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Earth Science

the planets orbited the Sun and turn to orbit in


the Earth.

The Universe

Copernican Universe (1543) Nicolaus


Copernicus adapted the idea of the Heliocentric
Universe.

Universe is the totality of a supposed object


through space.
Observable Universe 13.8 billion years with
the solar system relatively younger at 4.6 billion
years old.
NON-SCIENTIFIC THOUGHTS (THEORIES)
Ancient Egyptians believes in many gods and
myths.

-the existence of multitudes of stars extending to


infinity.
-the Solar System is not the center of the
universe, but rather a relatively insignificant star
system among an infinite multitude of others.

Kuba (people of Central Africa) believed that


Bumba vomited the star, moon and sun.

Cartesian Vortex Universe (mid-17th Century)


Rene Descartes believed that the universe is a
vacuum space that is not empty but filled with
matter that swirled around a large/small vortex.

Purusha (India) primal man whose body parts


became the sky, sun, moon and stars.

Static/Newtonian Universe (1687) Sir Isaac


Newton believed in a static steady universe.

Judaism, Christianity and Islam believes in


one Supreme Being.

-gravitationally balanced but essentially unstable.

SCIENCTIFIC THEORIES
Cyclical/Oscillating Universe
(15th Century BCE) Rigveda, ancient Hindu text,
described the universe as a cyclical or oscillating
universe in which a cosmic egg or Brahmanda.
Atomic Universe (5th Century BCE)
Leucippus and Democritus believed that the
universe is composed of very small indivisible
and indestructible building blocks known as
atoms.
Aristotelian Universe (4th Century BCE)
Aristotle; Geocentric Universe spherical Earth is
at the center surrounded by concentric celestial
spheres of planets, stars and the four classical
elements.
Stoic Universe (3rd Century BCE) Stoic
philosophers believed that the universe is like
giant living body.
-What happens in one place affects what happen
elsewhere.
-All parts are interconnected.
Heliocentric Universe (3rd Century BCE) the
Sun is the center of the universe.
Ptolomaic Universe (2nd Century BCE)
Claudius Ptolemy supported the Geocentric
Universe.
Abrahamic Universe (6th Century CE) John
Philiponous believed that the universe is finite, it
has a beginning and an end.
Partially Heliocentric Universe (15th-16th
Century CE) Somayaji Nilakantha believed that

Hierarchical Universe and Nebular Hypothesis


(1734) Emmanuel Swedenborg, believed that
our Sun and the planets were formed at the same
time during the collapse of an interstellar cloud of
gas and dust.
-a nebula (exploding star).
Einsteinian Universe Einstein; it was static,
dynamically stable universe, which was neither
expanding nor contracting.
-he abandoned his theory when Edwin Hubble
(Hubble Space Telescope) proved that the
universe is not static.
Oscillating Universe (1930) which results in
the universe expanding for a time and then
contracting due to the pull of its gravity
-Einstein then supported the Oscillating/Cyclical
Universe.
Big Bang Model of Universe (1929) the
universe as originating in an infinitely tiny,
infinitely dense point or singularity between 13 to
14 billion years ago.
Steady State Theory Fred Hoyle, believed that
the universe expanded but did not change its
density.
Inflationary Universe Theory (1980) model
based on the Big Bang theory.
Multiverse Theory (1983) a lot of universes
co-exist with each other and that our universe is
just one of many bubbles.
THE SOLAR SYSTEM & ITS THEORIES
Solar System refers to a star and all the
objects that travel in orbit around it.

Two Models of the Solar System:

-Fresh water: 1%

-Geocentric Universe, Aristotle and Claudius


Ptolemy. (Earth centered)

-Salt water: 97%

-Heliocentric Universe, Nicolaus Copernicus. (Sun


centered)

Lithosphere makes up the solid Earth. (Lithos


means rocks.)

Nebular Hypothesis Immanuel Kant and Pierre


Simon Laplace.

-Includes: landforms, rocks, soil and minerals.

-explanation: self-gravity contracts as gas cloud,


then conservation of angular momentum pulls
cloud into disk, after that the disk begins to
rotate, and the central mass will be formed
(proto-Sun), and centrifugal force balances
gravitational force and a ring forms, and lastly,
the ring forms into planets.

-holds the gases essential to our body.

