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Submitted by
Registration No: 11302160
Section: M1321

Under the Guidance of


Submitted to
(June-July 2016)


I hereby declare that I have completed my six weeks summer training at SONALIKA
2016 to 23 JULY 2016 under the guidance of Mr. JASVINDER SINGH. I have declare that
I have worked with full dedication during these six weeks of training and my learning
outcomes fulfil the requirements of training for the award of degree of B.Tech

Maddikunta Sai Pavan

Reg. No: 11302160


The Engineering curriculum is designed in such a way that student can grasp maximum
knowledge and can get practical exposure to the industrial and corporate world in minimum
possible time. The Engineering Education of today realizes the importance of practical
knowledge over the theoretical base. The Internship Program provides an opportunity to the
students in understanding the industry with special emphasis on the development of skills. It
is a new platform of learning through practical experience, which incorporates survey and
comparative analysis.
This Training Report attempts to bring under one cover the entire hard work and dedication
put in by me in the completion of the Report on THE STUDY OF POWER
I have expressed my experiences in my own simple way and in an easy language. I hope who
goes through this report will find it interesting and worth reading. All constructive feedback
is cordially invited.


It is really matter of pleasure for me to get an opportunity to thank all the persons who
contributed directly or indirectly for the successful completion of the summer training
I wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Jasvinder Singh, R&D Department, and Ms.
Gharima, HR Department, Sonalika International Tractors Limited for giving me the
opportunity to be the part of Sonalika Group and enhance my knowledge by granting
permission to do a summer internship program. They provided me with their assistance and
support whenever needed, which has been acting like a prime factor for me to complete the
training successfully.
I would like to thank all the employees of the Sonalika Group for their kind Cooperation and
help during the course of my project.
I am thankful to my faculty member Mr. Nithin Madan Changade, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University for the guidance and support for the entire session.
Once again I would like to thank all who helped me during the Summer Internship Program.


Page No.

1. Organisation Overview
Introduction to Sonalika Group
Background of the Organisation
Corporate Profile
Vision and Core values
Logo Rationale
About Management
Global Presence and International Market
Corporate Social Responsibilities


2. Internship Topic (The Power Transmission System)

Power Transmission System


3. Components of the Power Transmission System

Clutch and its types
Transmission Units and Gears
Differential Unit
Axel and Brakes


4. Analysis of the Power Transmission

Speed Analysis
Torque Analysis
Power Analysis
Tractor performance efficiencies
Tractive coefficient


5. Work Experience


6. Objective and Learning


7. Conclusion


8. References



The Sonalika Group is contributing to green revolution in India Since 1969.
Initially it started with Farm Equipments and Machinery. Brand name of the group
products is "SONALIKA". Market share in Farm Equipments is 80 % in India. Group
turnover is 250 Million US$.
Sonalika Group is one of the top five tractor manufacturers in India. Apart
from tractors its product line includes multi utility vehicles, three wheelers, engines ,
Hydraulic Systems , Casting , Forging , Brake System , Automotive components
manufacturing and various farm equipments and implements. Sonalika group since
the inception has tried to understand customers need to be able to facilitate them with
its value for money products. The company has a state of art manufacturing facilities,
spread in acres, located in the pollution free suburbs of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.
Sonalika Group started its journey of success during 1976 when foundation
of small-scale unit to fabricate and assemble Wheat Harvesting Machines (Thrashers) was
laid. With the passage of time this small initiative was taken by Mittal brothers in 1976
turned into a great success due to the undulated efforts of its promoters and thousands of
employees who worked unaltered throughout. The great success provided further motivation
ultimately resulting in setting up a new plant in the name of International Tractors Limited
for the production of tractors, the demand and requirement of which was steadily growing at
that time. The plant which set up at Chak-Gujran (Hoshiarpur) is now spread over an area of
65 acres (approx.) Now Sonalika group consists of 2 companies: International Tractors
The Company's authorized Capital = Rs.56 million (As on 31/03/2001)
Issued, subscribed and Paid up Capital = Rs.50 Million (As on 31/03/2000)
Sonalika Group = 80%
Renault Agriculture = 20%
Annual Turnover = Rs.2098 Million approx. (As on 31/03/2003)
Group Turnover
The Group Turnover for the Current Fiscal Year is 1000 Corer INR (Indian Rupees).

