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15 - Goals in achieving treatment plan by RPD

-Improving health for dental and periodontal tissue
-Establish a support for dental-periodontal tissue and muco-osos stability, favorable
-Restoration of impaired functions by restoring the integrity of the dental arches
2. 15 - Objective therapy for RPD
-Preserving what remains
-Maintaining or improving phonation
-Restoring or improving occlusion
-Improving aesthetics
3. 42 - What favors tilting motion in the frontal plane?
- Mounting lateral teeth eccentric to the residual ridge
- The use of wide artificial teeth, inconsistent with the size of the edentulous ridge
- Lack of occlusal equilibrium
4. 42 - Factors influencing migrated teeth after extraction
- Patient age
- Time of extraction
- Structure of the alveolar bone
- Primary malpositions
- Static and dynamic contacts with opposing teeth
- General health
5. 44 - Vertical migration
Manifest themselves in toothless gap where the antagonist either act as extrusion or egression
Egression: vertical occlusal migration along with the clinical crown and the alveolar process
towards the opposing edentulous area

Extrusion: vertical occlusal migration of the teeth without the alveolar socket, consequent
clinical crown at the expense of root elongation
6. 45 - Attitude to treatment for teeth that have migrated vertically
- When the vertical displacements are low coronary remodeling on enamel occlusal surface
may be enough. (cusp reduction)
- An extrusion that exceeds 2mm will be solved by proper grinding of the tooth until proper
occlusal height is reached. Endodontic treatment might be necessary
- When there is an egression and we need to place the cemento-enamel junction in accordance
to the other teeth a surgical intervention might be necessary for crown lengthening
7. 46 - Ecuatoarele
Anatomic equator:
The line that connects the maximum convexities of the axial walls of a tooth which is placed
in a vertical direction on the plate of the surveyor
Ecuatoul of the remaining tooth (clinical situation):
The outline of the remaining teeth in the arch, making it different from the anatomical equator
in the way of the natural inclination of the remaining teeth in the arch
Malposition equator:
Represents the equator line of the teeth adjacent to the edentulous area that have undergone
migrations. It is used in wire clasp design for acrylic removable denture
Prosthetic Equator:
Contour line of the maximum convexity in the adjacent teeth using a surveyor to determine
the pathway. This shaft is set in advance according to the position of all abutment teeth so that
the simultaneous implementation of their equal effects on all movable clasps clasps of partial
It is divided into two areas: supraecuatoriala /subecuatoriala
8. 47 - What is prosthetic equator and is important to the design of crochet
Prosthetic Equator:
Its the maximum contour line of the axial walls of the tooth, drawn with the paralelograph
depending on the insertion axis of the prosthesis. This axis will be determined before,
depending on the position of all the abutment teeth in such a way that it will allow
simoultanious insertion of all the clasps of the RPD.
Divided in 2 areas: supraequator/infraequator

9. 94 Decision of how to make the RPD in central relation

Situations in which the RPD is made in RC:

1. Coincidence between RC and maximum intercuspidation

2. the absence of the posterior dental contacts (the antagonists)
3. the situation in which all posterior dental contacts must be restored by fixed prosthesis
4. reduced number of posterior restored dental contacts
5 clinical signs of ocluzal trauma

10. 107 - Extraction of hopeless teeth when do you extract them?

1. Teeth with big coronal destruction si pulp complications which cannot be
restored by conservative treatment or surgical tt
2. Teeth with mobility degree III
3. Teeth with vertical extrusion ad with reduced clinical crown
4. Teeth with more than 30dg tilt which cannot be corrected orthodontically
5. Impacted teeth which cannot be extruded by surgicall-orthodontic measures
6. Root restorations with pathological process
7. Malpositioned teeth which are in the pathway of RPD

11. 109 - Leveling the occlusal plane

-cusp reduction , followed by coronary remodeling
-Coronal amputation, preceded or not by pulpectomy and the covering of the tooth with
functional occlusal modeling of it
-Removal of prosthetic treatment which exceed occlusal plane
- the extraction of eggressed teeth followed by bone remodeling
12. 111 - Interventions on the mucosa

