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FourteenPointsWikipedia

FourteenPoints
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheFourteenPointswasastatementofprinciplesforworldpeacethat
wastobeusedforpeacenegotiationsinordertoendWorldWarI.The
principleswereoutlinedinaJanuary8,1918speechonwaraimsandpeace
termstotheUnitedStatesCongressbyPresidentWoodrowWilson.
EuropeansgenerallywelcomedWilson'spoints[1]buthismainAllied
colleagues(GeorgesClemenceauofFrance,DavidLloydGeorgeofthe
UnitedKingdom,andVittorioOrlandoofItaly)wereskepticalofthe
applicabilityofWilsonianidealism.[2]
TheUnitedStateshadjoinedtheAlliedPowersinfightingtheCentral
PowersonApril6,1917.Itsentryintothewarhadinpartbeendueto
Germany'sresumptionofsubmarinewarfareagainstmerchantshipstrading
withFranceandBritain.However,WilsonwantedtoavoidtheUnited
States'involvementinthelongstandingEuropeantensionsbetweenthe
greatpowersifAmericawasgoingtofight,hewantedtotrytounlinkthe
warfromnationalisticdisputesorambitions.Theneedformoralaimswas
U.S.PresidentWoodrowWilson
mademoreimportant,whenafterthefalloftheRussiangovernment,the
BolsheviksdisclosedsecrettreatiesmadebetweentheAllies.Wilson's
speechalsorespondedtoVladimirLenin'sDecreeonPeaceofNovember1917,immediatelyaftertheOctober
Revolution,whichproposedanimmediatewithdrawalofRussiafromthewar,calledforajustanddemocratic
peacethatwasnotcompromisedbyterritorialannexations,andledtotheTreatyofBrestLitovskonMarch3,
1918.
ThespeechmadebyWilsontookmanydomesticprogressiveideasandtranslatedthemintoforeignpolicy(free
trade,openagreements,democracyandselfdetermination).TheFourteenPointsspeechwastheonlyexplicit
statementofwaraimsbyanyofthenationsfightinginWorldWarI.Somebelligerentsgavegeneralindicationsof
theiraims,butmostkepttheirpostwargoalsprivate.TheFourteenPointsinthespeechwerebasedonthe
researchoftheInquiry,ateamofabout150advisersledbyforeignpolicyadviserEdwardM.House,intothe
topicslikelytoariseintheanticipatedpeaceconference.

Contents
1 Background
2 Speech
3 Reaction
3.1 ReactionbytheAllies
3.2 ReactionbytheCentralPowers
3.3 ReactionbyTheodoreRoosevelt
3.4 Wilson'sspeechvs.TreatyofVersailles
3.5 NobelPeacePrize
4 TheFourteenPoints
4.1 Diplomaticissues
4.2 Territorialissues
4.3 LeagueofNations
5 Seealso
6 Notes
7 References
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7 References
8 Externallinks

Background
TheimmediatecauseoftheUnitedStatesentryintoWorldWarIinApril
1917wastheGermanannouncementofrenewedunrestrictedsubmarine
warfareandthesubsequentsinkingofshipswithAmericansonboard.But
PresidentWilsonswaraimswentbeyondthedefenseofmaritimeinterests.
InhisWarMessagetoCongress,WilsondeclaredthattheUnitedStates'
objectivewastovindicatetheprinciplesofpeaceandjusticeinthelifeof
theworld.Inseveralspeechesearlierintheyear,Wilsonsketchedouthis
visionofanendtothewarthatwouldbringajustandsecurepeace,not
merelyanewbalanceofpower.[3]
PresidentWilsonsubsequentlyinitiatedasecretseriesofstudiesnamedthe
Inquiry,primarilyfocusedonEurope,andcarriedoutbyagroupinNew
Yorkwhichincludedgeographers,historiansandpoliticalscientiststhe
groupwasdirectedbyColonelHouse.[4]TheirjobwastostudyAlliedand
Americanpolicyinvirtuallyeveryregionoftheglobeandanalyze
economic,social,andpoliticalfactslikelytocomeupindiscussionsduring
OriginalFourteenPointsspeech,
thepeaceconference.[1]Thegroupproducedandcollectednearly2,000
January8,1918.
separatereportsanddocumentsplusatleast1,200maps.[1]Thestudies
culminatedinaspeechbyWilsontoCongressonJanuary8,1918,wherein
hearticulatedAmerica'slongtermwarobjectives.Thespeechwastheclearestexpressionofintentionmadeby
anyofthebelligerentnations,anditprojectedWilson'sprogressivedomesticpoliciesintotheinternational
arena.[4]