Planetesimal and Tidal Theories Thomas


Chrowder Chamberlin and Forest Ray Moulton.
-explanation: The counter or collision of a star
created huge tides on the surface of our Sun that
resulted to erupted matter. The cross-pull from
the star was thrust into elliptical orbits around the
Sun. The smaller masses quickly cooled to
become solid bodies called planetesimals. As
their orbits crossed, the larger bodies grew by
absorbing the planetesimals, thus becoming the
planets.
Tidal Theory - James Hopwood Jeans and Harold
Jeffreys.
-explanation: it suggest that a huge gaseous tidal
wave was raised on our Sun by a passing star. A
long filament was drawn out and detached from
the principal mass of our own Sun.
Protoplanets Theory Gerard Kuiper; it is just
like the Nebular Hypothesis, however, this does
not explain adequately the chemical and physical
differences of the planets.
-the theory that is most in favor of right now.

-Glacier/ice caps: 2%

Atmosphere is a gaseous blanket of air that


envelops, shields and insulates Earth. (Atmos
means vapor or air.)
-composed of (NOAC):
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Carbon Dioxide.
-Divided into five layers:
(1) Troposphere; it where weather occur, (2)
Stratosphere; ozone layer, (3) Mesosphere, (4)
Thermosphere, (5) Exosphere.
-Weather: refers to the atmospheric conditions at
a given time for a specific area.
-Climate: describes an areas average weather.
Biosphere composed of all living things.
Includes: people, animals and plants. (Bio means
life.)
Ecosystem refers to a community of
organisms and the relationships of those
organisms to each other and to their
environment.
Earth Impacts
-our planet is dynamic, it responds to changes.
Deforestation burning forests and decay of
wood after logging contribute to the release of
greenhouse gases.
-extinction or loss of biodiversity.
-loss of habitat by most of the species.
Pollution air pollution, water pollution, noise
pollution and land pollution.

The Earth and its Subsystems

-Effects of Pollution:

System is any entity that consists of


interrelated parts of components.

(1) Acid rain, (2) excessive ultraviolet radiation,


(3) depletion of ozone layer, (4) damage to
human and animal health, (5) destructions of
habitats, (6) contamination of crops.

-can be divided into subsystems.


Subsystem functioning units of a major
system that demonstrate strong internal
connection.
EARTHS MAJOR SUBSYSTEMS
Hydrosphere 70% of the Earth is covered in
water. Includes: oceans, rivers, lakes and glaciers.

Global Warming it is the increase in the


worlds temperature due to pollution.
-the main cause of climate change is global
warming.
-Environmental Effects of Global Warming:

(1) Melting of permafrost and polar ice, (2) rising


sea level, (3) spread of pests and disease, (4)
ecological impacts (e.g. disturbed life cycle of
flora-fauna).

Rocks made up of two or more minerals.


They are not crystal.
-found near the surface while others are deep in
the crust.
Three Types of Rocks:

Minerals and Rocks


Minerals an inorganic, naturally occurring,
crystalline substance represented by a specific
formula
-they are formed in the Earths mantle.
Properties of Minerals:
>Streak color of the powder left behind when
you rub a mineral.
>Luster the way the surface of the minerals
reflect light, either metallic (looks like a polished
metal,) or non-metallic (dull, glassy).
>Hardness a minerals ability to resist being
scratched as measured by Mohss hardness scale.

(1) Igneous Rocks form when melted rocks


harden. (Ex: granite and basalt.)
(2) Sedimentary Rocks formed when layers of
sediments, created by weathering, and erosion,
that are dropped from moving water, and are
squeezed and struck together. (Ex: siltstone,
limestone, sandstone)
(3) Metamorphic Rocks existing rocks changed
through the high heat and pressure from different
rocks. (Morph means change.)
-Metamorphism; rocks in the crust are subjected
to great pressure by tectonic processes.

>Cleavage the tendency of minerals to break in


a flat surface.

Rock Cycle a sequence of events involving


the formation, alteration, destruction, and
formation of rocks as a result of natural
processes.

>Fracture how minerals break into forms or


other shapes.

-Includes: weathering, erosion, deposition,


melting, compaction and cementation.

Uses of Minerals:

Breathe deep, breathe clear. Yay tapos mo na


EarthSci! (Dami noh, huhu.) Pahinga ka muna, tas
review na ulit! Good luck and God bless, you can
do this!

>Quartz make glass.


>Diamonds make jewelry.
>Iron steel, magnets, plastics, make up.
>Silver electronics, currency.
>Sulfur explosives.
>Graphite used in pencils.
>Copper electrical cables.
Ways to Remove Mineral Resources:
>Mining the process of extracting of minerals
that concentrate naturally on earth.
>Surface mining (1) Open-pit mining; digging of
very large hole to remove metal ores
(2) Strip mining; removal of minerals in large
horizontal beds close to earth surface.
(3) Mountaintop removal; used to remove the top
of the mountain to expose minerals
>Subsurface mining underground minerals are
removed.
Mineral Scarcity Effects
(1) Mineral will increase in price, (2) decrease in
demand, (3) increase in supply, and (3) people
will find substitute, (4) encourage sufficient use.