-A) addressed to the mobile mucosa from the edges of the prosthetic field which because of
their high inseration, prevent the expansion of the saddles or prevent the correct positioning of
the main connectors
Lingual frenulum, lip frenulum, lateral frenulums
-B) plastic surgery of the vestibular and lingual channels has the objective of increasing the
surface of the fixed gingival mucosa and can only be done when the edentulous ridges are not
fully resorbed. Plus patients have to wear prosthesis after the intervention in order to ensure a
optimal healing and prevent hipertrofia
-C) hypertrophy and hyperplasia - present in the palate or sides of the residual ridge will be
removed surgically
D) fibromatosis of the tuberosities - often accompanied by an overgrowth of bone substrate,
indicating a muco-bone remodeling surgery
13. 115 - PROprosthetic preparations on the abutment teeth, that dont present
caries and which will not be covered by crowns
- making of the guidance planes
- remodeling of the abutment teeth
- preparing of the slots for the external occlusal rest
14. 116 - What are the plans for guidance and what are their objectives?
Guidance planes = the proximal surfaces of the abutment teeth, next to the edentulous
spaces, which allow the insertion and removal without transmitting nonfiziological
forces on the abutment teeth.
You eliminate the retentive proximal areas in order to enhance the hygiene and also
improves the horizontal maintaining and stability, by the friction between the
secondary connectors and the proximal sides.
15. 118 remodeling of the abutment teeth
- reduce the convexity of the buccal side in order to replace the prosthetic equaor towards the
area/line where the middle 1/3 and the gingival 1/3 come together.
-Creation of artificial undercuts for a better retention for the flexible arm of the clasp
- reduce the convexity of the lingual side in order to replace the prosthetic equator closer to
the gingiva, permitting the placement of the rigid arm at the same level with the flexibla arm
and thus ensuring RECIPROCITY
- Reduce the retentivities of malpositioned teeth which dont allow the correct insertion of the
major connector and the oral (rigid) arm

- remodeling of the abrased teeth, where the equator is close to the occlusal side
16. 121 - Preparation of posterior teeth with abrasion and high equator
- Restoring external slopes of the cusps in order to move prosthetic equator towards the
gingiva and also reduce the receptive surface of the masticatory force
- restoring the inner slopes of the cusps and restoring also the morphology of the occlusal
surface in order to enhance masticatory efficiency
17. 121 Preparation of the slots of the external occlusal rests
The occlusal rests = elements of the RPD which placed in the proper slots will direct the
occlusal foresin the ling axis of the abutment tooth, and thus stimulating the absorbtion of the
stress by the parodontal ligaments, without inducing pathological shit to the underlying bone.
In the case of RPD with mixed support (bone and mucosa), a part of the occlusal forces go to
the bone and mucosa, but the occlusal rests are the ones that limit the vertical movement of
the RPD.
Also the rests have a role in maintaining the RPD in adequate position.

Depending on the topography of the teeth which will receive the rests, there are 3 categories
of rests: occlusal supracingularis incisal
Occlusal: - will be applied in the mezial/distal fosetas of the M or PM in specially prepared

Triangular shape of the slot, with the tip towards the center of the tooth.
The edges and tips will be smoothened
M-D dimension = 1/3 or of the whole M-D diameter
of the B-L diameter
The base of the slot will be tilted towards the center of the tooth in such
a way that the angle between it and the proximal tangent must be under
90dgr. This will result in transmitting of the forces towards the center
of the tooth. (if angle more that 90dgr = disorthodontic forces)
The thickness of the rest must be at least 0,5 mm at the tip and 1-1,5
mm at the marginal crest
The depth of the preparation is 1,5-2mm
The width (B-L) is 3-3,5 mm

18. 126 - Advantages supracingular rests from the incissal rests

- High-Aesthetics
-better reliability and longevity because its not in the way
- does not produce tilting of the rotational center of the tooth
Not a tilt-rotation center, while incisal spur amplify rotation, attracting a significant tooth
19. 131 - in what cases do you choose to cover a tooth with a crown and then make it
an abutment tooth for the RPD (x9) page 24 english
Low-resistance coronary
-Lack natural contours
Malpositions primary and sec-D migrated vertically exaggerated sense
-D with advanced pathological abrasion
-D with mobility requiring immobilization by solidification pfu
-D that is to apply special mentions support systems and stabilizers
Marked predisposition, poor hygiene and caries
20. 131 Ze PROprosthetic preparations
-Achieving adequate retentivities
-Guidance planes
-making the slots for the rests
21. RPD with mixed support (general shit)

- are considered partially fiziological because of the transmitting of the masticatory

pressures, which get to the bone via the dento-parodontal ligaments and also via the
fibromucosa of the edentulous crest.
- the dento-parodontal support of the RPD is ensured through the rests and the other rigid
elements of the clesps (meaning the elements which are placed above the equator on the
abutment teeth) OR ensured through the special systems of maintaining and stabilization.
-the mucosal-bone support is ensured through the A [which is the plastic part that stays
on the edentolous crest and onto which the artificial teeth are mounted, i dont know how
its called in english, but lets just call it A], so is ensured through this A and through the
major connectors
-This type of RPD is indicated the term uni or bi term ed these RPD are indicated in class
I or II edentation
22. 143 The role of the acrilic board
- offers support for the maintaining elements of the prosthesis
- through these acrilic bases, the masticatory forces are transmitted
-has a direct contribution to the maintaining of the RPD through adhesion

