-4

G.3

Caliper Tools

G-8

G.4

Alternative Flow Measurement Devices

G-10

Appendix A

G-19

Fluid Sampling

G-24

Appendix B

G-26

Examples

G-28

G.5

(01/97)

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H.

SURVEY PLANNING
H.1

Introduction

H-1

H.2

Objectives

H-1

H.3

Types of Survey

H-1

H.4

Data Gathering

H-2

H.5

Summary

H-5

H.6

After Survey Checks on Data Quality

H-5

H.7

Specific Measurements

H-6

H.8

Pressure Control Equipment For Production Logging Jobs

H-6

I.

COMPUTER EVALUATION METHODS


I.1

Computer Evaluation Methods

I-1

I.2

Production Logging Quicklook Highlights

I-1

I.3

Well Test Quicklook Highlights

I-3

I.4

Advanced Computer Methods

I-4

Appendix Field Computation Constants

I-8

J.

NEW DEVELOPMENTS
J.1

FloView Measurement

J.2

Flagship Project

K.

J-1
J-17

EXAMPLES
K.1

Examples

K-1

K.2

Answers

K-6

(01/97)

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A. INTRODUCTION THE RESERVOIR


A.1 INTRODUCTION - THE
RESERVOIR
In the first half of a wells life, it is drilled,
cased, cemented, perforated and completed.

Lithology?
Porosity?
Saturation?

Cement Quality?

Here the questions are different. Here the emphasis is on production, fluids and pressures.
We need to know:

Production flow rates


Perforation efficiency
Fluid mix
Zone Production
Pressures

Different techniques are employed. Well testing, production logging and reservoir monitoring tools are used to answer most of the
questions. Some specialist devices such as
corrosion monitoring tools may be required.
This phase of the well's life lasts for a much
longer time, often years; hence there will be a
number of surveys during this time.

Fig. A1: Life of a well - Part 1

In an open hole well evaluation the questions


asked are simple, where is the oil and how
much is there. The question is effectively,
where will we perforate?

In the multiple well case the problem is complicated, the questions become related to the
space between the wells, the reservoir scale.
How much hydrocarbon is in these wells?

Is there communication
between these reservoirs?

Fig. A2: Life of a well - Part 2

In the second half of a wells life the well is


produced, there may be workover activity and
recompletion.

Where is it?

What is the extent of this reservoir?


How much will it produce?
Will it require enhanced
recovery techniques?

Fig. A3: Reservoir Questions

Are the zones connected, are the beds continuous and so on. These questions cannot be
easily answered by measurements taken in a
single, or indeed, many wells. Interwell measurements (well tests or crosswell seismic)
provide some of the answers. These tech(01/97) A-1

Introduction to Production Logging

niques are often, difficult to do and give inconclusive answers.


In addition, there is the question of time, how
long will it produce, will the fluid mix
change, are there any production problems
developing. The latter questions can only be
answered with surveys and tests over the producing life of the reservoir.
The lithology of a reservoir is important in
open hole evaluation and the measurement of
the amount of hydrocarbon in place. There are
two major reservoir lithology types, clastics
and carbonates.
Clastics are composed of sandstones and
shales, the latter of limestone, dolomite and
evaporites such as salt or anhydrite. Sandstone reservoirs are usually regular in formation while carbonate reservoirs have very irregular structures. Flow from the this type of
reservoir rock is often from fractures which
can lead to irregular flow patterns and even
flow from only those few perforations which
intresect with the fracture.
The sandstones are often completed on multiple small zones of differing permeability. This
may mean that only some of the higher permeability zones actually flow.
The description of the reservoir rock is usually simple, sandstone or carbonate.

A.2 FLUIDS
Liquids are defined as fluids relatively free to
flow but restricted enough by cohesive forces
so as to maintain a relatively fixed volume.
Gases are defined as fluids relatively free to
flow but unresrtricted by cohesive forces so as
to have no definite volume.
Reservoir fluids need to be described in a different way from the rocks. The first definition
is one of contacts, where the fluids would be
in equilibrium. These are the gas-oil-contact,
the oil-water-contact and the gas-watercontact. The latter is only possible in a well
with gas and water (no oil). The second definition is the oil in place, the amount of hydrocarbon in the reservoir. The final definition is
one of the hydrocarbon properties, the gas-oilratio; how much gas is in the oil. Due to the
complexity of the hydrocarbons in the reservoir there are many other parameters which
are needed to fully describe the fluids.
A reservoir normally contains either water or
hydrocarbon or a mixture. The hydrocarbon
may be in the form of oil or gas. The specific
hydrocarbon actually produced depends on
the reservoir pressure and temperature. Other
gases can be found in wells, these include,
helium, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. In most cases these occur as traces together with the hydrocarbon and water normally found.
The formation water is uniquely described by
its salinity which may be fresh or salty. Using
the reference of seawater with a salinity of
around 30000 ppm chlorine, this varies from
500 ppm to 250000 ppm; a wide range.
The amount and type of fluid produced depends on the initial reservoir pressure, rock
properties and the drive mechanism. The major rock property involved in production is the
permeability.

(01/97) A-2

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A.2.1 Hydrocarbon Classification


Hydrocarbons vary widely in their properties.
The first classification is by fraction of each
component. This ranges from a dry gas which
is mostly C1 (methane) to tar which is mostly
the heavier fractions. The black oil normally
found is between the two extremes, with some
C1 and some heavier fractions.

H
C

PARAFFIN SERIES, METHANE AND ETHANE

H
C

Every hydrocarbon extracted from a reservoir


is of a different composition.

Typical hydrocarbons have the following


composition in Mol Fraction:

NAPTHALENE SERIES

CYCLOPENTANE

C
H

H
H

Hydrocarbon
Dry gas

C1
.88

Condensate
Volatile oil
Black oil
Heavy oil
Tar/bitumen

.71
.6
.41
.11

C2
.04
5
.08
.08
.03
.03

C3
.04
5
.04
.05
.05
.01

C4
.01

C5
.01

C6+
.01

.04
.04
.05
.01

.04
.03
.04
.04

.08
.2
.42
.8
1.0

Table A1: Hydrocarbon Types

C
H

AROMATIC SERIES
BENZENE

C
H

Fig. A4: Hydrocarbon Structure

The 'C' numbers indicated the number of carbon atoms in the molecular chain.
Another way to describe the hydrocarbons is
by the mixtures of the groups of hydrocarbon
structure types. The three major groups are
shown. The simplest and most abundant is the
paraffin series, with the more complex structures in varying proportions.

Natural gas is mostly (60-80%) methane,


CH4. Some heavier gases make up the rest.
Gas can contain impurities such as Hydrogen
Sulphide, H2S and Carbon Dioxide, CO2.
Gases are classified by their specific gravity
which is defined as:
"The ratio of the density of the gas to that of
air at the same temperature and pressure".
Gas specific gravity with respect to air should
not be confused with the specific gravity with
respect to water.
Oil is more complex than gas and has to be
defined in a more complete manner. The GasOil Ratio, GOR (symbol Rs) is a measure of
how much gas is in the oil and hence how
light it is. This is measured at a specific pressure, for example the reservoir pressure.
The API gravity is a weight.

(01/97) A-3

Introduction to Production Logging

The table gives some typical values:

Wet gas
Condensate
Volatile oil
Black oil
Heavy oil
Tar/bitumen

GOR
100mcf/b
5-100mcf/b
3000cf/b
100-2500cf/b
0
0

API Gravity
50-70
50-70
40-50
30-40
10-30
<10

The pressures in the oil and gas depend on the


gradients (densities) of these fluids. The difference in gradients with the water gradient
depends on the specific gravity with respect to
water.

Table A2: Hydrocarbon Classification

The specific gravity of an oil is defined as

141.5
API =
131.5

specific gravity(60 F )

A.2.2

Reservoir Pressures and


Temperatures
Reservoir Pressures are normally controlled
by the gradient in the aquifer. The pressure in
the reservoir is controlled by the aquifer as it
is assumed that it is, somewhere, connected to
surface. This means that the pressure in the
water is effectively continuously controlled by
the pressure gradient. The pressure gradient
depends on the salinity of the water, the temperature and the regional tectonic stresses. It
is usually constant over a large area. Although, high pressures exist in some reservoirs.

Fig. A5: Reservoir Pressures


(01/97) A-4

Fig. A6: Reservoir Temperatures

The chart shows three possible temperature


gradients. The temperature can be determined
if the depth is known. Temperature in wells
depends on a regional gradient. There can be
local hot spots where this is sharply increased. The temperature is measured during
each logging run. Local knowledge is important.
Temperatures gradients are greatest near the
edges of the plates and lowest near the centres
of the old continental plates as these are the
thickest points of the crust.

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A.2.3 Hydrocarbon Phases


A fluid phase is a physically distinct state,
e.g.: gas or oil. In a reservoir oil and gas exist
together at equilibrium, depending on the
pressure and temperature. The behaviour of a
reservoir fluid is analyzed using the properties; Pressure, Temperature and Volume
(PVT). There are two simple ways of showing
this:
Pressure against temperature keeping
the volume constant.
Pressure against volume keeping the
temperature constant.
The pressure and temperature are two quantities that can be easily measured. Thus it is
useful to describe the fluids behaviour during
production in these terms. Experimentally it is
easier to measure pressure and volume hence
the classical experiment is done using these
parameters at a constant temperature.

The easiest experiment is to keep the temperature constant, measuring volumes and pressures.
The fluid used is a pure, single component
hydrocarbon. (This is not found in a reservoir
fluid which consists of a number of components.) Starting in the liquid and increasing
the volume, the pressure drops rapidly with
small changes in volume until the first bubble
of gas occurs. This is the Bubble Point.
Further increase in the volume causes no
change in the pressure until a point is reached
where all the liquid has vaporised.
This is the Dew Point.
Increasing the volume beyond this point
causes the pressure to drop, but much slower
than with the liquid phase.
The experiment is conducted at different temperatures. The final plot of Pressure against
Temperature is made.
The Vapour Pressure Curve represents the
Bubble Point and Dew Point, (for a single
component they coincide).

Fig. A8: Pressure temperature phase diagram for a


single hydrocarbon component

Fig. A7: PVT Experiment

This is a plot for the single hydrocarbon component used in the experiment. The Vapour
pressure curve terminates in the Critical Point.
This is a unique point for any substance, pure
or a mixture. This is the point at which all
properties of the coexisting gas and liquid
phases become identical.
(01/97) A-5

Introduction to Production Logging

At pressures and temperatures above the critical point, for a single-component system,
there is only one fluid present and, depending
on the pressure and temperature, the fluid may
have the properties of a liquid or a gas.
The plot describes how this fluid behaves
with changing pressure and temperature.
If it starts in the liquid and the pressure is reduced, keeping the temperature constant, it
will cross the vapour pressure curve and become a gas. Starting as a liquid at constant
pressure and increasing the temperature will
also change it to a gas.
Reservoirs do not have simple singlecomponent hydrocarbons. There is now an
envelope where two phases, oil and gas, exist
in equilibrium. This is due to there being both
heavy and light components in the fluid. The
Bubble Point and Dew Point curves still meet
at the critical point.
The critical pressure and temperature are no
longer necessarily the maximum pressure and
temperature (cricondentherm) at which liquid
and gas can co-exist. The shape of the envelope and location of the critical pressure, critical temperature, maximum pressure, and cricondentherm are determined by the
composition of the mixture.
The Pressure/Temperature (PT) phase diagram for an oil reservoir is used to describe
how the oil at reservoir conditions behaves
when it is produced to surface (Figure A9).

Fig. A9: Phase diagram for an oil reservoir

Point 'A' is the initial reservoir condition of


pressure and temperature.
If the reservoir is produced at a constant temperature until the fluid reaches the wellbore,
the line to Point 'B' is drawn. This represents
the flow of fluid from the reservoir to the
borehole.
The fluid travelling to surface now drops in
both temperature and pressure arriving at the
"separator conditions" (s) with a final volume
of oil and gas.
Gas condensates, as the name suggests, start
as a gas and condense out some liquid (Figure
A10. This type of gas reservoir is commercially very good as the liquid can easily be
sold. Point 'C' is at the initial reservoir conditions. The reservoir is produced at a constant
temperature from C to D. Fluids flowing up
the well now drop in temperature and pressure, crossing the Dew point line and liquid
condenses out.
At separator conditions (s) the result in both
liquid and gas on the surface.

(01/97) A-6

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tion facilities will determine the percent of


gas and liquid present at a given time.

Fig. A10: Phase diagram for a retrograde condensate


gas reservoir

In a gas reservoir the initial point is A (in Figure A10). Producing the well to separator
conditions B does not change the fluid produced.
The point B is still in the "gas region" and
hence dry gas is produced.
This is the final diagram for the reservoir fluids. This is a dry gas which never enters the
envelope under any normal producing conditions.
For an adiabatic expansion, where no heat is
added to keep the temperature constant, the
temperature of gases tends to increase for
pressure drops above maximum pressure and
decrease (normal Joule-Thompson effect) for
pressure drops below maximum pressure.
Each reservoir fluid has a unique phase diagram that usually changes with time (e.g.,
production). The relationship of the reservoir
fluid system, at reservoir pressure and temperature, to its critical pressure, critical temperature, and phase diagram determines the
state the fluids are in and the production
mechanism that may be encountered. The
pressure-temperature path taken by the fluids
from the reservoir to the stock tank or produc-

Another factor to consider with a multicomponent system has to do again with the
dual processes of phase change and solubility.
When fluids are separated at the surface either
a flash or a differential process is usually considered. A flash process is one in which the
composition of the system does not change.
In a differential process, gas is removed as it
is liberated and the composition of the system
is constantly changing. The composition of
the system at a given pressure and temperature will then determine which components
will change phase and which components will
come out of solution with a further pressuretemperature change. Therefore, even though
the final pressure and temperature may be the
same for two different separations of the same
system, the percent of liquid and gas present
at the end will be determined by the pressuretemperature path taken.

A.2.4 Fluid Volume Changes


As described, fluids at bottom hole conditions
produce different fluids at surface:
Oil becomes oil plus gas.
Gas usually stays as gas unless it is a
Condensate.
Water stays as water with occasionally
some dissolved gas.

Fig. A11: Fluid changes from downhole to surface

(01/97) A-7

Introduction to Production Logging

The volume change has to be quantified. Surface volumes are measured (production rates);
these need to be converted to downhole conditions in order to compute how much has
been produced at reservoir conditions and
hence how much is left. This change in volume between downhole conditions and the
surface is described by the Formation Volume
Factor:
FVF =

reservoir with porosity of 20% contains water


equivalent to 15% of its volume.

Volume at Downhole Conditions


Volume at Reference Conditions

Bo = formation volume factor for oil.


Bw = formation volume factor for water.
Bg = formation volume factor for gas.
Bw is around 1, as water is nearly incompressible. Bo is measured in a PVT laboratory
experiment, it is just over 1, a typical value
would be 1.2.
Bg can be measured in the laboratory or using
empirical charts. This figure depends very
much on the pressure and is always very
small, in the order of 10-3. (See appendix at
the end of this section for methods of calculating these factors).

A.2.5 Saturation
The porosity of a formation has to be split between the fluids occupying the pore space.
Saturation is the name given to the fraction of
a given fluid.
Formation saturation is defined as the fraction
of its pore volume (porosity) occupied by a
given fluid.
Saturation =

Volume of specific fluid


Total pore Volume

Definitions
Sw = water saturation.
So = oil saturation.
Sg = gas saturation.
Sh = hydrocarbon saturation
= So + Sg
Saturations are expressed as percentages or
fractions, e.g. Water saturation of 75% in a
(01/97) A-8

Fig. A12: A unit volume of the reservoir rock is divided


into its matrix, and fluid parts. The total fraction of
fluids is the porosity, . This is further split into the
fractions of each fluid present

The graphical representation in Fugure A12


shows the simple porosity model split now
between water and hydrocarbon. The volume
of a fluid is the porosity times the saturation.

A.3 FLUID FLOW


Fluid flow in the casing and/or the tubing depends on the fluids flowing from the reservoir. An oil with a high gas-oil ratio will produce a lot of gas somewhere on its journey to
the surface, a low GOR oil will produce less
gas. If there is water production as well, three
phase flow will exist in the tubing as the gas
comes out of solution and two phase (diphasic) flow in the casing/tubing before the gas
has come out of solution.
These flow regimes cause problems for measurements.
Flow in the casing and/or tubing is broken
into different regimes from Bubble flow, gas
bubbles in oil, to mist flow, oil droplets in gas
(Figure A13). The actual flow regime encountered in the well depends on the flow velocities and gas-oil ratio.

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More than one type of flow will be present in


the well as the pressure change and more gas
come out of solution.
velocity = 0
at pipe wall

FLOW REGIMES
102

10
REGION I
REGION II

REGION III

TR
AN
SIT
IO
N

LIQUID VELOCITY

Laminar Flow

Fig. A14: Flow occurs in two types, laminar flow and


turbulent flow. The profile is different and hence so is
the flow measured by the tools

Reynolds number, Nre can be used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent.

BUBBLE FLOW

MIST FLOW
10-1

PLUG FLOW
1

N re =

SLUG FLOW
10
GAS VELOCITY

Turbulent Flow

102

103

vd

Fig. A13: Fluid phases in the wellbore

Where:

Laminar flow is a smooth flow in which fluid


elements follow paths that are straight and
parallel to the walls containing the fluid. The
velocity of the fluid varies from 0 at the container wall to a maximum at the center for a
pipe or wellbore. The velocity profile shape
is parabolic.
Turbulent flow is characterized by random,
irregular movement of the fluid elements
throughout the fluid except at the container
wall. The velocity again varies from 0 at the
wall to a maximum at the center, but with a
much flatter profile. Velocity profiles for
laminar and turbulent flows are illustrated in
Figure A14.

v
d

=
=
=
=

fluid density
average fluid velocity
pipe diameter
fluid viscosity

If Nre is greater than approximately 4,000, the


flow is turbulent. The relationship of Reynolds number to flow rate is illustrated in
Figure A15.
10000

Reynolds Number v Flow rate


3 fluid
for 1.0g/cm
Turbulent flow
transition zone

1000

Reynolds number

A.3.1 Single Phase Flow


Single phase fluid flow is the simplest type of
flow; even so, it can cause problems with sensor response. Single phase flow can be divided into two basic types of flow: laminar
and turbulent.

Laminar flow

100

pipe od
3
4
5
6
8
10

10

100
Flow rate in barrels/day

1000

Fig. A15: Chart to determine the flow type depending


on the flow rate and the pipe size
(01/97) A-9

Introduction to Production Logging

Figure A16 illustrates the ratio of average velocity to center velocity versus Nre for water
or air in a smooth pipe.

For a given set of conditions, spinner speed


is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, blade angle and condition, and bearing
friction.

9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
x1000 Reynolds Number

4.0
3.0
2.0

Turbulent Flow

1.0
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3

Transition

.2
Laminar flow

1.0

.9

.8
.7
Average Velocity

.6

.5

Centre Velocity

Fig. A16: The flowrate at the centre is different from


the average flowrate depending on the flow type. The
chart shows how this changes with Reynolds number
and hence the flow type

The average or superficial velocity v , for


laminar flow from Poiseuilleus law, can be
calculated as follows:

v=

4q
q
=
2
A
d

v is what a flowmeter attempts to measure.


The velocity profile may not be symmetric
due to pipe ovality, pipe roughness, proximity
to fluid entries, or other causes.
The velocity a tool sees will depend not only
on the actual fluid velocity profile, but also on
tool size (spinner size) relative to pipe size,
tool centering, tool configuration (cages and
centralizers), and whether annular flow is a
factor (in-line spinners and tracer tools). (Figure A17).
Diverter flowmeters do not eliminate all of
the above problems because of leakage
around and through the diverter elements or
petals, but diverter flowmeters can minimize
some of the problems.
(01/97) A-10

Fig. A17: Flowmeters measure different flowrate depending on the flow type and also their position in the
borehole

A.3.2 Multiphase flow


Multiphase flow is a much more complex
phenomena than single phase flow. Unless
the fluids are a homogeneous mixture, the
phases will move at different velocities. The
light phase will move faster than the heavy
phase because of the density difference be-

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tween the two phases. This difference in velocities is called the slip velocity.
Qh = Yh Qt - Yh (1 - Yh) Vs A
Qh = heavy phase flow rate
Yh = heavy phase hold up
Qt = total flow rate
Vs = slippage velocity
A = flow area
Slip velocity is the reason water holdup is not
equal to water cut. This will be covered in
more detail in the section on multiphase flow
interpretation.
In a deviated well the situation is further
complicated as the fluids will gravity segregate unless the flow velocity is high enough to
ensure complete mixing.
Slippage
Velocity
vs ft/min
140
120
100
80
60
40
40
30
20
10
0

20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
Vw

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Fig. A18: The chart shows the changes in slippage


velocity with hole deviation (Vw is the water or heavy
phase) velocity

Figure A18 is the result of flow loop work


relating slip velocity to hole angle for kerosene and water flow in a five inch pipe with
the water flow not over approximately 400
B/D. A few degrees of deviation can make
large changes in flow regime.

Fig. A19: Flowmeters may read two different types of


flow in deviated wells

A flowmeter in segregated flow may exhibit a


response resembling downflow (Figure A19).
The light phase moving up the high side of
the pipe will drag heavy phase with it. Some
of this heavy phase will fall out and flow
down the low side of the pipe. This can occur
where the heavy phase is water, even if no
water is being produced at the surface. A
spinner, as in the diagram, may see this down
flow. What other sensors see will depend on
whether they get a representative fluid sample
in their measuring section.
The temperature of a moving fluid at any
point in a well is a function of many parameters. Occasionally, simplifying assumptions
can be made and a temperature log may be
used quantitatively for flow rates. It is usually
much better as a qualitative indicator of fluid
quantities and types.
When fluids undergo a sufficient pressure
drop, some energy is expended in the form of
sound. These sounds can be related at times
to fluid types and quantities. The energy expended per unit time is proportional to the
pressure drop times the flow rate.

(01/97) A-11

Introduction to Production Logging

Multiphase flow discussion has been limited


to two phase flow for two reasons. First,
models or correlations describing three phase
flow of oil, gas, and water are limited. Second, sensors do not exist to properly measure
three components. Under the proper conditions, tool combinations using both density
and capacitance measuring devices can be
used for quantitative interpretation in a three
phase environment.

conical metallic liner.


Case
Primacord
Primer
Charge

Explosive
Charge
Liner

A.4 PERFORATION
Perforation is the most popular method of reservoir completion. The objective is to create a
path for flow from the formation to the well
through the casing and cement. The requirement is thus for a hole to be made in the casing, cement and into the formation for a short
distance. Standard perforations have an entrance hole of about 0.4 and a penetration of
around 20.

Fig. A20: Shaped charge design

It was found that the conical shape produced a


depression/hole in a metal target. The addition
of the liner increased the efficiency of the system. Modern liners are made of powdered
metal and leave a powder residue at the end of
the perforation. A typical charge has only
about 20 grams of explosive material.

It is made using a perforation gun system.


Gun systems use three components:

Slug

Jet
p=100GPa

500 m/s

Detonator - primary high explosive


ignited by heat or shock
Primacord - secondary high explosive
ignited by the detonator, burns at 8400
m/sec
Shaped charges - create the perforations,
detonated by the primacord.

The detonator starts the reaction, the primacord propagates it and the shaped charge
makes the holes.
Shaped Charges are the most important part
of the system. They were developed shortly
after World War II from the military bazooka
weapon.
There are three basic elements of a shaped
charge (Figure A20):
case (Steel or Aluminium).
cylinder of high explosive & a primer.
(01/97) A-12

Tip
7000 m/s

Fig. A21: Jet Formation

The explosion forces the liner to flow inwards


and out. It forms into a characteristic shape,
the jet (Figure A21), which is moving rapidly
and has extremely high pressures at the tip.
The pressure causes the material in the path of
the jet of metal to move out of the way creating the perforation tunnel into the formation.
The dimensions of the perforation, length of
the tunnel, and the diameter of the entrance
hole are linked and depend on the geometry of
the shaped charge.
If the liner opening is widened the entrance
hole size increases but the penetration decreases. These type of charges are used for
applications such as gravel pack.

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Wireline & Testing

There are a number of decisions to be made in


the planning of a perforation job.
The first is which perforation method to use:
overbalanced or
underbalanced.
Overbalanced perforation is made with the
wellbore pressure higher than the reservoir
pressure and so there is invasion once perforated. Underbalanced perforation means that
the reservoir produces once the perforation is
made.
In the first case the well is controlled using
the normal rig blow out prevention system. In
the latter special pressure control equipment
may be required.
The next question is the type of gun system;
casing guns
through tubing guns or
tubing conveyed guns.
These three systems are summarised as follows;

Casing Gun
Well Pressure > Formation Pressure
Overbalanced perforating
Large diameter carrier gun
Carried on an electric line.
The advantage of a casing gun completion is
that all perforation material is carried inside
the carrier hence it is protected from the well
fluids. The resulting debris is also brought out
of the well in the same carrier. The carrier can
be either re-usable or not depending on the
type of operation being performed. The more
complex gun types are all throw-away type
carriers. The disadvantage of overbalanced
perforation is that the mud in the well bore
will enter the well as it is at a higher pressure.

Through Tubing
Well Pressure < Formation Pressure.
Completion and final surface production
equipment, or a temporary completion
and testing facilities are in place
Underbalanced perforating, with pressure control equipment
Through tubing gun (small guns)
Gauges can be run with the string
Carried on an electric line.
Through tubing perforation eliminates the
invasion problem and gives the formation the
chance to flow immediately. The disadvantage is that smaller guns have to be used,
which means either smaller charges in a small
carrier, or larger charges exposed to well fluids and debris left in the well. The choice depends on the type of well being perforated.

Tubing Conveyed Perforating


Perforation gun is carried on either the
drill pipe or on tubing.
Well Pressure < or > Formation
Pres-sure
Large interval of perforation in one runin-hole
High explosive content, perforation
spacing
Gauges can be run at the same time.
Tubing conveyed perforation (TCP) connects
a carrier gun to the end of the drill pipe or
tubing. The gun can be fired by a number different types of detonators such as drop bar,
pressure firing heads or inductive coupling.
The choice depends on the conditions and
type of well.
The advantages of this method are mainly the
long interval(s) possible and the possibility of
a simultaneous well test using downhole
gauges.
The final decisions on the perforation are the
shot density, the number of shots per foot, spf,
(the current maximum is 21 spf.) and the
(01/97) A-13

Introduction to Production Logging

Phasing - the directions of the perforations


(Figure A22). This ranges from 0_ to
30_/60_.
The number of shots per foot depends on the
application and the reservoir parameters. The
objective is to obtain the best flow efficiency
most economically. Computer programs exist
which allow the reservoir engineer to select
the best combination of shots per foot and
phasing. Gravel pack completions normally
have very high shot densities.

shots
per
foot

Shaped charges

A.5 APPENDIX
Fluid parameters
Various fluid physical properties affecting
production logging are changed by pressure
and temperature and these changes need to
calculated.
There are several reasons for wanting to calculate these changes. One is to be able to calculate downhole fluid densities for use in
holdup calculations. Another is to be able to
convert downhole flow rates to surface rates
and vice-versa. Another is to be able to correct sensor response for fluid effects. Also, it
is helpful to know how many fluid types will
be present downhole when logging.
The physical properties of usual interest are
solubility, formation volume factor, bubble
point pressure, compressibility, natural gas
deviation factor, density, and viscosity.