Speech
Thespeech,knownastheFourteenPoints,wasdevelopedfromasetofdiplomaticpointsbyWilson[5]and
territorialpointsdraftedbytheInquiry'sgeneralsecretary,WalterLippmann,andhiscolleagues,IsaiahBowman,
SidneyMezes,andDavidHunterMiller.[6]Lippmann'sdraftterritorialpointswereadirectresponsetothesecret
treatiesoftheEuropeanAllies,whichLippmanhadbeenshownbySecretaryofWarNewtonD.Baker.[6]
Lippman'staskaccordingtoHousewas"totakethesecrettreaties,analyzethepartswhichweretolerable,and
separatethemfromthosewhichweregardedasintolerable,andthendevelopapositionwhichconcededasmuch
totheAlliesasitcould,buttookawaythepoison....Itwasallkeyeduponthesecrettreaties."[6]
Inthespeech,Wilsondirectlyaddressedwhatheperceivedasthecausesfortheworldwarbycallingforthe
abolitionofsecrettreaties,areductioninarmaments,anadjustmentincolonialclaimsintheinterestsofboth
nativepeoplesandcolonists,andfreedomoftheseas.[1]Wilsonalsomadeproposalsthatwouldensureworld
peaceinthefuture.Forexample,heproposedtheremovalofeconomicbarriersbetweennations,thepromiseof
selfdeterminationfornationalminorities,[1]andaworldorganizationthatwouldguaranteethepolitical
independenceandterritorialintegrity[of]greatandsmallstatesalikeaLeagueofNations.[3]

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ThoughWilsonsidealismpervadestheFourteenPoints,healsohadmorepracticalobjectivesinmind.Hehoped
tokeepRussiainthewarbyconvincingtheBolsheviksthattheywouldreceiveabetterpeacefromtheAllies,to
bolsterAlliedmorale,andtoundermineGermanwarsupport.TheaddresswaswellreceivedintheUnitedStates
andAlliednations,andevenbyBolshevikleaderVladimirLenin,asalandmarkofenlightenmentininternational
relations.WilsonsubsequentlyusedtheFourteenPointsasthebasisfornegotiatingtheTreatyofVersaillesthat
endedthewar.[3]

Reaction
ReactionbytheAllies
PresidentWilsonatfirstconsideredabandoninghisspeechafterLloyd
GeorgedeliveredaspeechoutliningBritishwaraims,manyofwhichwere
similartoWilson'saspirations,atCaxtonHallonJanuary5,1918.Wilson
waspersuadedbyhisadviserColonelHousetogoahead,andhisspeech
overshadowedLloydGeorge's,andisbetterrememberedbyposterity.[7]
Thespeechwasmadewithoutpriorcoordinationorconsultationwith
Wilson'scounterpartsinEurope.Clemenceau,uponhearingoftheFourteen
Points,wassaidtohavesarcasticallyclaimedThegoodLordonlyhadten!
(LebonDieun'enavaitquedix!).Asamajorpublicstatementofwaraims,
itbecamethebasisforthetermsoftheGermansurrenderattheendofthe
FirstWorldWar.Afterthespeech,ColonelHouseworkedtosecurethe
acceptanceoftheFourteenPointsbyEntenteleaders.OnOctober16,1918,
PresidentWoodrowWilsonandSirWilliamWiseman,theheadofBritish
intelligenceinAmericahadaninterview.Thisinterviewwasonereason
whytheGermangovernmentacceptedtheFourteenPointsandthestated
principlesforpeacenegotiations.

Wilsonwithhis14pointschoosing
betweencompetingclaims.Babies
representclaimsoftheEnglish,
French,Italians,Polish,Russians,and
enemy.Americanpoliticalcartoon,
1919.