Sonalika, a special variety of wheat seeds was the major catalyst in ushering green
revolution in India in the early sixties. It was the adaptation of these Sonalika seeds that
resulted in geometric growth in production of food grains in the country.
The spirit of the name Sonalika which literally means 'Sone ki Lakeerein' or Lines of Gold
has not only helped the country in becoming self sufficient in food grains but also ensured
that it turns India into an exporter of food grains through the surplus in domestic production.
International Tractors Limited, manufacturer of Sonalika Farm Equipment and Tractors under
the brand name 'Sonalika' has taken the same spirit forward not only in India but to over 70
countries across the world and has become a name to reckon with.
Incorporated in 1969 to accomplish newer heights of success, Sonalika Group has come a
long way. Today the group is among the top three tractor manufacturers of India and provides
a complete product line including tractors, multi-utility vehicles, engines, farm machinery
attachments, diesel gensets, auto components and pick & carry cranes.
Sonalika Group has also joined hands with some of the leading international names like
Yanmar of Japan, JM Finance Trustee & Magma Sharachi Finance.
Today Sonalika has become synonymous to prosperity, success and growth. With
international technologies, state-of-the-art production units, experienced teams and tailormade solutions Sonalika has responded really well to its customers' needs in India and
abroad. We believe the coming years will bring the same results for us, our associates and our
customers provided we go along with the same fervour and optimism. And we are ready for
it. Ready to take on the challenges that destiny has in store for us and to climb new horizons
of success that are still untouched and unexplored.

i. To become the World's leading tractor manufacturing company and a major player in
automotive products and services.
ii. To provide value for money to the customers by producing High Quality Innovative
Products at competitive price.

i. Provide enjoyable working environments to employees
ii. Innovative in fields and business
iii. Adoptability

Red symbolizes the strength, power, determination,
and desire of company. Yellow surrounding the
Sonalika produces a warming effect, arouses
cheerfulness, stimulates mental activity, and
generates the same. Green Leaf in the center
symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility.
Blue underlining the logo associates with power,
elegance, and formality. And Orange surroundings
the complete logo represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness, creativity,
encouragement, and stimulation. All this permutation of persona represents the Sonalika
group as an asset in the industry.

Mr. L.D. Mittal is the Chairman of The Sonalika Group Companies. He is a thorough
professional with an illustrious experience of more than 40 years in a Public Sector
Enterprise of repute in India. Apart from this, he is the Chairman / Director of twenty two
other companies in India.
He has been the Chairman of Tractor Manufacturer's Association of India. He has been
awarded many accolades including Pride of the Nation award, Udhyog Ratna award,
Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year award etc. He has been a member of National
Council of Confederation of Indian Industry.
He was appointed as the Honorary Consul General of Republic of Macedonia in India as
Mr. A.S. Mittal is the Vice Chairman of The Sonalika Group Companies. He is a self
made industrialist with a proven record of extra-ordinary innovation and business
acumen. Apart from this, he is Vice Chairman / Managing Director & Director of twenty
two companies in India.
Mr. Deepak Mittal is the Managing Director of International tractors Ltd. He is an ardent
economist and is known for a strong customer orientation in all businesses. He is MD of
more than 20 Companies.
Mr. Mittal is active in various CSR activities.


The credit of Sonalika's success goes to its sheer dedication that enabled it to
traverse beyond national boundaries and carve a niche for itself. Today Sonalika Group is
known for its world class quality products not only in India but across the globe. Today,
Sonalika products are making their presence felt in more than 62 countries. The global
recognition of Sonalika's growth has been highlighted by strategic investment into the
group by leading International Brands like Yanmar of Japan. Not just this, the group also
has its own Research & Development wing with world-class facilities adhering to the

highest quality standards.

Sonalika Group manufactures and sells tractors, multi-utility vehicles, engines, farm
machinery attachments, diesel gensets/silent generators, auto components, and pick and
carry cranes. It offers its tractors through dealers in India, Algeria, Angola, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon,
Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, DR Congo, Dubai, Ecuador, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jordan,
Kuwait, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Peru, Nigeria, Qatar, the
Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia.