90 phasing

Perforation
Directions

A number of charts, nomographs, and equations are available to estimate the properties.
However, they are empirical and may not accurately describe a particular hydrocarbon
system and should be used only if a more accurate model for the fluids in question is not
available.
The publication Fluid Conversions in Production Log Interpretation contains all the
relevant charts together with examples on
their use.

Fig. A22: Perforation characteristics are the number


of shots per foot of gun (spf) and the phasing of these
shots

(01/97) A-14

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B. PRODUCTION PROBLEMS
B.1 SATURATION
Saturation, as well as having a radial component in the form of invasion has a time
component. As the reservoir is produced the
water moves in to vacate the space left by the
producing oil. This process continues until the
oil saturation equals the residual value.
Virgin Zone

Measuring water movements helps to detect


and survey the rise of the water/oil contact,
locate water fingers which could give unwanted water production.

Invaded
Zone

oil
oil
water
water

OIL

Matrix

Fig. B1: Saturation in a reservoir is broken down into


the virgin and invaded zones during the drilling and
open hole phase. During production the saturation
changes reflect the movements of the reservoir fluids.

Many reservoirs are bounded on a portion or


all of their peripheries by aquifers. The aquifers may also be so large compared with the
reservoirs they adjoin as to appear infinite for
all practical purposes, and range down to
those so small as to be negligible in their effect on reservoir performance. When pressure
decreases due to oil production, the aquifer
reacts to offset or retard pressure decline providing a source of water influx or encroachement.
Water may be injected to supply external energy to improve the recovery of hydrocarbons.
The injected water may advance evenly or
may channel through the streaks of better
permeability leaving hydrocarbons behind the
water front.

WATER

High Permeability
Layer

OIL

Fig. B2: This, multiple zone reservoir, is now producting water from one layer. Water fingering in this
higher permeability zone has created the problem.

A reservoir consisting of multiple layers and


completed in several together can eventually
give rise to a situation as pictured in Figure
B2. The high permeability layer is producing
water.
(01/97) B-1

Introduction to Production Logging

B.1.1 Crossflow
Thief zones can be defined as those zones that
are considered open to the wellbore either by
perforations or openhole completion which
due to zone pressure differences remove fluids from the wellbore. The pressure differences are caused by zones depleting faster due
to higher permeability. Hence, in the illustration above, the middle zone may become a
thief zone as it produces.

P1

High Permeability
Layer

P3>>P2

P2

In some cases this could be a hydrocarbon, in


other cases water, but in all cases it generally
makes the surface production rates unusable
in predicting individual zone balance of material equations. It also reduces the potential
production of the well and reservoir.
In the case of injection wells the thief zones
on an injection profile may appear as higher
injectivity zones, depending on their relative
permeability to the other injection zones. In
most cases these thief zones will continue to
take fluid from other zones, even when the
surface injection rate is zero. This can largely
distort any balance of material calculations if
only the surface rates are applied to all the
downhole zones.
In either the producing or the injecting profile
it is important to know the dowhole profile of
the well for both the active and passive surface conditions. In a producing well a thief
zone could be decreasing the overall surface
production of hydrocarbons, or downhole it
could be dump flooding a potential hydrocarbon zone with water. In most situations the
most serious effects of a thief zone on overall
well productivity will be in those areas where
the wells are on quota and may, therefore, be
shut in for a large percentage of the time. In
injection wells specific zone pressure may not
be as well supported as believed if only injection profiles are monitored and no attention is
paid to the shut-in state.
B.2 CEMENTING

P3

Fig. B3: Crossflow from a lower zone to a higher one.


This phenomena happens in any direction.

In the case of a production well the thief


zones are generally most noticeable when the
well is in a shut-in surface condition. In this
condition the higher pressure zones will tend
to feed fluid into the lower pressure zones.
(01/97) B-2

Cementing of the casing in place is one of the


most vital operations in the drilling phase. It
is necessary to have a perfect seal between
zones to avoid unwanted fluid production or
reservoir contamination. Cement slurry is
pumped behind the casing to the required
height. It is left to set for some time before
any other operations.
The cement quality has to be evaluated before
the completion and any repairs made at that

Schlumberger

time. It is also essential to properly evaluate


any measurement in cased hole.
One of the major difficulties in cementing is
the presence of gas zones. These will cause
problems if precautions are not taken during
the cement job.
B.2.1 Channeling
Channeling is generally defined as the ability
of fluids to move in the region of the production casing annulus because of a lack of hydraulic isolation between the casing and the
cement or the cement and the formation.

life by providing a breakthrough into the


wrong zones.
Channeling in producers can lead to the production of unwanted fluids; i.e., water from
wet zones or gas from the gas cap or gas zone.
In some cases this unwanted production can
render a well totally nonproductive.
Channeling may occur in three conditions.
These conditions are:
Oil or gas well with water channeling up
from a lower zone
Oil or gas well with water channeling
down from a higher zone
Oil well with gas channeling down from a
higher zone
B.3 CORROSION
Corrosion encountered in the Oil Industry
involves several mechanisms, generally classified into three main categories:

Unwanted fluid
flow

Bad Cement

Electrochemical Corrosion
Chemical Corrosion
Mechanical Corrosion
B.3.1 Electrochemical corrosion
This type of corrosion is caused by phenomena that involve passage of current between
one or several metals and an electrolyte, with
transfer of ions and electron (Figure B5).

Fig. B4: A cement channel from the lower zone to the


upper results in the production of unwanted fluids.

In injection wells channeling can permit the


injected fluid to enter undesirable zones, thus
reducing the overall effectiveness of either
secondary or tertiary recovery systems. Pressure maintenance and flushing will not necessarily prolong the productive life of a well;
instead, it may actually shorten the productive

Electrochemical corrosion accounts for the


majority of observed downhole casing corrosion, and is mainly detected on the outer casing walls. Metal is attacked in four different
ways:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Generalized Galvanic Corrosion


Crevice Corrosion
Pitting Corrosion
Intergranular Corrosion.

(01/97) B-3

Introduction to Production Logging

Conductor
_
e

Anode

Cathode

Tubing
Leak

Metal ions (M+)

Electrolyte

Packer
Leak

Fig. B5: General mechanism for electrochemical


corrosion

B.3.2 Chemical corrosion


This type of corrosion involves chemical reaction which may not produce appreciable voltages. Five different mechanisms are known to
contribute to chemical corrosion:
a) Direct chemical attack
b) H2S attack (Sour corrosion)

Fig. B6: Leaks in the tubing and packer cause


production problems.

The casing string(s) could leak allowing fluid


to escape into another layer. This not only
causes a loss in production but could contaminate water zones (Figure B7).

c) CO2 attack (Sweet Corrosion)


d) Hydrogen attack
e) Bacterial attack
B.3.3 Mechanical Corrosion
There are two basic mechanisms for mechanical corrosion:
a) Stress Corrosion
b) Erosion Corrosion

Casing
Leak

B.3.4

Production Problems and


Corrosion
There are many potential problems caused by
the numerous corrosion mechanisms. Any of
the components of the completion string can
leak packers, tubings, etc., (see Figure B6).
This will cause mixed production which could
lead to further problems such as crossflow.

Fig. B7: Corroded casing allows fluids to escape back


into a reservoir zone.
(01/97) B-4

Schlumberger

B.4 APPENDIX: CONDITIONS PROMOTING CORROSION


The conditions of the well tubulars, together with the presence of oxygen-rich, saline and corrosive
fluids play a major role in the corrosion initiation and propagation. Figure B8 shows the conditions
that promote the various corrosion mechanisms and Figure B9 locates them with respect to a schematic completion string.

Saline/
DOWNHOLE Poor
Single
Collars
oxyg. Form. Solid
Cement
Joint
TYPE
Condt.
Move.
Metal
Casing
Casing Fluid B.H.
OF
Prop.
Corrosive
Anom.
Stress
CORROSION
Fluids

Electrochemical

Chemical

Mech.

Galvanic
Crevice
Pitting
Intergranular
Chemical
H2 S
C O2
Bacteria
Hydrogen
Stress
Erosion

Fig. B8: Conditions promoting corrosion

(01/97) B-5

Introduction to Production Logging

B.4.1 Conditions
Poor quality cementation: In a poor cement job, casing is exposed to saline formation water, acting as an electrolyte. Some
shallow formation waters contain dissolved
oxygen which accelerates corrosion rates.
Non-sulfate resistant cement (construction
cement) breaks down rapidly and exposes the
casing to corrosive aquifer water.
Metal properties: Most casings show variation in metallic properties, from joint to joint,
across the same joint, and from joint to collar.
This produces galvanic cells, and is seen on
electromagnetic logs as a variation in joint
conductivity and magnetic permeability.
Casing anomalies: localized casing anomalies can promote galvanic and pitting corrosion.
Corrosion at collars: collars are normally
stressed and distorted, and present gaps. They
often are starting points for galvanic, pitting,
and crevice corrosion.
Casing stress: Stressed sections of casing
can accelerate corrosion because of their distorted lattice structure. Hydrogen cracking
occurs when hydrogen ions diffuse into the
stressed metal.
Saline formation fluids: they act as an electrolyte and promote electrochemical and
chemical corrosion. Notice that overall corrosivity of saline solutions increases with salinity to about 5% NaCl, and then decreases because of reduced oxygen solubility. Above
15% NaCl, the saline solution is less corrosive than fresh water.
Oxygenated fluids: either meteoric formation waters or injection water not treated can
cause electrochemical and chemical attack.
Notice that, for carbon steel, oxygen dissolved
in water is about 80 times more corrosive than

(01/97) B-6

CO2 and about 400 times more corrosive than


H2S.
Borehole corrosive fluids: Spent acids,
brines, or H2S and CO2 in the production
stream can promote chemical corrosion.
Fluid and solid flow: Erosion corrosion is
caused by high velocity fluids, turbulence,
sand production.
Bacterial growth: Anaerobic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria synthesize H2S and promote
chemical and pitting corrosion.

B.4.2

Measures to prevent or remedy


corrosion
Several measures are available to prevent or
remedy corrosion in completion strings. They
are listed here for information and not discussed in any details as each one is the domain of specialists:

Engineering design
Selection of materials and alloys
Coatings
Good cementing
Choice of completion fluids
Inhibitors and biocides
Cathodic protection
Run tubing and casing patches
Workover to replace tubulars
Tie-back liners
Changes in completion

Useful elements to design prevention and remedial programs can be obtained from corrosion evaluation and monitoring using wireline
logging tools.

Schlumberger

STRESS

ACID

OXYGENATED/
SALINE FLUIDS

POOR
CEMENT

CORROSIVE
ANNULUS FLUID
BIMETALLISM
H2S
CO2
STAGNANT
FLUIDS

CORROSIVE
FORMATION
FLUID

H2O

Fig. B9: Location of Corrosion in Wells

(01/97) B-7

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C. MONITORING
C.1 INTRODUCTION
Monitoring is a term applied to the continual
checking of a parameter. In the reservoir context applied to production logging this has
three different types;
saturation monitoring
cement monotoring
corrosion monitoring.

tional problem of crossflow may occur if


these zones have lower pressures than the
others.
Monitoring would see this problem early in
the reservoirs life allowing it to be dealt with
in time.
WATER AND
SOME OIL

OIL

Saturation monitoring follows the changes in


fluid content of the reservoir. This is important in production logging when investigating
water (or gas) flows.
Cement quality is important when investigating unexplained fluid flows. Corrosion checks
the status of the casing and tubing giving prior
warning of potential problem areas such as
leaks.

Fig. C1: Saturation changes through the reservoir layers cause problems if some beds have a higher
permeability.

C.2 SATURATION MONITORING


To achieve optimum hydrocarbon recovery,
the monitoring of water saturation at regular
intervals is essential. This is achieved by
measuring the water saturation in different
portions of the field and then drawing contour
maps of iso-saturation curves.
Measuring water movements helps to detect
and survey the rise of the water/oil contact,
locate water fingers or bypassed hydrocarbons, estimate the residual oil saturation and
evaluate the efficiency of water-flooding projects. Proper monitoring allows to take the
necessary steps to maximise the final recovery.
In the left hand well in Figure C1 there is a
breakthrough in some of the layers, they have
depleted faster. They have higher permeabilities and will now produce water. An addi(01/97) C-1

Introduction to Production Logging

Porosity %
50

P
e
r
f
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
s

0
original water
in place

Lithology?
Cement quality?
Remaining
hydrocarbon

Fluids ?

Hole size

Fig. C3: Factors affecting cased hole monitoring tools


displaced hydrocarbon

A number of unknowns affect both tools;


PNC - fluid salinity, lithology
C/O - lithology
Both - hole size, cement quality,
borehole salinity/fluid

Fig. C2: This figure shows the change over time of the
amount of hydrocarbon in the layers. Zones with potential problems will show greater depeletion than the
rest.

A reservoir consisting of multiple layers and


completed on several together can eventually
give rise to a situation as pictured in Figure
C2.
Reservoir evaluation and saturation monitoring through casing are generally performed in
two ways. One measures the decay of thermal
neutron populations (TDT-P*, pulsed neutron
capture) and the other determines the relative
amounts of carbon and oxygen in the formation of inelastic gamma ray spectroscopy, as
used in the GST* or RST* (induced gamma
ray spectroscopy). Because chlorine has a
large neutron capture cross section, the PNC
technique provides good results in areas with
highly saline formation waters.
Both use an electronic source and pairs of detectors measuring gamma rays.
(01/97) C-2

When the formation water is not sufficiently


saline or when its salinity is unknown, the
carbon-oxygen method provides a more reliable answer, and the PNC data may not be
interpretable.
C/O measurements are best in carbonates because it also contains carbon, giving a better
statistical measurement.
In large holes both tools have problems. Poor
cement will add to the problems as the fluid
behind the casing may be unknown. In the
C/O case the borehole fluid is not a problem
for the large tool, however it must be known
for the smaller device. The borehole capture
cross section is measured with the PNC tools
but in some cases it may cause problems.
C.2.1 PNC Interpretation
The log reading is a linear mixture of the matrix and the fluid:

log = f + (1 ) ma
The fluid term can be expanded to:

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f = w S w + (1 S w ) h
Hence if w, ma, h and the porosity, are
known the saturation Sw can be obtained.
The equation linking the log reading and the
formation is linear. The unknowns are the
capture cross sections for the water, hydrocarbon and matrix plus the porosity. The latter
can be measured with the tool but it is preferable to use open hole data.
The capture cross-section for the matrix is
easily found if the lithology is known.
Lithology
Limestone
Sandstone
Dolomite
Salt
Anhydrite
Clay (pure)

Capture Cross Section


7cu
4.2cu
4.7cu
754cu
12.5cu
14-24cu

Table C1: Matrix capture cross sections

The matrix capture cross sections come from


the lithology of the formation. One problem is
the presence of clay. Both the quantity and
type are important as some clay minerals have
a high capture cross section compared to
sandstone.
The capture cross-section of the hydrocarbon
depends on its type, oil or gas, temperature
and pressure and GOR. Charts in the standard
Chart Book can be used to determine the correct values.

log

Sw = 100%

ma
S w = 0%

POROSITY

Fig. C4: Crossplot of Porosity versus capture crosssection used to find the parameters and compute the
water saturation

An alternative to using charts to find the parameters is to use a crossplot of capture cross
section, against porosity, (Figure C4).
From equations 1 and 2
If = 0, the intercept is at ma.
If = 1, and Sw = 0, the intercept is h.
If = 1, and Sw = 1, the intercept is w

The capture cross-section of the water depends on the salinity. There is also a minor
temperature and pressure dependence.
The values can be obtained from the Chart
Book if the formation water salinity is known.
The values for the fluids are easier to find as
they depend on known phenomena.

(01/97) C-3

Introduction to Production Logging

Once the parameters have been found the


equation can be solved for Sw.
The problems with using this type of log is
that there has to be a good contrast between
the hydrocarbon point and the water point for
this technique to work. This requirement limits the technique to high salinity formation
waters. The matrix point can be difficult to
find in a shaly formation if there are no 100%
shale zones.
The value of Sw can be seriously affected if
there are any elements with a high capture
cross-section in the water. An example of this
is gadolinium with a capture cross-section of
30000. A small amount will increase the Sw
significantly. Using the graphical method
should eliminate this problem.
Gas and oil have very different capture crosssections. The correct one has to be used.
Time lapse is a standard technique of monitoring wells. A base log is run shortly after
production. The log is interpreted and can be
matched to the open hole evaluation, thus
checking the chosen parameters. Some time
later, a monitoring log is run. The change in
saturation is then given by:
Sw =

( w h )

The matrix term has dropped out.The resulting saturation is more accurate than a standalone value.
The base log has to be run late enough for the
filtrate to have dissipated but early enough so
that depletion is not significant. The match
with the open hole evaluation fixes such problems as uncertainty with the shale content or
the porosity. The only match is saturation.
The difference between the monitoring log
and the base log is the depletion.

(01/97) C-4

Fig. C5: Time lapse saturation monitoring example

Figure C5 shows an example of time-lapse


monitoring. The open hole computed log is
displayed with three computed TDT logs that
were run over several years. The rise in the
oil/water contact between logs runs is obvious. Water fingering has also developed in an
upper high-permeability zone.

Schlumberger

This type of survey is normally performed in


several wells of the same reservoir. This allows one to map the water saturation and
monitor the water front advances.
Time-lapse maps of saturation values over an
entire reservoir area provide a powerful aid in
predicting future performance of the field.
The three time lapse maps shown in Figure
C6 were made over a number of years and
show the progression of a waterfront in a single zone in this carbonate formation.

Fig. C7: Errors in the computed saturation for an error in the capture cross section

This a similar chart to the previous example,


this time with the porosity as the changing
quantity. In this case a 6p.u. error in porosity
again gives a 40% error in the saturation.

Fig. C6: Time lapse map

The main areas of water encroachement can


be clearly seen. The maps were constructed
using open hole and TDT log data from 40
wells. Similar maps can be made for each
layer or sublayer to monitor water movement.
Figure C7 shows the relative errors in the
computation of the saturation with changes in
the capture cross section accuracy. Using the
chart, for a 1 cu error in , at 20% hydrocarbon volume the error in saturation is around
40%.

Fig. C8: Errors in saturation computation with errors


in porosity

(01/97) C-5

Introduction to Production Logging

C.2.3

centages. The shape of the plot depends on


the lithology.
Sw=0, Yo=100

Far C/O ratio

If the pulsed neutron is used alone (no open


hole data) the combination of these errors
could result in a large discrepancy. Using the
open hole measurement for the porosity is a
fisrt step in improving the accuracy of the
technique. The addition of an early monitoring run to compare with the original open hole
values and subsequent monitoring passes
gives the best possible answers.

Sw=0, Yo=0

Sw=100, Yo=100

Carbon Oxygen Logging


Sw=100, Yo=0
Near C/O Ratio

Fig. C10: Crossplot of the Far C/O versus the Near


C/O. The plot end points give the relative amounts of
each element in the borehople and the formation

The smaller tools have a plot which has less


spread and the near and far detectors see
almost the same thing, hence it can only distinguish the formation percentage. The borehole fluid must be known in this case.

C.2.4

Example

Fig. C9: Spectra of some of the elements by induced


gamma ray spectroscopy

The first stage of the measurement computes


the individual elements from the spectra (Figure C9). This is very statistical. The next step
takes large windows over the expected carbon
and oxygen peaks to give a statistically good
measurement. The combination of these two
gives an accurate carbon- oxygen ratio which
can then be transformed into saturation.
The plot in Figure C10 is of the Far C/O ratio
against the Near C/O. The combination gives
both the formation water percentage Sw and
the borehole percentage Yo. This plot is for
the RST-B* tool, which has the ability to
compute both the formation and borehole per(01/97) C-6

Fig. C11: Initial field map showing the original oil


water contact

Figure C11 shows the original oil water contact (OOWC) at X370 ft . The field has 12 oil
wells which have produced a total of 7 million barrels and have estimated remaining reserves of another 9 million barrels. Initial
production from these wells oscillated from
650 to 1360 BOPD and most had early water

Schlumberger

production due to the active water drive in the


reservoir.
The drastic increase in water production
forced the closure of all producers with the
exception of well A-1, which was still producing aroung 800 BOPD with no water. The
water production per well is shown in the
structural map (Figure 12). The large proportion of unrecovered reserves from these 12
wells and the belief that water production was
caused by localized coning tempted the operator to consider re-entry horizontal wells to
tap the remaining reserves.
Fig. C12: New map after high water cut in the
production

The lack of accurate production data and surveys of any type in the watered-out wells
prompted the use of the RST tool for surveys
designed to locate the oil water contact
(OWC). Well A was selected for the survey
since it is located downdip fromm the wells
abandoned due to excessive water production.
The nearby well A-3 was producing 75% water until it was shut in June 1993.

(01/97) C-7

Introduction to Production Logging

Fig. C13: Monitoring log run in the field shows oil remaining at the top of the well

(01/97) C-8

Schlumberger

This new level of the oil-water contact confirmed additional recoverable reserves which
easily justify a horizontal well re-entry program. Two wells have now been selected, A-2
and A-3, to tap part of these additional reserves.

Porosity %
50

P
e
r
f
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
s

0
original water
in place

Remaining
hydrocarbon

apparent displaced
hydrocarbon

Fig. C14: Final map with the correct new oil-watercontact

This shows the new OWC after the surveys


and the trajectory of the two wells planned to
tap the reserves.

C.2.5

Problems in saturation
monitoring
A major problem in carbonates is the composition. In the cased hole this becomes more
difficult as it affects the interpretation directly
in the figure of the matrix capture cross section. If the composition is known from the
open hole logs the value is easily obtained. If
there is no open hole data available the best
method is a graphical solution. In the lower
porosities this may be difficult to handle.

Fig. C15: Depletion seen on the monitoring log could


be simply an acid effect

Hydrochloric acid is used in the stimulation of


carbonate formations. The residual products
of the reaction contain chlorine. The pulsed
neutron capture measurement reacts to this
element. In the normal case this is contained
only in the water, hence the tool sees the
difference between oil and water. The monitoring log is run soon after the original open
hole set. The depletion seen on this diagram is
false as it corresponds to acidised zones seen
by the tool as water, i.e. depletion. This effect
does not dissipate until the zone actually produces water.

(01/97) C-9

Introduction to Production Logging

Difference
60

2 - 1 = Acid Effect

Capture Cross section

Gamma Ray Open Hole


0

x100

Gamma Ray Cased Hole


0

200
original GR
x50

Scale effect
x100
x200

x150

x300

Fig. C17: Gamma ray peaks on the log are due to radioactive scale build-up
Fig. C16: Base log compared to first monitoring log
distinguishes the acid effect

The solution to the acid effect is to run a log


soon after completion. This log is compared
with the open hole saturation (Figure C16).
Any difference seen at this stage is due to the
acid effect. This figure is then used in future
jobs to eliminate the erroneous indication of
water influx.

(01/97) C-10

Carbonate reservoirs often exhibit high and


random gamma ray regions in cased hole.
Compared to an open hole log these are completely anomalous (Figure C17). The problem
is caused by the build up of radioactive scale
on the insides of the casing. This scale is
formed from barium and strontium salts precipated out of produced formation waters. The
amount of these substances is small and will
not cause a problem for any other evaluation.

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C.3 CEMENT MONITORING


The cement quality has to be evaluated before
the completion and any repairs made at that
time. It is also essential to properly evaluate
any measurement in cased hole.
There are two varieties of tool in current
use:
Cement Bond Log (CBL) - Variable Density Log (VDL)
CBL measures the amplitude of signal
reflected from the casing wall. The
higher the amplitude the lower the
amount of cement.

VDL image of the recorded wavetrain. The


only log to see beyond the first casing
into the formation.
Pulse Echo type tool
measures the acoustic impedance of
the casing-cement interface using
ultrasonics.
The latter tool is either segmented using individual transducers or rotating covering the
entire casing
The cement bond log-variable density tool
uses a standard sonic tool to make the measurement. (Refer to Figure 18.) This is the traditional tool and serves well to identify the
quality of the cement job. The amplitude of
the first arrival reflects how much energy has
been absorbed by the casing. If the casing if
free, no cement, most of the signal is reflected. If the casing is well cemented, little
signal returns.
It has an added advantage in seeing the bond
from cement to formation, which the other
tools cannot, using the Variable Density Log
(VDL).

Fig. C18: Typical CBL-VDL log. The first track has the
gamma ray curve for correlation, plus a casing colar
locator. The second track has the cement bond log. In
this presentation good cement is shown by the shading.
The final track contains the VDL.

The VDL looks at the complete wavetrain


hence sees further into the casing formation
interface. The Variable Density trace is a
valuable part of cement bond logging. As it
looks at the entire wave-train it contains information not seen by any other measurement.

(01/97) C-11

Introduction to Production Logging

first arrivals
from casing cement
interface

later arrivals from


casing formation
interface

Fig. C19: The VDL is a method of displaying the full


wave.

The log is simply made by looking at half of


the wavetrain with black (or a colour) for the
peaks and white (or a colour) for the troughs
(Figure 19). The colour or even grey images
show a much clearer picture of how the wave
is being affected by the casing(s), cement and
formation. It is possible to identify, free pipe,
fast formations and the formation-cement
bond using this curve.
The pulse-echo tools use either an array of
ultrasonic transducers or a single rotating
transducer. Both methods produce a map of
cement quality around the borehole (Figure
20). Combining both types of tools provides
the best possible picture of the cement quality.
The display shows a typical log with the entire casing shown in tracks one and three.
Brown indicates cement and blue water or no
cement. The red colour is gas. The second
track shows a composite picture of the cement
quality giving a percentage bond at a given
depth. Here yellow is cement and blue water.

Fig. C20: This is part of the display of an ultrasonic


cement evaluation tool. It shows the entire casing in
tracks one and three, with brown indicating cement
and blue water or no cement. The red colour is gas.

C.4 CORROSION MONITORING


A range of different wireline logging tools is
available for monitoring the conditions of casings.
The main tools described in the previous sections can be categorized into three main
groups: (1) Ultrasonic Tools, (2) Electrical
and Electromagnetic Tools, (3) Mechanical
Tools. These tools use different physical principles, and have different ranges of application and different environmental limitations.
Their azimuthal and vertical sampling rates,
and their resolution are also different. In most
circumstances, no single tool can give quantitative information about the corrosion situation. In multiple strings, outer string conditions must also be monitored.

(01/97) C-12

Schlumberger

It is therefore advisable to acquire data from


more than one corrosion tool, and combine
the information to accurately describe the casing conditions. Time lapse measurements may

also be necessary to refine the interpretation


and detect the advance of corrosion. Location
of corrosion and tool combinations more
likely to detect and quantify it are schematically shown in Figure C21.