Thereportwasmadeasnegotiationpoints,andlatertheFourteenPoints
wereacceptedbyFranceandItalyonNovember1,1918.Britainlater
signedoffonallofthepointsexceptthefreedomoftheseas.[8]TheUnited
KingdomalsowantedGermanytomakereparationpaymentsforthewar,andthoughtthatthatshouldbeaddedto
theFourteenPoints.Thespeechwasdelivered10monthsbeforetheArmisticewithGermanyandbecamethe
basisforthetermsoftheGermansurrender,asnegotiatedattheParisPeaceConferencein1919.[9]

ReactionbytheCentralPowers
ThespeechwaswidelydisseminatedasaninstrumentofAlliedpropagandaandwastranslatedintomany
languagesforglobaldissemination.[10]CopieswerealsodroppedbehindGermanlines,toencouragetheCentral
Powerstosurrenderintheexpectationofajustsettlement.[1]Indeed,inanotesenttoWilsonbyPrinceMaximilian
ofBaden,theGermanimperialchancellor,inOctober1918requestedanimmediatearmisticeandpeace
negotiationsonthebasisoftheFourteenPoints.[11]

ReactionbyTheodoreRoosevelt
TheodoreRooseveltinanarticleTheLeagueofNationspublishedbyMetropolitanMagazine(January1919)
warned:IftheLeagueofNationsisbuiltonadocumentashighsoundingandasmeaninglessasthespeechin
whichMr.Wilsonlaiddownhisfourteenpoints,itwillsimplyaddonemorescraptothediplomaticwastepaper
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basket.Mostofthesefourteenpointswouldbeinterpretedtomeananythingornothing."[12]

Wilson'sspeechvs.TreatyofVersailles
PresidentWilsonbecamephysicallyillatthebeginningoftheParisPeaceConference,givingwaytoFrenchPrime
MinisterGeorgesClemenceautoadvancedemandssubstantiallydifferentfromWilson'sFourteenPoints.
ClemenceauviewedGermanyashavingunfairlyattainedaneconomicvictoryoverFrance,duetotheheavy
damageGermanforcesdealttoFrance'sindustriesevenduringtheGermanretreat,andexpresseddissatisfaction
withFrance'salliesatthepeaceconference.
Notably,Article231oftheTreatyofVersailles,whichwouldbecomeknownastheWarGuiltClause,wasseenby
theGermansasassigningfullresponsibilityforthewaranditsdamagesonGermanyhowever,thesameclause
wasincludedinallpeacetreatiesandhistorianSallyMarkshasnotedthatonlyGermandiplomatssawitas
assigningresponsibilityforthewar.Theallieswouldinitiallyassess269billionmarksinreparations.In1921,this
figurewasestablishedat132billionmarks.However,onlyafractionofthistotalhadtobepaid.Thefigurewas
designedtolookimposingandshowthepublicthatGermanywasbeingpunished,whileitalsorecognizedwhat
Germanycouldnotrealisticallypay.Germany'sabilityandwillingnesstopaythatsumcontinuestobeatopicof
debateamonghistorians.Germanywasalsodeniedanairforce,andtheGermanarmywasnottoexceed100,000
men.
ThetextoftheFourteenPointshadbeenwidelydistributedinGermanyaspropagandapriortotheendofthewar,
andwaswellknownbytheGermans.ThedifferencesbetweenthisdocumentandthefinalTreatyofVersailles
fueledgreatangerinGermany.[13]GermanoutrageoverreparationsandtheWarGuiltClauseisviewedasalikely
contributingfactortotheriseofnationalsocialism.AttheendofWorldWarI,foreignarmieshadonlyentered
Germany'sprewarborderstwice:theadvanceofRussiantroopsintotheEasternborderofPrussia,andfollowing
theBattleofMulhousethesettlementoftheFrencharmyintheThannvalley.ThislackofanyimportantAllied
incursionscontributedtothepopularizationoftheStabinthebackmythinGermanyafterthewar.

NobelPeacePrize
WoodrowWilsonwasawardedthe1919NobelPeacePrize,forhispeacemakingefforts.