-Reipie

Romans 8:18
The pain youve been feeling cant
compare to the joy thats coming.

FilBas
TEKSTONG IMPORMATIBO:
Sulatin - may iba ibang genre
- Malaya
- Personal
- Technical
Mga kuwento ni lola Bashang
Bob Ong books
Akda ni Rizal
Wattpad
Teksto mayroong format o anyo
Informative
Narrative
Argumentative
- factual o informative
- creative

Purpose driven life


Biology and chemistry books
Guinness book of world records
Basketball
Cook book
Time magazine

Duke (2002)- mas binabasa ang mga narratibo


kaysa sa mga imporatibo sa kadahilanang
limmitado ang mga ganitong uri ng mga
babasahin sa kanilang kapaligiran.
Mohr (2006)- Ayon sa isang pagaaral, kung
bibigyan ng pagkakataong makapamili ng aklat
ang mga magaaral sa unang baiting ay mas
pipiliin nila ang aklat na di piksyon kaysa sa
piksyon.
- Humigit kumulang 85% sa mga
magaaral ang pumili sa aklat na di piksyon.
Tekstong Impormatibo
- isang uri ng babasahing di piksyon.
- naglalayong magbigay impormasyon o
magpaliwanag nang malinaw at walang pagkiling
tungkol sa ibat ibang paksa tulad ng sa mga
hayop, isports, agham o siyensya,
kasaysayan, gawain, paglalakbay,
heograpiya, kalawakan, panahon atbp.
- ang impormasyong inilalahad ng may
akda ay hindi nakabase sa kanyang sariling
opinion kundi sa katotohanan.
Paano hindi magsulat ng tekstong
impormatibo?
Paulit- ulit
Maligoy o kawing kawing ang paksa
Impormal na wika
Wattpad grammar
Elemento ng tekstong impormatibo:
Layunin ng may akda- ibat- iba ang
mga layunin ng mga manunulat sa
pagsulat ng tekstong impormatibo ngunit
gayunpaman, anuman ang layunin ay
mapapansing kaugnay ito lagi ng
pagbibigay o paglalahad ng
impormasyon.
Pangunahing Ideya- di tulad sa tekstong
naratibo, sa tekstong impormatibo naman
ay dagliang nailalahad ang mga
pangunahing ideya sa mga mambabasa.
Organizational markers- nilalagay ng
pamagat sa bawat bahagi na
makakatulong upang agad makita at
malaman ng mambabasa ang
pangunahing ideya ng mambabasa.
Pantulong na Kaisipan- kaisipan o
detalye na makakatulong na mabuo sa
isipan ng mambabasa ang pangunahing

ideyang nais nyang matanim o maiwan sa


kanila.
Mga estilo sa pagsulat, kagamitan/
sangguiang magtatampok sa mga
bagay na binibigyang-diin
Paggamit ng mga
nakalarawang representasyonpaggamit ng mga larawan, guhit,
dayagram, tsart, talahanayan,
timeline at ipa.
Pagbibigay-diin sa mahalagang
salita sa teksto- estilo ng
pagsulat gaya ng nakadiin,
nakalihis, nakasalungguhit o
nalagyan ng panipi
Pagsulat ng mga
talasanggunian- inilalagay ang
ng mga manunulat ng tekstong
impormatibo ang mga aklat,
kagamitan, at iba pang
sangguniang.

Mga uri ng tekstong impormatibo:


1. Paglalahad ng totoong pangyayari/
kasanayan- inilalahad dito ang mga
totoong pangyayaring naganap sa isang
panahon o pagkakataon.
- maaaring personal o di
direkta na nasaksihan ng manunulat.
- mababasa sa bahaging ito ang
mga pinakamahalagang impormasyon
tulad ng ano, sino, saan, kailan, paano, at
iba pa.
2. Paguulat pang-impormasyonnakalahad dito ang mahahalagang
kaalaman o impormasyon patungkol sa
tao, hayop, iba pang bagay na nabubuhay
at di nabubuhay, gayundin sa mga
pangyayari sa paligid.
- nangangailangan ng masusing
pananaliksik sapagkat ang mga
impormasyon at detalyeng taglay nito ay
naglalahad ng katotohanan ukol sa paksa
at hindi dapat samahan ng personal na
pananaw o opinion ng manunulat.
3. Pagpapaliwanag- uri ng tekstong
impormatibong nagbibigay paliwanag
kung paano o bakit naganap ang isang
bagay o pangyayari.
- layunin nitong makita ng mambabasa
mula sa mga impormasyong nagsasaad
kung paano humantong ang paksa sa
ganitong kalagayan
- karaniwang ginagamitan ng larawan,
dayagram o flow chart
TEKSTONG DESKRIPTIBO:
Subhetibo- imahinasyon
Obhetibo- katotohanan

