Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

# MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

## SCHOOL OF CIVIL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

NAME

## :______ZAPANTA, JOHN MICHAEL M.____________________

STUDENT NO.

: _____2013150752___________________________________

COURSE-SECTION

## EXPERIMENT NO. _07_

OSBORNE REYNOLDS
DEMONSTRATION______

_______

TITLE

DATE PERFORMED

DATE SUBMITTED

## ENGR. KEVIN PAOLO V. ROBLES

INSTRUCTOR

EXPERIMENT NO. 7
OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION
I. INTRODUCTION
A flow can behave in very different ways depending upon which
forces predominate within it. Slow flows are dominated by viscous forces,
tend to be well ordered and predictable and are described as laminar. In
laminar pipe flow, the fluid behaves as if concentric layers (laminar) are
sliding over each other with maximum velocity on the axis, zero velocity at
the tube wall and a parabolic velocity distribution.
Increasing the flow rate substantially will alter the flow behavior
dramatically, as the inertia of the fluid (due to its density) becomes more
significant than the viscous forces; this is then a turbulent flow.
The Reynolds Number, provides a useful way of characterizing the
flow, it is defined as:
=
Where:
v is the kinematic viscosity: v is the mean velocity in terms of the
volume flow rate and d is the diameter of the pipe.
It is common practice to take a Reynolds number of 2,000 as the value,
which divides laminar from turbulent flow. However, this does not take
account of the transition region and it may also be possible (with great care)
to keep a flow laminar for Reynolds number up to 10,000 or more. Also, pipe
flow with Reynolds number < 1,800 are inherently laminar.

II. OBJECTIVES
To observe laminar, transitional, and turbulent pipe flow.

## A. Hydraulic Bench - very useful apparatus in hydraulics and fluid mechanics.

Water from here is transported to other parts using pump.

## B. Reynolds Apparatus - used in demonstration of laminar or streamline flow,

turbulent
flow and the transition between these two
regimes by observation of injected dye line.

## D. Stopwatch a handheld time piece designed to measure the amount of

time elapsed from a particular time when it is activated to the time when the
piece is deactivated.

## IV. LABORATORY PROCEDURE

Position the Reynolds apparatus on a fixed, vibration-free surface (not
the hydraulic bench) and ensure that the base is horizontal, i.e. the testsection is then vertical. Attach the bell-mouth entry and carefully add
marbles to the head tank, placing them in by hand. The bell-mouth and
marbles produce an inflow to the test-section with a low level of disturbances.
Connect the bench outflow connection to the head tank inlet pipe.
Connect the head tank overflow to the hydraulic bench volumetric tank.
Attach the outflow tube to the apparatus flow control valve and clamp the
end of this tube at a fixed position above the volumetric tank, allowing
enough space for the insertion of the measuring cylinder.
NOTE: Movement of the outflow tube end during a test will cause
changes in volume flow rate, which is driven by the height difference
between the head tank surface and the outflow point.
Start the pump. Slightly open the apparatus flow control valve, then
open the bench valve and allow the system to fill with water. Check
particularly that the flow visualization pipe is properly filled. Once the water
level in the head tank reaches the overflow tube, adjust the bench control
valve to produce a low overflow rate.
Check that the dye control valve is closed. Add dye to the dye reservoir
until it is approximately two thirds full. Attach the hypodermic needle. Hold
the dye assembly over a sink, and open the valve, to check for free flow of
the dye.
Use the stylus provided to clean the needle, if a steady flow of dye
cannot be established. Then mount the dye injector on the head tank and
lower the injector until its outlet is just above the bell mouth and centered on
its axis.
Adjust the bench valve and apparatus flow control valve to return the
overflow rate to a slow trickle (if required), then allow the apparatus to stand
for at least five minutes before proceeding.

