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1) Kick
2) Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis
3) Limiting (Minimum) Oxygen Concentration
4) ERPG (Emergency response planning guideline)
5) Several days and greatly contribute to long term accumulation
of pollutants.
6) Class A
7) Hazard
8) Radiation
9) Flash point temperature
10) Chemical Exposure Index (CEI)
Hazid and its limitations (if any).
Hazard identification deals with engineering failure assessment
eg. Fault tree analysis. Hazid evaluate the reliability of specific
segment of plant operation to determine probabilistic results of
failure. To reduce risk hazid in any process industry is necessary.
LIMITATIONsince HAZOP analysis uses a section by section approach, it may not identify hazards
associated with the interactions between different nodes.
Checklist used alone introduces the potential of limiting study to already known hazards
HAZOP Requires significant resource commitment
HAZOPs are time consuming

There are 4 main stages in oil and gas development:
Geological and Geophysical survey -Seismic surveys, Test drilling
Exploration- Rig placement, Exploratory drilling
Development and Production- Platform placement, Pipeline laying Drilling of production well
Support vessel traffic
Decommissioning- Platform removal, plugging of well.
13) Risk assessment can be thought of as a tool to aid decision making. Risk assessment is an
essential component of the planning and implementation element of effective health and safety
ProblemsWe are not 100% sure about decision made on the basis of risk assessment evaluated.
Validity of the cost estimates presented believing they were excessive and also some of the
assumptions made by the operator in the CBA.
TWA(Time Weighted average ) = (concentration in ppm * Exposure Time in hrs)i
(Exposure Time in hrs)i
Where i=a Time period (number) upto n
Here TWA = (410*1.5+250*3.5+75*2)


Hence, TWA=205 ppm.
15) Full recording Practices undergoing now days report everything. Each key word is clearly stated as applied to
the system under study. Even statements like no cause could be identified or no consequence
arose from the cause recorded are seen in the reports. This kind of report of recording of
HAZOP report is called as Full Recording.
These reports can be shown to outside party as it is rigorous kind of study which has been
undertaken. It also produces comprehensive document, This can assist in speedy assessment of
safety and operability of later plant modification. With computer method practices full recording
is common these days. Some macro words also reduce the reading time of such records eg. a) No
potential causes identified. b) No significant negative consequence identified. c) No action
Recording by exception- In earlier HAZOP reports only potential deviations with some negative
consequence were recorded (as they were used for internal use for the company and for
handwritten records it certainly reduces time in study itself and subsequent production of hazard
report.) This method is called as Recording by exception.

Industrial hygiene (Occupational hygiene)is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating,
preventing and controlling workplace conditions that may cause workers injury or illness.
Industrial hygienists use environmental monitoring and analytical methods to detect the extent of
worker exposure and employ engineering, work practice controls, and other methods to control
potential health hazards.
Identification (requires thorough study of chemical process, operating conditions and operating
pressure.)- Determination of presence or possibility of workplace exposures
Evaluation Determination of magnitude of exposure (Physical hazard by comparing existing
strength with threshold value and Chemical hazard by comparing concentration of toxicants with
allowable limit).
Control- Application of appropriate technology to reduce workplace exposures to acceptable
The steps involved in Industrial hygiene are:
1. learning the management system;
2. defining IH concerns;
3. establishing IH priorities, goals and objectives;
4. defining the business needs;
5. communicating the business needs; and
6. managing the program and measuring progress
Let flammability limit in air (LFL)= 5.5% fuel in air
Let flammability limit in air (UFL) = 18% fuel in air
Let flammability limit in pure O2 (LFL) = 5.3% in O2
Let flammability limit in pure O2 (UFL) = 63% in O2
LOC = 11% O2
CH4 + 2O2 ----> CO2 + 2H2O
Z=2, Stoichiometric point = {z/(1+z)}* 100= 66.7% of O2
Out of service fuel concentration(OSFC)=LFL/[1-z*LFL/21]
In service O2 concemtration (ISOC)= z*LOC/[z-LOC/100]

Some marine pollutants are- suspension, films, solid wastes, mineral compound, organic
Consequences of marine pollutants are:
The anthropogenic impact on water environment is cumulative impact of oil and gas
production facilities.
The sanitary-hygienic consequence of anthropogenic impact on marine environment is
mostly at the local level, but it extends to the regional and global level as well in rare
cases. Marine pollution is one of the leading factors for anthropogenic impact on marine
Offshore activities contribute to about 5 percent of the overall pollution in ocean
Anthropogenic impact increases the concentration of marine coastal areas and shelf

Produced water contain dissolved salts and organic compounds, oil HC, trace (heavy)
metals and suspensions. Hence composition of water is very complex. Even benzene,
toluene and xylenes (10-30 mg/kg in total), biocides (few mg/kg), low level radioactive
elements (like radium-226 and radium-228) can be seen in produced waters. During
contact with sea water , these radio-nuclides contact with sulphates which precipitates to
form a radio-active scale. They increase the radioactive risk in the local and regional and
regional areas of produced waters. Hence they affect marine life significantly.


23) AQ(Airbone uantity)=4.7151*10^-6 * D^2 * Pa (MW/(T+273))^0.5

=4.7151*10^-6 * (25)^2 * 889.5 (70.81/(40+273))^0.5
AQ= 1.2477 kg/sec
CEI= 655.1(AQ/ERPG-2)^0.5
= 655.1(1.2477/9)^0.5
Hazard distance (HD)
For ERPG-1, HD =6551*(AQ/ERPG-1) ^0.5
= 6551*(1.2477/3 ) ^0.5
=4224.76 m
For ERPG-2, HD=6551*(AQ/ERPG-2) ^0.5
= 6551*(1.2477/9)^0.5
=2439.17 m

For ERPG-3, HD=6551*(AQ/ERPG-3) ^0.5

= 6551*(1.2477/58)^0.5
=960.83 m
Both hydrogen air cloud and ignition source are requires to form an explosion. An AND
gate refers to cloud and ignition source.
Hydrogen cloud could result from either defective valve or human error in opening a
valve hence OR gate applies to these events.
Also ignition source could either from electric spark or person smoking a cigarette, these
events linked by OR gate.
Fault tree diagram is given below

Probabilities of different events are as follows

From fig., probability of encountering an explosion during the leak of hydrogen gas from
a hydrogen tank is 0.001225%