CORROSION MONITORING TOOLS


Inner
casing

Outer
casing

Fig 9-1

inner casing
external corrosion
METT + PAT
time lapse
PAT

outer casing
pits & holes
UCI

inner casing
internal corrosion

outer casing
metal loss

METT
PAT
TGS-MFC

METT + PAT
time lapse

tubing
internal
corrosion

inner casing
pits & holes

TGS/MFC

PAT
TGS-MFC
(internal)
UCI

METT
single casing
PAT
external corrosion CET
UCI
CORROSION
PREDICTION
---- CPET ----

single casing
internal corrosion

METT
PAT
CET
TGS-MFC
UCI

Fig. C21: Corrosion occurrence and tool selection

Tool Definitions
METT*
PAT*
TGS*
MFC
UCI*
CET*
CPET*

- Multi Frequency Electromagnetic Thickness Tool


- Pipe Analysis Tool
- Tubing Analysis Sonde
- Multi Fingered Caliper
- Ultra-Sonic casing Inpection
- Cement Evaluation Tool
- Cathodic Protection Evaluation Tool

(01/97) C-13

Introduction to Production Logging

METT

SINGLE

MPAT PAT
CPET

CET

TGS /
MFC

UCI

INTERNAL CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION
PITS ON OUTER WALL
PITS ON INNER WALL

CASING

TL

TL

TL

CORROSION RATE
CATHODIC PROTECTION EVL.

DUAL
CASING

TOTAL CORROSION

TL

CORROSION RATE
CORROSION LOCATION:
INNER OR OUTER STRING ?

TL
Inner
Casing

TL

AIR OR GAS
FILLED BOREHOLE

CONDITIONS

CIRCUMFERENTIAL
COVERAGE

up to

MFC
TGS

7''

9 5/8 ''
GOOD

FAIR

TL = Time-Lapse

Fig. C22: Corrosion tool applications

Corrosion cannot be avoided. Proper evaluation of corrosion is an aid in managing it, and
in reducing the cost associated with prevention and repairs of corrosion damage.
For a successful evaluation of corrosion it is
recommended to:
understand the geological environment, the
formation type, the fluids present around
the casing.

(01/97) C-14

obtain as much information as possible


about the well completion.
plan base logs early in the life of a well to
obtain an undisturbed time-zero picture.
select the proper combination of corrosion
measurement tools, adapted to the well environment.
use results from one well to refine the acquisition program and the interpretation of
other wells in a field.

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D. DEFINITION OF PRODUCTION
LOGGING
D.1 DEFINITION OF PRODUCTION
LOGGING
Production logging is the measurement of
fluid parameters on a zone-by-zone basis to
yield information about the type and movement of fluids within and near the wellbore.
Production logging is intended primarily for
measuring the performance of producing
wells. It provides diagnostic information, pinpoints where fluids such as water, oil and gas
are entering a well and gives an indication
about the efficiency of the perforations.
Traditional production logging involves four
measurements - flow, density, temperature
and pressure. However, only the flow and
density readings are used in traditional quantitative production logging analysis. Temperature and pressure data have normally been
used in a qualitative way to compute in-situ
flow properties and locate zones of entry of
fluid into a well.

By the late 1950s and early 1960s the basic


sensor types had been developed as individual
tools. The surveys required a seperate pass to
obtain flowmeter, gradiomanometer, temperature and so on. 1970 saw the sensors packaged together in one tool, meaning a more efficient single run in the hole. The individual
measurements still had to be run one at a
time. By the end of the decade advances in
electronics allowed everything to be recorded
in a single pass across the zone of interest.
This had many advantages not least the savings in time.
Improvements continued through the 1980s to
the present day with better sensors, especially
pressure gauges, and deployment methods.
The latest tool uses completely new technology to measure a flow profile for the individual fluid phases all around the borehole.

D.2 HISTORY OF PRODUCTION


LOGGING
Modern Production Logging is far from the
early beginnings of the technique, with highly
accurate sensors all on a single tool with simultaneous acquisition. However a lot of sensors go back some considerable time. Temperature surveys were first used in the mid
1930s. One use was the estimation of the top
of the cement behind the casing. The setting
process of the cement is an exothermic reaction, it gives off heat. Hence the temperature
sensor sees where there is cement in the
well. (Note; this method is still used, in order
to work well the log has to be run less than 12
hours after the cement has been pumped.)

(01/97) D-1

Introduction to Production Logging

D.3 USES OF PRODUCTION


LOGGING
Production Logging is put to many uses depending on the reservoir type, well conditions
and the perceived problem. (See Figure D1).
Some of the major ones are:
1. Evaluate completion performance
- New wells
- Injection wells
- Re-completions
2. Monitor reservoir performance & variations
- Flow profile
- Well test

(01/97) D-2

- Completion Efficiency
3. Diagnose well problems
- Water entry
- Gas entry
- Leaks and mechanical
problems
- Flow behind casing
4. Other
- Guidance for workover
- Information for enhanced oil
recovery projects
- Identify boundaries for field
development

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Casing
Leak
Tubing
Leak
Packer
Leak

P1

o il

P2>>P1
Bad Cement

Unwanted
fluid flow

P2

Fig. D1: Common problems encountered in the producing wells.


Some are due to mechanical problems others to the reservoirs

(01/97) D-3

Introduction to Production Logging

D.4 PRODUCTION LOGGING


MEASUREMENTS
D.4.1 Tools
Production logging tools consist of a number
of sensors which make the measurements inside the well (Figure D2). The main types are:
1. Flowrate (fluid velocity) measurement
- Spinner rotation
2. Fluid density measurement
- Differential pressure
- Gamma ray attentuation
3. Well bore temperature
- Variance in resistance
4. Well bore pressure
- Strain gauges
- Crystal gauges
A number of auxiliary measurements are used
to augment or assist in the analysis of the major logs. They are:

Flowmeter

- GR /CCL for correlation


- Caliper (mechanical)
- Fluid sampling
- Noise Logs
- Tracer surveys
- Water Flow Log

Fig. D2: A typical production logging tool string contains a number of sensors

(01/97) D-4

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D.4.2

1. Flowmeter
- Determine producing zones
- Stimulation evaluation
- Secondary recovery
- Flow potential evaluation (SIP,
AOF)
2. Temperature
- Location of production or injection
zones
- Monitor frac performance
- Gas entry
- Fluid movement behind pipe
- Fluid conversions
3. Fluid Density
- Determine volumetric flow in two
phase flow
- Show entry points in three phase
flow

Up
Run

Gradio

600

Perforations

Applications of specific
measurements
Each sensor has some specific uses, most are
utilised in combination, however, to give a
total answer for the well/reservoir.

Down
Run

Temperature

Spinners

700

800

Fig. D3: A typical production log.

4. Pressure
- Well test analysis (kh, skin)
- Reservoir extent, boundaries
- Fluid conversions
- AOF, SIP determination

(01/97) D-5

Introduction to Production Logging

D.5 PRODUCTION LOGGING


ENVIRONMENT
The production logging environment is very
different from that of open hole logging.
Firstly in place there is normally a completion, which can take many forms. The reservoir zone may be open hole, perforated casing
or gravel pack. There may be single or multiple zones and single or multiple tubings.
The log is normally run in dynamic conditions, the well is flowing mixtures of liquids
and gases.
- Oil, water, polymers.
- Methane +, N2, CO2, H2S, He.
(Quite often there are solids present - formation, frac propant, paraffin, scale, diverter
balls, etc.)
Hence care and attention has to be taken in
the logging program so that the maximum information is obtained to answer the problem.
D.6 LOGGING AND
INTERPRETATION
PROCEDURES
The procedure to ensure a successful production log is simple and can be broken down
into three steps,
- programming the job,
- running the job and
- interpreting the data.
D.6.1 Programming the job
The first step starts with defining the problem:
e.g. Oil production is falling, water cut
is increasing.
Then list and quantify symptoms and well
conditions, for example:
Water Cut has increased from 2% to
15% in six months
Total production has fallen from 800 to
500 B/D
GOR - 350 cu ft/bbl
(01/97) D-6

Tubing head pressure - 1200 psia


Oil gravity - 30 oAPI
Gas gravity - 0.7
Then define sensors needed and technique
necessary to gather required data. (Mechanical
configuration of the well must be considered.)
This may include:
Fluid velocity, density, pressure, and
temperature need to be measured
Data is to be taken vs depth and vs time
with the well flowing and static
5 1/2-in. casing set to 9550 ft. 0 deviation
2 7/8-in. tubing set to 9350 ft.
Perforations - 9400-9450 / 9460-9475
Fill (TD ?)
Then determine if there is a reasonable possibility of solving the problem with available
sensors. For instance:
The well is producing above the bubble
point (down hole) and downhole water
production is greater than 10% of the total downhole flow.
D.6.2 Running the job
The second step starts with gathering all the
required data.
Calibrate the tools
Maintain depth control
Record data optically and magnetically
D.6.3 Interpreting the data
Choose a Single or Biphasic interpretation
model. Select Computer interpretation or
manual. In both cases the general equations
are the same.
Qh = Yh Qt - Yh (1 - Yh) Vs A
Ql = Qt - Qh
Qt - Total flowrate

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Qh - Heavy phase flowrate

Vs - Velocity of the light phase relative to


the heavy phase

Ql - Light phase flowrate


A - Cross-sectional area
Yh - Heavy phase holdup (decimal percent
by volume)

Finally produce the answer (see Figure D4).

Fig. D4: The result of a production log interpretation

D.7 PRODUCTION LOGGING


OPERATIONS
Production logging sensors are available in
many configurations depending on their intended use.

Communication between the operating company and the service company is very important for successful production logging. In any
form of well servicing, good communications
are wise; but, in production logging, good dialogue is critical to solving production problems. It is also essential for acquiring good
(01/97) D-7

Introduction to Production Logging

base data to more accurately monitor well performance and to solve future production problems.

Casing Collar
Locator

Gamma Ray

Although there are many types of sensors, this


does not necessarily imply that several trips
into the well will be needed to solve a particular problem. Acquisition of the various forms
of data can often be accomplished with one
trip into the well by multiplexing the signals
from the combined tool string. In addition to
rig time savings and convenience, the reduced
number of trips into the hole can produce less
disturbance of the production profile as a result of fewer pressure releases with the surface pressure control equipment; this helps
assure that all the sensors are logging the flow
conditions with simultaneous measurements.
D.7.1 Depth Control
Casing Collar Locator Section
Figure D5 shows a combination tool. The
tool has several production logging sensors
and a casing collar locator section. As with
most tools run in casing, it is very important
that casing collars be recorded. Collars are
the only positive depth control link between
the production logging sensors and the formation strata.
Gamma Ray Log
The other half of depth control is a gamma ray
log run in casing simultaneously with a casing
collar log. The gamma ray in casing is depth
matched to the openhole logs; therefore, the
casing collars that were recorded simultaneously will be on depth, or correctly depth
matched, relative to the openhole logs. Any
subsequent services run in casing with a casing collar locator that is depth-matched to the
Gamma ray plus collar log will be on depth
with the openhole logs.

(01/97) D-8

Flowmeter

Fig. D5: Standard tool string showing the casing collar locator and gamma ray

This procedure is necessary for the depth


measurement accuracy required for perforating, plugs, packers, etc. If cement evaluation
is run, a gamma ray and collar locator are
usually combined with the cement evaluation
tool, typically a sonic device, to acquire depth
control data simultaneously with cement information. These logs are not absolutely essential if the production logging tool string
contains a gamma ray section; however, the
gamma ray - collar log is usually run for perforating accuracy far in advance of the decision to run production logging tools that may
contain a gamma ray.

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E. FLOW VELOCITY: SPINNER TOOLS


E.1 INTRODUCTION
E.1.1

Basic Flowmeter Uses

Determine producing zones


Stimulation evaluation
Secondary recovery
Flow potential evaluation (SIP,
AOF)

tions per second (rps). Knowledge of a particular spinner performance allows the conversion of the rps into fluid flow velocity.
E.2.1 General Tool description
The flowmeter is used for flowrate evaluation
and recording production or injection profiles.
It uses a spinner, centrally located in the casing.

E.1.2 Flow Measurement


Downhole flow velocity surveys are usually
made with spinner devices. However there are
a number of other methods of measuring the
flowrate:

Electrical
Connection

Tracer surveys
Noise Logs
Water Flow Log

Magnet
Pickup Coil
Spinner

These methods will be dealt with in the Section on Other Sensors. Under certain conditions flow metering can also be accomplished
using data from fluid density and temperature
devices. These surveys are much less common.
E.2 SPINNER TOOLS
Spinner devices utilize a spinner or impeller,
which is essentially a fan blade turned by the
flowing fluid. This is the same principle that
causes an unplugged window fan to turn in a
breeze and allows a car engine to move a car
with an automatic transmission although there
is no direct coupling between the engine and
the wheels.
In the flowmeter application, the spinner
revolutions generate electrical currents or
pulses that are measured by the surface
equipment and converted into spinner revolu-

Fig. E1: The general principle of a spinner tool. Fluid


moves past the spinner causing it to rotate.

(01/97) E-1

Introduction to Production Logging

The rate of rotation of the spinner, rps, is a


function of the velocity, vf, of the incident
fluid.
rps = f(vf)
A permanent magnet is attached to the shaft
of the spinner which is mounted between hydraulic bearings (refer to Figure E1). The rotation of the spinner induces an a.c. signal in a
pickup coil.
The output sinusoidal voltage, V, and frequency, , are proportional to the rate at
which the spinner rotates.
V rps,

rps

Electronics detect and count the zero crossings of the sinusoid.


E.2.2 Types of Spinner Devices
Spinner devices are of the following three basic types:
High Flowrate Tools
Low to Intermediate Flowrate Tools
Low Flowrate Tools
E.2.3 Continuous Flowmeter
High Flowrate Tools or Continuous
meters (Figure E2) descend through
and perform their function below
without changing their shape for the
urements.

Flowtubing
tubing
meas-

This configuration can result in less accuracy


due to the small diameter; however, their
simpler operation can produce better reliability.
The small diameter may allow eccentering in
casing; this can cause erroneous flow sampling in deviated holes where gravity segregation of fluids occurs.

(01/97) E-2

Fig. E2: Continuous Flowmeter Tool*.

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Maximum Pressure (psi)


Maximum Temperature (F)
Makeup Length (in.)

15000
350
24.0

Type (CFS*)

H/N

J/P

K/Q

Tool OD (in.)
Weight (lbs)
Spinner OD (mm)
Spinner Pitch(mm)
2 blades
4 blades
Slope (rps/100ft/min)
2 blades
4 blades
Threshold (ft/min)
2 blades
4 blades
Resolution (rps)
Range (rps)
Accuracy (%)

1 11/16"
7.0
31

2 1/8"
7.5
42

2 7/8"
8.0
61

41.2
123.6

41.2
123.6

41.2
123.6

11.1
4.0

11.9
4.5

11.2
4.6

10.3
4.7
0.5
<200
10

10.9
3.5
0.5
<200
10

2.7
1.0
0.5
<200
10

Table E1: Continuous Flowmeter Tool Types.

E.2.4

Low to Intermediate Flowrate


Tools
Low to Intermediate Flowrate Tools or Fullbore Flowmeters (Figure E3) descend through
tubing, then they expand their spinner diameter by unfolding their blades to occupy most
of the inner casing diameter.
Fig. E3: Fullbore Flowmeter Tool*.

Strong centralizers protect the spinner blades


from striking the casing wall. These fullbore
flowmeters are more complex mechanically
than the other continuous devices, but they
offer less probability of erroneous flow sampling from eccentering. They give far better
results in low flowrates than the other types of
continuous tools.

Maximum Pressure (psi)


Maximum Temperature (F)
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (in.)

20000
392
11
35.1

They also cause less pressure drop across the


tool than the petal or basket type devices,
which facilitates less alteration of the natural
fluid flow path in the well while logging. Being a continuous device, these tools supply
more complete readings in less logging time
than the station-type instruments.
(01/97) E-3

Introduction to Production Logging

FBSC*
The high resolution kit increases the number
of magnets from the standard 2 to 6. This effectively multiples the response by a factor of
3.
FBDS-A*
- Full bore spinner giving sense of rotation
- Active sensor and electronics upper section.
- Can be adapted from existing FullBore
Spinner.
Uses same cage and blades as FBS.
- Output signal independent of rotation
speed: sensitive at very low rotation
speeds.
- Better resolution than existing FBS-C
- 20,000 psi / 175 degC / 1-11/16" diameter.
Casing Size (in.)
Cage OD (in.)
Spinner OD (in.)
Spinner Pitch
(mm)
Slope
(rps/100ft/min)
Threshold
(ft/min)
Range (RPS)

4 /

6 /

These devices usually have an umbrella configuration that diverts the fluid into the orifice; this generally results in a non-continuous
or station-type of data collection. This requires more logging time and also creates the
risk of omitting valuable data from the intervals that are not logged or sampled. Diverter
flowmeters were preceded by the packer
flowmeters that used wellbore fluids to inflate
a bag around the tool; though quite complex
and no longer generally available, the packer
flowmeter was an excellent step toward low
volume logging.

9 /

does not exist due to poor cement or vertical


fracturing.

4
2.75

5
3.5
120

6
5.0
73

8
7.0
35

5.2

4.3

7.2

5.7

2.5

0.8

3.24

9.0

<100
<100

Table E2: Fullbore Flowmeter Tool Types.

E.2.5

Low Flowrate Tools or


Diverter Flowmeters
Low Flowrate Tools or Diverter Flowmeters
descend through tubing, they then expand
their effective diameter below tubing to divert
the flow through an orifice containing a small
diameter spinner (Figure E4).
These devices have good fluid sampling characteristics because the majority of the fluids
moving in the casing must go through the
spinner section; however, they may also create pressure drops or changes that can cause
fluid flow outside the casing if zone isolation
(01/97) E-4

Fig. E4: Petal Basket Flowmeter Tool

Petal Basket Flowmeter Sonde (PBFS


A/B/C*)
Maximum Pressure (psi)
Maximum Temperature (F)

15000
300

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kR
es

po
n

se

The tool must be stationary before opening


the basket to take a reading.
The basket may be opened and closed under surface control.
C
30
74

1.69
50

2.13
60

2.13
70

1500

2770

4500

Table E3: Petal Basket Flowmeter Types.

M
od
e

B
30
74

e2

A
30
86

M
od

Types
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length
(in.)
OD (in.)
Minimum Flow
(bbl/d)
Maximum Flow
(bbl/d)

Ze

ro

Le
a

Mode 4

1
de
Mo

Petal Basket Flowmeter Response


Mode 1
At low rates, the heavy phase segregates in
the tool/casing annulus. Pressure unbalance
causes leaking through the petals.
Mode 2
At intermediate rates the petals start to leak
upwards, the magnitude depending on the total rate.
Mode 3
At high rates, the upwards leakage stabilizes
at a constant value, independent of the total
flow rate. The spinner rotation becomes a linear function of the total flow rate.
Mode 4
Above a certain rate, the petals become deformed and the response becomes non-linear.

Fig. E5: Petal Basket flowmeter response.

Inflatable Diverter Tool (IDTA*)


Maximum Pressure (psi)
Maximum Temperature (F)
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (in.)
Minimum Flow (bbl/d)
Maximum Flow (bbl/d)

15000
300
30
86.0
50
1500

Standard CFS spinner

(01/97) E-5

Introduction to Production Logging

Basket Size
Min Casing (ins)

Small
1

4 /

Large
7

2
5

Max Casing (ins)

9 /

Max Flow (bbl/d)

1800

1000

E.2.6 Horizontal Flowmeters


Horizontal Flow (across the wellbore) is
measured by a fourth spinner flowmeter type.
These devices, though not common, can help
determine the presence or absence of production from individual perforations, when perforation spacing is sufficient. These tools do
not generally offer flow profiling over long
intervals due to the plane of the spinner operation.
It is designed to operate when struck by a
horizontal force coming out of a perforation,
and it will not operate in a vertical flow condition or in an openhole condition.
E.3 CALIBRATION AND
INTERPRETATION OF SINGLEPHASE FLOW USING SPINNER
DATA
Fig. E6: Inflatable Diverter Flowmeter tool. This device uses the standard continuous flowmeter spinner.

E.3.1
The basket is controlled from surface.
The inflatable ring, controlled from surface, minimizes the leaking past the petals.
Packer Fluid Analyser Tool (SPFTA*)
Max Pressure (psi)
Max Temp (F)
Max Flow (bbl/d)
Basket Open
Basket Closed
Max Deviation ()
Single phase (bbl/d)
Q in two phases (bbl/d)
o
Q in two phases (bbl/d)
w
Accuracy (%)
(01/97) E-6

15000
350
2000
10000
60
> 100
> 30
> 400
10

Percentage Contribution of Each


Zone
Spinner revolution rate varies with fluid
flowrate. This relationship is generally linear
for continuous flowmeters, including fullbore
flowmeters, and it is generally non-linear for
petal-basket flowmeters; therefore, in singlephase flow (oil only, gas only, or water only),
the flow profiling interpretation technique is
essentially the plotting of spinner data, in
revolutions per second, such that the percentage flow contribution of each zone can be
read directly from the plot (assuming fluid
viscosity and density are consistent throughout the interval).

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For continuous flowmeters, where revolutions per second (rps) are linear with flow
rate, the technique consists of plotting rps on
the log. For petal-basket flowmeters, where
revolutions per second (rps) are not linear
with flow rate, the technique consists of plotting flowrate from an appropriate chart on the
log.

common to find the majority of fluids being


contributed by a small percentage of the perforations, possibly one or two holes in a zone
with dozens of perforations.)
E.3.3 Downhole Calibrations
The ideal response of the spinner is a flowing
well would give a straight line plot through
the origin (Figure E8).
Spinner
rps

Fluid Velocity
UP

Fluid Velocity
DOWN

Fig. E8: The ideal response of the spinner with fluid


velocity.
Fig. E7: Petal Basket chart converting spinner output
to flowrate.

E.3.2 Absolute Flow Rates


Spinner rate is a function of fluid viscosity
and density, in addition to velocity; therefore,
additional care must be taken if absolute
flowrates, rather than percentage contributions, are desired from the flowmeter data, or
if percentage contributions are desired in an
interval with varying viscosity or density.
This is true even in single-phase flow. Under
these conditions, the technique used for determining absolute flowrates is the use of
downhole calibrations.
(Note: When interpreting station-type data,
and during the data acquisition, it is wise to
never assume that flow contribution is linearly
spread across a perforated interval; it is quite

All fluids in the well are viscous to some degree. The effect of this is to shift the curves
away from the ideal line (Figure E9). The
slope of the line remains the same as this is
only dependent on the spinner geometry.
Spinner
rps

increasing
viscosity

Fluid Velocity
DOWN

Fluid Velocity
UP

increasing
viscosity

(01/97) E-7

Introduction to Production Logging

Fig. E9: The effect of viscosity is to change the spinner


response away from the ideal line.

An additional effect of friction on the spinner


start up alters the curve at the beginning. This
is the Threshold of the tool (figure E10).
Spinner
rps

mechanical
effects

flow. These plots (Figures E10, and E11) are


for a stationary fluid and a moving tool, hence
represent zero flow. In a flowing well the line
will be shifted to the left on the plot as the
velocity seen by the tool is now a combination
of the tool velocity plus the fluid velocity, Vf.
(Figure E12).
Spinner
rps

increasing
viscosity

Vf

Midpoint

Fluid Velocity
UP

Fluid Velocity
DOWN

ro
Ze

Tool Velocity
UP
Vf

increasing
viscosity

Vf
ro
Ze

Fig. E10: Mechanical effects are seen at very low


flowrates. It is effectively the flow needed to start the
spinner.

As the spinner is reading the fluid moving


past it, the fluid velocity can be replaced by
the tool velocity in the opposite direction to
give the final calibration plot.
Spinner
rps

mechanical
effects
Tool Velocity
UP

increasing
viscosity

Tool Velocity
DOWN

increasing
viscosity

Fig. E11: This is the final plot with tool velocity substituted for fluid velocity.

The down passes in producing wells are positive revolutions per second (rps). The up
passes are negative, if logged faster than fluid
flow, and positive, if logged slower than fluid

Tool Velocity
DOWN

ow
Fl

Fig. E12: Flowing fluids add their velocity to that of


the tool changing the flow away from the zero calibration line.

Fluid moving in pipe flows faster in the center


of the pipe than it does near the casing wall.
Centralized flowmeters measure the flow in
the center of the pipe. As a result, the spinner
reading will be higher than the average fluid
velocity in the casing. A correction factor has
to be introduced to take this effect into account.
Vaverage = C * Vf
The constant C, has been computed by experiments in flow loops. A typical value is
0.83. (See Appendix 1 for more details).
Once the fluid velocity is found the flowrate,
q, (downhole) can be computed.

q = C Vf A
where,
C = velocity profile correction factor,
commonly 0.83.Better, use chart.
A = Area of flow. Use chart1 to convert
1

(01/97) E-8

Flo

Charts are available for all common casing sizes.

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ft/min to flowrate for given casing.


Vf = Fluid velocity from zone calibration line.

E.3.4 Practical Downhole Calibrations


In practice when performing downhole calibrations for absolute flowrates, a plot is constructed using several logging passes. The
passes should be both up and down at various
cable speeds. The cable speed in feet per minute is plotted on the x-axis for the various
passes.
If a sump (region of no flow below all perforations) exists which can be logged, the calibration data will establish the threshold value.
(The assumption here is that the sump must
have the same fluid viscosity /density for the
calibration to be valid.)
If the calibration passes are logged such that
the down passes yield positive spinner velocities, and the up passes yield negative spinner
velocities (the preferred technique), then the
spinner threshold value is established by
translating the up/down graphs to position the
plot origin halfway between the x-axes intersections of the down calibration line and the
up calibration line.

Fig. E13: Spinner example.

(01/97) E-9

Introduction to Production Logging

Typically, a plot is constructed from data just


above a set of perforations, where the flow
will be stable. In the data shown in Figure
E13, these would be the points labelled A, B,
C and D. A straightline function will exist
with a vertical offset from the origin proportional to the flowrate at the point where the
data were taken.

To translate this fluid velocity into the


flowrate the relationship between fluid flow
volumes and fluid velocity for a specific casing inside diameter has to be determined. This
is found by consulting the appropriate chart
(see chart at end of this section).
In this example the casing was 7", 29 lbs/ft
and the velocity for 1000 bbl/day is 18.7
ft/min, hence the flowrates are:
QA = 320x(1000/18.7)x0.83 =14203 bbl/day
QB =215x(1000/18.7)x0.83 = 9543 bbl/day
QC = 80X(1000/18.7)x0.83 = 3551 bbl/day
Note: In the data set above there were some
spin reversals. This occurs when the velocity of the tool is slower than the velocity of
the fluid.
Spinner, rps

Fig. E14: Crossplot from the spinners above.

The plot then becomes a calibration chart. The


fluid velocity can be read off the x-axis as the
difference between the threshold and the reading.

tool moving
slower than
the fluid
(+ rps)

In this example (Figure E14) the threshold is


0, hence the fluid velocity can be directly read
off the charts.
Taking the reading at point C as an example,
the difference between the line for this point
and the zero flow line (D) is 80 ft/min. This
is easily found by starting where line C
crosses the y-axis and going across until line
D is reached and then reading down to the xaxis.
In a similar manner the values for B and A are
found to be 215 ft/min and 320 ft/min respectively.
(01/97) E-10

Spinner
Reversed

tool moving
faster than
the fluid
(- rps)

Fig. E15: Spinner reversals.

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E.3.5 Two-Pass Technique


For percentage contribution calculations in
varying viscosity conditions, whether from
multiphase flow or single-phase flow with
multiple viscosities, a special technique called
the two-pass technique can be applied (Figure
E16). This technique consists of running a
continuous flowmeter pass against the flow
direction and a flowmeter pass with the flow
direction, but faster than the maximum fluid
flowrate. The two passes are then normalized
and shifted to overlay at the bottom of the
well, where no fluid flow occurs.
The amount of separation between the two
passes, after shifting, measured in log divisions is linearly proportional to fluid velocity.
One hundred percent flow is at the point of
maximum deflection, which is usually above
all perforations on producing and injection
wells. Thief zones complicate the interpretation somewhat, but the principle remains the
same.

