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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MOTHER TONGUE

BASED-MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (MTBMLE) PROGRAM IN SELECTED SCHOOL IN


MANILA FOR S.Y. 2012-2015
Jael C. Young
MBA Student
University of Sto. Tomas, Manila City, Philippines

Abstract
The Department of Education (DepEd) implemented the K to 12 Curriculum, beginning
S.Y. 2012-2013, to address the poor quality of basic education in our country. One of its features
is the Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) Program where the learners
first language (L1) will be used as the primary medium of instruction until the third grade.
The researcher decided to assess the extent to which the said program is achieving its
objectives. Specifically, the study will focus on the effect of the program to the academic
advancement (Mathematics) and language development of pupils in Emilio Jacinto Elementary
School, Tondo, Manila. The subjects of the study are the first batch of pupils under the new
curriculum and the last batch of pupils under the old curriculum.
The study utilized the descriptive quantitative method of research. Purposive sampling
was used in the selection of the subjects of the study. Only the Section 1 class was considered
and those pupils who were retained in this section comprised the total population. The data
needed were the grades of the pupils and the results of their Language Assessment for Primary
Grades (LAPG) Examination. The statistical tools that were used were Arithmetic mean, Pearson
Product Moment Coefficient of correlation and Linear Regression Model. PSSP was used in
interpreting the test results taking the Cronbach Alpha of 0.70 as the measure of reliability; and
taking 0.05 level (two-tailed) for existing significant relationship,
The results of the study showed that the first batch of pupils under the new curriculum
displayed better comprehension of the subject when they advanced to the third grade. Moreover,
there is a significant correlation between their LAPG Examination results in English and
Filipino. In the parameter estimates of linear regression analysis, the coefficient for the
independent variable (Filipino) is 1.089. Hence, for every unit increase of the test result in
Filipino, a 1.09 unit increase of the test result in English is predicted.
The study concludes that the inclusion of the MTB-MLE program under the new
curriculum improved the academic performance and fostered the language development of
young children.
Keywords: Mother tongue-based education, multilingual education, MTB-MLE, language
development, child-centric policies

Introduction
Education systems in developing and underdeveloped countries prefer to use their
national language or English as the medium of instruction in schools, instead using the particular
dialects in each region. Hence, an estimated 221 million children have difficulty using the
language with which they are taught in school. It is sad to note that this is based on the belief that
learning international languages will give children a competitive advantage later in life.
The Philippines is not spared from this ideology. In 1974 a Bilingual Language policy
was adopted stating that the English language will be used to teach Science and Math, whereas
the Filipino language will be used for the rest of the subjects. The policy also allowed the use of
the local vernaculars as an auxiliary or support language until the third grade. After the People
Power Revolution, the policy was revised where two minor revisions were made: (1) Filipino is
the national language of the Philippines and (2) Filipino and English are the official languages of
communication and media of instruction in schools/universities. Though the revised policy still
supported the use of local vernaculars, majority of the instructional materials were written in
either English or Filipino, even for communities where neither language were spoken at home.
The reliance on the English language was apparent as large part of the countrys Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) came from the remittances of overseas foreign workers and from
outsourced call centers located throughout the country. Thus in 2004, the administration of the
then President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo supported the use of the English language as the
primary medium of instruction in schools and universities.
Despite the efforts made by the government, local and foreign studies attest to the poor
quality of basic education in our country. According to the Department of Education (DepEd)
discussion paper on the Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program (2010), results of the National
Achievement Tests (NAT) for SY 2005-2010 showed that many students who finished basic
education do not possess the sufficient mastery of basic competencies. The NAT passing rate for
grade six in SY 2009-2010 is 69.21%. Despite the fact that this is already a 24% improvement on
the passing rate for SY 2005-2006, further reforms are still needed to achieve substantial
improvement. (DepEd Discussion Paper, 2010)
International tests results like the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
(TIMSS) also reflected the poor academic performances and low learning outcomes of the
Filipino students. TIMSS 2003 ranked the Philippines 34th out of 38 countries in HS II Math and
43rd out of 46 countries in HS Science. In 2008, even with only the science high schools
participating in the Advanced Mathematics category, the Philippines was ranked the lowest.
Foregoing premises considered, the DepEd in 2009 saw the need to revise the 2002 Basic
Education Program (BEP) into K to 12 BEP. One of the features under the new curriculum is the
inclusion of the Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Education Program (MTB-MLE) program
where the learners first language will be used as the primary medium of instruction until the
third grade. The said program relies on the results, from both local and international studies, that
children who receive schooling in their mother tongue displayed better comprehension on their
subjects as reflected in their academic performances in schools. Moreover, research also provides
convincing evidence that a second language (L2) is learned best when a first language (L1) has
been learned well.
Statement of the Problem
The researcher is particularly interested in the inclusion of this program under the new
curriculum, hence her decision to pursue this assessment of the status of MTB-MLE.