23151 - Classification of the wire clesps

is done by their relation with the dento-alveolar structure AND by the orientation of the free
extremity of the dental segment
so u have: cervico-alveolar

27. 164 - Roles and conditions of the saddle

Roles and conditions of the A
Role: -support for the artificial teeth
transmitting of the masticatory pressions towards the -mucosal-bone structure of the
edentolous arch
- contributes to: the horizontal stabilization of the prosthesis
- maintaining of the RPD through adhesion
Conditions: - should be adapted perfectly to the underlying tissue
- mechanical rezistance

- external surfaces must be well polished in order to facilitate the autocelaning

- reduced weight

28 168 - Which are the limits of the metalic component of a mixed A in terminal
edentations maxillary?
-posterior: distal of the most proeminent part of the tuberosity
-lateral: 2/3 of the width of the alveolar crest (generally this goes 3mm from the middle of the
crest on the buccal side, and 5mm from the middle of the crest on the palatal side)
-oral: the acrilic component in 2 steps (internal side and external). Also the INNER
TERMINAL LINE must be under 90dgr
-mezial: 3mm from the neck of the adjacent tooth that is next to the edentolous space

29 170 - Which are the limits of the metalic component of a mixed A on the mandible?
-distal: lenght of 2/3 of the lenght of the edentolous space
-the distance of the metalic piece from the underlying fibromucosal structure is 0,8 - 1mm and
this is obtained through FOLIATION
- mezial: the metalic component will end in a step which is 0,8mm on the external side and on
the internal side it will unite with the acrilic component
- anterior: is continued with the major connector
30.What is the main characteristic of the prosthetic A in lateral and frontal small
edentations, and what is their classification?
Main characteristic: the support is dento-parodontal
Classification: - mixed, with both sides acrilic
- mixed, with the mucosal side metalic
- metalic
31. The common conditions of the acrilic component of the A
- coveres the metalic component of the mixed A on both sides or just on the external one and
together they form the final prosthetic A
- the acrilic component is represented by: POLIMETHILACRILAT pink (termopolimerised)
32. The applying of the artificial frontal teeth
There are 2 ways:
1. Teeth out of acrilic resin, compozit resin or porcelain, applyed on A with an acrilic

(the most used teeth are the acrilic ones, which are prefabricated ; the porcelain ones create
2. Acrilic teeth armed applye on the extension of the metalic A (with special retention for
these artificial teeth)
(this is a very rezistant and esthetic solution for replacing frontal teeth)

33 189 - Common characteristics of the major connectors

1. Rigidity and mechanical rezistance
2. Ensures the profilaxy of the parodontal and mucosal-bone tissues
3. Have a role in direct maintaining
4. Must allow the placement of one or more prosthetic A
5. Must ensure confort for patient
34. Rigidity and mechanical rezistance of the elements of the major connector
Is a common characteristic for all elements of the metalic skelet of the RPD
- rigidity is ensured through the material used to make the metalic skeleton and also through
the thickness, width and the shape (in a lateral section) of this major connector, which allows:
directing of the cocclusal forces to the abutment teeth and the mucosal-bone support

- the major connector offers support for the other elements of the RPD (the retentive arm of
clesp, the occlusal rests, the elements of indirect maintaining)

35 190 - Ensuring the profilaxy of the tissues

1. Keeping a distance from the marginal parodontius
-this is obtained via DECOLETATING - in maxillary: minimum 3m from the marginal
parodontius and in mandible: alsominimum 3
2. The perifery of the connector will keep a parallel shape with the marginal parodontius of
the remaining teeth
3. avoiding the proeminent structures of the prosthetic field (proeminent torrus, palatal rugi)
of which values differ
4. ??Despovarare?? when the major connector has a passive relation to the underlying tissue,
without producing lessions
36. The characteristics of the maxillary major connector
-Width is equal to the width of the edentation
-thickness of 0,4-0,6mm

- the muccosal side of the connector will have the marginal lines thickened out (in relief), this way it
will ensure a better marginal closing and avoid food coming in
- the connector will only keep distance from the underlying fibromuccosal palatal tissue in case of a
proeminent torrus or a proeminent medial RAFEU. all the rest of it will have an intimate contact with
the palate

37. 197 -. Indications of the muccosal plate with reduced width

- in reduced laterla or latero-lateral edentations (class III or class III+1) in which the RPD has
dento-parodontal support.
In this case, the connector will have a passive contact with the mucosa under it, becasue it
transferres the masticatory pressures directly to the teeth