TheFourteenPoints
InhisspeechtoCongress,PresidentWilsondeclaredfourteenpointswhich
heregardedastheonlypossiblebasisofanenduringpeace.Theywere
accordingtohim:[14]

Wikisourcehasoriginal
textrelatedtothisarticle:
FourteenPointsSpeech

Diplomaticissues
I.Opencovenantsofpeace,openlyarrivedat,afterwhichthereshallbenoprivateinternational
understandingsofanykindbutdiplomacyshallproceedalwaysfranklyandinthepublicview.
II.Absolutefreedomofnavigationupontheseas,outsideterritorialwaters,alikeinpeaceandinwar,except
astheseasmaybeclosedinwholeorinpartbyinternationalactionfortheenforcementofinternational
covenants.
III.Theremoval,sofaraspossible,ofalleconomicbarriersandtheestablishmentofanequalityoftrade
conditionsamongallthenationsconsentingtothepeaceandassociatingthemselvesforitsmaintenance.

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IV.Adequateguaranteesgivenandtakenthatnationalarmamentswillbereducedtothelowestpoint
consistentwithdomesticsafety.
V.Afree,openminded,andabsolutelyimpartialadjustmentofallcolonialclaims,baseduponastrict
observanceoftheprinciplethatindeterminingallsuchquestionsofsovereigntytheinterestsofthe
populationsconcernedmusthaveequalweightwiththeequitablegovernmentwhosetitleistobe
determined.

Territorialissues
VI.TheevacuationofallRussianterritoryandsuchasettlementof
allquestionsaffectingRussiaaswillsecurethebestandfreest
cooperationoftheothernationsoftheworldinobtainingforheran
unhamperedandunembarrassedopportunityfortheindependent
determinationofherownpoliticaldevelopmentandnationalpolicy
andassureherofasincerewelcomeintothesocietyoffreenations
underinstitutionsofherownchoosingand,morethanawelcome,
assistancealsoofeverykindthatshemayneedandmayherself
desire.ThetreatmentaccordedRussiabyhersisternationsinthe
monthstocomewillbetheacidtestoftheirgoodwill,oftheir
comprehensionofherneedsasdistinguishedfromtheirown
interests,andoftheirintelligentandunselfishsympathy.
VII.Belgium,thewholeworldwillagree,mustbeevacuatedand
restored,withoutanyattempttolimitthesovereigntywhichshe
enjoysincommonwithallotherfreenations.Noothersingleactwill
serveasthiswillservetorestoreconfidenceamongthenationsinthe
lawswhichtheyhavethemselvessetanddeterminedforthe
governmentoftheirrelationswithoneanother.Withoutthishealing
actthewholestructureandvalidityofinternationallawisforever
impaired.

Wilson'sFourteenPointsastheonly
waytopeaceforGerman
government,Americanpolitical
cartoon,1918.

VIII.AllFrenchterritoryshouldbefreedandtheinvadedportionsrestored,andthewrongdonetoFrance
byPrussiain1871inthematterofAlsaceLorraine,whichhasunsettledthepeaceoftheworldfornearly
fiftyyears,shouldberighted,inorderthatpeacemayoncemorebemadesecureintheinterestofall.
IX.AreadjustmentofthefrontiersofItalyshouldbeeffectedalongclearlyrecognizablelinesofnationality.
X.ThepeopleofAustriaHungary,whoseplaceamongthenationswewishtoseesafeguardedandassured,
shouldbeaccordedthefreestopportunitytoautonomousdevelopment.
XI.Romania,Serbia,andMontenegroshouldbeevacuatedoccupiedterritoriesrestoredSerbiaaccorded
freeandsecureaccesstotheseaandtherelationsoftheseveralBalkanstatestooneanotherdeterminedby
friendlycounselalonghistoricallyestablishedlinesofallegianceandnationalityandinternational
guaranteesofthepoliticalandeconomicindependenceandterritorialintegrityoftheseveralBalkanstates
shouldbeenteredinto.
XII.TheTurkishportionofthepresentOttomanEmpireshouldbeassuredasecuresovereignty,butthe
othernationalitieswhicharenowunderTurkishruleshouldbeassuredanundoubtedsecurityoflifeandan
absolutelyunmolestedopportunityofautonomousdevelopment,andtheDardanellesshouldbepermanently
openedasafreepassagetotheshipsandcommerceofallnationsunderinternationalguarantees.
XIII.AnindependentPolishstateshouldbeerectedwhichshouldincludetheterritoriesinhabitedby
indisputablyPolishpopulations,whichshouldbeassuredafreeandsecureaccesstothesea,andwhose
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politicalandeconomicindependenceandterritorialintegrityshouldbeguaranteedbyinternationalcovenant.