In this study, the researcher aims to determine the following: (1) the learning outcome in
Mathematics of the first batch of students under the new curriculum and the last batch of students
under the old curriculum and (2) the relationship on L2 of the first batch of students under the
new curriculum as they have gained mastery on their L1.
Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions:
1. Do the first batch of Grade 1 pupils under the new curriculum displayed better
comprehension in Mathematics as compared to the last batch of Grade 1 pupils under the
old curriculum?
2. Is there an improvement in the learning outcome in Mathematics of the first batch of
pupils under the new curriculum as compared to the last batch of pupils under the old
curriculum when they were in Grade 1 and when they advanced to Grade III?
3. Is there a significant correlation between the Language Assessment for Primary Grades
(LAPG) Examination results in English and Filipino for the first batch of pupils under the
new curriculum?
Theoretical Framework
The integration of MTB-MLE in the K to 12 BEP supports child-centric policies on
education. A child would have the confidence to express himself with ease in his native
language. There is no fear of committing mistakes since he is certain that he can understand what
is being discussed and what is being asked of him. This then encourages him to have an active
and greater participation in school programs and activities. It is without doubt that educating a
child in his home language will foster his cognitive development as well as academic
advancement.
Another major benefit of using the MTB-MLE approach is the foundation it builds for
attaining literacy in other languages (Cummins, 2000; Thomas and Collier, 1997). Two
hypothesis that relate to this desired outcome are the threshold level hypothesis and the
interdependence hypothesis.
Skutnabb-Tangas and Toukomaa (1976) developed the threshold level hypothesis as a
result of their research study on the case of Finnish children that have migrated to Sweden. They
found out that those students who were not able to gain mastery of their L1 and were required to
enrol immediately showed weaker school performance and lower competence in both Swedish
and Finnish. They characterized this low competence in both the first and second languages as
semilingualism, explaining that if the childs L1 is insufficiently developed, the foundation for
L2 is lacking. Thus, they proposed that the basis for the possible attainment of the threshold level
of L2 competence seems to be the level attained in the mother tongue (Skutnabb-Tangas and
Toukomaa, 1976).
Basing on the research studies of Skutnabb-Kangas and Toukomaa, Cummins (1984)
developed the interdependence hypothesis which further reiterated that the L2 competence
depends upon level attained in L1. In his study, he specified that there are two kinds of language
mastery: interpersonal communication and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP).
Interpersonal communication refers to oral communication skills used in day-to-day setting
while CALP is obtained when one can use a language in decontextualized ways. Cummins
concluded that if the students have achieved CALP in their mother tongue, said competence can
be easily transferred to L2 (Cummins, 1984).