Tekstong deskriptibo- larawang ipininta o


iginuhit kung saan kapag nakita ito ng iba ay
parang nakita na rin nila ang orihinal na
pinagmulan ng larawan.
Karaniwang ginagamit:
Panguri
Pangabay
Upang mailarawan ang mga:
Tauhan
Tagpuan
Kilos o galaw
Kung epektibo ang paglalarawan:
Makikita
Maaamoy
Maririnig
Malalasahan
Mahahawakan
Ng mambabasa ang mga bagay na
inilalarawan
Iba pang paraan ng paglalarawan
Paggamit ng pangngalan at pandiwang
ginagawa
Paggamit ng tayutay
*Karaniwang bahagi lang ng ibang teksto
ang tekstong deskriptibo.
Paggamit ng cohesive devices mahalaga sa
pagbibigay ng mas malinaw at maayos na daloy
ng mga kaisipan sa isang teksto
Pangunahing uri ng cohesive devices:
1. Reperensya- maaaring tumukoy o
maging reperensya ng paksang
pinaguusapan sa pangungusap
Anaphora- nauuna ang pangngalan
kaysa sa panghalip
Katapora- nauuna ang panghalip sa
pangngalan
2. Substitusyon- paggamit ng ibang
salitang ipapalit sa halip na muling ulitin
ang salita.
3. Ellipsis- pagbabawas ng bahagi ng
pangungusap.
4. Pangugnay- at
5. Kohesyong leksikal- mabisang salitang
ginagamit sa teksto
Reiterasyon- ang sinasabi ay
nauulit ng ilang beses.
a. Paguulit
b. Pagiisa-isa
c. Pagbibigay kahulugan
Kolokasyon- salitang karaniwang
ginagamit ng magkapareha.
TEKSTONG NARATIBO:
Tekstong naratibo- pagsasalaysay o
pagkukwento ng mga pangyayari
- layunin: makapagsalaysay
-makapanlibang o makapagbigay aliw

Halimbawa ng piksyong naratibo:


Maikling kuwento
Nobela
Kuwentong bayan
Mitolohiya
Alamat
Tulang pasalaysay (epiko)
Dula
Kuwento ng kababalaghan
Anekdota
Parabola
Sci fi
Katangian ng tekstong naratibo:
a. Mga ibat ibang pananaw o punto de
vista sa tekstong naratibo
1. Unang panauhan- ako
2. Ikalawang panauhan- ikaw
3. Ikatlong panauhan- tagasalaysay
Maladiyos na panauhan- lahat
ng tauhan
Limitadong panauhan- isa sa
mga tauhan lamang hindi lahat
Tagapag-obserbang panauhandi napapasok ang isipan ng
sinumang tauhan
4. Kombinasyon ng pananaw o
paningin
b. May paraan ng pagpapahayag ng
diyalogo, saloobin, o damdamin sa
tekstong naratibo
1. Direkta o tuwirang pahayag- panipi
()
2. Di direkta o di tuwirang pahayagang tagapagsalaysay ang naglalahad
c. May mga elemento ang mga tekstong
naratibo
1. Tauhan
Dalawang uri ng pagpapakilala sa
tauhan:
Expository- tagapagsalaysay
ang nagpapakilala
Dramatiko- kusang
nabubunyag ang karakter
a. Pangunahing tauhan- sakanya
umiikot ang mga pangyayari
b. Katunggaliang tauhansumasalungat sa pangunahing
tauhan
c. Kasamang tauhan- kasangga ng
pangunahing tauhan
d. May akda
Ayon kay E.M. Forester, may dalawang
uri ng tauhan:
a. Tauhang bilog- multidimensional
b. Tauhang lapad- predictable
2. Tagpuan- lugar, oras, petsa, taon,
atmospera, panahon

3. Banghay- pagkakasunod sunod ng


mga pangyayari
a. Introduction
b. Problem
c. Rising action
d. Climax
e. Falling action
f. Ending
Anachrony- hindi nakaayos sa
pagkakasunod sunod ng pangyayari
a. Analepsis (flashback)
b. Prolepsis (flashforward)
c. Ellipsis
4. Paksa o tema- sentral na ideya kung
saan umiikot ang mga pangyayari sa
tekstong naratibo
TEKSTONG PROSIDYURAL:
Tekstong prosidyural- serye o mga hakbang sa
pagbuo ng isang gawain upang matamo ang
inaasahan.
Malawak ang kaalaman sa paksang
tatalakayin
Malinaw at tama ang pagkakasunod sunod
Payak ngunit angkop na salitang madaling
maunawaan
Maglakip ng ilustrasyon o larawan
- @mlvdecena (follow me on twitter)

GenChem
Reviewer in General Chemistry 1-MATTER

CHEMISTRY- is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and
change of matter.
STATES OF MATTERSOLID
has definite shape and
definite volume
Particles are very close
together and arent
moving around much.