38. 198 - Indications of the muccosal plate with big width

- latero-terminal edentations (class II+1)
- uniterminal ed (cls II)
-termino-terminal ed (cls I)

39 199 - How to you obtain the profilaxy of the marginal parodontius in a mucosal
plate with high width?
through: DECOLETATION (the distance from the marginal P will be 5-6 mm)
and through: DESPOVARARE (meaning avoiding) the sensible areas: maxillary torus (0,3 1mm)
median rafeu (0,2-0,4mm)
palatal ruga (0,2-0,3 mm)

40 201 - Indication, ADV and DISADV of the palatal plate cut in "U" shape
Ind: different types of edentations, but in patients with big palatal torus, when it cant be
surgically remodeled
ADV: in big edentolous spaces , even in frontal edentation
DISADV: has reduced rezistance to flexion!

41. 202 - Reduced distal mucosal dental plate: indications, av, disadvantaged
Ind: different edntations associated with palatine torus which is big and on the posterior 1/3 or
posterior 2/3

Any Kennedy class with frontal modifications

Dez: deformity through flexion on masticatory forces
42. 204 - Indications for the full dental plate
- Toothless large terminal edentation with reduced number of remaining teeth in the frontal
- Toothless with reduced periodontal value on remaining teeth
- Toothless combined with little remaining teeth scattered in different areas of the arch
- Atrophied alveolar ridge
- Large edentulous spaces with grouped remaining teeth situated on a reduced area of the arch

43.208 - Characteristics of mandibular major connectors

-generally major connectors are long and relatively narrow
-The design should be chosen to obtain stiffness without causing discomfort.
It should not interfere with the movement of the lingual frenulum and the floor of the mouth
and to put pressure on the mandibular toruses
Unlike the maxillary major connectors which needs distancing in small areas sensitive to
pressure for the mandibular major connectors always needs distancing against the underlying
soft tissue
-Value of the distancing depends on: -Type support
-Tilting of the frontal alveolar process
-Resilience alveolar ridge mucosa
44. 208 - factors on which the mandibular major connector Value of the distancing
depends on

-Type support
-Tilting of the frontal alveolar process
-Resilience alveolar ridge mucosa
210 - Lingual bar
The most used mandibular major connector
Position: placed towards the lingual slope of the alveolar ridge between marignal periodontal
tissue of remaining teeth and lingual sac, marked by the highest placement of the functional
floor of the mouth
Upper limit is placed at a distance of 3mm of the periodontal tissue
Lower limit is at the highest positions of the functionality floor of the mouth or by other
authors to 1mm above the insertion of the floor of the mouth
Profile: Designed to provide mechanical rigidity and stiffens. Without creating discomfort
Height: 4-5mm
Thickness: 1mm upper limit, 3m lower limit
Limits rounded. In order to use the lingual bar: 9-10mm of height are necessary in the central
frontal area of the alveolar ridge
Depovarare: no contact of the denture with muco-ossos structures
Spacing: from 0.3-2mm alveolar proc muc
46. 212 how much is the spacing between the lingual bar and the attached mucosa
Dist :0.3-2mm
Depending on: the removable denture support (dental-paradotal support min 0.3mm, dentalmucosal depending on the retention of the lingual process) and also the retention of the
lingual process and resiliency of the alveolar mucosa
47. 214 - Areas of minimum resistance of the lingual bar
This areas are placed in the middle of its length with the metallic saddles and also almost at
the junction with the minor connectors which impose prevention measures against its

214 prevention messures against the fracture of the lingual bar

- The bar will have bigger thicknes and height in the middle area to increase the mechanical
- Distal limit of the bar has 2 steps on the internal and external surface
Angles are rounded, the bar is thicker
49. 217 Measures of the prophylactic role - Kennedy double lingual bar
-the clasps will have occlusal rests on booth endings placed more anterior than the mesial
fosses of the first PM and with the function of preventing the movement in gingival direction
of the connector with disorthodontic effects on teeth
-to increase the clasp by the continues claps support on the frontal remaining teeth we can add
rests on the canines and incisal rests on the incisors
-continuous clasp application will be made only if the space between the upper limit of the bar
and lingual cingulum on front teeth is wide enough to ensure self-cleaning
50. Advantages Kennedy 217 bar (doubble bar)
-expands in the direct maintenance towards anterior only if it uses oclusal rests in booth
-Helps the H stabilization of the denture because it transfers stress to the remaining teeth in
contact to the denture
-Increase dental periodontal support of the denture
-Increases mechanical strength and stiffness prosthesis
-Allow the salivary flow to stimulate the gum trophicity
-allows equal distribution of the forces
-Allows replacing of a lost frontal tooth by adding a prosthetic tooth to the continues clasp
-By diverting the path to form a loop at the level of the continues clasp it hides the metal from
the diastema
51. 218 indications advantages and disadvantages of the lingual dental plate
- All types of edentulous mandible with advanced atrophy of the alveolar ridge
- High muscular insertion and high lingual frenulum and gingival retraction
- remaining teeth with low periodontal value

