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RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

Domain D Literature Review


Mary Beth Adams
National University

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for


TED 690 Capstone Course
Dr. Clifton Johnson

RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

Abstract
This paper reviews the findings that Mumba, Chabalengula, Moore, and Hunter discovered as the
studied Teaching Fellows in their article, Mathematics and Science Teaching Fellows'
Instructional Planning for K-12 Classrooms (2007). Fellows do not attend teacher preparation
programs because they are ultimately studying to be mathematicians and scientists. Through the
Teaching Fellows program, they are given the opportunity to spend a year or two in a classroom.
Mumba et al.s conclusion of their study is that mentoring from other teachers can be a practical
method for teaching instructional planning.

RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

Literature Review
Instructional planning is required of every teacher in kindergarten through twelfth grade.
Teacher preparation programs devote extensive amounts of time to instructional planning
training. Teaching Fellows is a program that employs graduate students, called Fellows, who are
training to be mathematicians and scientists, to work as K-12 teachers; since these Fellows are
not planning on teaching as a career, they have not completed a teacher preparation program.
Mumba, Chabalengula, Moore, and Hunter were interested in how these Fellows, who lack
specific training in instructional planning, prepare their lessons. In their article, Mathematics
and Science Teaching Fellows' Instructional Planning for K-12 Classrooms, Mumba, et al.
outline the six themes that they uncovered.
A trained teachers instructional choices are normally dependent upon student
development, curriculum guide objectives, and pressure of accountability from school
administrators (Mumba,et al., 2007, 38). Teachers also plan lessons in the following three
phases: pre-active, active, and post-active. In the pre-active phase, teachers choose their
instructional materials and make practical decisions about classroom seating arrangement. In the
active phase involves the class time where the teacher is actually teaching the students. In the
post-active phase, the teacher reflects on the lesson and results of summative assessments
(Mumba et al., 2007). Mumba et al., found that the teaching Fellows followed a similar
sequence and used similar strategies in their instructional planning.
Mumba et al. observed fifteen Fellows as they taught biology, chemistry, and math. They
analyzed their lesson plans and asked the Fellows to keep reflective journals. Mumba et al.
gathered ten lesson plans were used for data collection. Through their studies, Mumba et al.
discovered that the following six themes were prevalent: planning procedure, antecedent

RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

conditions, scope and depth of content, content selection and sequencing, resources, and
assessment of instructional planning (2007).
The Fellows used a planning procedure that resembles a trained teachers procedure.
They identified goals, objectives, and standards, and collected activities and materials that
supported them. They would also consult veteran teachers for ideas. However, their planning
procedure was not linear but rather recursive (Mumba, et al., 2007, 40). They did not
backwards plan, planning from the summative assessment backwards, but rather they revisited
their lesson plans many times and altered their sequence as necessary.
Mumba et al., discovered that the Fellows considered several antecedent factors such as
age of students, their abilities, grade level, class size, types of students, and the resources
available to them (2007, 41). Some of the Fellows mentioned assessing the prior knowledge of
their students. Many of the Fellows paid attention to their students abilities and discussed their
observations with fellow teachers.
Scope and depth of content was the next theme that was prevalent in Mumba et al.s
findings (2007). Just as a trained teacher uses the standards to drive his or her lessons, the
Fellows also relied on standards to outline instructional planning. The Fellows would challenge
their students, but they ensured that they covered all of the material that the district expected
them to introduce.
Fellows sequenced their content selection systematically. One of the Fellows stated, I
started with simple or obvious concepts and then build on them (Mumba et al., 2007, 41).
Many of the Fellows thought that the movement from simple concepts to more complex concepts
was an efficient and productive way to teach the students.

RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

Just as a trained teacher would do, the Fellows relied on a variety of resources in their
lesson planning. They made use of technology, textbooks, and other pre-prepared lessons. The
Fellows also researched online for lesson ideas.
After teaching their plans, the Fellows spent time reflecting on their instructional
planning. Most Fellows said that they assessed their instructional planning practices through
students and teachers feedback and their own self-reflection practices (Mumba, et al., 2007,
42). Most of the Fellows believed that the reasons for their successes were a result of their
personal research skills, being able to collaborate with other teachers, and their own school
experiences.
After the study concluded, Mumba et al. decided that direct mentoring by practicing
teachers can be an effective means of modeling and communicating appropriate instructional
planning skills (2007, 43). These Fellows were able to work collaboratively with other teachers
in their schools. These interactions provided support during selecting content, ensuring that the
districts goals were met, discussing ideas for meeting individual students needs, and reflecting
on the lesson delivery and assessments.
Conclusion
Teaching Fellows may not have the pressures from administration that trained teachers
do, but they are just as concerned with teaching the curriculum objectives and meeting the
students needs. This is evident in the six themes that ran through their lesson plans and journals.
A trained teachers instructional planning moves through three phases. The Teaching Fellows in
this study also showed evidence of all three stages, namely the final, reflective post-active stage.
Being able to collaborate with other teachers throughout all three stages of instructional planning

RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

proved to provide the most benefit. The Fellows displayed a commitment to adequately instruct
their students and to challenge them when appropriate.

RUNNING HEADER: Domain D Literature Review

References
Mumba, F., Chabalengula, V. M., Moore, C. J., & Hunter, W. F. (2007). Mathematics and
Science Teaching Fellows' Instructional Planning for K-12 Classrooms. Science
Educator, 16(2), 38-43.