Fig. E16: Two passes of spinner, up and down are


overlain to eliminate the effects of changing viscosity.

A distinct advantage of this technique is that


it cancels the effect of viscosity changes.
These changes are essentially shifts in rps
readings of the same amount and direction on
both passes. Thus, the separation remains independent of viscosity effects.
If the "centerline" is defined as a line halfway
between the two curves, a centerline shift to
the right is a viscosity decrease; a centerline
shift to the left is a viscosity increase. If absolute fluid velocity is desired from the twopass technique, and if multiple calibration
passes have been run, it can be computed
from the following equation:
rps
Vf = 0.83

Bu + Bd
Where:
Bu is the up calibration line slope in rps per
foot per minute.
Bd is the down calibration line slope in rps
per foot per minute.
Bu and Bd can, and often will, be slightly different numerically.
Although the foregoing comments focus on
fluid viscosity changes, the effects / assumptions regarding fluid density changes are similar.
E.4 SLIP VELOCITY
The rise rate of fluids of different densities
makes interpreting data acquired in multiphase flow more complex. This difference in
rise rate is called slip velocity. Slip velocity
causes a need for additional data to profile
each phase.

(01/97) E-11

Introduction to Production Logging

This is accomplished by adding fluid density


information from a fluid density survey and
by using additional charts for the velocity of
each phase based on the composite fluid density, composite fluid velocity, and slip velocity. Multiphase interpretation techniques will
be discussed in the section on Fluid Density
Tools.
E.5 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
When working with flowmeter data, particularly data being used for the downhole calibration chart or the two-pass technique, great
care must be exercised to compensate the interpretation when there is:

Fill-up to the lowest perforation, which


prevents normalization in the sump

Flow below the lowest perforation, i.e., a


leaking plug, etc.

Perforations above the bottom of the tubing tail pipe

Spinner reversal on the up passes being


used in the calibration chart for a producing well or down passes for an injection
well. (This is a problem only if an interpretation is attempted in an interval where
a spinner reversal has occurred - and is not
included in the calibration chart data.)

Production of fluids of varying viscosity


and/or density.

Well History
Coherent Explanation
Experience

Typical Downhole Fluid Properties:

OIL
WATER
GAS

Density/gm/cc

Viscosity/cp

0.6 - 1.0
~1.0
0.05 - 0.2

0.2 - 10
0.2 - 1
0.01 - 0.07

E.7 EXAMPLES
Example 1
Using the following flowmeter log determine
the percentaqge flow rate for each producing
level. Assume constant speed and single
phase flow.

E.6 REQUIREMENTS
It is impossible to analyze or calibrate flowmeter spinner data unless information on the
well, fluids and conditions is complete. Hence
the requirements are:

All Relevant Data


Cement Bond Logs
Surface Rates
PVT

(01/97) E-12

Example E1: Spinner log.

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Example 2
Construct a flowmeter calibration curve from
the following data in zones A and B of the
diagram.

pass
1
3
5
7
2
4
6

zone A, rps
+32
+35
+39
+41
+19
+16
+15

zone B, rps
+5
+11
+13
+15
-

cable speed
50(down)
100(down)
120(down)
140(down)
50 (up)
80 (up)
100 (up)

Determine the flowrate in bpd if the spinner is


recording 15rps. Tool speed is 67 ft/min. Assume a fluid velocity of 34.4 ft/min for
1000bpd.

Example 3
1) Construct the flowmeter calibration plot
from the following data. Note as there is no
zero flow line this will have to be created.
pass
1
3
5
2
4
6
7

rps
+8
+10
+12
+2
-2
-4
-6

cable speed
50 (down)
100 (down)
150 (down)
50 (up)
180 (up)
220 (up)
250 (up)

2) Determine the flowrate above all the perforations if a fluid velocity of 29.9 ft/min is
equivalent to 1000 bpd.

3) If a single pass was logged down at 60


fr/min between the perforations and produced
a spinner reading of +6rps, what is the
flowrate at that point.
4) At another point in the well three spinner
passes gave the following:

Example E2: Well Diagram.

pass
1
3
5

rps
+4
+7
+9

cable speed
40 (down)
100 (down)
140 (down)

Determine the production at this point.


(01/97) E-13

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(01/97) E-1

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Example 4
This well is producting gas and liquid at surface.
Given the spinners recorded in the well determine the thief zones and the production zones in this
well.

Example E4a: Flowing Spinners.

(01/97) E-13

Introduction to Production Logging

Example E4b: Shut-in Spinners.

(01/97) E-14

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Appendix 1: Flow Regimes


Classification

Appendix 2: Maxis* Calibration


Theory
Threshold Intercept Ratio [TIRA]
TIRA =NTHR/(NTHR PTHR)
:normally > 0.5
Total Fluid Velocity [VT]
VT = VPCF((1 TIRA)(NINT NTHR)
+ TIRA(PINT PTHR))

Fig. E17: Calibration factor versus Reynolds number.

A curve-fit for this plot yields the following:


Define:
m = log10(NRe)
0.000 < m < 3.200
3.200 < m < 3.348
3.348 < m < 3.554
3.554 < m < 3.850
3.850 < m <

C = 0.5
C=1.0135m 2.7432
C=0.4440m 0.8360
C=0.1405m+0.2390
C=0.0400m+0.6260

In most cases C = 0.83 will give satisfactory


results ( 5%)
Example
= 0.7 g/cm3
m = 0.5 cp
D = 6.184 in. (7", 29 lbs/ft Liner)
q(bbl/day)

v (ft/s)

N
Re

100
200
500
1000
1500
2000
5000
10000
15000
20000

0.031
0.062
0.156
0.312
0.467
0.623
1.558
3.116
4.673
6.231

2088
4177
10441
20883
31324
41766
104414
208828
313241
417655

0.6214
0.7477
0.7868
0.7988
0.8058
0.8108
0.8268
0.8388
0.8458
0.8508

NTHR
PTHR
NINT
PINT
VPCF

- Negative threshold
- Positive threshold
- Negative intercept
- Positive intercept
- Velocity correction factor

(01/97) E-15

Introduction to Production Logging

E.8 ANSWERS
Example 1
1) compute the spinner deflection for the
maximum flow (top of the log) compared to
the zero flow zone at the bottom.
This gives 14 rps.
2) Find the additional spinner deflection in
each of the other intervals, A, B, C.
These are:
A = 3.6RPS
B = 2.1RPS
C = 8.3rps

fluid below the perforations. In this case the


line has to be created using the data from the
full flow and the threshold of the device. It is
drawn parallel to the full flow and goes
through the threshold.
Example 3
1) The response curve is drawn both for the
positive and negative quadrants, parallel to
line through the data points. It should go
through a threshold. The threshold is computed by taking the mid point between the
positive and negative lines and moving this to
the origin.

3) Determine the percentage contribution of


each zone.

2) The calibration line crosses the y-axis at


5rps, this corresponds to 120 ft/min on the
response curve.
The flowrate is thus

A = 3.6/14 = 25.7%

= (120/29.9)*1000*0.83 = 3331 bpd.

B = 2.1/14 = 15.0%
3) 6 ft/min corresponds to 140 ft/min using
the response curve. At a tool speed of 60
ft/min this gives the average fluid velocity

C = 8.3/14 = 59.3%
Example 2
The zero flow line should cross the x axis at a
threshold value of 6 ft/min.

= (140-60)*0.83 = 66.4 ft/min


The flow rate is then

The intersection of 15 rps with the response


curve gives a flow velocity of 140 ft/min.
Therefore the peak fluid velocity

= (66.4/29.9)*1000= 2221bpd

= 140 - 67 ft/min = 73 ft/min

4) the calibration line for this pass crosses the


y-axis at 2 rps. This corresponds to 60 ft/min
using the response line. Hence the flowrate is

Correcting for the shape of the flow to obtain


the average velocity
Average velocity

= 73 * 0.83 ft/min
= 60.6 ft/min

The flowrate in bpd

= (60.6/34.4)*1000
= 1762 bpd.

Note: There are times when the zero flow


curve cannot be logged due to debris in the
well, not enough sump or a different viscosity
(01/97) E-16

= (60/29.9)*1000*0.83 = 1666 bpd.


Example 4
The spinners are overlaying below 10408 indicating zero flow here.
The down spinners decrease around 10350
before increasing again.
The conclusion is that the top of the second
set of perforations or the bottom of the third

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set is taking fluid produced from the lower


interval. The increase at the top of the latter
zone is due to production here.

The shut-in pass below shows the picture


clearly. Production from the lower perforation
is flowing into the second set of perforations.

Fig. E18: Average Fluid Velocity vs. casing Size.

(01/97) E-17

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F. FLUID DENSITY MEASUREMENTS


F.1

FLUID DENSITY
MEASUREMENTS

electronic cartridge

The main purposes for making a density


measurement are;

transducer

Determine volumetric flow in two phase


flow
Show entry points in three phase flow.
There are two major types of fluid density
tools:

upper sensing bellows

spacing
2 feet

slotted housing
floating connecting tube

Gradiomanometer* fluid density tool


Nuclear fluid density tool (gamma ray absorption).

lower sensing bellows

A third tool type works on a principle other


than fluid density, it is the capacitance or watercut tool.

expansion bellows

F.2

THE GRADIOMANOMETER
FLUID DENSITY TOOL

F.2.1 Basic Theory


The gradiomanometer tool uses the pressure
differential between two pressure sensors
spaced a known distance apart; e.g., two feet;
to infer the density of the fluid between the
sensors.
There are several types of pressure sensors
that can be used in the gradiomanometer application; these are discussed in some detail in
the Pressure Tool section.

Fig. F1: Typical gradiomanometer device.

The example tool shown in Figure F1 uses a


bellows system. The bellows will compress
with pressure. The lower set of bellows will
be slightly more compressed than the upper
set. The mechanical linkage between the bellows is constructed such that a rod moves in
proportion to the difference in compression
between the two sets of bellows.
A magnetic plunger on the end of the rod generates a signal in the transducer coil proportional to the rod movement. This allows the
coil output to be calibrated in terms of fluid
density.

(01/97) F-1

Introduction to Production Logging

F.2.2

Theory of measurement

where,
P1, P2, PA and PB are described in Figure F2
and
g = acceleration of gravity
so = density of silicone oil at bottom hole
conditions
The calibration is only valid in undeviated
holes as the pressure differential between the
bellows is proportional to the vertical separation.
F.2.3 Deviated Wells
When a well is deviated, the density from the
Gradiomanometer should be corrected as follows (Figures F3 & F4).

Fig. F2: Gradiomanometer scematic.

Assuming no deviation:
P2 = PB = PA + (PB PA)
PB PA = gh
P2 = PA + gh
P1 = PA + (P1 PA)
P1 PA = sogh
P1 = PA + so gh
thus,
P2 P1 = PA + gh [PA + sogh]
and,
P P1
= 2
+ so
gh

(01/97) F-2

Fig. F3: Gradiomanometer in a deviated well.

P2 = PA + ghcos
P1 = PA + soghcos
P2 P1
= cos so cos
gh
P P
= 2 1 + so
ghcos

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Moody friction factor1


Fluid Density (g/cm3)
Fluid Velocity (ft/s)
Pipe Internal Diameter (in.)

=
=
=
=

fM

v
D

This correction is not made during data acquisition but may be estimated from charts (Figure F5) or using PL quicklook.

F.3

OTHER EFFECTS

To make optimum use of the Gradiomanometer measurements, corrections to the recorded


data are sometimes necessary. The gradiomanometer reading is not exclusively a function
of fluid density (f). The true relationship is:

10 5

gradio = f (1 + K + F),
Where
K is a kinetic term and
F is a friction term.

5/8

Downhole flow rate

Fig. F4: Correction chart for the gradiomanometer in


deviated holes.

The chart contains the estimated friction corrections for most ranges requiring corrections.
To use the chart, enter the downhole flowrate
at the depth where the gradio reading was
taken on the y-axis and intersect the proper
casing line drawn diagonally across the chart.

"
"

5/8

5/8

"

8
5/

"

7"

5"
5

10 4

2
1/

"
4

1/2

"

In cases where the flow is less than 2,000 B/D


in casing, the friction term is negligible; therefore, gradio closely approximates f.
F.3.1 Friction Term
Besides deviation effects, friction due to tool
movement in a moving fluid has an effect on
the pressure readings across the two ports for
the p transducer. This friction term is associated with very high fluid velocities, which
occur with high flowrates and small casing or
tubing sizes.
This effect is defined with the following equation:
(dP/dL)Friction=0.8085 fMv2/D
dP
dL

=
=

Pressure Drop (psi)


Length (ft)

10 3
1.01

1.02

1.05

1.10

1.20

1.50

2.0

gradio /

Fig. F5: Gradiomanometer friction effect correction


chart.

The dimensionless Moody friction factor, fM, may be predicted satisfactorily from the iterative Colebrook equation:
1/fM = 2log(D/e) + 1.14 2log(1 + 9.34(D/e)/(NRefM))
where,
e
= Absolute Roughness (distance between
peaks and valleys)
D
= Pipe Internal Diameter
e/D = Relative Roughness (dimensionless)
NRe = Reynolds Number
= 7.742x103Dvr/m
e/D
may be obtained from charts.

(01/97) F-3

Introduction to Production Logging

The gradio/ ratio can be read from the x-axis


at the point of intersection.
Then, divide the gradio: ratio value into the
gradio reading to obtain the corrected value.
F.3.2 Acceleration (kinetic term)
The kinetic term is observable when the velocity of the fluid across the upper part of the
gradio is significantly different from the velocity across the lower part. This is commonly observed when logging into the tubing,
where the fluid velocity greatly exceeds the
velocity in the casing. Acceleration of the
fluid around the tool produces additional
pressure drops when the point of acceleration
is between the two ports. In this case the kinetic term causes a sharp increase or kick in
the gradio reading. Other kinetic kicks may
be observed at points of fluid entry, such as
single perforations, or any turbulent area in
the casing.
(dP)Acceleration = vL(dv/dL)
(dP/dL)Acceleration = 0.013474v(dv/dL)
dP = Pressure Drop (psi)
dL = Length (ft)
v = Fluid Velocity (ft/s)
= Fluid Density (g/cm3)
D = Pipe Internal Diameter (ins)
m = Fluid Viscosity (cp)
F.3.3 Acceleration (yo-yo)
Acceleration of the silicon oil column from
tool yo-yo causes a pertubation to the measurement due to additional localised forces
across the delta-p sensor.
F.3.4 Jetting effect
Pressure from jet entries impinging on the
pressure ports result in localised anomalies on
the fluid density.
An advantage of the pressure differential system is that it has a very smooth readout compared to the nuclear systems that exhibit statistical variations.
(01/97) F-4

A disadvantage of the pressure differential


system is the fluid flow around the tool can
cause friction effects that alter the apparent
pressure differential, which produces erroneous fluid density readings.
F.4

CURRENT GRADIOMANOMETER
TOOL

A strain gauge diffused on a silicone diaphram will distort if any pressure difference is
applied across it. This pressure difference is
related to the density of the fluid in the wellbore.
The Gradio sensor is a bridge circuit strain
gauge differential pressure transducer. The
sensor is voltage excited and its output signal
is input to a VCO.
The two pressure ports are spaced 21" apart.
The tubes are filled with silicone oil (DC-200)
of density 0.97 gm/cc at atmospheric conditions. Traps eliminate water or gas contamination of the silicon column The output is
corrected for deviation, if a deviation value is
entered in the software. A built-in temperature
sensor allows corrections due to temperature
variations to be applied automatically. The
characterisation of the sensor is done at the
time of manufacture.The gradiomanometer
section is a detachable module and may easily
be removed from the sonde for maintenance.
The measurement range of the sensor is 0 to 2
gm/cc.
F.4.1 Yo-Yo correction
This is done using a built in accelerometer.
The monoaxis servo-accelerometer provides
a measurement of the acceleration Az along
the tool axis:
Az = g * cos + At
where:
g = 9.80665 m/sec2
= angle between tool axis and vertical

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At= tool motion term


The output from the gauge is converted to an
acceleration using:
manufacturer's coefficients
temperature from built-in RTD

positioned with respect to a detector of


gamma rays so that the wellbore fluid acts as
an absorber. A high count rate indicates a
fluid of low density, and a low count rate indicates a fluid of high density.

To calculate , the measurement is averaged


over 7.5 ft, with an assumption that the tool
motion is eliminated. This gives output AZ.
The deviation angle,, is calculated as follows:
cos = AZ / g
The output AZC2 is the accleration averaged
over 1 ft.
It is used to correct the gradiomanometer for
yo-yo.
F.4.2 Pressure sensor Calibration
A Master Calibration is performed with an
oven and dead weight tester every 6 months.
For proper tool operation, the coefficients obtained from the master cal, along with the
PCOR table, must be entered correctly at the
time of logging.
Gradiomanometer specifications:
Silicon diaphram with a diffused strain gauge
(Endevco or PSOI)
Sensor

Density

Range

Resolution

Accuracy

02

0.004

0.04

Fig. F6: Nuclear Fluid Density tool.

(g/cm )

F.5

THE NUCLEAR FLUID


DENSITY TOOL*

The nuclear fluid density tool (Figure F6) operates on a similar principle to the formation
density tools; i.e., a source of gamma rays is
2

Endevco delta-P sensor is calibrated to 125 degC


The PSOI gauge is calibrated to 175 degC

The advantage of the nuclear fluid density


tool over the gradiomanometer is that its
measurement is not affected by wellbore deviation or by friction effects. However, since
the tool relies on radioactive decay, the readings are subject to statistical variations. It
should also be noted that the measured quantity is the average density of the flowing mixture; thus, it is subject to the same holdup effects as the gradiomanometer.
(01/97) F-5

Introduction to Production Logging

(01/97) F-6

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F.5.1

Specifications Nuclear Fluid Densimeter (NFDB*)

3
Range (g/cm )

0.2 1.2

3
Accuracy (g/cm )
3
Resolution (g/cm /decade)
Minimum Casing (ins)
Maximum Casing (ins)

0.01
1.25
5.0
12.0

137

High energy g-rays from a Cesium (Cs )


chemical source reach the detector through
Compton scattering. The count rate measured
at the detector will depend on the electron
density of the fluid around the tool.
Source collimators are available for fluid density measurement and gravel pack monitoring.
F.6

THE CAPACITANCE
(DIELECTRIC OR WATERCUT)
TOOL

The third group of widely used tools for distinguishing water from hydrocarbons depend
for their operation on the difference between
the dielectric constant of water ( 80) and that
of oil or gas (6). A simple way to find the
dielectric constant of a fluid is to use the fluid
as the dielectric between the plates of a capacitor. The capacitance may be found by
classical methods such as including it in an
RC network and finding the resonant frequency.
A conventional design is shown in the Figure
F7. Two cylindrical metal tubes are arranged
so that wellbore fluids flow through the annular space between them. The raw readings of
such a device are in terms of a frequency.
Each tool will have a calibration graph to
convert a measured frequency to a watercut
value. These tools behave well, provided that
the continuous phase is oil. In practice, the
measurement may become unreliable if the
watercut in the flowing mixture exceeds 30%.

Fig. F7: Capacitance tool schematic.

fHUM =

1/R1(C1 + CHUM)

fHUM(air)
fHUM(water)
fHUM(oil)

13000 Hz
6000 Hz
11000 Hz

CHUM =

CmCt/(Cm +Ct)

Ct

2ptrL/ln(r1/r0)

Cm
Ct
CHUM
Cm
t
m
r
r0
r1
r2
L

=
2pmrL/ln(r2/r1)
= Capacitance of the teflon
= Capacitance of the HUM
= Capacitance of the mixture
= Dielectric constant of the teflon
= Dielectric constant of the mixture
= Dielectric constant of free space
= 0.66 cm
= 0.73 cm
= 1.25 cm
= 0.50 m
(01/97) F-7

Introduction to Production Logging

F.6.1

Specifications Hold-Up Meter


(HUMD*)

Maximum Pressure (psi)


Maximum Temp. (F)
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (ins)
Yw Range (%)
Yw Accuracy (%)

F.7

Vw

Vo

20000
350
25
72.0

FLOWRATE CALCULATIONS
USING FLUID DENSITY AND A
SLIP MODEL

To calculate the flowrate using fluid density,


the relationship between the heavy and light
phases must be examined. This is called the
Bubble Flow Model (Figure F8).
The bubble flow model assumes that the light
phase (oil) will rise at a velocity greater than
the heavier phase (water) due to the difference
in density. This velocity difference is called
the slippage velocity, vs.

Vo=Vw+Vs
Vw

vs = vo vw
The volume of casing occupied by water at
any given depth is defined as the water
holdup, Yw.

y wA

(1-y w A)

Yw + Yo = 1
Water

Oil

The water hold up must not be confused with


the watercut which is the rate of water production compared to the total production expressed as a percentage.
The total flowrate (Qt) is composed of both
the light phase flowrate (Qo) and the heavy
phase flowrate (Qw). This can be written:
Qt = Qo + Qw
(Note: Qo can be replaced by Qgas, where
applicable.)
(01/97) F-8

Fig. F8: Bubble Flow Model.

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The flowrate of the heavy phase (Qw) is equal


to the percentage of the heavy (Yw) multiplied
by the casing area (A) multiplied by the velocity of the heavy phase (vw). That is:
Qw = Yw.A.vw

If Qo is substituted for Qt in the above equation the following expression is derived:


0 = YwQo-Yw(1-Yw)vsA
rearranging, this becomes:
Qo = (1-Yw)vsA

The velocity of the heavy phase (vw) contains


only one component.

This equation may be expressed as:


The light phase flowrate (Qo) is equal to the
product of the percent of light phase (1-Yw)
multiplied by the area of the casing (A) multiplied by the velocity of the light phase (vo).
The equation is:
Qo = (1-Yw).A.vo
The velocity of the light phase (vo) is composed of the heavy phase velocity (vw) and the
slip velocity (vs).
Rearranging the expression becomes:

QL = (1-Yw)vsA
where QL is the light phase flow rate hence
the equation is applicable to both oil and gas
relationships.
The calculation of the cross sectional area associated with the holdup must take into account the presence of the device that is making the measurement.
If,

Qo = (1-Yw)A(vw + vs)
= Avw - A vw Yw + (1-Yw) vsA

A* = (/4)(D2 dt2)1/144
QL = (1-Yw)vsA*(BPD)

Adding Qo and Qw, Qt becomes:


Qt = A vw + (1-Yw) vsA
Rearranging,

vw =

Qt (1 Yw )vsA
A

Therefore,
Qw = yw Qt - Yw (1-Yw) vsA

A* = Effective Area for holdup measurement


D = Pipe Internal Diameter
dt = Gradiomanometer Diameter
vs = Slippage Velocity
D = Pipe Internal Diameter
Yw =Water Holdup
The water holdup, Yw, may be obtained from
the Gradiomanometer response as follows:

Since Qt = Qo + Qw,

gradio = Yww + Yoo


= Yww + (1 Yw)o

If Qw equals zero, then Qt = Qo

Yw

= (gradio o)/(w o)

(01/97) F-9

Introduction to Production Logging

The remaining unknown, the slippage velocity, vs, may be obtained from experimental
correlations. (Use Figure F9 for liquids. In
gas wells use 60 ft/min, if no other information is available.)

Fig. F10: Slippage velocity charts for deviated wells.

In deviated wells these charts can be used


(Figure F10).
F.8
Fig. F9: Standard chart for slippage velocity.

SUMMARY

gradio is influenced by following effects:


Pelevation : desired effect, gives f
-requires deviation correction since
P ~fghcos
Log outputs from current tools are available
deviation corrected or not.
f is progressively less accurate as deviation
approaches 90
Pfriction : fluid friction on tool/casing
negligible for Q < 2000 b/d
see chart to estimate effect on 111/16"
tool;
assumes =0, monophasic and
roughness 0.0006"
Current logging software does not remove
friction to present on log but PL quick look
programs interpretation can estimate it.

(01/97) F-10

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Pkinetic : fluid acceleration between


measuring ports due to fluid
entries or diameter changes.
gradio gives a kick
gradio

kinetic

= f. <va>. Dva / gh

(01/97) F-11

Introduction to Production Logging

There are also local effects from perforation


jets, turbulence, and non-axial flow.
Tool Yoyo : acceleration of silicon oil column
is corrected in by the latest tool using as accelerometer output.
Hence:
P measured by tool =

(01/97) F-12

+ P from elevation
+ P from friction
+ P from tool yo-yo
+ P from kinetic effect
+ P from 'jetting' qualitative only

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F.9

EXAMPLES

Example F1
Using the following recorded gradiomanometer data compute the heavy phase hold up above perforations A and B.

Example F1: Gradiomanometer log.


(01/97) F-13

Introduction to Production Logging

Example F2
Gradiomanometer reading is 0.63 g/cc
Deviation
= 30
Flowrate
= 20000 bpd
Casing
= 7, 26#
10 5

5 /8

Downhole flow rate

"
"

5/8

5/8

"

5/8

"

7"

5"
5

10 4

1 /2

"

1 /2

"

10 3
1.01

1.02

1.05

1.10

1.20

gradio /
Example F2: Gradiomanometer Flow Correction Chart.

Questions
Correct the gradio reading for the deviation and flow rate.
(01/97) F-14

1.50

2.0

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ANSWERS
Example F1
The spinner indicates the extent of the crossflow to be from 2470.5 to 2414.6 feet. As the
down flowmeter has a higher value than the
up pass the fluid must be moving upwards.

that depth and the fluid warms the borehole as


it flows up to 2415 feet.
Example F2
Deviation
cor = gradio/cos

By logging shut in and/or flowing passes at


three different flowrates (minimum) the spinner can be calibrated.

= 30
cos = 0.87

The average velocity can be estimated as

cor = 0.63/0.87 = 0.72

= (difference between the up and down spinners)/ (Bu+Bd)

density = 0.72 g/cc

= (0.42)/(0.053+0.058)*.83 = 3.14 ft/min.

Flowrate
From the chart,

2) According to the shut in temperature passes


theis zone is taking some of the fluid from
2469.5 - 2470.5 feet.

cor / = 1.027
= 0.72/1.027 = 0.70 g/cc

3) The fluid flowing back from 2469.5-2470.5


is at or near the geothermal temperature for

(01/97) F-15

Introduction to Production Logging

Appendix HUM Models

Segregated Model
CHUM = AYw + B

Parallel Model
CHUM = A/[Bln(CYw + D) + E]
Yw = (r32 r22)/(r32 r12)

Dispersed Model
CHUM = A/[(B/ m) + C]

Mixing Laws
m = wYw + o(1 Yw)
m = wYw2 + o(1 Yw) 2
w 80.5
o 4.0
g 2.0
fw = 94.88 0.2317T + 0.000217T2
w = fw 0.1556 0.413S + 0.00158S2
T = Temperature (F)
S = Salinity (kppm)
Fig. F11: Hold up meter models.
(01/97) F-16

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G. OTHER SENSORS
G.1 PRESSURE
G.1.1

Uses of Pressure
Well test analysis (kh, skin)
Reservoir extent, boundaries
Fluid conversions
AOF, SIP determination

G.1.2

Pressure Measurement
Techniques
There are many different ways of measuring
pressure. All pressure transducers operate on
the principle of converting pressure to mechanical displacement. This mechanical displacement is then converted to an electrical
signal that can be used by measuring systems.
The mechanical displacement is accomplished
by the use of a force-summing device, a
mechanism by which the force of pressure is
balanced by an opposing force. This balancing force can be generated by displacement in
the force summing device, or it can be externally generated.
Force-summing devices take many forms.
The diaphragm, the bellows, and the bourdon
tube, are all of which are typical summing devices. Regardless of the type of forcesumming device, the displacement or generated force is coupled to a transduction device.
The transduction device converts the displacement or generated force into an electrical
signal or signal-generating form. That is, the
force can be converted directly into a voltage
or current signal, or it can take on an intermediate form, such as a change in resistance or a
change in flux path length. A few transducers
combine the force-summing element and the
transduction element into one unit.