Educating the children in the best possible manner to make them self-sustaining
Inculcating human values in children
Tell your friends to spread the awareness and seek more people to help.


Corporate Social

There are evidences of the revolution in Agriculture brought by
mechanisation. Beginning with the internal combustion engines and moving on to
rubber tires. Mechanisation also improved the farm implements designed for planting,
harvesting and threshing. At the end of 20th century, precision agriculture became the
practice, combining the farmers down to earth know how with space based
technology. Now a days tractor is the major farm power source used World over for
different farm operations.
The name TRACTOR came from the Latin word TRAHERE means to
pull and latter became one word from combination of traction and motion. Tractor is a
wheeled or tracked self-propelled engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver
a high tractive effort at slow speeds as well as for the purposes of hauling a trailer or
machinery used in Agriculture or Construction.


The transmission system is basically the drive line of any automobile or a
tractor in our case. This system consists of components that are used to transmit the
torque developed by the prime-mover or the engine to the driving wheels and to vary
the torque and direction of rotation of the ground wheels.
A power transmission system usually consists of the following parts or
components. They are

The tractor consist of following parts in the transmission system as shown in the
figure below.


The Components of the transmission system are


Transmission Units (Gears)
Power take off (PTO)
Differential Unit


The device that connects or disconnects two torque transmitting devices or shafts is
called as Clutch.
Requirement of Clutch:
A clutch is required to connect the rotational power from the flywheel of the engine to
the gearbox especially at the time of selection of proper gear, especially at the time of
starting, or moving the tractor from position of rest.
Classification of Clutches:
The clutch systems can be classifies as the following:
1. Positive Clutches:

These types of clutches can be used to connect and disconnect the shafts fully. In
the engaged position, the shafts are rigidly connected and in the disengaged position, the
shafts will be disconnected fully.
2. Gradual engagement clutches:
In gradual engagement clutch, the engagement occurs gradually and hence smooth
engagement is possible. Also these type of clutches can be used for engagement while the
shafts are rotating. There is possibility of slip in this type of clutch.


Gradual engagement clutches can be again classifies as:


Friction Clutches
Cone clutch: Here, a friction cone is admitted for the engagement and disengagement.

b) Single Plate clutch: In this type, there is a frictional plate which holds the shaft with the
fly wheel.
Multi plate clutch: Here, a number of frictional plates are implemented and used in
heavy power transmission.

Other types:
Fluid flywheel


Centrifugal and magnetic clutches


Hydraulic torque convertor

The Agricultural tractor mostly uses the axial spring clutch, as the name indicates, uses
a clutching force axially to transmit the rotational motion from one shaft to another. Most
tractor clutches are friction clutches.
Components of the Clutch used in Tractor:
As most of tractors uses Single Plate Axial Spring type friction clutch, I would like to
explain the components of the same in the following.
a. Flywheel:
It is connected to the engine crank shaft and is used to store the energy.


b. Clutch Plate:
It consists of a steel disc with the centre splined. Frictional material is mounted or
riveted around circumference of the steel disc.
c. Pressure Plate:
The pressure plate pushes the clutch plate onto the flywheel due to spring
pressure so that the clutch plate on one side and the flywheel on the other side.
d. Axial Springs:
Axial springs provide the clamping force due to which the power can be
transmitted from the flywheel to the clutch plate.
e. Clutch cover:
It is not only covers the clutch components, but also provides motion from the
flywheel to the pressure plate.
f. Clutch release system:
It consists of those components which are required for engaging and
disengaging the power transmission to the clutch plate.


A multi plate clutch is an extension of a single plate clutch where the number of
friction surfaces is increased. Due to this increase in number of frictional surfaces, the area
which transmits torque is increased which in turn increases the capacity of the clutch to
transmit torque. This type of clutch finds its application in case of heavy torque transmission
or where there is limitation of space available.
Mathematically the torque transmitted by the clutch is given by
T = uFR
This relation holds for single contact surface.

For a single plate clutch with two contact surfaces, the torque transmitted is
T = 2uFR
For a Clutch with n number of plates, the torque transmitted is given by
T = 2nuFR


T = Torque transmitted
U = Coefficient of friction between two discs
F = Axial force with which the two discs are put together
R = Mean effective radius of the friction surface of the discs.