Starting S.Y. 2012-2013, the MTB-MLE program has started in 921 schools including
those for children of indigenous people. In the DepEd Order No. 16, s. 2012, the following are
the objectives which the said program aims to develop:
1. Language development which establishes a strong education for success in school and
for lifelong learning;
2. Cognitive development which focuses on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS);
3. Academic development which prepares the learner to acquire mastery of competencies
in each of the learning areas; and
4. Socio-cultural awareness which enhances the pride of the learners heritage, language
and culture.
To help accomplish the said objectives, the implementation of MTB-MLE includes the
Mother Tongue as a learning/subject area. The Mother tongue as a subject and as the medium of
instruction will be introduced in Grade 1 for conceptual understanding. In addition, the L2
(Filipino language) will be introduced in the 1 st semester focusing on oral fluency while the other
skills, reading and writing, will be introduced in the 2 nd semester. Meanwhile, the L3 (English
language) will also be introduced in the 2nd semester focusing on oral fluency while the rest of
the skills will be considered in the 1st semester of Grade 2. Below is the table showing the
medium of instruction at the Elementary Level.
Figure 1

Source: K to 12 Toolkit (Resource Guide for Teacher Educators, School Administrators and Teachers)

Time allotment per subject has also been adjusted under the K to 12 BEP. Additional time
has been given to the new learning/subject area which is the Mother Tongue. On the other hand,
the daily time allotment for the English and Filipino subjects has been reduced. Same also has
been done with the subjects Science, Mathematics and Araling Panlipunan. Below is the table
showing the comparison of the learning areas and time allotment between the 2002 BEP and the
K to 12 BEP.
Figure 2

Source: K to 12 Toolkit (Resource Guide for Teacher Educators, School Administrators and Teachers)

The MTB-MLE program does not only involve changing the language of instruction and
translating the materials into local languages. It paved the way for the integration of the peoples
community knowledge as local writers, illustrators, cultural groups and other stakeholders were
tapped to create instructional materials that are based on their culture, history and reality- making
the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand.
Conceptual Framework

PROCESS

INPUT
Arithmetic Mean
OUTPUT
ch of pupils under the new curriculum and the last batch of pupils under the old curriculum
Effectiveness
Pearson Product
of MTB-MLE
Moment
program
Coefficient
for academic
of correlation
advancement as well as lan
nd Filipino for the first batch of pupils under the new curriculum
Linear Regression Analysis

Assumptions:
1. The first batch of Grade 1 pupils under the new curriculum have higher grades in
Mathematics than the last batch of Grade 1 pupils under the old curriculum.
2. The first batch of Grade 1 pupils under the new curriculum have achieved academic
advancement in Mathematics as they progressed to Grade III than the last batch of pupils
under the old curriculum.
3. The first batch of pupils under the new curriculum have gained literacy on L2 as they
have gained mastery of their L1.
Null Hypothesis:
1. The first batch of Grade 1 pupils under the new curriculum did not display better
comprehension in Mathematics as compared to the last batch of Grade 1 pupils under the
old curriculum.
2. There is no improvement in the learning outcome in Mathematics of the first batch of
pupils under the new curriculum as compared to the last batch of pupils under the old
curriculum when they were in Grade 1 and when they advanced to Grade III.
3. There is no significant correlation between the LAPG Examination results in English and
Filipino for the first batch of pupils under the new curriculum.