This class is best typified by the HewlettPackard gauge in which a vibrating quartz
crystal is directly exposed to the pressure so
that the mechanical deformation occurs directly in the transduction device.
All other types of transducers are classified as
indirect-exposure devices.
Indirect exposure devices are typified by the
thin film strain gauge. In this gauge, the
force-summing device is a diaphragm and the
transduction device is a thin film strain gauge
bridge mounted on the back side of the diaphragm. The bridge configuration converts
pressure-induced resistance change into an
output voltage signal.
A more detailed discussion on transducer
types is given in the Appendix.
G.1.3 Strain Gauge Transducers
The transduction element in the strain gauge
transducer is a resistor that is mounted in to
the force-summing device so as to cause the
resistor to be sensitive to strain. When the
force-summing device undergoes a displacement, the strain-sensitive resistor changes its
physical length, thereby causing change in
resistance. This may be expressed as:

R
GF = L R
L
where
GF
R
R
L
L

= Gauge Factor
= Change in frequency
= Unstrained resistance
= Change in length
= Unstrainged length

Transducers combining the two elements are


classified as direct-exposure transducers.
(01/97) G-1

Introduction to Production Logging

Various types of strain gauge transducers have


different gauge factors.

counted for by the surface acquisition system,


using the PCOR table.

There are four basic types of strain gauge


transducers. These four types with their corresponding gauge factors are shown in Table
G1. A rule that applies to these transducers
is: the larger the gauge factor, the higher the
output of the device.

This unbonded resistive four arm strain gauge


has a built in Resistance Temperature Device
(RTD).

Type

Gauge Factor

Unbonded Wire
Bonded Foil
Thin Film
Semiconductor

4
2
2
80-150

Table G1: Types of strain gauge transducers.

The gauge used in the standard tool is an unbonded wire transducer made of a tube sensing member with a strain wrapped around it.
Two sets of strain wire are wrapped around
the upper part of a tube exposed to pressure,
and two other sets wrapped around the lower
part of the same tube, not exposed to pressure.
The active and reference windings on the outside of the cylinder are kept in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure.
The pressure applied causes the active part
of the cylinder to distort which changes the
resistance of the active winding.
A Wheatstone bridge is formed, the output of
which is a voltage function of the pressure
seen by the transducer. The pressure transducer output (voltage) will vary with temperature for any constant pressure.
Pressure correction for temperature is determined during Master Calibration, and ac-

(01/97) G-2

Fig. G1: Strain Gauge Transducer.

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A third order polynomial equation is used to


model its response:
P(V) = MG + MHV +MIV2 +MJV3
P:
V:
Mi:

Absolute pressure (psi)


Ratio between output and exitation
voltage
Sensor coefficients

The sensor coefficients are a function of temperature and are modelled as folows:
Mi(Rt) = Mi3 Rt3 + Mi2 Rt2 + Mi1 Rt + Mi0
Rt :

Resistance value of RTD in ohms.

The sensor characterisation is done at the time


of manufacture and a Master Calibration is
done using a dead-weight tester. Corrections
are automatically applied by the software.
Advantages of this transducer are its excellent
accuracy, insensitivity to temperature and
good long-term stability and good dynamic
response, but with reduced measurement accuracy and resolution. Disadvantages of this
transducer are sensitivity to shock and vibration, hysteresis, and limited frequency response.
Three gauges are available: 5 Kpsi, 10 Kpsi
and 20 Kpsi.
G.1.4 Current developments
"Alpha" gauge replacement for the strain
gauge.
The "Alpha" gauge is a thin film transducer,
consisting of a resistor pattern making up an
active bridge.

diaphragm, and others have them mounted on


a beam that is linked to a diaphragm by a push
rod.
Advantages of this transducer are excellent
long-term stability, excellent accuracy, low
hysteresis, and high temperature range.
Disadvantages are low output level and high
costs.
Specifications of the "Alpha" gauge:
pressure rating
pressure accuracy
pressure resolution
temperature rating

17,000 psi
+/- 17 psi
0.1 psi
175 degC

Table G2: Alpha gauge specifications.

G.1.5 Vibrating Crystal Transducer


In vibrating crystal transducers, a crystal is
forced by external electronic circuits to oscillate at its resonate frequency. When external
stress is applied to the crystal via mechanical
linkage to the force-summing element, the
resonate frequency of the crystal shifts in proportion to the stress. In at least one transducer
of this type the force-summing element is the
crystal itself.
This is a direct-conversion type transducer in
which the transduction element is also the
force-summing element. The vibrating crystal
is usually manufactured out of quartz because
of its excellent elastic properties, long-term
stability characteristics, and ease of vibrational excitement.
The way the quartz crystal is cut (the orientation of the crystal faces) determines its resonant frequency and its sensitivity to pressure
and temperature.

The thin film strain gauge transducer, consisting of a resistor pattern that is vapor or sputter
deposited onto the force-summing element.
Some units have the resistors mounted on a
(01/97) G-3

Introduction to Production Logging

used to compensate for temperature effects.


Its oscillator runs at 4.992 Mhz.
A mixer derives the difference frequency of
the two crystals, which is 8 kHz to 25 kHz.
The relationship between pressure and frequency, as a function of temperature, for the
crystal pair, is defined by 16 unique coefficients.These coefficients are calculated yearly,
during the tool's master calibration, performed
in a dedicated oil bath calibration cell. The
pressure range during calibration is from 200
to 11000 psi.
This device has the following specifications:
Maximum Pressure (psi)
Maximum Temperature (F)
2813B
2813C
2813E
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (ins)
Resolution/1sec (psi)
Repeatability (psi)
Range (psi)

12000
300
350
350
22.0
57.6
0.01
0.4
200 11000

Table G3: HP gauge specifications.

Fig. G2: Crystal Gauge schematic.

Advantages of the vibrating crystal transducer


are its excellent accuracy, resolution, and
long-term stability.
Disadvantages are its sensitivity to temperature and high cost.
The Hewlett Packard Gauge is used. Borehole
pressure distorts a quartz crystal, which is
controlling an oscillator. The measure crystal
resonates from 5.000 MHz to 5.017 MHz,
which corresponds to a pressure range of 0 psi
to 12000 psi.
The quartz measure crystal is also sensitive to
temperature. A reference crystal isolated from
well pressure but not borehole temperatiure is
(01/97) G-4

psi
0.5
1
5

Reading(%)
0.025
0.1
0.25

Temp (F)
1.8
18
36

Table G4: HP Accuracy at thermal equilibrium.

The most recent HP gauge has an improved


dynamic response to a step change in temperature.
G.2 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
TECHNIQUES
G.2.1 Uses of Temperature Data
Location of production or injection
zones
Monitor frac performance
Gas entry
Fluid movement behind pipe
Fluid conversions.

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G.2.2 Temperature Measurement


Most temperature tools work on a similar
principle, utilizing the varying electrical conductivity of a thin wire that accompanies
changes in ambient temperature.
In the standard the variations in resistance of a
platinum resistor are measured using a
Wheatstone bridge.

In practice the sensor measurement range is 13F to 347F. This corresponds to a sensor
resistance of 408 to 759 Ohms. The nominal
resistance is 453 at room temperature of 32
degF. the temperature resolution is 0.0014 F
if the log is recorded at 1800 fph.
G.2.3 Temperature Log Interpretation
Temperature Log interpretation is often qualitative. For example the qualitative evaluation
of fluid flow as indicated by departures from
the geothermal gradient. The geothermal gradient is the natural, fairly linear, increase in
temperature with formation depth. Given the
opportunity to stabilize under static conditions, a borehole will exhibit the geothermal
gradient; therefore, actual temperature readings that depart from the geothermal gradient
accompany flow conditions, which can be inferred from these readings.

Temperature
sensitive
resistor

The temperature survey can see behind pipe(


as do the tracer, noise logging and Water
Flow Log). Usually, the distinction cannot be
made regarding flow in casing versus flow
behind casing. A flow survey inside the casing has to be used in conjunction to fully
evaluate the situation.

Fig. G3: Temperature tool.

The changing resistance is modelled as follows for temperatures in excess of 0 C,


Rt = R0(1 + AT + BT2)
A = a(1 + 0.01d)

This quadratic in T may be solved in real


time.

B = ad10-4

T =
Rt =

Temperature (C)
Resistance in Ohms at temperature, T

R0 =

Resistance in Ohms at 0C (453W)

a =
d =

3.91x10-3
1.49

Another important use of the measurement is


to supply the temperature (T) portion of PVT
type equations and charts. Temperature information is critical to the determination of
gas expansion/compression, GOR, and oil
shrinkage from downhole to surface conditions and vice versa.
The following illustrations and cases demonstrate some of the many uses of the temperature log.

(01/97) G-5

Introduction to Production Logging

G.2.4

Case 1 Flowing wells

Liquid
Spinner

Temperature

In this case the well is producing gas through


the perforations. Once again the spinner reacts
to the flow. The temperature exhibits an initial decrease before increasing as in the liquid
case. The perforations are producing liquid
giving a change in the spinner. The temperature increases above the geothermal gradient
towards an asymtote.
This is due to the adiabatic expansion of the
gas as it entres the borehole.

geothermal
gradient

G.2.5

Case 2 Channeling

Liquid
Spinner

Temperature

Water
Flow

geothermal
gradient

Fig. G4: Well producing liquid.

Gas
Spinner

Temperature

Water Flow
behind
casing
geothermal
gradient

Fig. G6: Liquid Channeling.

gas
flow

Fig. G5: Well producing Gas.


(01/97) G-6

In the case of a liquid channeling behind the


casing the temperature will show an increase
before the spinner reacts to the flow. The latter device only measures inside the casing
while the temperature sees both inside and
outside.

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Gas
Spinner

Temperature

geothermal
gradient

Flow
behind the
casing

Fig. G8: A leak zone above the perforations. The fluid


leak produces an anomalous drop in temperature.

Fig. G7: Gas Channeling.

Once again, in the case of gas there is an initial decrease in the temperature. The log sees
a small decrease as the gas enters the space
behind the casing as the expansion here is
small. There is a larger effect as it enters the
borehole, seen as well by the spinner.
G.2.6 Temperature Profile Examples
The following examples show some of the
uses to which temperature profiles can be put.
The catalogue is not exhaustive but serves as
templates on which to base interpretations.

Fig. G9: Time lapse temperature profiles are used to


detect which reservoir layer is gaining or losing fluid
due to crossflow. In this example layer A is probably
communicating with layer B.

(01/97) G-7

Introduction to Production Logging

Fig. G10: This shows the standard profile expected


under normal producing conditions.

Fig. G12: This is the opposite to the previous example


as this time the crossflow is from the lower zone upwards.

G.3 CALIPER TOOLS


G.3.1 Caliper measurement
Caliper tools are manufactured in many configurations; but, the basic operation is similar
throughout the industry. Most caliper tools
use a system of two or more arms or fingers
that are mechanically coupled to a variable
resistor with a voltage output proportional to
the arm/finger position. The position is proportional to hole diameter.

Fig. G11: Crossflow from an upper to lower zone produces this temperature profile.

(01/97) G-8

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orifice or passageway, which negates the need


for caliper information.)
Caliper

Casing/ hole size


change

Fig. G13: Caliper tool.

A typical caliper tool is illustrated in Figure


G13. Calipers, of course, are very important
in openhole or new well logging because so
many interpretation parameters require hole
diameter information.
A recent advance in sonic technology has created devices called acoustic calipers. These
tools use ultrasonic sound waves that echo off
the inside casing wall and return to the tool.
The time for this round trip, along with fluid
travel time information, generates excellent,
accurate caliper data, usually in several directions across the pipe. These systems are generally better than mechanical calipers for
identifying corrosion problems and other defects resulting in minor dimension changes.
G.3.2 Caliper log example
In production logging in cased hole and openhole (barefoot) completions, the caliper information is essential to the interpretation of
spinner and tracer data for flowrate calculations. (An exception to this is when using
petal/basket and packer flowmeter devices as
these tools force the fluid through a known

Spinner RPS

Fig. G14: Caliper and Spinner logs in changing casing size.

At first consideration, one might assume that


flowmeters in cased wells would not require a
caliper log; however, partially collapsed casing can cause flowmeter anomalies that are
very mysterious without hole diameter data.
Also, seriously corroded casing can create
other questions that are difficult to answer.
Caliper logs provide clues that help.
The example in Figure G14 shows a typical
case where the casing size changes, changing
the fluid velocity and hence the spinner response. Without the caliper information this
could be misinterpreted as a flow increase.
Max Pressure (psi)
Max Temp (F)
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (ins)
Range (ins)
Resolution (ins)

15000
350
25
76.5
2 18
0.06
(01/97) G-9

Introduction to Production Logging

Accuracy (ins)

0.1

Table G5: caliper Tool Specifications.

G.4 ALTERNATIVE FLOW


MEASURING DEVICES
The spinner flowmeter is the most common
device for measuring the flowrate in wells.
However, there are some cases where other
techniques are better, for example the detection of flow behind casing.
Three principle methods are:
Water Flow Log*
Noise Logging
Tracer Surveys
G.4.1 Water Flow Log
Uses of the water flow log include:
Detection and quantification of water flowing in cement channels.

Identification of water flowing in the tubing annulus


Low water flowrate measurement
The Water Flow Log (Figure G15) is an extension of the Saturation Monitoring tools
measurement. It employs a pulsed neutron
generator to activate a small volume of the
oxygen in the water in and around the borehole. The activated isotope is N16 which has a
half life of around 7 seconds. As it decays it
emits a high energy gamma ray.
If the water is stationary the decay of the excited nuclei is predictable and exponential. On
the other hand, if it is flowing, the motion of
the excited volume is monitored by each of
the tools three detectors (Near, far and
Gamma Ray). Even very low flow creates a
discernable trace over the background.

Fig. G15: Theory of Water flow logging.

(01/97) G-10

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The tools software analyses the recorded


gama ray profile and computes the flow velocity in ft/min. A volumetric flow is also
estimated.
The red curve on these examples is the normal decay expected. The dark blue curve is
the actual decay measured, normal decay plus
flowing water signal.
The blue area under the curves shows the
flowing signal. The program has estimated
flows in these two cases, one inside and one
outside the casing.
Flow can be detected from very low to very
high velocities and flowing in either up or
down directions (Figure G17).

Fig. G16: Examples of flow detected by the Water


Flow Log.

Fig. G17: Tool configurations for upflow and downflow.

(01/97) G-11

Introduction to Production Logging

The advantages of this method of flow measurement is that no radioactive material is introduced into the well. The disadvantage is
that it only measures the flow of water.
G.4.2 Noise Logging
Uses of Noise Logging include:

Channels behind casing


Producing perforations
Tubing or casing leaks
Zones of lost circulation while drilling

Noise in a well that causes tool response is a


function of the acceleration, or turbulence, of
a fluid moving across a pressure differential.
Noise = f (P,Q)
where;
P - pressure differential
Q - flowrate
By varying the pressure differential, flow rate,
or both, various types of noise can be generated. The noises can be characterized and
categorized into different groups by examining the frequency spectrum of the total signal.
G.4.2.1 Noise Logging Tool
A typical noise logging tool (Figure G18)
consists of a transducer that converts sound to
an electrical signal. The transducer is designed to respond to sound originating in any
direction around the borehole; therefore, it has
no directional properties. An amplifier, contained in the tool, transmits the signal up the
cable.
The proper tool response depends upon a
metal to metal contact; therefore, the tool is
run without centralization. Sound transmission to the transducer is not efficient without
the casing-tool contact. The tool does not
emit any sound energy. It only responds to
sound originating in or around the wellbore.

(01/97) G-12

Fig. G18: Noise Logging Tool.

A typical logging operation consists of positioning the tool at selected depths and allowing the signal generated by the transducer to
be processed by the surface instrumentation.
The time required at each station is about one
to two minutes. This allows the tool to respond to wellbore noise without being affected by extraneous noises caused by cable
and tool movement.
During these stationary readings, the surface
instrumentation analyzes the signal being sent
up the cable. A frequency separation network
provides the means to separate the cable signal into the following frequency cuts: 200
Hz; 600 Hz; 1,000 Hz; and 2,000 Hz. The
200 Hz cut passes all frequencies above 200
Hz; the 600 Hz cut passes all frequencies
above 600 Hz, and so on.
At each station, a peak mV reading is recorded for each frequency cut. These values
are plotted as a set of points on a logarithmic
grid. The selection of the spacing between
readings will vary from one set of well conditions to another. Station spacings of 20 feet
to 50 feet, while noise values are low, is
common. In zones of interest, spacings of 10
feet or less between stations is necessary for
detailed analysis.

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G.4.2.2 Interpretation
The sound detected by the noise tool in a well
is generated by the turbulent flow of the fluids, either in the casing or in the casingformation annulus. Outside the casing, a
pressure differential caused by restrictions in
the casing-formation annular space creates the
necessary turbulence to generate sound that
can be detected by the noise tool.

Figure G20 illustrates a noise peak associated


with a point fluid entry (producing perforations) or fluid exit (casing or tubing leak).

Fig. G20: Expected noise levels at a perforation.

A pressured drop at the point or hole causes


turbulent flow to occur and creates a peak in
the noise level at the hole.

Fig. G19: Expected noise levels in a channel.

Several situations can exist in a well that can


produce high noise levels. Figure G19 illustrates typical noise levels possible in an interval with fluid flow in a casing-formation
channel.
A pressure differential allows fluid to flow
into the channel from the higher pressured
sand, A, to the lower pressured sand, B. At
the face of sand A, a pressure drop occurs as
fluid flows out of the sand and into the channel. Notice the increase in noise level at sand
A as a result of this turbulent flow. As flow
continues upward, a restriction in the channel
creates another pressure drop, and another
high level of noise is observed. As flow enters the lower pressured sand B, another increase in noise is observed due to the pressure
drop across sand B.

Fig. G21: Expected noise levels for gas production.

Figure G21 depicts a gas entry from the perforations 8,320 feet to 8,350 feet. Above 8,300
feet, the discontinuous phase in the wellbore
(01/97) G-13

Introduction to Production Logging

is gas, and the sound attenuates quite rapidly.


A standing column of water begins about
8,350 feet, and it will be noticed, that below
the liquid level, the sound attenuates much
slower.

the noise attenuation dies out, indicating no


further movement up the hole.

G.4.2.3

Channel Flowrate Calculations


From The Noise Tool
Several factors inject inaccuracies into any
calculations involving noise logs; such as, distance from the noise source, perforation size
and condition, sonde-to-casing contact, a liquid or gas environment, etc. The following
procedures for calculating flowrates were derived by Exxon Production Research Company (EPRCo).
The test facility used for noise tool standardization is located at the EPRCo. facility. It
consists of a 6" O.D. casing, approximately 4
ft. in length. Standing vertical, the standard
Exxon noise tool is positioned inside 2-inch
tubing placed inside the casing. The inside of
the tubing contains kerosene, and it is pressured to 1,000 psi prior to injecting air or liquid into one of three intake valves affixed to
the casing.
Inside the casing, cement is poured between
two plates. A one-inch gap created by the
plates provides the channel through which air
or liquid is injected into the casing; this creates a number of specific noise responses.
The data gathered is presented in the next sections.

G.4.2.4

Fig. G22: Expected noise levels for flow behind casing.

In Figure G22, the noise tool identifies


movement behind the casing. A grouping of
sands beginning from approximately 10,700
feet to 9,900 feet appears to be supplying the
energy to cause communication to occur between those sands and a zone at approximately 8,700 feet. Above the 8,700 foot zone
(01/97) G-14

Single-Phase Flowrate
Calculations
A correlation in the lab between the noise
level above 100 Hz (N1000) and the p x q has
been developed and is well documented. The
equation, derived as a result of this correlation, for a single-phase leak is:
p x q = 5 x (N*1000 - 6)
where
p is in psi
q is in K cu ft/day and

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N*1000 is the corrected peak-to-peak amplitude of the 1,000 Hz curve.


The single phase can be gas or water. Since
this relation gives only p x q,an independent
p must be used to calculate q.

A leak-rate correlation was established for a


single-phase flow in the casing annulus. Although there is considerable scattering of data
points, a best-fit line gives the equation for
the straightline segment for p x q:
pq = 5 x (N*1000 - 6)
Where,
p
psi
q

= Pressure drop between two points,


= Flowrate

N*1000 = Noise level measured above 1,000


Hz and expressed in peak-to-peak
millivolts
Note: the graph represents both water and
gas, indicating this calculation is valid for
both as long as only one phase is flowing in
the channel.
Fig. G23: Frequency response for single phase flow.

Figure G23 illustrates why the 1,000 Hz frequency cut was used in the first equation. The
noise frequency spectrum peaks between the
1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz frequency cuts in a
dramatic manner. A typical log response is
presented in Figure G24, and it illustrates how
the frequency cut curves from 1,000 Hz and
below tend to have the same value. The 2,000
Hz curve has a distinctly lower value.

To illustrate the use of the single-phase equation, the following is given:


Gas Phase in Channel
p
= 90 psi
N*1000= 12 peak-to-peak millivolts
If
pq = 5 x (N*1000 - 6)
= 5 x (12 - 6)
= 30 psi x k cu ft / D
Then
q = 30/p = (30 psi x k cu ft/D)/90psi
q = 0.33 k cu ft / D
Note: This flowrate is at downhole conditions. If water had been flowing in the channel instead of gas, the conversion of k cu ft /
D to B/D is as follows:

Fig. G24: Sound Intensity for single phase flow.

q = 0.33 k cu ft/D x 1000/5.61 = 59 B/D


(01/97) G-15

Introduction to Production Logging

G.4.2.5

Two-Phase Flowrate
Calculations
For a two-phase leak into a channel, we can
proceed without a knowledge of p. In the
two-phase noise spectrum, a large component
resides in the 200 Hz to 600 Hz range, see
Figure G25.

The N* value referred to in the equations are


log values of mV that have been normalized
(corrected) for wellbore geometry, electric
line attenuation, and other appropriate corrections that must be made for valid quantitative
caculations.

Fig. G26: Noise levels for two phase flow.

The noise level, N, taken from a log must be


normalised to fit the reference conditions, see
Appendix for the method.
Fig. G25: Frequency response for two phase flow.

This lower frequency component is a result of


the slugging about of a liquid in a channel as
the gas pushes it back to enter. This slugging
action is proportional to the flowrate of the
gas and is not as dependent as a single-phase
entry on the geometry of the channel. The
straightline equation of a two-phase, gasliquid leak into a channel is:

N*200 N *600 ) 10
(
q=
20

The frequency curves in Figure G26 illustrate


how the larger component of 200 Hz separates itself from the other frequency cut
curves.
(01/97) G-16

G.4.2.6

Production Profile Calculations


from the Noise Tool

Single-Phase Flow Past Sonde


The flow of a fluid past the noise sonde creates turbulence and will radiate noise. This is
referred to as a free-flow situation, since a
leak expansion is not the source of the noise.
The noise created by flow past the tool can be
proportionately written:
N600 pq
Where;
q = The Volumetric Flowrate
p = The Pressure Drop across the Tool

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From fluid dynamics;


=

p = 12 CD V2
Where;
= Fluid Density (lb / cu ft)
V = Fluid Velocity
CD = 4 x 10-6; for turbulent flow

D 2
p

q 3
Noise = 4
Dp
Where;

Since, V = q/As
We have:
q

Dp = Perforation Diameter

N 600 = C D 2 q
As
Where;
CD = An audible drag coefficient
CD for turbulent flow is 4 x 10-6

As = id pipe + od pipe id pipe od pipe


4

)(

Because the noise tool encounters a viscous


fluid, the relationship q/ should be used;
therefore,

N*600
2

As = Cross-section for flow past the tool, ft


The flowrate calculation for this equation is:
1

A 2N*600 3
q = s 6

4.10

q p
= 3 4 = 1.3 = 3
D p D p
4 q3p

can be referred to as the jet or perforation


parameter.
The following technique will allow for the
determination of the percent flow from the
perforations.

Calculation Of Flow From Perforations

1. Determine N*600 from station reading


through the perforated interval.

Single-Phase Flow
Since the porous surface area of a deep, clean
perforation is greater than the cross-sectional
area of the hole in the casing, the last acceleration of the fluid occurs at the casing wall.
The perforation acts like an orifice.

2. Next, determine from the above stated


relationship.

G.4.2.7

In the noise relationship,


Noise p x q

3. Sum the values for each set of perforations.


4. Using the total of all values throughout
the perforations, determine the percent contribution from each set.

Substituting the orifice equation for p


Noise =

Ap2

q
(01/97) G-17

Introduction to Production Logging

G.4.2.8 Noise Propagation


A factor in the interpretation of the noise log
is noise propagation away from a noise source
before noise levels subside. This condition is
dependent on several factors:

Liquid or gaseous environment - Sound


attenuates faster in a gaseous environment
as opposed to a liquid environment. The
liquid level is usually recognizable on a
log;

Contact with the casing - Contact between


the sonde and the casing wall acts to increase the distance required for noise from
a source to subside.

Frequency of the noise - Higher frequencies have a higher rate of attenuation;

(01/97) G-18

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APPENDIX A
Conversion Of Log Noise Levels To Standard Values
The noise level, N, taken from a log must be
multiplied by four normalizing factors to adjust it to the conditions of the EPRCo standard.
If N* denotes the normalized value, then:

Where;
N
= Log value
Fm,t = The combined Meter and Tool Gain
factors, see Table G1
FL = Line Factor, corrects for 5/16 in. cables and larger and for 7/32 in. cables
or smaller
FG = Wellbore Geometry Factor, see Table
G2.

N* = N x Fm,t x FL x FG

Sonde Manufacturer

Unit Measured by Combined


Sonde and Surface Panel*

Factor to Convert Unit to


EPRCo. Standard Millivolts

McCullough Wireline Services


Pengo Industries
Dresser Wireline Services
SIE Industries
Gearhart Industries

Standard Millivolts
Standard Millivolts
Standard Millivolts
Standard Millivolts
One-half of Standard
Millivolts
One-half of Standard
Millivolts
One-half of Standard
Millivolts

1
1
1
1
2

Squire-Whitehouse Corp.
Exxon Production Research Co.

2
2

*Listed companies maintain uniformity within 3 decibels, that is, within a factor equal to:
(10)3/20 = 0.707 - 1.414
Standard measurement sensitivity is 1.0 x 106 std. millivolts/psi (RMS), referred to as normal gain. Most companies
can reduce the gain by a factor of 10.
Table G6: Meter and Tool gain Factors.

