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CONTROL

SPECIAL DESIGN TOOLS

DEMO SESSION
2015

Special Design Tools Section Overview and Objectives

In this session, you will be able to:


Define Strategic Tools
List out the Competitive forces
Describe Portfolio Architecting
Define Tactical Tools
Explain Set Based Design
List out the Principles of Set Based concurrent Engineering Design

2015

CONTROL
SPECIA DESIGN TOOLS

STRATEGIC DESIGN TOOLS

DEMO SESSION
2015

Special Design Tools - Introduction


Special design tools include strategic methods such as Porters five competitive forces, portfolio architecting, and
set-based design.
Tactical methods include inventive problem solving (TRlZ), systematic design, critical parameter management, and
Pugh analysis.
Porters Five Competitive Forces

Professor Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School developed the five competitive forces as a strategy to
analyze the marketplace and to gain a market advantage.

Threat of New
Entrants

Power of
Suppliers

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Power of
Customers

Substitute
Products

Industry
Rivalry

Special Design Tools Porters Five Competitive Forces


The Threat of New Entrants
There are six possible barriers to consider:

Economies of
Scale
Government
Policy

Product
Differentiation

Access to Distribution
Channels

Capital
Requirements
Learning Curve
Advantage

2015

Special Design Tools Porters Five Competitive Forces


The Powers of Suppliers
Some of the factors that make a supplier a powerful force, and potentially difficult to bargain with, include:

The industry is
dominated by a few
companies

The product does


not have
substitutes

The industry is
not important to
the supplier
The supplier has the
potential to perform
or integrate the
service

The supplier has a


product or raw material
that is unique

2015

Special Design Tools Porters Five Competitive Forces


The Powers of Customers
Customers (buyers) are powerful if:

Economies of
scale matter,
and purchases
are large

The buyer can


integrate
backwards if
needed,
keeping costs
down

The purchased
product is a
small part of
the buyers
total cost

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The buyer is in
a low profit
industry, and
must pursue
low cost items

The product is
deemed a
commodity

Special Design Tools - Porters Five Competitive Forces


A Substitute Product
A product or industry that has a substitute product will find itself with a cap on potential prots.
Industry Rivalry
Industry rivalry will have the following characteristics:

There are
numerous
competitors
with equal
shares

There is slow
industry
growth

The product is
not easily
differentiated
(a commodity)

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There is
excessive
industry
capacity

The exit
barriers are
high (the costs
of leaving the
industry are
very high)

There is intense
rivalry

Special Design Tools - Porters Five Competitive Forces


Use of the Five Competitive Forces
Once the forces are identified, an analyst can determine the strengths and weaknesses of a company as it pursues a particular
strategy.
The company can try to match up its strengths and weaknesses to the current industry model.
The company might also try to position itself in a quadrant where the forces are weakest, and where higher profit opportunities
might exist.

Porter maintains that an effective competitive strategy will allow a company to be proactive in its actions toward creating a
defendable position against competition.
The company can position itself in a certain segment buffeted by its capabilities and resources. It can also try to reduce or influence
certain competitive forces in the industry.

2015

Special Design Tools Portfolio Architecting


Technical processes include technology portfolio architecting, research and technology development (R&TD), product
commercialization, and post-launch engineering work.
The new approach involves enabling and enhancing technical processes to prevent problems before they become an issue.
Outbound post-launch engineering is focused on operations in post-launch production and service engineering
support.
Service engineering professionals often function as a reactionary force to fix problems.
Instead, the focus should be on planning engineering changes and upgrades to increase profit margins

Product portfolio requirements &


candidate architecture

Technology portfolio
requirements &
architectures

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Specific R&TD to fulfil


technology
requirements

Specific product
portfolio to fulfil
product requirements

Special Design Tools Portfolio Architecting


To enable growth, marketing and technical processes and functions must be linked for six sigma in marketing, R&TD, and
design.
The IDEA process for product portfolio definition and development consists of the following phases:

Identify markets, their segments, and opportunities


using technology benchmarking and road mapping
Dene portfolio requirements and
product architectural alternatives
Evaluate product alternatives against
competitive portfolios, then select

Activate ranked and resourced individual


product commercialization projects

2015

CONTROL
SPECIA DESIGN TOOLS

TACTICAL DESIGN TOOLS

DEMO SESSION
2015

Special Design Tools Set Based Design


Set-based design is an engineering design methodology as detailed in 4 articles that pertain to Toyotas set-based
concurrent engineering design.
Principles of Set Based Designs

Define the feasible regions


Communicate sets of possibilities
Look for intersections
Explore trade-offs by designing multiple alternatives
Impose minimum constraint
Narrow sets smoothly, balancing the need to learn and the need to decide
Pursue high-risk and conservative options in parallel
Establish feasibility before commitment
Stay within sets once committed
Control by managing uncertainty at process gates
Seek solutions robust to physical, market and design variation

2015

Special Design Tools - Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving (TRIZ)


TRlZ is a Russian abbreviation for the theory of inventive problem solving.

Traditional inventing is trial and error resulting in much wasted time, effort, and resources.
Technical evolution and invention have certain patterns.
There are three groups of methods to solve technical problems:

Various tricks

Methods based on utilizing


physical effects and
phenomena

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Complex methods

Special Design Tools - Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving (TRIZ)


There is a sequence of 9 action steps in the use of TRIZ.
The steps are:

Analysis of the
problem

Change or
reformulate the
problem

Analysis of the
method that
removed the physical
contradiction

Analysis of the
problems model

Utilization of an
informational data
bank

Utilization of the
found solution

Formulation of the
ideal final result (IFR)

Utilization of outside
substances and field
resources

Analysis of the steps


that lead to the
solution

2015

Special Design Tools - Systematic Design


Systematic design is a step-by-step approach to design. It is stated that systematic design is a very rational approach and
will produce valid solutions.

There are 4 main phases in the design process.

Detail Design

Task
Clarification

Embodiment
Changes

Conceptual
Design

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Special Design Tools - Systematic Design


Modern German design thinking uses the following structure:

The requirements of the design are determined

The appropriate process elements are selected

A step-by-step method transforms qualitative


items to quantitative items
A deliberate combination of elements of
differing complexities is used

The creativity of the designer is encouraged in this method, but on a more structured basis.
Any and all design methods must employ the designers creativity to find new innovative solutions.
2015

Special Design Tools - Tactical


Critical Parameter Management
Critical parameter management (CPM) is a:
Disciplined methodology for managing, analysing and reporting technical product performance.
Process for linking system parameters for sensitivity analysis and optimization of critical performance factors.
Strategic tool for improving product development by integrating systems, software design and manufacturing activities.
CPM program benefits include:
Facilitated analysis
Improved collaboration
Streamlined reporting
Critical parameter management is a systems-engineering and integration process that is used within an overarching
technology development and product commercialization roadmap.
2015

Special Design Tools - Critical Parameter Management & Pugh Analysis


Pugh Analysis:
A cross functional team activity is suggested to assist in the development of improved concepts.
The process starts with a set of alternative designs.
The Pugh concept selection process has 10 steps:

Choose criteria

Form the matrix

Clarify the
concepts

Evaluate the
ratings

Attack the negatives


and enhance the
positives

Select a new datum


and rerun the
matrix

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Choose the datum


concept

Run the matrix

Plan further work

Iterate to arrive at
a new winning
concept

Summary Special Design Tools

In this session, you have learnt about:


Special Design Tools Strategic Tools
The Competitive forces
Portfolio Architecting

Special Design Tools Tactical Tools


Set Based Design
Principles of Set Based concurrent Engineering Design

2015