Significance of the Study


The success of any educational program depends on its implementation. The MTB-MLE
as part of the K to 12 BEP has been implemented starting S.Y. 2012-2013. But to date, the
number of researches made with regard to its implementation here in our country is significantly
few. This stresses the need to assess the extent to which the MTB-MLE is achieving its
objectives specifically designed to improve the overall learning outcomes of elementary students
from Grades 1 to 3.
This study could provide empirical data which could serve as basis on the effectiveness
of the MTB-MLE approach during the early stages of schooling particularly on academic
advancement of young children. Likewise, on the premise that a second/third language is learned
best when a child has gained mastery, which is both fluency and literacy, in his home language.
Moreover, the results of this study could attest to the move made by government to revise
the 2002 BEP into the K to 12 BEP, where one of its features is the integration of MTB-MLE.
This will also serve as an informative material for the policy makers in their pursuit to improve
the elementary education of our country.
Finally, this study could provide impetus to other educators to conduct further studies on
the same or other components of the K to 12 BEP.
Scope and Limitations
The scope of this study focused on the effectiveness of MTB-MLE particularly to the
academic advancement in Mathematics and language development of young children. It was
limited to the implementation of MTB-MLE in Emilio Jacinto Elementary School, Tondo,
Manila, hence, the Filipino language is considered as the L1/Mother Tongue while the English
language is considered as the L2.
The subjects of the study are the first batch of pupils under the new curriculum and the
last batch of pupils under the old curriculum. Only the Section 1 class was considered and those
pupils who were retained in this section comprised the total population.
The measurement for the academic advancement in Mathematics of the pupils is their
grade. Meanwhile, for the language development, their scores on the LAPG Examination for
English and Filipino were considered.
Factors affecting/contributing to the development of a child are excluded in this study.
Review of Related Literature
Developing and underdeveloped countries are characterized as being multilingual;
usually due to their historical, political and economic backgrounds (Cenoz & Genesse, 1998).
However, education in these countries is usually delivered in dominant languages rather than the
local, non-dominant language. Because of this, there are approximately 221 million primaryaged children worldwide who do not have access to education in a language they know (Walter,
2009).
When children are made to study in a language that is not their own, the result is
submersion education; a term coined by Skutnabb-Kangas as an analogy to forcibly holding a
child under water (Skutnabb-Kangas, 1990). Submersion in education affects both the quality
and inclusivity of education programs (Fillmore, 2014).
Students enrolled in schools where the language of instruction is not their mother tongue
displayed lower levels of achievement and attainment. For example, in Zambia, where English

was the medium of instruction among non-English speakers, it was found out that at the end of
primary schooling children were unable to read fluently or write clearly (Global Campaign for
Education Policy Brief, n.d.)
In Jharkhand, India, a recent survey revealed that more than 96% of children at primary
level failed to follow classes where the medium of instruction is Hindi (UNICEF & JTWRI,
2013). It is to be noted that only 4% of the population speaks Hindi while 96% speak either a
tribal or regional language. Children spent much time in copying from textbooks or the
blackboard even though majority of them failed to comprehend the meaning of the texts. By the
end of primary schooling, they may be able to decode grade two-level texts in the school
language but are unable to answer questions related to the content (Jhingran, 2005).
To address these issues, many developing and underdeveloped countries are now
incorporating MTB MLE programs. MTB MLE is instruction in a childs first language with a
gradual transition to a second (national) language or a third (foreign) language (MTB-MLE
Network & RTI International, n.d.). This is most beneficial since education for children in the
early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child
(SEAMO INNOTECH, 2012)
MTB MLE in Other Countries
According to Ball (n.d.), one of the earliest recorded benefits of mother tongue-based
primary education came from education policy and outcomes during the apartheid rule in
colonial South Africa and Namibia from 1955 to 1976. Most Anglophone countries in Southern
Africa were replacing initial mother tongue-based education with programs based either in a
single African language followed by a transition to English, or in English only. However, in
South Africa and Namibia, the political intention of educational policy was to divide African
peoples by ensuring that their children did not learn a common language. Thus, the whole
primary school curriculum was translated from Afrikaans and English into seven South African
and several Namibian languages. In secondary school, children went on to receive intensive
instruction in L2. Quite unintentionally, educational policy in South Africa and Namibia during
this period produced greater educational success for African children with a variety of first
languages than did supposedly more progressive educational policies elsewhere in sub-Saharan
Africa. This policy effectively allowed children to develop both conversational and academic
proficiency in L1 before they were required to learn L2. Under this policy, the secondary school
leaving pass rate for African students rose to 83.7% in 1976 (Ball, n.d).
Similar reports from other countries also attest to the improved academic advancement of
students who receive instruction first in their mother tongue than in other languages. In
northwest Cameroon, first grade children who were taught in their mother tongue, Kom,
performed significantly better 125% on average across a range of subjects, including English
and Math, than those who were taught solely in English (Chuo & Walter, 2011). Likewise, in
Vietnam, 68% of grade one students in a mother tongue program achieved the level of
excellent compared to 28% of students who were not enrolled in the same program (UNICEF,
2011).
Another major benefit of mother tongue instruction is the foundation it builds for gaining
literacy in additional languages (Cummins, 2000; Thomas and Collier, 1997). Specifically, this
was demonstrated in Cummins seminal study, which supported his interdependence hypothesis:
that is, when children are supported in acquiring L1 to the point of developing academic
proficiency in that language, they transfer this proficiency to other languages. Cummins