- Keeping your teeth for a limited period of time

- Patients with mandibular torii
- edentations with frontal modifications
The most recommended main connector for treating frontal area endentiotions
Often more comfortable than lingual bar
High stiffness
All the advantages of the kennedy bar (double bar)
Allows stabilization through indirect maintainers systems applied on the half arch with no
missing teeth
High coverage of the lingual surface which cases enamel demineralization and lesions
Incorrect support (disorthodontic effect)
52. 223 - Dental major connector
-Is rarely used due to its low stiffness and poor mechanical strength which dosent ensure the
reliability of the whole prosthetic
-In the presence of high vertical frontal teeth with well expressed anatomy on the lingual
-inserted close to the marginal periodontal tissue of the remaining teeth which doesnt allow
choice of major connector such as dental plate. Dental major connector has the features of a
continues clasp its width and thickness being larger than the continues clasp ones
On the lingual side of incisors and canines
Upper limits close to incisal edge or overs it
Lower limits at the level of the cingulum

In the interdental area it reaches the contact points without effecting the periodontal
embressure which are placed under
Covers the incisal edge or the incisal rest placed in a correctly prepared places ensuring the
support for the dental connector and meanwhile dental periodontal support of the denture
added to muco-ossos (mixed)
At the terminal endings the dental connector continuous with the saddles
Thickness: average 1.7 to 2 mm
53. 224 - Buccal bar
Used very rarely when the situation dosent allow the use of a lingual major connector
-Malpositions or lingulized reaming frontal teeth which would impose placing of the lingual
bar in a big distance from the alveolar ridge occupying the functional space of the tongue
-Presence of large mandibular torus impposible to surround by the lingual bar or spacing
through dental plate
- A very retentive alveolar ridge which will impose a big spacing of the lingual bar
Form sections: semi pear shaped
Being placed on the external slope of the mandible the length of the buccal bar is bigger than
the lingual bar or dental plate which is why to ensure the right stiffness and mechanical
resistance its width and thickness will be increased
Towards the prosthetic saddle the buccal bar will have two steps on the external and mucosal
surface with 1mm of width to ensure progressive transferring from metal to acrylic elemt of
the saddle
Disadvantages: thickness and width create discomfort, bad esthetics and irritative lesions.
This is why buccal bar is used as last choice or as a modification to the dental plate (swing
54. 227 - Features of cast clasps
Have contact with the abutment tooth favoring food retention and forming bacterial plaque
It creates abrasion on the hard tissues on which they are applied through daily maneuvers
Transmitting high forces to the abutment teeth because of their stiffness
Their flexibility depends on the retentive arm length and thickness
The activity of the retentive arm can be done only in buccu-lingual direction

If the flexible arm fractures the cast clasp must be replaced with a wire one

55. 228 - Cast clasps functions (7)

Maintenance assured by the flexible arm placed in the subeqautor area
Support assured by the rest and also the other rigid parts which are supraequator
Stabilization in anterior posterior direction and horizontal direction
Encirclement the clasp should surrond the tooth for at least 180dgr
Reciprocity the clasp is nutrulizing the disorthodontic effect of the flexible arm in the moment
of insertion and removal and this is assured by either cast arm or the lingual plate or
combination of 2 minor connectors such as RPI claps
indirect maintaining extra rest or clasp perpendicular to the main fulcrom line

228 What factors prevent detachment pps?

- Flexible arm of the clasps and special elements to maintain, support and stability.
The maintaining function is assured by the flexible arm of the retentive (flexible) arm placed
in the subeqatour are of the abutment tooth
57. 228 a good retention requires in the planning of the clasp
It depends on the design
The retentive arm should have contact with the subeqatour just through its terminal part
The rest must ensure support in a way that the flexible part of the retentive arm maintains its
best position
The minor connector must be rigid enough to ensure stability and proper function of each part
of the clasp
Opposing arm must have slight contact to the abutment tooth before the retentive arm reaches
it and must maintain this contact until the denture is properly applied
The clasp elements must ensure enough encircling to prevent displacement of the tooth to
respect the clasp

58. Factors which influence the value of the retention

1. the flexibility degree of the terminal portion of the retentive arm
2. the size of the retentivity of the underequatorial area of the abutment tooth
3. the type of clasp
4. the degree of friction between the tooth and the clasp