Number Of Pipes Shielding Sonde

Fluid Content Of Pipes

Multiplying Factor, Fg

One

Liquid
Gas
Liquid in Both
Liquid in one, gas in the other
Gas in both
Single-phase flow

1.0
2.0
2.0
4
8
0.20

Gas-liquid flow

0.06

Two (tubing plus casing)

None (leak into string containing


sonde)

Table G7: Well Geometry factor.

(01/97) G-19

Introduction to Production Logging

G.4.3

Tracer Tools

G.4.3.1 Tool Theory


Some applications of radioactive tracer logging are:

To check for packer, casing, or tubing


leaks;
To identify channeling;
To establish injection profiles on injector
wells;
To imply production profiles from injection profiles on production wells during
injection testing; and
To establish flow profiles in low flow areas of producing wells. (Tracer logging in
producing wells requires special considerations. This will be addressed later in
this section.)

Most of these applications require logging


techniques and interpretation methods unique
to the problem.
Tracer tools can be placed into two basic
categories. These are:
1) Gamma ray tools that do not have downhole ejectors for releasing radioactive material, and
2) Gamma ray tools that have downhole ejectors in combination with multiple gamma ray
detector.
The first category is comprised of tools that
are essentially the same as those used for
openhole logging. These are usually smaller
diameter tools for through- tubing application. The more common sizes are 13/8-inch
and 111/16-inch.
In addition to flow profiling with the controlled time technique and traditional openhole logging, these tools are often used for
channel detection by comparing logging runs
made before and after injecting fluids containing radioactive material into the well. The
(01/97) G-20

difference in the two runs will identify where


radioactive materials are present.
If radioactive material is present at any point
other than the perforated intervals, channeling
or vertical fracturing is likely. The detection
of channels with ejector tools and nonejector
tools will be discussed in detail later in this
course. Flow profiling with these tools will
be discussed in this section.
Tools in the second category generally consist
of two basic downhole components. The first
component is a chamber that will hold a small
amount of radioactive material and will eject
a controlled amount of this material into the
borehole. The second component is a multiple detector system that can monitor the
movement and location of the tracer fluid that
has been released. The types of ejectors and
detector systems vary with tool application
and sophistication.

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Fig. G27: Tracer Ejector tool configuration.

(01/97) G-21

Introduction to Production Logging

The tool configuration depends on the fluid


flow direction. If logging an injection well,
the configuration will normally be one detector above the ejector and two spaced detectors
below. In a producing situation, two detectors
are placed above the ejector and one detector
is placed below. The purpose of the single
detector on the opposite side of the ejector
from the flow direction is for detecting unexpected flow reversals produced by thief zones
and for identifying channels behind casing,
where fluid is flowing opposite the direction
of the wellbore fluids. The purpose of the
two adjacent detectors is for flow profiling as
a function of flow time between the two detectors.
The principle of ejector tracer logging is the
releasing of a radioactive isotope that dissolves in the wellbore and becomes part of the
wellbore fluid. The tracer material moves at
the same velocity as the wellbore fluid. A
measurement of the elapsed detection time
between the two detectors, along with knowledge of the tool configuration, is enough information for computing fluid flowrate.
This assumes, of course, that the tool is not
moving. Unlike the controlled time survey,
the tool diameter must be considered in the
flowrate computation because it subtracts
from the casing internal cross-sectional area.
This will be discussed further in the interpretation section.
The sensitivity of the detectors to gamma rays
allows the system to monitor radiation
changes inside the casing wall and outside the
casing near the casing wall. The actual depth
of investigation of the gamma ray detector
depends on the type of detector, scintillation
or Geiger-Mueller, and the magnitude of the
radiation. In most cases, it can be estimated
at one foot.
Water-, oil-, or gas-soluble tracer materials
can be used. Water soluble material is the
most common.
(01/97) G-22

Dual Tracer Ejector Tool (TEEEA*)


Maximum Pressure (psi)
Maximum Temperature (F)
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (in.)

15000
350
38
97.4

Table G8: Tracer Ejector Tool Specifications.

3 -Ray Detectors
TEEEA
SGCR
ATECB

Built-in
Above or Below
Built-in

gamma-Ray Spacers AH99 (36 ins)


Well-site radioactivity generator
99

Technetium 99 (Tc )
Half-life, t = 6.0 hrs
-Ray energy 0.740 MeV
Tracer fluid kept 20 40 psi above well-bore
pressure. Ejection time variable between
20ms and 5.1s.

G.4.3.2

Tracer Log Interpretation Using


Data From Nonejector Tools
(Controlled Time Survey)
In terms of flow metering, the primary application of gamma ray tools without ejectors is
the controlled time survey. This technique
consists of placing radioactive material in the
injection fluid stream at the surface with the
tool stationary downhole waiting for the radioactive material to pass the detector. When
increased radiation is observed, the time of
day and depth are noted and the tool is moved
farther downhole. When the radiation is observed again, the time of day and depth are
noted once more.
The elapsed time is the travel time required
for the fluid to move the distance between the
two depth intervals. This distance over time
can be computed as velocity in feet per minute. The flow volume can be determined
from the appropriate chart for the specific cas-

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ing size and weight. This technique is primarily used for injection profiling. An actual log
may or may not be recorded.
Tracers, in general, are less common under
production conditions because the presence of
radioactive material at the surface could cause
safety and legal issues. As mentioned earlier,
radioactive materials can be logged in producing wells with special considerations. These
are discussed at the end of this section.

G.4.3.3

Tracer Log Interpretation Using


Data From Ejector Tools
Profiling with the tracer ejector tools involves
two basic types of logging techniques; these
techniques are:

Velocity Shots and

Controlled Interval Shots

Velocity Shot Interpretation


The recording of a velocity shot consists of
ejecting a small slug of radioactive material
into the flowstream and measuring the time
lapse between detections of this slug by two
separate detectors spaced a known distance
apart. The two detectors eliminate the necessity of establishing the exact entry time of the
slug into the flowstream. The number and
spacing of the velocity shots depend on the
vertical resolution required in the definition of
the injection profile. Typically, the velocity
shots are recorded on time drive with the tool
stationary in the well. The flowrate computation from a velocity shot can be obtained by
reading the amount of time (t) required for the
radioactive slug to travel the spacing distance
(d) between the two gamma ray detectors.
The flowrate is then:

These dimension variables are sometimes


combined into a chart (available from the
service company) for a specific tool.
Flowrates calculated from the preceding equation can be somewhat high. If the percentage
flow profiling is the objective, the foregoing
equation is sufficient. If a high degree of absolute flow accuracy is desired, a correction
chart should be requested from the service
company. In the absence of a chart for a specific tool, the 0.83 factor (similar to the fullbore flowmeter) is a reasonable approximation to use.
It is important to remember that the flowrate
calculated with the preceding equation will be
an average of the flowrates existing at each
detector. The flowrates at the detectors may
not be identical; they, in fact, won't be if a
flowrate change occurs within the detector
spacing interval. If a finer vertical resolution
is needed, a technique of using more velocity
shots within the perforated interval can
greatly enhance the vertical resolution. The
increase in time, t, as the tool is positioned at
lower points in the perforated interval allows
the construction of a flow profile with improved vertical resolution.

Example: If detector spacing is 6 feet, but a


2-foot vertical resolution is desired, the procedure would be to:
Take a velocity shot in the full-flow regime
above the perforations. This will yield the
full-flow velocity, v1.
Take a velocity shot with the lowest detector
2 feet into the top of the perforations. Any
increase in the time between detectors, t, can
be fully assigned to the change in flowrate
across the top 2 feet of perforations.

q = d x A/t.
The flowrate in barrels per day can be expressed in terms of the casing and tool size.

This process will continue in a similar manner


for all other zones and will give good vertical
resolution over a long interval. The ratio of
velocities in the perforated interval to v1 will
give the factor by which the total flow must
(01/97) G-23

Introduction to Production Logging

be multiplied to give a flow profile in


flowrate units. This technique assumes that
the flow distribution is linear over the interval
of tool movement.
If any error enters the computation within a
zone, it will be carried throughout the zone. It
will not be corrected until the next zone,
where velocity is constant between detectors.

Controlled Interval Shots (Tracer Loss


Method), Injection Wells Only
The controlled interval technique or tracer
loss method in an injection well requires the
ejection of a large slug of iodine (I131) above
the perforations and the ability to rapidly
lower the tool to other points downhole while
repeatedly recording the arrival of the slug.
The number of times a slug can be detected
depends primarily on casing size and injection
rate.
In high flowrate injection wells the technique
may be very difficult to implement.
The flowrate at each point (Qi) can be accomplished by comparing the area (Ai) under each
of the detection peaks with the area (A100) of
the first detection peak recorded above the
perforations. The flowrate, Qi, will be a fraction of the total flowrate above all perforations (Q100). Note that this is done with one
detector; therefore, flowrate calculations are
not a function of time.
This method works well with these assumptions:

The gamma ray intensity is proportional to


the tracer concentration in the wellbore,
The tracer material loss is proportional to
the flow into a zone compared to total
flowrate.
The tracer material is uniformly mixed in
the wellbore fluids, and
No part of the slug is at a zone of fluid
exit when the measurement is taken.

The major drawbacks of this technique are:

The lack of vertical resolution and

(01/97) G-24

The maximum rate limitations.

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G.4.3.4

Tracer Logging In Producing


Wells (Special Considerations)
Safety in radioactive material handling is a
major consideration when running tracer logs
on a producing well.
Establishing flow profiles in producing wells
using tracer logging is not highly recommended unless certain conditions are met.
The well should be producing into a closed
gathering system, such as a pipeline or holding tank, where the radioactive iodine will be
diluted to the extent that authorities would
consider it safe before any person could come
into contact with the fluids. If a holding tank
is used, it should be sealed. The fluids should
be left in storage for at least 60 days, or the
time necessary to allow the iodine to reach a

level considered not harmful to humans or the


surrounding environment.
Another interpretation consideration is that
most producing wells are diphasic; therefore,
it is advantageous to have iodine that is soluble in each phase. If two types of iodine are
run, and a fluid density tool is also run, the
tracer can be used to make accurate predictions on the volume and type of fluid production from various zones in a producing well.
For higher flowrates a flowmeter is more accurate than a tracer.
For low rates, below approximately 100 B/D,
the tracer is more accurate. These guidelines
are also true for injection logging.

(01/97) G-25

Introduction to Production Logging

G.5 FLUID SAMPLING


Production Fluid Sampler Tool* (PST-C*)

Fig. G28: Operation of the fluid sampler tool, PST.

(01/97) G-26

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G.5.1 Tool Theory


The solenoid valve is closed before sampling,
keeping the hydraulic fluid in the chamber. At
the sample depth it is opened. Well pressure
forces the floating piston up, the hydraulic
fluid goes through a choke into the upper
chamber. When the floating piston reaches the
stop on the shaft it moves the entire shaft up,
pulling the seal piston into position at the bottom of the sample chamber.

Fig. G29: Production Sampling Tool schematic.

Maximum Pressure (psi)


Maximum Temperature (F)
Weight (lbs)
Makeup Length (in.)
3

Sample Size (cm )

10000
350
44.1
110.4
656

Table G9: Tool specifications.

The shaft is locked with a mechanical lock.


The hydraulic choke regulator is designed in
such a way that the sampling time is constant
for any well-bore pressure and is approx. two
minutes.

Production Fluid Sampler Tool (PST-C)

Maximum Pressure (psi)


Test Pressure (psi)
Minimum Temperature (F)
Maximum Temperature (F)
Transport/Storage
PVT Transfer
Weight (lbs)
Length (in.)
Outside Diameter (in.)
3

Capacity (cm )

10000
15000
65
185
350
26.9
34.1
3.0
730

Table G10: Sample receptacle specifications.

(01/97) G-27

Introduction to Production Logging

APPENDIX B
Other Types Of Pressure Transducers
The various types of transducers are described
in the following paragraphs.

Capacitive Transducer
Pressure displacing the force-summing element in this transducer causes a change in capacitance. If a diaphragm is used, it may be
one plate of the capacitor, or if a bourdon tube
is used a movable plate may be mechanically
coupled to the end. Regardless of the method
used, the measurement force is reflected by a
change in capacitance. The basic output of
the capacitive transducer is a frequency signal, which digitial circuits can use directly.
Additional electronic circuits can convert the
frequency signal into a voltage or current signal.
The advantages of the capacitive transducer
are excellent frequency response, low hysteresis, good linearity, and excellent stability and
repeatability.
The disadvantages of the transducer are high
sensitivity to temperature variations and vibration, and requirements of additional electronic circuits to produce a voltage or current
output.

Differential Transformer
In the differential transformer type transducer
a transformer core is mechanically linked to
the force-summing element. Displacement of
the force-summing element produces unbalance within the secondary windings of the
transformer, yielding two out-of-phase AC
signals of amplitude difference proportional
to the displacement. Additional electronic
circuitry is required to convert these signals
into usable electrical signals.
Advantages of this transducer are high output
levels, low hysteresis, and infinite resolution.
(01/97) G-28

Disadvantages are the AC excitation required,


low frequency response, and sensitivity to
shock and vibration.

Variable Inductance Transducer


In the variable reluctance/inductance transducer a flux linkage bar is mechanically
linked to the force-summing device. This
could be a diaphragm, a bellows, or a bourdon
tube. The flux linkage bar is in the magnetic
path of an E-core transformer. When pressure
is applied, the displacement causes a change
in the E-core magnetic flux density, resulting
in a transformer output proportional to the
pressure applied.
Advantages of this transducer are its medium
level output and rugged construction.
Disadvantages are the requirement for AC
excitation, poor linearity, and susceptibility to
stray magnetic fields.

Force Balance (Servo) Transducer


The force balance transducer is a closed loop
servo system that uses a displacment sensor to
monitor a force-summing element, such as a
diaphragm or bourdon tube. The displacement sensor, which can be any of the transduction elements used in other types of transducers, produces a displacement signal
proportional to the applied force. The displacement signal causes an actuator to generate a force opposing the applied pressure force
to restore the force-summing element to the
null position.
Advantages of this transducer are its high accuracy, excellent resolution, high output levels, and good stability.
Disadvantages are its large size, sensitivity to
shock and vibration, low frequency response,
and requirement for complex electronic circuits.

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Piezoelectric Transducer
When strain is applied to an asymmetrical
crystalline material, such as barium, titanite,
quartz, or rochell salt, an electrical charge is
generated. When a piezoelectric crystal is
coupled to a force-summing element, the generated charge can be made proportional to the
applied pressure. An electronic charge amplifier is used to convert the transduction signal
(charge) into a voltage signal.
Advantages of this transducer are very high
frequency response (250 Hz), small size, rugged construction, and ability to accept large
over-pressures without damage.
Disadvantages are temperature sensitivity,
inability to make static measurements, and
special electronics required.

Potentiometric Transducer
A simple transducer can be constructed by
coupling the wiper of a multiturn potentiometer to an amplifying mechanical linkage attached to the force-summing element.
Advantages of this transducer are low cost,
high-level output, and simple electronic circuits.
Disadvantages are limited life, poor resolution, large hysteresis, and low frequency response.

Other Strain Gauge types


Bonded Foil Transducer
The bonded foil strain gauge transducer, consists of a printed circuit resistor pattern on an
insulator that is bonded to the force-summing
element. Deformation of the force-summing
element results in a change in the resistance of
the bonded foil. Generally, these foil patterns
are used in a full, four-arm active bridge configuration.

Advantages of this gauge are good accuracy,


rugged construction, small temperature effects, and resistance to shock and vibration.
Disadvantages of this gauge are low level
output, medium frequency response, limited
temperature range, and poor long-term stability.

Semiconductor Transducer
The semiconductor strain gauge transducer,
consists of a piezoresistive element diffused
directly into bulk silicon material. This element is then mechanically coupled to a force
summing element, such as a diaphragm or
bellows.
The principal advantages of this gauge are
low cost (due to automation of the transducer
manufacturing process) and high output level.
These transducers can be constructed with
integral amplifiers that give them high output
level (10 volts) and low output impedance.
Disadvantages of semiconductor gauges are
medium accuracy, hysteresis, and poor longterm stability. Semiconductor technology
could become a significant factor in future
transducer performance.

Vibrating Wire Transducer


In this transducer, a thin wire is connected in
tension to a force-summing element and is
caused to vibrate under the influence of a
magnetic field. The frequency of vibration of
the wire is directly related to the tension in the
wire. The wire can be coupled to the forcesumming element so as to cause either an increase or decrease in the tension. Additional
electronics are required to maintain oscillation
of the wire and, thus, to provide an electrical
output. The output can be a frequency signal
converted for direct use by digital circuits.
Advantages of the vibrating wire transducer
are its very high accuracy, low hysteresis, and
excellent long-term stability.
(01/97) G-29

Introduction to Production Logging

Disadvantages of the vibrating wire transducer are its sensitivity to shock and vibration, temperature sensitivity, and the requirements for additional electronics.

SUMMARY
The foregoing discussion described devices
used for wireline logging applications and for

(01/97) G-30

long term placement in the well with later retrieval. Those that are placed in the well and
retrieved later (or run in and out of the well on
a slick line with no electrical conductors)
must have memory devices or charts for later
reference. Those used on a wireline usually
readout in real time and are presented a logging film, scaled in psi, in a manner similar to
other logging data.

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EXAMPLES
Example G1
This well was completed as an oil well but not long after starting production the GOR increased
sharply.
The question is:
Is there gas breakthrough in the completed zone or
Is gas channeling from above?
A full set of logs was run with both shut in and flowing passes. The flowing gradio showed a drop
in density in the top 0.5m of the perforations, with the flowmeter showing an increase in flow at this
point. The logs shown are the temperature both shut-in and flowing.

Example G1: Temperature data.

(01/97) G-31

Introduction to Production Logging

ANSWERS
Example G1
The flowing temperature shows the gas entry at the top of the perforations. The shut in passes suggest that this is coming from above. The slope changes on the curves indicate 3931 and another
change around 3924m.

(01/97) G-32

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H. SURVEY PLANNING
H.1 INTRODUCTION
Planning is the most important facet of a successful production logging job. It should include extensive communication with the service company providing the services.
Planning should start with defining the objectives of the proposed survey.
H.2 OBJECTIVES
Monitoring Well Performance
Evaluation Of Completion P erformance
Well Problem Diagnosis.
The specific objective will guide the selection
of the sensors to be employed and the logging
program to be used.
The next step is to analyze the downhole expected injection or production rates. This
would include the number of phases or fluid
types encountered by the logging tool and also
the well status. This analysis will reveal if the
tool resolution is adequate to define the problem and also to select the type of survey to be
run.
To illustrate, if it were desired to detect a one
B/D water entry in a two-thousand B/D oil
producer, the tool must have an accuracy of
+0.05%. Downhole flowrates of the various
phases must be analyzed to define if a production logging sensor is capable of the required
accuracy.
Additionally, sensors must have adequate
temperature and pressure ratings to function
properly in the well. Pressure and amount of
corrosive gases, H2S and CO2, must also be
considered.

After it is determined that a production logging program is capable of defining a production or injection problem, you must acquire
the needed data to plan the production logging
program and decide the type of survey.
H.3 TYPES OF SURVEY
Production logs can be acquired in a number
of different modes depending on the requirements of the problem and the well status.
H.3.1 Continuous Log v Depth
Flow Profiling
Temperature Survey.
Record of Pressure, Temperature, Flowmeter
and Fluid Density over zones of interest.
Determines a quantitative flow profile in the
case of monophasic or diphasic downhole
fluid flow by using PLQL* (Production Logging QuickLook) interpretation software. For
three phase flow qualitative interpretation, for
example, fluid entry points may be possible.
Gives a temperature profile in real time which
can be used to ascertain fluid movement both
in front of and behind the casing.
Multiple passes are made: besides being necessary for flowmeter calibration these act as
Repeat Sections as for 'conventional' logging.
Data from multiple passes both up and down
are generally merged into one or more coherent presentations in order to highlight features for interpretation and LQC purposes.
Temperature, Density and Pressure from the
slowest down undisturbed pass are preferred.
They can be combined with a saturation
monitoring tool survey.
(01/97) H-1

Introduction to Production Logging

(01/97) H-2

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H.3.2 Stationary Logging


Transient Pressure Record
Station Log For Flow Profile.

Well shut in at surface, stable conditions


downhole.

Record of Pressure, temperature, flowmeter


and fluid density at a fixed point in the well as
a function of time.
Primarily used to record P vs. t for transient
analysis of build ups and drawdowns to determine:
Permeability
Skin
Other Reservoir parameters e.g.,
areal extent, PI, AOF.
All data is recorded on magnetic tape and
would also be selectively sampled into
memory in real time.
Data in memory can be analysed in real time
with WTQL* (Well Test QuickLook) using a
wide variety of industry standard plots according to the client's requirement.
Data presentation is generally in the form of
listings and plots and not a conventional
'log'.
A separate application is recording stationary
measurements during flow profiling. These
can be used to aid interpretation and can be
incorporated into the PLQL software.
H.3.3

Survey by Well Status

Flowing Survey
Made with well flowing (or injecting) with
stable conditions downhole.
Depth and station logging yields :
fluid entry or injection points
nature and volumetric flowrate of each
phase over different zones in the well (monophasic or diphasic flow).
Well Shut In
(01/97) H-3

Introduction to Production Logging

Depth logging plus station logging by zone


gives:
check on flowmeter calibration prior to
open well
evidence of crossflow or leaks
borehole fluid interfaces
temperature profile.
Transient Survey
Made as surface flowrates are changed ie:
Build Up as Production is decreased or
stopped.
Drawdown as Production is started or increased.
Injection as Injection is started or increased.
Fall Off as Injection is decreased or
stopped.
Log vs. time yields Kh, Skin, P*, geometry
Survey continues until stable trends are observed.

H.4 DATA GATHERING


The accompanying form can be utilized to
organize this data gathering process. It is extremely important to provide a detailed well
sketch that indicates the dimension of all associated well hardware. This is necessary for
log interpretation information as well as for
running the logging equipment.
Christmas tree information is needed for rigging up.
Other information can be included in the remarks section of the production logging questionnaire. Information that could be of significance to the logging operation includes:
How was the well completed? For instance,
can casing damage be expected if expendable
guns were used?
Does the well have paraffin or scale deposits?

(01/97) H-4

Does the well produce sand or formation


fines?
Were frac balls used in the well?
Can casing deformation be anticipated based
on the field history?
All this information can be used in equipment
selection to minimize plugging or stoppage or
for sensor operation.
All openhole and cased hole logs should be
reviewed prior to the logging operation. This
review will often provide invaluable information that can be used in planning and running
the sensors, and the logs should be available
during the logging operation.
Quite often these logs can be used to estimate
expected flow profiles from a computer
analysis, such as Nodal design programs. Use
of this information can be used in some cases
to compare to recorded flow profiles. The
following illustration is an example of situation where the predicted profile matches the
actual flowmeter. The subsequent illustration
is an example of a production problem defined by not matching the predicted profile.
In some wells base production logs were run
to analyze flow profiles and pressures for
evaluation of completion techniques or to
plan stimulation operations.
These logs
should also be available.
Before calling out the logging company, it is
recommended that you run a dummy in the
well to verify entry into the well. Usually the
logging companies will provide a dummy for
this purpose, and the procedure can often
eliminate unnecessary expense if well conditions prohibit descent into the well.
Proper sensor selection is of the utmost importance.
This is often related to the
flowrates and size of the casing and tubing.
The correct flow measuring device has to be
selected.

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The procedure for running the logs should be


determined before the actual operation to provide an efficient job that records sufficient
data for proper interpretation. These procedures are often determined by the stability of
the flowrates. Good flow profiles require stable flowrates. In some cases wells obtain stable flowrates in short times, while others require days. If shut-in information is required,
this can often be obtained before the flowing
runs, if stable flowing rates can be achieved in
a short time after shut in. If this is not the
case, the flowing profiles should be run first.
If it is determined that flowing profiles should
be run before static runs to ensure stable flow
conditions, it is imperative that a swab valve
be present so that rig-up of equipment can
done while the well is flowed through the
production line. In all cases, a recording of
surface pressures should be made during the
entire operation.

Flowing runs should be recorded at different


cable speeds in both up and down directions.
Data should be recorded to establish a good
response line for the profiles. A minimum of
three up and three down runs is required. After this is accomplished, station readings can
be recorded at points of interest to aid the interpretation.
Valuable information can often be obtained
by recording data going in the well prior to
recording flow profiles. This is particularly
true of temperature data. In some cases, stationary data should be recorded at various
depths in the well. Data of this type can be
important for detecting fluid levels and other
functions.
Time allocation is an important consideration.
The jobs can frequently be run more safely
during daylight. In some cases this may even
dictate the time of year an operation can be
planned.

(01/97) H-5

Introduction to Production Logging

JOB PLANNING DATA SHEET


To perform a successful Production Logging job as much of the following information as available
should be given to the service company before the job.
COMPANY _______________________ DATE________
FIELD _______________________________________
WELL NAME __________________________________
CLIENT REPRESENTATIVE ______________________
DATE OF INITIAL PRODUCTION___________________
INITIAL RATE _____________ WITH CHOKE OF ______________
PRESENT RATE Qo _______ Qg________ Qw _______
WITH CHOKE OF _______________________________________
PRODUCTION METHOD _________________________
PRESSURES
CASING TUBING
FLOWING ____________@BH
SURFACE FLOWING __________
SHUT-IN _____________@BH
SURFACE SHUT-IN ____________
BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE (PB) __________________________
PRESS. USED TO CALCULATE Bo & m* ______________________
TEMPERATURES
FLOWING ____________@BH
PB TEMP ____________________
TEMP. USED TO CALCULATE Bo, m, & PB *_________________
*Needed if Bo, PB, and m (oil viscosity) are not available
RESERVOIR AND FLUID PROPERTIES
OIL
OIL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR ________________________
TANK GRAVITY ____________________________@ ________oF
DENSITY _________________________________________@BH
VISCOSITY _______________________________________@BH
GAS
GRAVITY_________________
DENSITY _______________@BH
G.O.R. ___________________
1/Bg _______________________
VISCOSITY _______________________________________@BH
WATER
SALINITY _________________
DENSITY________________@BH
VISCOSITY _______________________________________@BH

RESERVOIR DATA
DRAINAGE AREA _________________________________ACRES
DRAINAGE AREA SHAPE FACTOR _________________________
WELLBORE RADIUS _______ft
POROSITY __________________
TOTAL COMPRESSIBILITY _______________________________
FORMATION THICKNESS ________________________________
WELL TEST DATA
TEST OBJECTIVE ______________________________________
TEST TYPE ____________________________________________
TOTAL PRODUCTION TIME ___________________hrs.
(If production history varies, use form below)
WELLHEAD SKETCH
Indicate tubing and casing diameter and grade, position and nature of valves, perforations, deviation, cementation, wellhead connections, permanent depth datum, and all pertinent data on mechanical arrangement of well.

(01/97) H-6

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H.5 SUMMARY
Discuss Logging Program

Why is survey being run?


Objectives of the survey?
Contingency or back up plans
Any other operations e.g. workover or
logging linked to the present job results?
Who in the client organisation will take
decisions?
When are final results to be presented?
Expected job start date.
Know In Advance

Wellhead pressure
Expected GOR
Expected flowrates, BHP and BHT
Acid, H2S, CO2 content
Hydrates possibility
Well deviation.