## TAKING A SET OF RESULTS

1. With the apparatus flow control valve open slightly, and the bench valve
adjusted to produce a slow trickle through the overflow pipe, adjust the dye
control valve until a slow flow with clear dye indication is achieved. In order
to observe the velocity profile in laminar flow, close the bench valve to
deposit a drop of dye at the bell mouth entry. When the outlet control valve is
opened observe the dye as it deforms to take up a three-dimensional
parabolic profile.
2. Make sure the volume rate by timed collection, and measure the outflow
temperature (the temperature of the water gathered in the measuring
cylinder). Determine the kinematic viscosity from the data sheet provided,
and check the Reynolds number corresponding to this flow type.
3. Increase the flow rate by opening the apparatus flow control valve and
repeat the dye injections to visualize transitional flow and then, at the
highest flow rates, turbulent flow, as characterized by continuous and very

rapid mixing of the dye. As the test section flow rate is reduced, adjust the
bench valve to keep the overflow rate at a low level. Note that at
intermediate flows it is possible to have a laminar characteristic in the upper
part of the test-section, which develops into transitional flow lower down. This
upper section behavior is described as an inlet length flow, which means
that the boundary layer has not yet extended across the pipe radius.

## VI. SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Given:
Trial 1 (Turbulent flow)
V = 0.002 m3
T = 20 C
= 1.002 x 10-6 m2 /s
t = 70.76 sec
D = 14.06 mm

Solution:

V 0.002 m3
m3
Qt = =
=2.82646 x 105
t
70.76 s
s
Qt 2.82646 x 105
m
v= =
=0.359876
A
s
2
( 0.01406 m)
4
m
0.359876 )(0.01406)
(
s
vD
R= =
=3591.575
e

m2
1.002 x 10
s
6

VII. CONCLUSION
The Osborne Reynold's Demonstration is basically done for us to be
able to determine whether a flow is a laminar or turbulent. A flow is
considered to be laminar when the individual particles are parallel to each
other, on the other hand, it is considered to be a turbulent flow when its
particles are irregular curves.
The laboratory assistant prepared the Reynolds apparatus and the
hydraulic bench. Next, the group was able to measure the time it will take for
a certain volume of liquid to flow while observing the consistency of the
laminar or turbulent flow. The group also controlled the flow valve to set for a
laminar or a turbulent flow.
From performing this experiment, the group found out that the data on
the computation satisfies with the observation weve observed for the

turbulent flow as well as for the laminar flow. The group was able to obtain a
data that satisfies with the range of the turbulent flow.
As for the laminar flow, the group obtained a Reynolds number
greater that 2000 which is observed to be laminar during the experiment.
Considering the result of our experiment, since we only had one trial
that was not able to meet the expected result, I believe that the experiment
went well. And from performing the experiment, one possible error that we
encountered was the starting and stopping of time. Another factor might be
also due to the inaccuracy in terms of reading the volume of the water.

## VIII. APPLICATION TO ENGINEERING

Heat transfer is the ability to pass heat between a warmer object to a
cooler object. In plastics processing, heat transfer is used to heat or cool
objects such as molds, rolls, vessels and others. These objects have a system
of channel molded into their molded. Water or some other fluid is pumped
through these channel in an effort to heat or cool their bodies. When fluid is
pumped through these channels, it can develop two basic characteristic: the
laminar and turbulent flow.
Heat transfer occurs at the channel wall. Laminar flow develops an
insulation blanket around the channel wall and restricts heat transfer.
Conversely, turbulent flow, due to agitation factor, develops no insulating
blanket and heat is transferred vert rapidly. Turbulent flow occurs when the
velocity in a given water channel is high. Although too much velocity can
cause erosion. Many equipment manufacturers publish specific flow and
supply pressure requirements to achieve turbulent flow. Advantage
temperature control units, portable and central liquid chillers, and pump
tanks are designed to generate turbulent flow Also, simple application of
laminar flow is in the smooth flow of a viscous liquid through a tube or pipe.

IX. REFERENCES
A. Uy,F. A., Tan, F., & Monjardin, C. E. (2015). Laboratory Manual in Fluid
Mechanics
B. http://www.gunt.de/static/s4563_1.php