findings are also supported by the study of Riches & Genesee. They found that strong first
language skills, especially first language literacy skills, were associated with long term success
in second language abilities for minority language children (Riches & Genesee, 2006).
Evidence from Mali proved that the extensive use of L1 in bilingual programs in the
primary years resulted to better mastery of L2: between 1994 and 2000, children who began their
schooling in L1 scored 32% higher in tests of their proficiency in the national language (French)
at the end of primary school compared to children in French-only programs (World Bank, 2007).
In Zambia, a bilingual education program called the Primary Reading Programme serves
approximately serves approximately 1.6 million primary school children each year. Between
1999 and 2002, these childrens reading and writing scores in English showed a 360%
improvement over the scores of children in English-only programs, while their reading and
writing scores in Zambian Languages improved by 485% (Department for International
Development, 2005).
In addition to the foregoing, analysis of data in 153 linguistic groups across 23 countries
revealed that instruction in mother tongue is correlated with higher school enrolment and
attendance. The study concluded that if mother tongue instruction is available at half or more of
the schools attended by members of a linguistic group, the percentage of out-of-school children
in that group is about 10% lower compared to groups for which mother-tongue instruction is not
available or is only available in a smaller proportion of schools (Smits, Huisman & Kruijff,
2008). Another study conducted in Mali disclosed that students instructed in their mother tongues
are five times less likely to repeat a grade and three times less likely to drop out than those
instructed in a second language (Pflepsen, 2011). In Ethiopia, local language policy has resulted
in lower drop-out rates and higher retention (Heugh, 2006). In bilingual schools in Guatemala
which cover about 15% of the population grade repetition is about half that of traditional
schools, while dropout rates are about 25% lower (World Bank, 2005).
Incorporating MTB MLE program in a countrys education system indeed is a major
contributing factor to the cognitive, academic and language development of children.
MTB MLE in the Philippines
In 1948, former Division Superintendent Dr. Jose Aguilar launched a three-year study
called the Iloilo Experiment in Education through the Vernacular. The said project was the first
one in the country to test the theory of first language under experimental conditions (Sibayan,
1999). The regional language Hiligaynon was used as the primary means of instruction. After its
first year of implementation, it was found out that pupils who were taught reading, arithmetic
and social studies in their mother tongue performed better than those who were taught in English.
After three years, the experimental group had caught up with the control group in their
knowledge of English after six months of exposure to the language as the medium of instruction.
Following the Iloilo Experiment, the Revised Education Program (REP) of 1957
supported the use of the local vernaculars as the media of instruction for elementary education.
According to Gonzalez (1998), the REP gave the school administration the freedom to select and
develop their own curriculum to best suit the needs of local circumstances. However, this was
abruptly abolished in 1974 when the bilingual policy was launched by the Marcos Government
(Nolasco, n.d.)
During the time of the then President Joseph Ejercito Estrada, the Regional Lingua
Franca (RLF) Pilot Project was launched under the leadership of Education Secretary Andrew B.
Gonzales. In a journal of the DepEd (n.d.), the project began in 1999 in 16 regions, but covered