Know The Completion String

Minimum restrictions
Liner size
Distance from WEG to top perforation
Distance from bottom perforation to
Hold up Depth
Wellhead connection type.

Check The Rig Up

Available height
Deck space
Power point position
Voltage and power rating of supplies
Air supplies and capacity
Crane size and specifications
Number of tugger's on rig floor.

Surface pressure
GOR
H2S, CO2 presence
Temperature and expected duration of
exposure
Depth and deviation.

Note that no cables exist which can withstand


an acid environment more than 1-2%. Cables
will disintegrate rapidly on exposure to even
moderate concentrations of HCl acid.
H.6 AFTER SURVEY CHECKS ON
DATA AND DATA QUALITY
H.6.1 General Information
- Well sketch with:
Perforation Details
Deviation
Casing Sizes and Weights
Completion String, depths and sizes.
- Tool sketch with:
Tool Lengths
Tool Measure Points
Tool OD's
Accesory description and position
Tool String Weights
Spinner type and cage size.
- Remarks with:
Correlation Log identified
Production and pressure data
PVT data
Log Objectives/purpose of survey
Summary of log technique/method
Sequence of events
Comments on unusual or anomalous
responses
Note of any events affecting interpretation
Summary of results.
H.6.2

Cables must be selected to take account of the


well conditions and nature of the fluids. Of
particular interest are:

Logs versus depth

All passes on depth, or depth offset indicated


(01/97) H-7

Introduction to Production Logging

CCL/ GR present on all passes


Logging speed, direction, and well condition indicated in tails for each pass
Perforations shown on all passes
At least two runs at slow speed (1 up,
1 down) unless precluded by jetting
from perfs
For the CPLT the parameter SOM
should be set to MANU for depth logging.
H.6.3

Before survey check film made and attached


Fluid density shows expected value in
sump; agrees with gradient from manometer.
Water cut matches measured values
10%
Up and down passes repeat within
0.02 gm/cc
Depth of any fluid interfaces noted
Stationary readings recorded.

Logs versus time


H.7.3

All readings stable before a rate


change
Depth of tool indicated on station logs.
H.7 SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS
H.7.1

Flowmeter

Logging speeds held constant over interpretation zones


Logging speeds evenly spaced
Correct spinner pitch & dia. chosen for
flow rate/casing
Stationary readings made between perforations at each flowrate
No scales wrapping, scales adjusted to
reasonable values
In situ calibration shown for shut in and
flowing surveys
Repsonse slopes and thresholds match
expected values
Multiple repeat passes made if stabilisation a problem.
Total flow compares to surface rate
10%
Tool constants should reflect the
flowmeter(s) types used
Flowmeter properly centralized.
H.7.2

Density

For CPLT*: coefficient attached for all


4 sensors
For PTS *'PCOR' tables of pressure
gauge attached.
VCO calibrations made downhole close
to zone of interest
(01/97) H-8

NFD* (nuclear densimeter)

Shop calibration attached, less than 2


months old.
H.7.4

Strain Gauge Pressure

Master calibration < 6 months old, data


attached on print
VCO calibrations made downhole
Gradient survey taken while running in
Stationary readings taken between perforations
P vs. t
listings during transient
surveys attached.
H.7.5

Thermometer

VCO calibration performed downhole


Shut in survey recorded down at slow
speed during run in
Stationary readings recorded between
perforations.
H.7.6

Crystal Pressure Gauge

Listing of calibration coefficients attached:valid 2 years


Pressure stabilised before transients introduced
Static, stabilised readings agree with
strain gauge.
H.7.7

Caliper

Before survey calibration attached to


print.

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H.8

Survey logged up at < 2000 ft/hr


Caliper matches expected casing i/d
Tubing shoe noted and reported.
PRESSURE CONTROL
EQUIPMENT FOR PRODUCTION
LOGGING JOBS

Most service company wellhead equipment


are standard off-the-shelf items supplied by
companies such as Bowen. Special equipment such as ultra-high pressure (20,000 psi)
or H2S service (up to 15,000 psi) require a
long lead time. There are only a few sets of
this equipment manufactured. All equipment
should be certified by shop testing, usually on
a quarterly schedule.
Various equipment configurations and capabilities are listed on the following table.
A typical set of pressure equipment is illustrated in the Figure H1. Descriptions of the
various components follow.

Fig. H1: Well Head Equipment.

H.8.1 Christmas Tree Adapter


The Christmas tree adapter connects the service company wellhead equipment to the
well. The numerous configurations of wellhead fittings require a proper adapter be available. These connections are subject to the full
wellhead pressure whenever the well is open,
and the service companies must have control
over the maintenance and reliability of the
connections.
H.8.2 Blowout Preventer (BOP)
The blowout preventer is located immediately
above the Christmas tree adapter. The device
has rubber-faced rams that close against the
cable to contain the well while the tool is in
the hole. The rams are closed either hydraulically by a cylinder operated with a hand pump
or manually by a hand wheel. BOPs that are
hydraulically closed must be hydraulically
opened, and BOPs that are manually closed
must be opened by the hand wheel.
On jobs with pressures in excess of 5,000 psi,
or when the well fluid is gas, regardless of
pressure, a special dual ram preventer with a
grease injection port should be used. A
grease-sealed BOP is the only method of obtaining an absolute seal against gas with a
BOP closed on a stranded line.
H.8.3 Lubricator Riser
The lubricator riser pipe, blowout preventer,
and tree flange form an extension of the well
above the master valve. The riser pipe above
the master valve must be the length of the entire downhole tool string plus three feet.
Long risers contribute to the difficulty of the
job. This can be overcome by installing a hydraulically operated lubricator valve (e.g., a
Baker-Subsea Lubricator Valve #738-20) below the rig floor; this permits the tubing to act
as a riser. The service company needs only a
(01/97) H-9

Introduction to Production Logging

short riser above their BOP for emergency


work on their cable.

head fishing neck and hold the tool suspended


in the lubricator.

H.8.4 Grease Seal Equipment


Well fluid is prevented from leaking around
the cable by running the cable through several
feet of flow tube with an inside diameter approximating the cable diameter. A viscous
grease is pumped into the close fitting annular
space between the hole and cable at a pressure
above well pressure. Grease is easier to seal
than well fluid; therefore, well fluid does not
leak past the grease on moving or stationary
cables. More grease leaks as the cable is
moving. Some grease leaks into the well and
some leaks to the outside along the cable.
The grease escaping to the outside is returned
to the surface by a flowhose.

Tool Trap

To seal the cable in emergencies or for prolonged periods, a rubber pack-off gland is assembled above the flow tube. A hand pump
is used to activate the packing gland, and a
rubber sleeve is compressed around the cable
by a hydraulically operated piston.
H.8.5

Optional Equipment

Ball Safety Valve


An automatic safety valve is available to shut
in the well in case the cable is pulled off the
tool and is blown out of the hole. The ball
valve is installed at the top of the rise, just
below the grease head. The valve is closed by
the flow of well fluid out the top of the riser;
once closed, it remains closed by pressure inside the lubricator.

A mechanical tool trap can be used to trap


tools inside the lubricator. This is an alternative to the tool catcher. The 5,000 psi trap is
manually opened, and the 10,000-psi models
are hydraulically opened to allow tools to pass
downhole. The pivoted trap inside the tool
deflects upward to let tools enter the lubricator; it then falls across the lubricator to prevent tools from falling downhole. The cable
can move freely with the trap open or closed.
Bell Line Wiper
A Bell Rubber Company Model HR Stripmaster Oil Saver, otherwise known as the Bell
Line Wiper, may be installed above the grease
head. The Bell Line Wiper provides an effective means of cleaning the line of grease, and
it is particularly recommended in pollutionsensitive areas. Since the Bell Line Wiper has
only 3,000 psi working pressure, it must not
be used in lieu of the regular hydraulic packing gland to pack off the cable in emergency
high-pressure situations. When used with the
special kit with a 100-psi relief valve between
the wiper and the greasehead packoff, the
wiper is limited to a wiping action only.
Accessory Equipment
Accessory equipment consists of the grease
pump and hoses; test, bleedoff, and equalizer
manifolds; pressure gauge; and a wellhead
pressure recorder.

Tool Catcher

Grease Pump

A tool catcher is available for the 5,000-psi


and 10,000-psi equipment. The purpose of a
tool catcher is to save a fishing job if the tool
is pulled into the top of the lubricator and the
cable is pulled off. The tool catcher is installed just below the grease head or just below a ball valve, if one is used. When actuated, the tool catcher will latch onto the cable

There are two grease pumps available. One


pump is for operating at pressures up to 5,000
psi, and the other pump is for operating at up
to 15,000 psi.

(01/97) H-10

High-Pressure Grease Hoses


The pressure ratings of high-pressure grease
hoses corresponds to the pump units with

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which they are used. On 15,000-psi (WHEC) equipment, steel pipe and swivel fittings
are used instead of rubber hoses. Steel pipe is
optional for 10,000-psi (WHE-B) equipment;
the figure to the right illustrates a typical set
of pressure equipment for 10,000 psi.

Select grease tubes to match actual


measured cable diameter over complete
length of cable

Grease

Operationally check all items when assembling before job

For pressures below 5,000 psi and temperatures above 40oF, Texaco MARPAC II grease
may be used; however, the greases listed below are preferred:
Chevron Oil Company, ALTA VIS
Grade 150 for -30F (-35C) to +30F (-1C)
Grade 1000 for +30F (-1C) to +70F
(+21C)
Grade 7500 for 70oF (21oC) and above
Inhibitor must be added when H2S is encountered.
H.8.6

Wellhead Equipment Pointers

Select WHE to match expected wellhead pressure, maximum tool diameter


and service (H2S/standard)

Purge all hydraulic control lines of air


before connecting

Ensure that you have sufficient riser


available to accomodate toolstring
Ensure that lubricator valve is run on
semi submersibles
Use two grease injection points on high
GOR wells. Ensure adequate grease
supply and flowtubes, according to local
procedures.
For Example:
0 -5K Liquid
0 -5K Gas
5-10K Liquid
5-10K Gas

3 flowtubes
4 flowtubes
4 flowtubes
5 flowtubes

Ensure you have enough weights for


pressures and flowrates expected.

(01/97) H-11

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I. COMPUTER EVALUATION METHODS


I.1

COMPUTER EVALUATION
METHODS

Production logging lends itself to computerised evaluation methods. There are many programs available to perform everything from a
simple spinner calibration to a sophisticated
multiphase flow analysis.
Field acquisition systems have a choice of
two systems depending on the intended use of
the survey:

I.2

Production Logging Quicklook*


Well Test Quicklook*
PRODUCTION LOGGING
QUICKLOOK HIGHLIGHTS
Quantitative interpretation at the wellsite.
Up/down passes memorised in real
time.
Sensor data is averaged and tabulated by
zone. Stationary flowmeter data can be
added in.
Produce composite films and data tapes
of selected data from these different
passes.
Choose the best data for the interpretation and log quality control before the
tool is brought out of the well.
Gradio data, corrected for friction is
used with spinner and well data to determine individual downhole flowrates
by zone. NFD density can be used.
Downhole flowrates are converted to
surface rates using standard fluid conversions and client supplied PVT/fluid
data.
Output the zoned interpretation results
in a standard customer listing, as well as
a cumulative surface flow rate log with
an adjacent well sketch. Computed

flowrates are presented graphically in


the form of a log alongside the raw sensor data for ease of interpretation.
Listing of results in client oriented format.
I.2.1
Procedure
Step 1
Gathering the data.
Overlays of spinners, temperatures, and Gradiomanometers.
Step 2
Tabular listing of the spinner data and cable
velocity.
Crossplot of spinner and cable velocities.

Fig. I1: Model crossplot for computer calculations.

Step 3
Gradiomanometer data and flowmeter data
are merged to give a two-phase flow profile.

(01/97) I-1

Introduction to Production Logging

I.2.2

Flowrate Interpretation

Uses Spinner calibration


Uses input parameters
Uses Data PL entries
For each zone calculate the following quantities and store in the QPL table:
- Spinner calibration lines:
- Slope, intercept, correlation
- Friction corrected fluid density (optional):
FDEN*
- PVT parameters: Rs,Bo,Bg1,,
- Expected densities: GASD*, OILD*,
WATD*
- Holdups: Yw,Yo,Yg (2 phases only)
- Total & Slip velocity: Vt,Vs
- Downhole Rates: QTD*,QGD*,QOD*
- Surface Rates: OILQ*,GASQ*,WATQ*

The computer can then output a more understandable listing of all the data, including:
QPL
GASQ
OILQ
WATQ
surface
rates
QTD
QGD
downhole
rates
QOD
VT
tot./slip
velocity
VS
MUHH
BG1
PVT data
BO
RS
YO
Holdups
YW
PSLO
PINT
SPINNER
PCC
LQC !
NSLO
NINT
NCC
GASD
PVT data
OILD
WATD
FDEN
CDIA
from
DPL/user
QIOP

Z1
10297.5
0.0
732.952

Z2
6148.17
0.0
600.648

Z3
3019.1
0.0
530.77

Z4
31.680
0.0
0.0

12569.7
66.4584

7682.77
39.7631

4009.1
19.529

36.370
.20420

0.0
573.013

0.0
350.233

0.0
182.76

0.0
1.6580

0.0
.017892
154.947

0.0
.017899
154.620

0.0
.01791
154.59

136.70
.01794
155.13

0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0

.058310
.051632
-687.37

.078181
.053272
-418.96

.13239
.05294
-217.1

.97270
.05321
2.2543

.996942

.999419

.99887

.99996

0.0
0.0
0.0
.132650

0.0
0.0
0.0
.132370

0.0
0.0
0.0
.13234

.06177
-7.249
.99997
.13281

0.0
.990773
.182688
3.9600

0.0
.990137
.199431
3.96000

0.0
.98969
.24585
3.9600

0.0
.98962
.96623
3.9600

2.00000

2.00000

2.0000

2.0000

Table I1: Summary Listing for a four zone survey.

(01/97) I-2

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Step 4
The computer will output a graphic flow profile:
Log data
Downhole fluid properties
Interpretation results at downhole conditions
Interpretation results at surface conditions.
I.3

WELL TEST QUICKLOOK


HIGHLIGHTS

Stored data are then used to produce interpretation plots and listings to determine
the current state of the test.

A wide variety of plots can be produced as


the test continues.

Plots and listings are displayed on


screen,film or printer in concise,easy to
read format.

Straight lines can be fitted to any part of


the curve.

Real-time monitoring and analysis of


pressure transient tests using data recorded against time with tool stationary .

Slopes and intercepts are computed for


each line, and interpretations can be performed using this data as appropriate.

Selected number of data points stored in


memory as acquisition to tape (permanent
storage) proceeds.

Listings are adjustable in terms of number and frequency of outputs presented.

(01/97) I-3

Introduction to Production Logging

I.4

ADVANCED COMPUTER
METHODS

The use of more powerful computers allows


the interpreter to utilise more complex models
to analyse the production logging data. The
current production log interpretation program
used in the computing centres is called
PLGLOB*, (Production Log Global).
The program applies an inverse solution approach to determine individual flow rates of
oil, gas and water. It proposes a solution and
then tests whether it fits with the production
logging measurement. Via successive iterations, the program finds the flow rates that are
in the best global agreement with the measured log data, hence the name.
Interpreting conventional two phase flow has
traditionally been carried out using empirical
correlations based on field or laboratory experiments. However these correlations do not
cover the full range of flow conditions encountered in the well.
The PLGLOB program overcomes this by incorporating a general liquid/gas flow model
developed by Dukler. This model relates the
superficial gas and liquid velocities to the
type of flow regime and was derived by close
examination of gas-liquid flow mechanisms.
Duklers work has also been corroborated by
field and laboratory observations.

Fig. I2: Dukler Model for multiphase flow.


(01/97) I-4

Figure I2 shows a typical Dukler flow regime


map.
In general, the flow patterns can be classified
into five categories depending on the distribution and velocity of the gas.
When the gas velocity in the borehole is low,
the bubbles tend to be small and rise faster
than the liquid phase, this is termed bubble
flow. When the liquid flow rate is high, gas is
dispersed into smaller widely separated bubbles, a dispersed bubble regime. When the gas
flow rate increases the bubbles tend to coalesce forming large and elongated bubbles
separeted by slugs of liquid containing
smaller bubbles, this is called slug flow.
At even higher gas flow rates, the flow regime
becomes chaotic, producing a frothy mixture
containing some larger elongated bubbles,
termed froth flow.
At very high gas velocities, the gas becomes
the continuous phase and contains tiny droplets of liquid which form a mist hence the
name mist flow.
The diagram below (Figure I3) explains how
the PLGLOB program works.
Step 1 - Initialization
The program first assumes flow rates for gas,
oil and water in the well which lie within
arange specified by the analyst. These can be
chosen by examining the surface flow rates.
Using these estimated flows, the superficial
velocities for oil and gas (defined as the individual flow rate divided by the cross sectional
area) can be determined. These initial estimates are then fed into a flow model. The
flow model steps are shown in the right hand
side of the diagram.
Step 2 - Flow Model
Input data such as individual phase flow rates,
well deviation, pipe and tool diameters and
the superficial velocities are used to compute
the hol-up values of each phase. This is

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achieved using the simple bubble flow volumetric model.


Step 3 - Separating the liquid and gas
phases
The next stage employs the Dukler model to
find the flow regime, the superficial gas velocity and the friction gradient. This requires
information on liquid and gas flowrates, densities and viscosities, the gas/liquid interfacial
tensions, average borehole pressure for the
interval being examined, pipe roughness and
well deviation.
Step 4 - Sepearating oil from water
Using another volumetric model, developed
by Choquette and modified by Piers, the program computes the superficial oil velocity.
This needs details about the hold up of oil and
water derived from Step 1, densities of water
and oil and deviation.
Step 5 - Iteration
The outputs from Steps 1, 2 and 3 are fed into
Step 1 and the program iterates until the computed superficial oil and gas velocities stabilise.

Step 6 - Tool response calculations


At this point the porgram takes all the outputs
from the flow model and feeds each of these
into tool response equations which compute
the theoretical response for each sensor.
The difference between the real an simulated
values for each tool is defined in terms of coherence.
Step 7 - Comparing responses
Once every tool response has been computed,
the program combines all the simulated responses and examines how they differ, in a
global way, from all the measured values.
This enables a global incoherence value to be
determined.
The flow rates of the individual phases are
then changed to minimise this value.
The output showing flow values for each
phase also includes information on how the
simulated values compared with those measured.

(01/97) I-5

Introduction to Production Logging

Fig. I3: PLGLOB flow chart.

The example in Figure I4 shows how the


spinner values did not agree with the rest of
the sensors. The program has computed a
new spinner response.

Fig. I4: Example of PLGLOB computation with the


spinner data reconstructed based on the other
measurements.

The spinner in this zone was influenced by


low flowrates and the high viscosity of the
fluid entering the well. The other sensors gave
a more coherent answer.
This is a data set logged over several passes
while the well was shut in (Figure I5). The
spinner shows cross-flow between zone 1 and
zones 3 and 4. The temperature show no
change over the interval from zone 5 to zone
1 with respect to time. This suggests an upward flow in this interval.
Above zone 1 there is a tendency towards the
thermal gradient indicating no flow in this
region. This means that the only flow is in the
region of the five perforated zones.

(01/97) I-6

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Fig. I5: Raw logged data suggesting crossflow.

The PLGLOB analysis of this data set (plus


the flowing passes) shows clearly that there is
a lot of crossflow into zone 1, both of water
and oil.

(01/97) I-7

Introduction to Production Logging

In the example in Figure I6, there are three


phases flowing in the well. In addition there is
a possibility of channelling to be investigated.
An additional measurement is added to the
tool string to assist in this complex picture,
the Water Flow Log.
The lowest zone in the well, below perforations 3, shows some suggestion of flow on the
temperature, it is relatively constant. The
spinner is also very constant and the gradiomanometer shows a single phase fluid (inside
the casing). The Water Flow Log identifies
water flowing outside the casing from below
the lowest perforation.

Fig. I6: PLGLOB output for the raw data.

(01/97) I-8

The PLGLOB analysis shows flows of this


water from zone 3 plus oil and gas. (The well
is producing below bubble point).

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Fig. I7: Multiphase flow example using the Water Flow Log in addition to the standard sensors.

(01/97) I-9

Introduction to Production Logging

APPENDIX FIELD COMPUTATION CONSTANTS


BS
SGSN
PCTS
CDAT
PDES
PZOF

TCSH

Bit Size
Strain Gauge Serial Number
Pressure Correction Temperature
Source
Calibration Date
Plot Destination
Presentation Zone Offset used in
the computation of interpretation
zones
Thru Tubing Caliper Shift

Table I2: Field computation constant mnemonics.

Data Selection
PGS
PVTS

Pressure Gauge
Selection
PVT data Selection
CALC
QPL

RHOS

Density Selector
WFDE
RHOF
GRHO
PRH

UPRH
UFWD

SPIS

Spinner Selector

TMPS

Temperature
selector

Uses calculated values


Use current
(manual)
QPL data
entries
From CPLT
From NFD
From GMS
From PTS
(deviation
corrected
with shift)
From PTS
(uncorrected)
From
CPLT(uncorr
ected)
(e.g. SPIN or
S1F,S2F)
(e.g. WTEP
or PTEM)

Table I3: Data Selection Constants.

(01/97) I-10

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QIOP
FDEN
FLOW
AUTO

Flow Interpretation Option


Fluid Density
Flowmeter
Largest of flows from Density or
Flowmeter
VTS
Total Velocity Selector
DEPT
Depth from logs up and down
TIME
From stationary readings
ATIM
Similar to TIME but with auto loading of DPL tables
DFM
Direction of Fluid Motion
UP
Producing well
DOWN Injection well
VPCF
Velocity Profile Correction Factor:
**use chart**
FCHD Flag for Cased Hole Diameter
CSID
Casing ID constant
CALI
Caliper (TCS output)
PTHR Positive Threshold From
CP41,TIRA calculated
NTHR Negative Threshold Automatically
during QINT
TIRA
Threshold Intercept Ratio From
PTHR, NTHR
SRS
Spinner Reponse Slope Used to calculate total velocity from stationary
data present in the DPL 0SPI entries
when VTS=(A)TIM
CSID
Casing ID. Should be set correctly.
SVAM Minimum acceptable spinner value.
Used to eliminate spinner values
close to zero. Default is 1.0
Table I4: Flowrate computation constants.

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Introduction to Production Logging

DEVI

FDSH

GFCF

Deviation used for: slip velocity algorithm


correcting gradio if
RHOS=RHOF,
UPRH, UFWD
Fluid Density Shift Linear shift applied to all FDDP entries (DPL tables) in order to compute FDEN (QPL table entry)
Gradio Friction
Correction Flag
(YES/NO)

Determines whether friction corrections are to be


applied to FDDP when the QINT task is done / not
done in the case of a water-only fluid model; otherwise, uses heaviest hydrocarbon viscosity (MUHH)
estimates friction on tool and casing using effective
fluid velocity, Moody friction factor and iterative
loop.

Table I5: Density computation constants.

FMOD

Fluid Model e.g. OW,OG,W, etc.


Selected during INTE task depending on which of the following
constants are set.
GGRA
OGRA
WSAL

Gas Gravity
Oil Gravity
Water Salinity

Table I6: Fluid parameter computation constants.

In addition, the following must be set


From the Client.
GOR
BPP
BPT

(01/97) I-12

Gas Oil Ratio, or Watch Units.


Bubble Point Pressure and
Bubble Point Temperature

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Program will calculate the following data for each level.


GDD
ODD
WDD
BG1
B0
RS
MUHH

Gas Downhole Density


Oil Downhole Density
Water Downhole Density
PVTS= QPL
1/Bg,formation gas volume
factor forces to use current
Oil formation volume factor
QPL entries
Solution GOR
Viscosity heaviest hydrocarbon

Table I7: Program calculated constants.

If any of above have been manually set, then computations will no longer be performed and values
set will be used.

(01/97) I-13

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J. NEW DEVELOPMENTS
J.1

FLOVIEW MEASUREMENT

J.1.1
Introduction
Interpretation of PL data and determination of
downhole flow profile under single phase
flowing conditions is usually a straightforward task. Multiphase flow is a more complex phenomenon, as holdup, slippage velocity and phase segregation complicate the flow
behavior.
Holdup can be defined as the ratio of a given
pipe cross section occupied by a particular
fluid phase. Under multiphase conditions, the
light phase moves faster than the heavier one
by a magnitude known as Slippage Velocity.
The direct relationship between the density
difference of coexisting fluids, the holdup,
and the slippage velocity has been presented
earlier. For the interpretation of production
logs conducted under multiphase flow conditions, determination of downhole holdup is of
major importance.
The primary tools used to calculate holdup are
Gradiomanometer type tools which measure
the downhole fluid density. However, the
complex behavior of wells flowing under
multi phase conditions pose major difficulties
to the interpretation of flow profile using such
conventional sensors. These complications
become more severe in deviated wells, as increasing deviation affects the flow regime,
phase segregation and velocity distribution.
For example, a spinner flowmeter in segregated flow may exhibit a response resembling
down flow (Figure J1). This is due to the
light phase moving up the high side of the
pipe and the heavy phase falls out and flows
down the low side of the pipe. This can happen even if no water is produced at the surface.

Fig. J1: Spinner tool in deviated well with multiphase


flow.

Figure J2 below shows the holdup and velocity profile of the light and heavy phases as a
function of deviation. The plots show that
both holdup and velocity change significantly
as a function of deviation within the cross
section of the pipe.

Fig. J2: Water-oil stratified flows in 5.5 in. casing water cut is 50%.

(01/97) J-1

Introduction to Production Logging

Usually, when the holdup of one phase is


small, Gradiomanometer type tools have difficulties providing a reasonable phase split.
The reason is the magnitude of the density
change due to the existence of the second
phase is small and remains within the accuracy of the tool (Figure J3).

tool enhances the capability of the analyst to


determine the downhole phase split and water
holdup, and eliminate the uncertainties associated with interpretation. The tool hardware
is schematically illustrated in Figure J4.
Relative
Bearing

Electronic
Boards

Caliper
Sensor

Probes

Fig. J3: Standard gradio response in multiphase flow.

In addition, most Gradiomanometer tools define the fluid density by means of differential
pressure transducers, which can be severely
affected by high turbulence, known as the jet
effect
Also, high flow rates affects the density
measurements due to friction, which has to be
corrected before holdup computations. The
next section briefly describes a new sensor
designed to overcome some of the problems
associated with multiphase flow in deviated
and horizontal wells.
J.1.2

New Production Logging


Sensor FloView
A new Production Logging tool sensor has
recently been introduced to better handle
some of the interpretation problems related to
multiphase flow in wells. The FloView tool is
mainly designed to be integrated with the
conventional production logging tools. The
(01/97) J-2

DEFT-A
Fig. J4: FloView Tool configuration.

Four probes are symmetrically located below


a centralizer arm, capable of providing four
independent digital holdup measurements on
a given cross sectional area of the pipe. Other
measurements of the tool include relative
bearing and 1-axis caliper. The relative bearing measurement gives the position of each
probe with respect to the cross sectional area
of the pipe.

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A fluid image across the cross section of


the pipe is also generated from the
measured probe data.
Probe

Bubble Count

Friction effects

Probe
signal

3rd Oil entry

Fig. J5: FloView measurement technique.