58. How do you correct an angle of gingival convergence that is too big?
- by placing the tip of the retentive arm closer to the prosthetic equator
- by remodeling the dental surface and reducing this angle
60. Preparation of the teeth with high gingival convergence angle.
hmm its not really the answer to the question, but what the hell
so the angle is established between the analitic pole of the paralelograf device and the axial
surface of the tooth, but under its prosthetic equator.
The higher this angle is, the harder it is to remove the RPD, and this can be an advantage or a
disadvantage depending on the situation

61. The means which oppose clogging (it actually means what elements keep the RPD from
moving towards the gingiva; aka the vertical moving of it in direction to the gingiva! very
important this question!)
about the terminal RPD, the ones which have mixed support, because otherwise if u would
have abutment teeth on both sides of the edentulous space, then the rests would be the ones
opposing the clog.
1. Taking the impression under compression, which will give out the functional form of the
muccosa of the alveolar crest
2. the maximum extension of the saddles, within the limits of the prosthetic field
3. the maxillary major connectors with large covering surface
4. the reoptimising of the saddles; by repairing it and rebuilding the base from time to time
5. avoid incising (byteing) food with the prosthetic teeth
62. The factors that influence the support on the abutment teeth (this is basically the elements
that oppose the vertical moment towards the gingiva, but! like i said in the previous statement,
this time i think its about the ROD with dento-parodontal support)
1. The rests
2. the BODY of the clasp
3. the opposing arm (the rigid one)
4. the over equatorial part of the retentive arm
**so basically what u got here are all the elements which stay above the equator, which makes
it logical because they cant pass under the equator so thats why they ensure the support

63. Support - the number of rests and their placement depends on what?
- class of edentation
- the number of edentulous spaces
- the topography of the remaining teeth
- the concept of the prosthesis
- the value of the dento-parodontal support
64. How do you obtain transversal stability of an RPD?
- by applying the rigid elements of the clasps bilaterally, on both hemiarches
- through the friction of the elements of the RPD and the guiding planes, in reduced frontal
- by extending the rigid arms on 2 or more teeth
- by using ento-muccosal major connectors
65. How do you obtain saggital stability of an RPD?
- by placing the rigid elements of the clasps on the proximal sides of the abutment teeth, in
lateral or terminal edentations, and then placing counterbalancing elements in the anterior
area of the arch
66. What kind of support will a class III Kennedy RPD have?
- obviously dento-parodontal support, ensured by the rests placed on the fossetas adjacent to
the edentulous space and all the over equatorial elements of the clasp
67. The major role of the elements of indirect maintaining!
= will stop the tipping movements of the RPD (movements of BASCULARE)
68. The main and secondary roles of the elements of indirect maintaining
1. stopping the tipping of the RPD
2. contributes to the support and stabilising the RPD
69. The effectiveness of the elements of indirect maintaining depends on?
- the making of the clasp, in such an ensemble which will ensure the perfect conditions of
good retention:
1. the retentive arm must take contact with the underequatorial part of the tooth only in
its terminal part (just the tip)
2. th rest must ensure the proper support for the clasp, in such a way that the elastic arm
will stay in its optimal position
3. the secondary connector must be rigid in order to ensure its adequate function

4. !! very important: the opposing arm (the rigid one) must take contact with the tooth
before the rigid one does, and must maintain this contact until the RPD is in final position
5. the components of the clasp must ensure a sufficient encircling on the tooth, so that
the movement of this tooth is avoided
70. Group characteristics of all the circular clasps FML!!
- tight contact with abutment tooth and have a high encircling surface (they say under 180dgr,
weird) and thus obtain good maintaining by friction, but can cause demineralisation of the
enamel in patients with low hygiene
- produces discomfort because it stays on the abutment tooth, making it feel bigger in mouth
- the retentive arm is visible (usually on the vestibular side it stays), so its nonesthetic
- the design of the retentive arm is of a bent line (never straight), and the tip of it, although it
initially goes towards the gingiva, will be towards the occlusal side (just the tip). This design
will give the arm a certain flexibility
- the retentive arms will exploit the retentivities of the buccal and oral sides of the tooth, it
will never end at the middle of these surfaces
- usually for these circular clasps, a area with retentive value of 0,25 is sufficient
- in case of terminal dentition, where the saddle is "in extension", because it can fuck up the
abutment tooth, the clasps will be placed starting from the opposing foseta, and in this way it
will use the disto-buccal retentive area of the tooth (i hope u understand this shit because its
quite complicated to explain in writing)