only 32 schools, with 16 belonging to experimental class and another 16 to the control class. The
project utilized one of the three largest lingua francae Tagalog, Cebuano and Ilocano as
media of instruction in grade 1. Test results of the project revealed that for the first year of its
implementation, the experimental group obtained numerically higher scores than the control
groups in all learning areas and in all lingua francae, except in Wika at Pagbasa in Ilocano and
Cebuano (Department of Education, n.d).
Table 1
Mean Scores for Grade 1 under RLF project, S.Y. 1999-2000
Experimental Group
Control Group
Subject Area Tested
Cebuano Ilocano Tagalog Cebuano Ilocano Tagalog
N = 183 N = 115 N = 264 N = 186 N = 109 N = 253
Mathematics
16.26
15.26
19.32
14.62
12.96
14.74
Science
16.56
17.02
20.90
12.74
12.94
14.75
Wika at Pagbasa
25.57
25.21
31.53
26.07
26.00
27.83
Sibika
22.01
21.69
28.78
22.76
21.53
24.80
Source: Department of Education

Meanwhile, a study also was being conducted with grades 1 through 3 in Lubuagan, a
rural community in the Cordillera Mountains. The mother tongue pilot project began in one
school in 1999, and the study was formally launched in 2005 with three schools in the
experimental group and three in the control group (Burton, 2013). After three year of study, it
was found out that pupils under the experimental class scored nearly 80% mastery of the
curriculum, while those under the control class scored just over 50% mastery (Walter & Dekker,
2008).
Table 2
Summary Results of Grades 1, 2 and 3 Tests
by Subjects in Lubuagan, S.Y. 2007-2008
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Subject
Experimenta
Contro
Area Tested
Control l
Control Experimental l
Experimental
Reading
52.80
75.50
54.90
78.30
53.40
79.20
Math
48.90
82.10
61.90
80.30
49.50
76.20
Filipino
57.10
68.40
51.90
81.40
62.90
70.60
Makabayan
57.90
81.40
60.90
80.80
50.00
74.70
English
52.80
72.40
54.90
62.10
53.40
77.10
Overall
53.50
75.90
56.90
77.80
53.90
75.10
Source: Walter and Dekker

Research Methodology
Method of Research
This study utilized the descriptive quantitative method of research to come up with an
assessment of the implementation of MTB-MLE. In addition, this method contributed to the
identification of the benefits provided by the said program.

Sampling Techniques of the Study


Purposive sampling was used in the selection of the subjects of the study.
Data Sources and Data Gathering Procedures
The data needed in this study were obtained mainly from the e-class record templates of
the teachers and from the records of the results of the LAPG Examination.
The LAPG Examination in Filipino and English was prepared by the division supervisors
and the subject area coordinators in the districts. This has been administered beginning S.Y.
2014-2015.
To gather data for the study, the researcher sought permission from the Division
Superintendent to conduct this in Emilio Jacinto Elementary School. The written research permit
given by the Division Superintendent was then presented to the District Supervisor, who in turn,
issued endorsement letter to the principal. The assistance of the principal facilitated the gathering
of the grades in Mathematics of the pupils.
The school principal likewise introduced the researcher to the guidance counselors and
coordinators in the district who were in charge of keeping all the results of the LAPG
Examination of the pupils. With the help of the latter, the researcher was able to secure the
needed data.
Profile of the Subjects of the Study
The profile of the subjects of the study provides additional information about their status
and background.
Table 3
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS BY SEX
Sex

Male
Female
Total

5
15
20

7
13
20

Total
N
12
28
40

0/0
30
70
100

A: no. of pupils under the new curriculum


B: no. of pupils under the old curriculum

Table 3 shows that thirty (30) percent of the subjects of the study were male, and seventy
(70) percent were female. The female subjects were more than the male subjects by forty (40)
percent.
According to Bustos and her associates, sex is one of the factors that causes wide
variations among learners. Girls generally tend to perform better in the languages than boys,
while boys tend to achieve better in Mathematics than girls.
All the pupils fell within the age range of 6.5 to 7.5 when they started in Grade I, and 8.5
to 9.5 when they reached Grade III. This implies that these pupils who survived in the first
section were of the right age which is seven, when they entered school. Hurlock, in her work on
the stages of growth and development, states that ages 7 to 12 constitute the elementary school
age. At 7 years, a child is already capable of learning how to read, write and work with numbers,
and gradually improves his capabilities towards the development of logical thinking at age 12.