LeagueofNations
XIV.Ageneralassociationofnationsmustbeformedunderspecificcovenantsforthepurposeofaffording
mutualguaranteesofpoliticalindependenceandterritorialintegritytogreatandsmallstatesalike.

Seealso
TheInquiry
WalterLippmann
ColonelHouse
ParisPeaceConference
LeagueofNations

Notes
1."PresidentWoodrowWilson's14Points".www.ourdocuments.gov.Retrieved20151220.
2.IrwinUnger,TheseUnitedStates(2007)561.
3."Wilson'sFourteenPoints,191819141920MilestonesOfficeoftheHistorian".history.state.gov.Retrieved
20160102.
4.Heckscher,p.470.
5.Grief,Howard(20080101).TheLegalFoundationandBordersofIsraelUnderInternationalLaw:ATreatiseon
JewishSovereigntyOvertheLandofIsrael.MazoPublishers.p.297.ISBN9789657344521.
6.GodfreyHodgson,WoodrowWilson'sRightHand:TheLifeofColonelEdwardM.House(YaleUniversityPress,2006),
pp.16063.
7.Grigg2002,pp.3835
8.Grigg2002,pp.384
9.Hakim,Joy(2005).War,Peace,andAllThatJazz.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress.pp.1620.ISBN0195327233.
10.Heckscher,p.471.
11.Heckscher,pp.47988.
12.CitedinNewerRooseveltMessages,(ed.Griffith,William,NewYork:TheCurrentLiteraturePublishingCompany
1919).volIII,p1047.
13.TheConciseEncyclopediaofWorldHistory(editedbyJohnBowle),publisher:HutchinsonofLondon(GreatPortland
Street)printedbyTaylor,Garnett,Evans&co.in1958,chapter20byJohnPlamenatz(noISBNavailable)
14."AvalonProjectPresidentWoodrowWilson'sFourteenPoints".avalon.law.yale.edu.Retrieved20151220.

References
Ferguson,Niall(2006).TheWaroftheWorld:TwentiethCenturyConflictandtheDeclineoftheWest.New
York:PenguinPress.ISBN1594201005.
Grigg,John(2002).LloydGeorge:WarLeader.London:AllenLane.ISBN071399343X.
Heckscher,August(1991).WoodrowWilson.EastonPress.
MacMillan,Margaret(2001).Paris1919.ISBN0375760520.
Snell,JohnL.(1954)."WilsononGermanyandtheFourteenPoints".JournalofModernHistory.26(4):
364369.doi:10.1086/237737.JSTOR1876113.

Externallinks
Textandcommentary(http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=62)fromourdocuments.gov
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InterpretationofPresidentWilson'sFourteenPoints(http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/doc31.htm)by
ColonelHouse
"PresidentWilson'sFourteenPoints"fromtheWorldWarIDocumentArchive(http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/inde
x.php/President_Wilson's_Fourteen_Points)
Wilson'sshorthandnotes(http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm053.html)fromtheLibraryofCongress
ArthurBalfour'sspeechontheFourteenPointstoParliament,on27February1918firstworldwar.com(htt
p://www.firstworldwar.com/source/fourteenpoints_balfour.htm)
WoodrowWilsonLibrary(http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/coll/263.html)Wilson'sNoblePeacePrizeis
digitized.FromtheLibraryofCongress
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fourteen_Points&oldid=745158648"
Categories: SpeechesbyWoodrowWilson WorldWarIspeeches 1918ininternationalrelations
1918inpolitics 1918intheUnitedStates 1918works TreatyofVersailles
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