LIQUID
has indefinite shape
and definite volume
Particles are much
farther apart and
theyre also moving
around more freely.

GAS
has indefinite shap
MACROSCOPIC VIEW
indefinite volum
Particles are mu
farther apart than
are in solids and l
MIICROSCOPIC VIEW
and theyre mov
relatively independ
each other.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER- are observed characteristics that enable you to distinguish one
substance from another.
Physical Properties
o Extensive Properties-dependent on the amount of matter,
Examples: Mass, Weight, Volume, Thickness and Surface Area
o Intensive Properties-not dependent on the amount of matter.
Examples: Density, Color, Odor, Hardness and Brittleness
Chemical Properties
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
M atter

Pure
S ub stan ce

M ixture

Elem ents

Ho m ogen ou s

C o mp o und s

Hetero ge neo
us

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
o FILTRATION
It is a technique used to separate undissolved solid component from the liquid in a mixture.
It makes use of a filter whose pores are able to separate components based on particle size.
Only solid particles that are bigger than the pores are separated from the mixture.
The smaller the pore size, the more selective the filtration process is.
o EVAPORATION
The liquid component is evaporated away by applying heat until only the solid component
remains.
The liquid component can no longer be recovered
o DISTILLATION
It is used when the mixture is made up of two or more liquids of different boiling points.
An elaborate set-up that involves the process of evaporation and condensation is used
It is used to separate and identify components of a mixture based on selected affinity.
ELECTROPHORESIS
It can be used to separate fragments of DNA and is used in Genetic Mapping.
MEASUREMENTS AND UNCERTAINTY
o QUALITATIVE PROPERTY-based on qualities. (Example: long, short, white, heavy)
o QUANTITATIVE PROPERTY-based on quantity. (Example: 1 meter, 256 kg, 20 mins)
o The accuracy of a data set is dependent on the closeness of a true value.
o The precision of the data set is dependent on the closeness of the measured values to each
other.
o

o
o

SYSTEMATIC ERROR-It is one that is present in every measurement and oftentimes has the
same degree of error
RANDOM ERROR-It is an error that is not constant and usually varies from one measurement
to another.

Density Measurement

CONVERSION FACTORS

RULES ON SIGNIFICANT FIGURES (NOTE: THESE ARE OUR AGREED RULES.)


1. All non-zero digits are significant. (e.g. 122 has three significant figures)
2. All zeroes in between non-zero digits are significant. (e.g. 4.903 has four significant figures)
3. If the number is less that 1, only zeroes after the non-zero digits are significant. (e.g. 0.0509 has
three significant figures)
4. If the number is greater than 1, all zeroes after the non-zero digits and the decimal point are
significant. (e.g. 20.000 has five significant figures)
Reviewer in General Chemistry 1-ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ADD-ONS (Please refer to the PPT sent to you via edmodo)
LAW OF CONSERVATIPON OF MASS
- mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Example: Carbon and Oxygen are still present when CO2 compound is formed.
LAW OF MULTIIPLE PROPORTIONS/CONSTANT COMPOSITIONS
- Whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element
that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
Example: Carbon and Oxygen can form the proportions of 1:1 (Carbon Monoxide) and 1:2
(Carbon Dioxide).
LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTION
-The elements in a given compound are always combined in the same proportion by mass.
Example: Water will maintain a fixed ratio of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen regardless the
volume of the water.

POSITIVE IONS- THE ITCHY FEELING BEFORE A STORM IS CAUSED BY POSITIVE IONS.
NEGATIVE IONS-THEFRESH FEELING AFTR A STORM IS CAUSED BY NEGATIVE IONS.

IMPORTANT REMINDER:
NO BORROWING OF CALCULATORS DURING THE EXAM.
BRING YOUR EXAM PERMIT.
READ AND ANALYZE THE QUESTIONS PROPERLY.
DO NOT CHEAT.
STUDY WELL AND PRAY.
Isipin na maganda si Yow always hehehehhehe