Statistical Treatment of the Data


The researcher used the following statistical tools for valid and reliable data analysis and
interpretation.
Arithmetic mean was employed to compare the learning outcome in Mathematics of the
first batch of pupils under the new curriculum and the last batch of pupils under the old
curriculum.
The Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of correlation and the Linear Regression Model
were used to determine the relationship between the LAPG Examination results on the subject
English and Filipino for the first batch of students under the new curriculum. PSSP was used in
interpreting the test results taking Cronbach Alpha of 0.70 as the measure of reliability; and
taking 0.05 level (two-tailed) for existing significant relationship.
Results and Discussion
Table 4
ARITHMETIC MEAN OF THE GRADES IN
MATHEMATICS PER GRADE LEVEL OF THE
RESPONDENTS
New
Old
Curriculum
Curriculum
Subject
Grade Level
Mal Femal Mal Femal
e
e
e
e
Gr1
86.6
86.1
87.3
91.4
Mathematics
Gr2
87.4
87.9
83.9
85.8
Gr3
88.6
89.5
83.7
85.8
Table 4 presents the arithmetic mean of the grades in Mathematics per grade level of the
respondents of the study. The above data show that both of the male and female respondents
under the old curriculum have higher grades in Mathematics when they were in Grade 1 as
opposed to both of the male and female respondents under the new curriculum. However, using
the Mother Tongue (Tagalog) as the medium of instruction resulted to better comprehension of
the subject for both of the male and female respondents under the new curriculum when they
advanced to the third grade.
In addition, majority of the female respondents both under the old and new curriculum
have higher grades in mathematics per grade level as opposed to the male respondents. This is in
contrast to the study of Bustos that boys tend to perform better in Mathematics than girls.
Figure 3
CORRELATION OF THE LAPG EXAMINATION RESULTS OF ENGLISH AND FILIPINO

Figure 3 presents the correlation of the LAPG Examination results of English and
Filipino. The above data indicate that the Pearsons r value of 0.916 is positive. Hence, we can
conclude that when the test result in Filipino increases, test result in English also increases.
In addition, since the Pearsons r value is close to 1, there exist a strong relationship
between the test results in English and Filipino.
Figure 4
OVERALL MODEL FIT OF LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR THE LAPG
EXAMINATION RESULTS OF ENGLISH AND FILIPINO

Figure 4 presents the overall model fit of linear regression analysis for the LAPG
Examination Results of English and Filipino. The above data indicate that the adjusted R-square
is 0.83. This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable which can be explained by
the independent variable. Hence, 83% of the test result in English can be explained by the test
result in Filipino.
Figure 5
PARAMETER ESTIMATES OF LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR THE LAPG
EXAMINATION RESULTS OF ENGLISH AND FILIPINO

Figure 5 presents the parameter estimates of linear regression analysis for the LAPG
Examination results of English and Filipino. The above data indicate that the coefficient for
Filipino is 1.089. The coefficient is use to predict the value of dependent variable from the

independent variable. Hence, for every unit increase of the test result in Filipino, a 1.09 unit
increase of the test result in English is predicted.
Conclusion and Recommendation
This study concludes that the inclusion of the MTB-MLE program under the new
curriculum affects the academic advancement and language development of young children.
However, since the results of the study is only applicable to one public elementary school in
metro manila, it is highly recommended that additional research studies be done to other public
and private elementary schools. Moreover, it is also recommended that factors
affecting/contributing to the development of a child should be considered. Likewise, the different
teaching tools employed by the teachers.
References:
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