Figure J5 schematically shows the working


principle for a single probe. A signal is continuously applied to the probe tip. If the
probe is located in a conductive media (water), the current is returned through the earth
connection. If the probe is surrounded by a
non-conductive media (oil or gas bubble), the
returned current drops significantly. Therefore, the high and low signals measured
across a threshold band by the probe allows
the tool to discriminate hydrocarbon (oil
and/or gas) and water phases.
Water holdup is calculated based on the ratio
of the time domain where the voltage is above
the affixed threshold. Bubble count is calculated based on the number oscillations of the
voltage across the threshold. Therefore, computation of water holdup and bubble count
can be done for each probe independently,
and averaged over each sampling interval.
The measurement is digital and does not require a prior calibration.
The advantages of this technology are:
The measurement (holdup) is not affected by complications due to jet effect, friction and very high/low water
cut values. This significantly improves
the vertical resolution of the tool.
Individual fluid entry locations can be
determined quite accurately.
The four independent probe holdup
measurements can be used quantitatively in the interpretation.

Jetting, Venturi
effects

2nd Oil entry

Ist Oil entry

Water entry

Stagnant water
Mud

Holdup

Gradiomanometer
Density

Fig. J6: FloView versus standard gradio measurement.

Figure J6 shows a schematic comparison between the measured bubble count, holdup,
fluid image and gradiomanometer response in
oil/water flow. The density measurement can
be particularly difficult to interpret in wells
with a standing water column where digital
holdup measurement removes the ambiguity.
In deviated and horizontal wells, availability
of independent holdup values for each probe
is of significant importance, where water
holdup in the upper and lower sections within
the pipe might be different.

(01/97) J-3

Introduction to Production Logging

Figure J7 shows recent holdup images from


horizontal conduits, measured with a two tandem FloView combination, where a larger
wellbore area is covered (8 probes). The images reflect the segregated nature of the flow,
where quantitative oil and water holdup values are determined for horizontal well flow
diagnostics.

Fig. J7: Flow in horizontal pipe with oil and water


segretation. The photo compares well with the FloView
image.

(01/97) J-4

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J.1.3

Examples
Figure J8 presents the basic
production logging sensor
data from six different
passes. The measured bubble counts (DFBM1) from
FloView are also shown in
the third track.
The Gradiomanometer indicates a minor density reduction at XX58 ft and a major
drop at XX30 ft. Note that
both spinner and temperature readings also confirm
fluid entry into the wellbore
at these two points.
As the well was producing
below the bubble point, the
minor temperature drop at
XX58 ft could be due to
Joule-Thomson cooling effect associated with gas entry.
Classical interpretation
techniques under such circumstances assume hydrocarbon entry into the wellbore at these two points,
mainly due to density reduction.

Fig. J8: Example with multiple passes of both the standard sensors and the
FloView tool.

However, FloView bubble


counts till XX30 ft are reading zero, indicating that the
fluid entering the wellbore
at XX58 ft is actually water.
The water entering the
wellbore at this point has a
lower density compared to
the stationary water column
below. This conclusion was
also supported by the shutin passes.
(01/97) J-5

Introduction to Production Logging

To ascertain the performance of FloView as an input into the interpretation model, all PL sensors,
including FloView holdup data were imposed on PLGLOBAL. The summary of interpreted flow
profile is also shown in Figure J9.

Fig. J9: PLGLOB analysis showing the three phase flow in the well. The Flowview image indicates clearly the first hydrocarbon entry (red colour).

(01/97) J-6

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The fluid images are displayed in the rightmost track, generated from the holdup measurements from three probes since one probe
was damaged during the survey. All passes
and all probes clearly indicate the first hydrocarbon entry into the wellbore at XX30 ft.
Note that the reconstructed water holdup from
PLGLOBAL, as shown in track-3, is in perfect agreement with the value measured by
FloView. This increases the confidence in the
interpretation and on the overall hydrocarbon
holdup (Yg + Yo). Without the new digital
holdup measurement, the minor density reduction at XX58 ft could have been misinterpreted as hydrocarbon entry into the wellbore,
and the overall flow profile would have been
changed. The current design of the probes
differentiate only water and hydrocarbons.
However, the hydrocarbon phase was further
split into oil and gas, based on the oil and gas
holdup
values
computed
from
the
PLGLOBAL flow model.

string was not rotating during the survey. The


well deviation, downhole density and individual probe holdup data from four passes are
presented Figure J10.

Example 2
The objective of the survey was to identify the
main source of water and gas in a well which
has a deviation of 52.5 degrees. Several
passes with the PLT were conducted, but only
four passes with FloView were recorded. The
relative bearing measurement showed that the

The well is not fully stable, as indicated by


the noise on the pressure and Gradiomanometer data. Note that the first hydrocarbon entry
into the wellbore at XX45 ft is clearly seen by
all probes.

The sensors indicate a stationary column of


water below XX45 ft, with an average density
of 1.151 g/cc. A decrease in the measured
holdup, accompanied with a reduction of density above this depth, indicates the first hydrocarbon entry into the wellbore.
The measured holdup from FloView shown in
tracks 2 to 5, indicate a sudden drop at the top
of the upper perforation while spinner is indicating an increasing trend at that section. The
reduction of density at this point could be attributed to further reduction of water holdup
due to hydrocarbon entry. Since the well is
producing below the bubble point, gas is entering into the wellbore, as the temperature
sensor also shows a cooling effect.

(01/97) J-7

Introduction to Production Logging

Fig. J10: Raw data of FloView recorded density and well deviation.

(01/97) J-8

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Fig. J11: PLGLOB output and the FloView image showing the flow profiles for the fluids.

(01/97) J-9

Introduction to Production Logging

Figure J11 shows the interpretation results,


the measured and reconstructed sensor data,
the flow profile and FloView fluid images.
The fluid images indicate some degree of
phase segregation within the wellbore, with
probes 1 and 4 indicating more water. Probes
2 and 3 indicate only hydrocarbon flow. The
reconstructed sensor data matches the measured values quite well.
The reconstruction for the mean holdup from
FloView, shown in the fifth track, is not as
good above the top perforation, possibly due
to phase segregation. Note that the mean
holdup is the average of all passes and all
probes. This example shows a difficult case,
where the hole deviation was 52.5 degrees;
still, it was possible to detect hydrocarbon entries and holdup values, especially in the two
phase region.

(01/97) J-10

Example 3
The third PLT + FloView survey was conducted under bi-phasic conditions in a vertical
well while flowing through a 36/64" choke.
The relative bearing measurement showed
that the string was not rotating during the survey. Two of the probes were damaged while
lowering the tool into the wellbore with one
also showing occasional spikes. This example shows the possibility of utilizing the local
frequency from only one of the probes in a
vertical well to determine the downhole flow
profile and phase split.

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Fig. J12: A biphasic analysis made using a single FloView probe as the others were damaged.

(01/97) J-11

Introduction to Production Logging

The downhole flow profile and FloView fluid


images are shown in Figure J12.
The
FloView images were generated using probes
1 and 3. Due to damage on probes 2 and 4,
the data from these two probes were not used
in this evaluation. Probe-3 was also indicating
a slightly different response than the actual
well behavior across a limited section of the
well. Therefore, the average holdup from
probe-1 for all five passes was used in the interpretation model. The existence of a stationary column of water with an average density of 1.14 g/cc at the bottom of the well,
below XX16 ft is clearly confirmed by all the
PL sensors.
A gradual reduction of density readings accompanied with a minor temperature drop
above XX16 ft, is due to entrance of a lighter
fluid into the wellbore. Spinner readings confirm existence of a dynamic environment at
this region. Since no bubbles were detected
by FloView, the fluid entering the wellbore at
this depth can only be water with a lighter

(01/97) J-12

density of 1.103 g/cc. Note that the field is


currently under water flood and the water entry is likely to be injection water. The first
hydrocarbon entry into the well was detected
at XX90 ft, accompanied by a major density
reduction. Temperature and spinner data also
confirm this behavior. Other fluid entry zones
into the wellbore were recognized at XX30XX38 and XX96-XX25 ft. The water entry at
XX10 ft, which could have been misinterpreted as oil bubbling within the standing
water column was also avoided.
Example 4
In this example, the PLT + FloView survey
was conducted while flowing the well through
a 40/64" choke. The well was not stable at a
lower choke size. The flow is bi-phasic and
the well is vertical. The relative bearing
measurement showed that the string was not
rotating during the survey. PLT + FloView
data was available from 6 passes; one of them
did not completely cover the interval (pass 1).

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Fig. J13: Analysis of the images shows the initial entry into the wellbore is fresh water.

(01/97) J-13

Introduction to Production Logging

The final flow profile interpretation, together


with fluid images derived from pass 5, are
shown in Figure J13. A minor reduction in
density at around XX74 ft indicates lighter
fluid entry into the wellbore. However,
FloView does not show any hydrocarbon
bubbles at this section. Thus, the fluid entering the wellbore at this point is water of lower
salinity compared to the standing water at the
bottom of the well. Possibly due to downhole
segregation and/or water recirculation, the
spinner is subject to noise. This noise is more
significant below XX00 ft where the total velocity is possibly below the spinner threshold
and not high enough to lift the water column
completely. Therefore, identification of the
minor water entry with the spinner was not
possible and the combined information from
the Gradiomanometer and FloView was useful for the interpretation. The first hydrocarbon entry is seen at XX48 ft, where the
FloView starts detecting oil bubbles in the
wellbore. This is confirmed by a reduction of
density at this point. The interpretation model
is assuming a stationary column of water
across this interval with oil bubbling through
it. Although the observed water holdup is
high, the actual flowing water is much
smaller. The major fluid entry is seen at
XX90-XX06 ft, where a clear increase in the
spinner is observed. Further reduction of density at this interval could be attributed to an
increased hydrocarbon holdup.
A sudden reduction of water holdup is clearly
identifiable at XX92-XX06 ft. Below this

(01/97) J-14

depth, all probes in all passes indicate similar


behavior. Above XX00 ft, probe-3 water
holdup values from passes 1, 2 and 3 show
some fluctuation with higher readings. Even
with this discrepancy, the holdup values from
this probe were also used in the interpretation,
because it might be responding to water slugs
within the fluid column. The mean FloView
water holdup values from passes 2,3,4,5 and 6
were used in the interpretation model. Due to
noise in the spinner data, a minor incoherency
exists between the spinner derived velocity
and the values calculated by the model. Note
that all other sensors reconstruct the model
outputs quite well. From this survey, oil entry
points were clearly detected and water entry
with lighter density at the bottom of the well
was identified. The FloView data was invaluable in defining the fluid entry points below
XX00 since the spinner was below its threshold.
Example 5
The production logging survey of this well
was carried on while flowing through a
32/64" choke. Out of a total of 9 runs with
PLT tool, FloView data were collected only
on two passes. The well has 13 degrees deviation and produces only oil and water. The
tool string was not rotating during the survey.
The well was not stable during logging; the
pressure and downhole density values change
with each successive pass. Similarly, the
FloView holdup values differ from pass 1 to
pass 2.

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Fig. J14: This example shows that the lower perforation is not flowing.

(01/97) J-15

Introduction to Production Logging

Figure J14 shows the interpretation of the


survey. The mean FloView water holdup
from pass 2 was used in the interpretation
since it seemed to be the more stable pass.
All sensors indicate that the lower perforation
interval does not contribute to flow. Spinner
readings indicate a minor increase at about
XX23 ft, accompanied with a minor temperature change. As no bubble count is observed
at this depth, this behavior is attributed to water entry into the wellbore. The first hydrocarbon entry is recognized at XX08 ft with an
increase in bubble counts and reduction of
density. Though the flow was unstable during
the survey, the first hydrocarbon entry into the
well is similar in both FloView passes.
Note that the model water holdup reconstructs
the FloView measured holdup only fairly
above the upper perforation. The fluid images
show increasing oil holdup above this perforation, which can be due to well instability. The
Gradiomanometer curve, which is the average
of all passes, shows a better reconstruction in
this plot. However, the Gradiomanometer
corresponding to the last pass, also indicates
increasing downhole densities above the perforation confirming FloView readings.
Though only one FloView pass out of two
was used for the interpretation due to flow
instability in the well, hydrocarbon and water
entries were clearly identified.
J.1.4

Summary

(01/97) J-16

The new measurement technique provides


digital holdup at four different spatial positions in the wellbore with no prior calibration
requirements. The measured data can be used
quantitatively in PL interpretation and an image of the flow is also generated.
The field examples show that the principle of
local frequency measurement is capable to
enhance the domain of production logging
interpretation and give a better picture in
complex flow regimes. Water and oil entry
points were clearly determined in difficult
cases and fluid segregation in deviated wells
was identified.
The quantitative holdup
measurement was used directly in the interpretation without jetting/venturi or friction
effects. The technique of measurement is also
applicable for horizontal wells to determine
water holdup in segregated flow conditions.
This technique has shown a significant added
value in:
Deviated wells, where determining production profiles are difficult due to
phase segregation.
In wells with high or low water cut
where identifying minor fluid entry
points are critical.
Increasing confidence and reducing ambiguities in all PLT survey interpretation.

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J.2

FLAGSHIP PROJECT

J.2.1
Introduction
The FloView technique goes a long way to
overcome the difficulties in multiphase flow.
However there is still a problem of measuring
the velocities (flow rates) of the phases in
horizontal or very highly deviated wells.
The diagnosis of unwanted fluid in high-angle
and horizontal wells is made challenging by:
Challenges:

Flow regimes
Stratified flows,
downflow, water
sumps, oil and gas
traps, three phase
flow

Sensor response
No single sensor
has a robust interpretation in all of
the above conditions

Uncemented completions
Slotted liners, flow
in the annulus,
failed ECPs

Toolstring access
and deployment
Time and cost

Flagship Service
Approach

Identify the flow


regime with an imaging tool and
measure independently the velocity
and hold-up of each
phase.
Multiple independent measurements
(data redundancy)
with different sensors for enhanced
confidence in interpretation.

Accurate flow
measurement in
the liner is the
minimum necessary condition for
reliable flow diagnosis. Water flow
in the annulus can
also be detected.

One run toolstring


which can be deployed in several
stages if required.
(01/97) J-17

Introduction to Production Logging

The hold-up and velocity of each phase must


be measured by the toolstring for accurate
flowrate diagnosis. Very small changes in
well deviation can cause large changes in
these quantities independently of any fluid
entry.
J.2.2

the predicted down-hole densities of the


two fluids.
A slip velocity is produced from the
relative densities of the two fluids, the
well deviation, and a slip model.
In horizontal wells: The fluid tends to segregate and the
spinner's response may no longer represent the average velocity.
The composition of the fluid cannot
now be determined by differential pressure across 21" of tool (although a nuclear density device does have some application).

The Approach to the Problem

In normal production logging operations: The spinner records the average flow
across a portion of the casing crosssection.
The composition, or hold-up, of the
fluid is determined by a density measurement, based on the differential pressure across 21" of the logging tool and

Gas

Fault

Failed External Casing Packer


Formation Instability

Stagnant Gas

Fractures
Oil Layer

Cuttings

Stagnant Water
Wa ter

Fig. J15: Some of the potential problems in horizontal wells.

J.2.3
The Flagship Service
The solution is a combination of measurements as follows:

(01/97) J-18

The Phase Velocity Log, PVL, where a


marker fluid is ejected and its time of
flight recorded. Oil miscible and water
miscible markers are selectively ejected

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to record the individual segregated


phase velocities.
The water flow log, RST-WFL, where
the transit time of activated oxygen is
used to measure the velocity of the segregated water.

difference between water and not water.


This allows analysis of the flow regime,
"Do we have stratified flow?", and
evaluation of the water holdup, Hw.

The FloView tool, (two in the string),


where impedance probes can detect the
Combinable Production
Logging Tool
Pressure & temperature

Gamma Ray
Detector
NFD-C

CPLT

Reservoir
Saturation Tool
Oil hold-up
Gas indicator

Digital Entry Fluid


Imaging Tool
Flow regime
Water hold-up

Dual DEFT
GR

RST

Water Flow Log


Water velocity
Water hold-up index
Water flowrate index

Fluid marker
injector tool
(TEE-F)

Total
flowrate

Spinner

Phase Velocity Log


Marker injection for oil
and/or water velocity

Fig. J16: PVL tool string configuration.

Gas detection is still qualitative and based on


pulsed neutron count rate techniques which
date back to the early TDT's.

The conventional spinners are also included


as, in favourable flow regimes, they can
measure total flow rate.

A new model for two-phase segregated flow


has been developed. This solves for the water
velocity, oil velocity and holdup and the well
deviation. If one of these variables is missing
from logging measurements it can be back
calculated thus giving redundancy in the data
acquisition requirements. The model is currently valid from approx. 80 to 92 degrees
deviation.

(A promising technique, still in development,


will provide 'Three Phase Holdup' from the
RST-A).
The Flagship Application (where and where
not to use it).
The toolstring sensors and related interpretation models have been developed specifically
for stratified flow regimes that are expected to
exist in very high angle and horizontal wells.
(01/97) J-19

Introduction to Production Logging

Typically such flows would only be expected


at deviations over 75 degrees. Results from all
field trials to date have confirmed this.
As deviation decreases the oil-water stratified
flow changes to become a dispersed bubbly
flow. This flow regime presents a different
and more formidable set of logging challenges. Whereas individual tools or services
from the flagship toolstring such as the DEFT
or WFL are designed for deviated wells, the
full flagship combination is purely for horizontal well logging.
J.2.4

The other techniques have been explained


elsewhere in the text; the Phase Velocity Log
is a new measurement. The method is similar
to the tracer log however it uses chemical
markers instead of radioactive fluids.
A chemical marker with high thermal neutron
absorption cross-section (sigma) that will mix
only with a specific fluid phase is injected
into the borehole. Using a tool reacting to the
neutron capture cross-section, the passage of a
marker past a measure point is detected. The
fluid velocity is calculated from the time between injection and detection of marker.

Phase Velocity Log

Record

Measurement

Ejection

Measurement
Ejection
Oil

Tool

Water

Fluid movement

Fig. J17: Phase Velocity Log technique.

The markers used for the different phases are:


Water-Soluble Marker
Gadolinium Chloride (GdCl3) in Water
(01/97) J-20

High Gadolinium concentration


High Density
Low Viscosity.
Oil-Soluble Marker

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400

PVL Water Velocity (fpm)

New Organometallic Compound


High Gadolinium concentration
Low Density
Low Viscosity.

300

200

100

100

200

300

400

500

Fig. J19: Flow loop tests for water flow only.

The ejection time is known, showing as a


negative spike on this record (Figure J18).
The measured data is filtered to smooth out
statistical variations. The positive peak is detected when the marker passes the sensor.
The measurement gives the specific fluid velocity.
J.2.5
Flow Loop Tests
Tests of the technique have been made using a
flow loop capable of flowing different fluids
and at varying angles.
The example in Figure J19 shows the results
for a single phase, water, flowing in the system. The measured flow rate is in excellent
agreement with the actual rate.

500
Results of Linear Fit
Intercept
Slope

400
Velocity Set in Flow Loop (fpm)

Fig. J18: Phase Velocity Log Measurement.

In a similar experiment with two phases, oil


and water, the agreement is once again excellent as shown in Figure J20.

Correlation
Coefficient

-3.4
0.997
0.998

300

Oil
Water
200

100
14,000 BPD
(5-inch Liner)

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

PVL Velocity (fpm)

Fig. J20: Flow loop tests for two phases,


oil and water.

J.2.6
Field Tests
Measurements have been made in a number
of horizontal wells where the rates have been
verifiable by other methods.
One example is shown here with a number of
measurements. The water velocity is computed using both the PVL and WFL techniques and agree closely.

(01/97) J-21

Introduction to Production Logging

The oil velocity can only be computed by the


PVL method. The water hold up has been
measured using the FloView (LIFT in the diagram) tool.

The flowrates have been calculated using both


the measurements.

6 00
PV L

W at er
Vel oci t y
( f pm)

4 00

WFL

2 00
0
5 00

Oi l
Vel oci t y
( f pm)

3 00

1 00
Ov er - ran ge d

Un- Calib r at ed

W at er
Hol d- Up
( %)

80

40

RST
LIFT

0
4 00 0

Fl ow
Rat es
( BP D)

2 00 0
Wat e r
Oil

0
6 00

7 00

8 00

9 00

1 00 0

Rel a t i v e Dept h

San d st on e Form atio n with a 8.5-in ch bo reh o le,


co m p let ed wit h 5.5-inch , 17 lb / ft cem ent ed casin g

Fig. J21: Flow loop test results.


(01/97) J-22

1 10 0

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This example, Figure J22, shows the


results of a complete Flagship interpretation.
Track 1 shows the
well path.
Track 2 shows the
well sketch.
Tracks 3 and 4
show the velocity
data.
Track 5 shows the
hold-up data.
Track 6 shows the
flowaret analysis.
Track 7 shows the
porosity analysis.

Fig. J22: Flagship log example.

(01/97) J-23

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K. EXAMPLES
K.1 EXAMPLES
K.1.1 Example 1
Information
The well is a water injector with an injection
rate of 7550 bpd. The casing size is 5.5.
The composite shows spinner up and down
passes and shut in, injection temperature and
two shut in temperatures. The major question
is where are the injected fluids going.

Questions
1) Using this data predict the direction and
extent of any crossflow. How could a quantitative value be given to the crossflow? Bu =
0.053, Bd = 0.058.
2) What, if anything, is happening from 2436
to 2438 ft in the shut in condition.
3) What produces the rapid warming seen in
the lower portion of the well between 2415
and 2470?

Example K1: Temperature and shut-in flowmeter.


(01/97) K-1

Introduction to Production Logging

Example K1: Flowing Spinners.

(01/97) K-2

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K.1.2 Example 2
The well is producing oil, 360 bpd, with a high GOR and a slight water cut, <5%. The casing was
set at 467.8 m with an open hole completion below this.
The logs below show:
shut in and flowing temperature
shut in flowmeter
shut in and flowing gradiomanometer
What is the flow profile?

(01/97) K-3

Introduction to Production Logging

Example K2: Gradiomanometer Overlay.

Example K2: Spinners.

(01/97) K-4

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Example K2: Temperature Data.

(01/97) K-5

Introduction to Production Logging

K.2 ANSWERS
K.2.1 Example 1
The spinner indicates the extent of the crossflow to be from 2470.5 to 2414.6 feet. As the
down flowmeter has a higher value than the
up pass the fluid must be moving upwards.
By logging shut in and/or flowing passes at
three different flowrates (minimum) the spinner can be calibrated.
The average velocity can be estimated as
= (difference between the up and down spinners) / (Bu+Bd)
= (0.42)/(0.053+0.058)*.83 = 3.14 ft/min.
2) According to the shut in temperature passes
theis zone is taking some of the fluid from
2469.5 - 2470.5 feet.
3) The fluid flowing back from 2469.5-2470.5
is at or near the geothermal temperature for
that depth and the fluid warms the borehole as
it flows up to 2415 feet.
K.2.2 Example 2
Flowmeter
The shut in spinner shows the largest differences between 470 and 477m. This may indicate an area of crossflow but it is small and
inconclusive.
Gradiomanometer
Flowing
There is 100% water up to 475, then a small
light phase entry. At 470 there is a large light
phase entry.

The next two shut in passes indicate the oil


leg has gone and the gas water contact is now
at 476.5m
Temperature
The temperature overlays indicate that the
wellbore from 470 to 477 is distinctly cooler
in the shut-in state than in flowing conditions.
The area at 472 is coolest.
Combining these observations gives the following conclusions:
From 470-474 the well is producing almost
100% gas.
In the shut in state gas only is flowing from
472 to 476.5.
The oil must be produced between 475 and
472 as the flowing gradio showed no light
phase below 475m.
K.2.3 Flowmeter Example 1
1) compute the spinner deflection for the
maximum flow (top of the log) compared to
the zero flow zone at the bottom.
This gives 14 rps.
2) Find the additional spinner deflection in
each of the other intervals, A, B, C.
THESE ARE:
A = 3.6RPS
B = 2.1RPS
C = 8.3RPS
3) Determine the percentage contribution of
each zone.
A = 3.6/14 = 25.7%
B = 2.1/14 = 15.0%

Initial shut-in
In the very first stages after flowing there are
three distinct densities on the log
1.11 at the bottom
water
0.61 in the middle
probably oil
0.11 at the top
probably gas

C = 8.3/14 = 59.3%

Subsequent shut in

The intersection of 15 rps with the response


curve gives a flow velocity of 140 ft/min.

(01/97) K-6

K.2.4 Flowmeter Example 2


The zero flow line should cross the x axis at a
threshold value of 6 ft/min.

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Therefore the peak fluid velocity


= 140 - 67 ft/min = 73 ft/min
Correcting for the shape of the flow to obtain
the average velocity

4) the calibration line for this pass crosses the


y-axis at 2 rps. This corresponds to 60 ft/min
using the response line. Hence the flowrate is
= (60/29.9)*1000*0.83 = 1666 bpd.

Average velocity

= 73 * 0.83 ft/min
= 60.6 ft/min

K.2.6 Flowmeter Example 4


The spinners are overlaying below 10408 indicating zero flow here.

The flowrate in bpd

= (60.6/34.4)*1000
= 1762 bpd.

The down spinners decrease around 10350


before increasing again.

Note: There are times when the zero flow


curve cannot be logged due to debris in the
well, not enough sump or a different viscosity
fluid below the perforations. In this case the
line has to be created using the data from the
full flow and the threshold of the device. It is
drawn parallel to the full flow and goes
through the threshold.
K.2.5 Flowmeter Example 3
1) The response curve is drawn both for the
positive and negative quadrants, parallel to
line through the data points. It should go
through a threshold. The threshold is computed by taking the mid point between the
positive and negative lines and moving this to
the origin.

The conclusion is that the top of the second


set of perforations or the bottom of the third
set is taking fluid produced from the lower
interval. The increase at the top of the latter
zone is due to production here.
The shut-in pass below shows the picture
clearly. Production from the lower perforation
is flowing into the second set of perforations.
K.2.7 Gradiomanometer Example 1
1) Above A the gradio reads 0.53 g/cc. The
maximum reading, at the bottom of the log is
1.0 g/cc. Assuming this is the density of the
heavy phase and that 0.53 is the density of the
light phase;
at point B

2) The calibration line crosses the y-axis at


5rps, this corresponds to 120 ft/min on the
response curve.
The flowrate is thus

Yhp = (0.53-0.53)/(1.0-0.53) = 0

= (120/29.9)*1000*0.83 = 3331 bpd.

Yhp = (0.7-0.53)/(1.0-0.53) = 0.36

3) 6 ft/min corresponds to 140 ft/min using


the response curve. At a tool speed of 60
ft/min this gives the average fluid velocity

K.2.8 Gradiomanometer Example 2


Deviation
cor = gradio/cos

= (140-60)*0.83 = 66.4 ft/min

= 30
cos = 0.87
cor = 0.63/0.87 = 0.72

The flow rate is then


= (66.4/29.9)*1000= 2221bpd

at point A

density = 0.72 g/cc


Flowrate
From the chart,
(01/97) K-7

Introduction to Production Logging

cor/ = 1.027
= 0.72/1.027 = 0.70 g/cc
K.2.9 Temperature Example 1
The flowing temperature shows the gas entry
at the top of the perforations. The shut in
passes suggest that this is coming from above.
The slope changes on the curves indicate
3931 and another change around 3924m.

(01/97) K-8

P
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