71. Indications of the Ackers clasps with edental opening

- is used when the favourable retentive area is located towards the dentition, on the buccal
- indicate in ed class I and II Kennedy
72. Indication and components of the Nally-Martinez clasp
Ind: - terminal edentations with edentations higher than 1-2 teeth missing.
also it is less visible than the Ackers clasp
Components: - the body of the clasp will be placed in the mesial (ambrazura, the crest next to
a fosetta) of the abutment tooth
- the rest will be placed in the mesial fosetta
- the opposing arm will stay overequatorial on the oral side and will be
continued on the buccal side by the retentive arm
- the retentive arm will end in the mesio-buccal area of the tooth (under the
equator obviously)
- the secondary connector, interdental, will connect it with the major connector
73. The 4 arm ring clasp
Indication: lateral edentations , especially when the distal abutment tooth is an isolated molar
in case of an isolated M2, which is tilted
in case of isolated abutment teeth, between 2 edentations
74. Indications of Bonwill clasp
- in an integral arch, in dentition class I and IV, placed between 2 molar, or 2 premolars, or

one molar and one premolar

- in extended edentation, where there is the need of rebuilding the contact point between 2
- in extended terminal edentations, it can stay on C and PM
75. Characteristics of Roach clasp
Group characteristics: - clasp is divided in 2 parts:
- the rigid part ( = rest + opposing arm + secondary proximal
- elastic part = retentive arm with its own secondary connector,
which connects it to the saddle
the retentive arm: - will access the retentive area of the tooth, by coming from the gingiva,
and obtains retention by pushing
- the flexibility of the arm depends on its length and its uniform thinning
until its tip 0_0
- are more aesthetic, because its coming from the gingiva
- can be adapted to the retentive area
76. Indications of the "T" clasp
- uni- or biterminal edentations, when the favourable retention is located disto-buccal
- lateral edentations when the abutment tooth is visible in smiling or talking
77. Counterindications of the "T" clasp
- terminal edentations when the favourable retentive area is mesio-buccal
- when the prosthetic equator has a high position on the tooth
- if u have an exaggerated retentivity of the alveolar process exactly in the area that where the
secondary connector passes
78. Indications of the "semi-T" and the "Y' clasps
semi-T: terminal or lateral ed, when the abutment teeth are canines or premolars, which are
visible in smiling, eating, etc
Y: is like the "T" clasp, but u use this one when the prosthetic equator has a atypical shape,
tilted coming from the gingival and going up to the occlusal side
79. The Bonyard divided in "T" clasp
Indications: - terminal ed with abutment teeth with reduced periodontal value
80. Classification of the atypical Roach clasps
by topography of abutment teeth:
1. clasps on frontal teeth: mesio-distal claws
2. clasps on Molars: the unbar clasp
the ring clasp
81. Ney 1-6 clasps

uni- or bidental

1 to 4 are biactive
5 to 6 are mono active
The Ney biactive:
Characteristics: are biactive clasps, both arms are retentive
- the 2 arms are placed approximately at the same level horizontally => good reciprocity
- are indicated on teeth with favourable retentivities placed on the vestibulary side as well as
oral side (obviously, because they're biactive daah)
- ensures just a relative stability because of the flexibility of both arms
Ney monoactive:
- are clasps with similar posterior action like the ring clasp with 3 arms or 4 arms
- a characteristic of this is the eccentric position of the body of the clasp and its secondary
connector, from which the opposing rigid arm starts, which continues with the occlusal rest
and the retentive arm (hmm i realise this must be tricky for u to understand without any
pictures, you should google some)
82. Components of the RPI clasp ! Important!
occlusal rest
proximal plate
retentive arm divided in "I"

83. Adv of RPI system

- protects the abutment teeth from the bad forces of torsion that occur in the biodonamics of
terminal saddles
- relatively aesthetic
- improves the maintaining by limiting the insertion and removal path
- there is reciprocity during insertion and removal of prosthesis
- protect the parodontium of the abutment teeth from food impact
- favourable distribution of forces on the remaining teeth
84. ADV/DISADV of mixed clasps
- can be applied on teeth with large retentivities because of the high flexibility of the arms
- the wire arms can be activated in all planes
- the brocken wire arms can be replaced easily
- bla bla irrelevant
- in time the wire arms will deactivate and their action will become random and thus can
cancel the passive function
- the adaptation of the wire arms is less precise compared to the normal ones
- reaffixing a wire arm by repouring will result in modification of the structure with reduction
of the resistance of the wire at the location where it was heated 0_0 0_0

85. Indirect maintaining elements

- the elements of the skeleton, which avoid movement of the RPD
- auxiliary rests, placed on the other side of the rotation axis, at the most farthest point
(longest distance)
- the occlusal rests allow the orientation of the forces in the long axis of the abutment teeth
86. Auxiliary elements of maintaining, support and stabilisation
= adhesion/ anatomical retentivities / muscular tonicity
+ with secondary role: the friction between abutment teeth and the elements of RPD / the
degree of finalisation of RPD / the dento-dental contacts
87. The classification of the secondary connectors according to their topography and their role
- secondari proximal connectors
- secondary interdental ctc
- own secondary ctc belonging to the retentive arms of the divided clasps
- secondary ctc of strengthening in the ring clasp with 4 arms
Role: was not in the answers

88. Secondary proximal connectors

- are placed on adjacent proximal sides of the abutment teeth
- in class III K, the secondary ctc connects the rest to the saddle
- in class I or II K, they usually use rests placed in the mesial fosetta of the abutment tooth. In
these conditions, the proximal secondary ctc can be assimilated to the proximal plates (from
the RPI clasps)
- in reduced frontal edentations: is not used because is not fisionomical
- in frontal large edentations: in which the prosthetic saddle behaves as a saddle in extension,
it is preferred to place the rests in the fosseta which is opposed to the edentulous space, where
the secondary connectors are interdental
89. The factors which influence the stress transmitted to the abutment teeth
- the length of the edentulous space
- the quality of the edentulous crest: well represented, thick purist, no pathologies
- the flexibility of the retentive arm of the clasp: high flexibility of the arm associates with
reduced horizontal stability
- the conception of the clasp: must make contact with abutment tooth before the retentive arm
passes the prosthetic equator
- the material from which the clasp is made: Chrome produces higher forces than gold
- the characteristics of the dental surface covered by rest: ex: the friction btw a clasp and a
metallic crown is higher than with normal tooth
90. Factors on which the stability of the insertion axis of the RPD depend

- the presence of areas of favourable retention

- the elimination of the mucosal-bone and dental interferences
- ensuring the aesthetic ??
- establishing the guidance planes
91. How do you make the mixed-rigid support?
- by having a secondary connector short and thick, placed proximally, adjacent to the
edentulous space
- by special systems like CULISE (slides)
92. Advantages of rigid connection
- stabilises occlusion
- maintains the ratio btw the remaining teeth and the skeleton of RPD
- reduced solidity of edentulous crests
93. General rules in choosing the clasps
- the practitioner will use the simplest clasps, that answer to the objectives of treatment
- all clasps will ensure a good stability, will be passive when not in use (when patient eats and
speaks) and will allow slight movements of the saddle that is in extension, without generating
torsion forces on the abutment teeth
- strategic positioning of the clasp for optimal control over the generated forces on the
abutment teeth, will take into consideration the location of the favourable retention area on the
teeth adjacent to the terminal edentulous space, situated on both sides of the dental arch 0_0
94. Objectives for when you do the endooral probe of the metallic skeleton
- the adaptation of the skeleton on the dental and mucosal-bone tissues
checking and adjusting of the occlusal relations
95. Classification of the impressions
1. documentary impression
2. preliminary impression
3. functional impression
a. the individual spoon made from acrylic , with a medium consistency elastomer
b. compressive functional impressions:
- double dissociated impressions
- compressive fisiological and selective impressions
- functional compressive impression through the functional lining method
4. final impression
96. Factors which influence the value of the pressure applied on the mucosal-bone site during
the functional compressive impression
1. the degree of resilience of the fibromucosa of the edentulous crests
2. the bone of the edentulous crest
3. treatment plan and project of the RPD
4. the surface of the edentulous pula mea crest, with the possibility of exploitation
5. the anatomy of the mucosal-bone support areas

97. A V C clinical faze ??? wtf - the steps which succeed after the application of the RPD in
applying and adaptation of prosthesis on prosthetic field
the control of the adaptation of the patient with RPD
dispensary (exemption) of patient
98. The Covering (CAPTUSIRE) indications, methods of identifying the necessity of
covering (the rotation test)
- the metallic skeleton is in perfect condition
- extension and marginal modelling of the saddles correctly done
- the artificial teeth with good morphology and position
- balanced occlusion (or need minimal adjusting)
The necessity of covering will be known by the rotation test:
- applying alternative pressures on the distal extremity of the saddle and of the indirect
maintaining elements (counterbalancing). if RPD tilts => test is positive
if the tilting is more than 2mm => needs covering
- applying soft alginate on the muccosal side of the saddle and maintaining the prosthesis
through pressure on the support elements. by measuring the thickness of the alginate, u will
know the necessity of reoptimising it
99. Rebaseing (adding to the base)
- rotation test is positive, the ugly aspect of the edges of the prosthesis and food retention
demonstrates a lack in the adaptation of the prosthesis at the periphery of the prosthetic field
-the unaesthetic aspect of the base of the RPD resulted from multiple coverings and repairings
- the acrylic component is ugly colour or has a high degree of porosity