Diaphragm-spring clutch has similar construction to that of the multi-coil spring unit, but it
uses a single dished diaphragm-type spring to apply the clamping thrust. This spring also
serves as part of the release mechanism.

Diaphragm type Clutch Illustration

The diaphragm spring is a steel disc having a hole at the centre, and the inner portion of the
disc is radially slotted so that a number of actuating fingers are formed. The outer ends of the

slots are provided with enlarged blunting holes, which distribute the concentrated stresses
created during deflection of the fingers, and also provide a means of locating the shouldered
rivets, which restrain the fulcrum rings.

The diaphragm spring is placed between the pressure-plate and the cover pressing. The outer
edge of the dished spring bears against the pressure-plate, and two round-sectioned wire rings
are positioned from a short distance from its outer edge, one on each side of the dished
spring. These two rings are located as well as held in position by shouldered rivets and these
rivets in turn are supported by the cover pressing.
During fastening of the cover-pressing to the flywheel, the dished spring is slightly flattened,
which loads the pressure-plate against the driven friction discs, the spring reaction being
taken through the outer ring to the cover-pressing. The inner ring acts as a pivot point for all
the individual release-lever fingers and are located near the periphery of the diaphragm spring
to increase the leverage.

In case of automatic transmission, there is no clutch that engages or disengages the
engine power to the transmission. This is done with the use of a hydraulic torque converter.
This is also called fluid coupling.

Hydraulic fluid couplings transfer rotational force from a transmitting axis to a receiving
axis. The coupling consists of two torroid -- doughnut-shaped objects -- in a sealed container
of hydraulic fluid. One torroid is attached to the driving shaft and spins with the rotational
force. The spinning toroid moves the hydraulic fluid around the receiving toroid. The
movement of the fluid turns the receiving toroid and thus turns the connected shaft.


These are the devices for transmitting power at a multiplicity of speed and torque. While
moving the vehicle or tractor in the field or for transportation purposes there is a large
variation of torque and speed requirements. The requirements of a transmission system are as
i. To reduce the rpm from the engine before it reaches the wheel.
ii. To change the direction to rotation by providing a reverse gear.
iii. To provide the required torque or speed depends on the field requirement or the
operation being performed.
iv. To provide a neutral position, where-in the power from engine can be disconnected
from the power train.


Consider the following three cases in which there are a pair of gears in each case.
The gear A is the driver and the gear B is the Driven.
CASE I: The gear A is larger than gear B, in this case there is an increase in rpm of
driven i.e. gear B as compared to driver i.e. gear A.


CASE II: In this the diameters of both A and B are same. So, the rpm of both the gears is
CASE III: In this the gear A is smaller than B. So, there is reduction of rpm in gear B.


The automobile transmission gear boxes can be classified into different categories
based on the method in which the gears are meshed and speed ratios selected. Gear boxes
used for transmission systems are classified as follows:

This is the simplest type of gear box. The figure gives a simplified view if the gear
box. The power comes from the engine to the clutch shaft and hence to the clutch gear which
is always in mesh with a gear on the lay shaft. All the gears on the lay shaft are fixed to it and
as such they are all the time rotating when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged.
Three direct and one reverse speeds are attained on suitably moving the gear on the main
shaft by means of selector mechanism.


Constant mesh gearbox is a type of Transmission in which all or most of the

gears are always in mesh with one another, as opposed to a sliding-gear transmission, in
which engagement is obtained by sliding some of the gears along a shaft into mesh. In a
constant-mesh manual gearbox, Gear ratios are selected by small Clutches that connect the
various gear sets to their shafts so that power is transmitted through them.

This type of gear box is similar to the constant mesh type in that all the gears on
the main shaft are in constant mesh with the corresponding gears on the lay shaft. The gears
on the lay shaft are fixed to it while those on the main shaft are free to rotate on the same. Its
working is also similar to the constant mesh type, but in the former there is one definite
improvement over the latter. This is the provision of synchromesh device which avoids the
necessity of double declutching. The parts which ultimately are to be engaged are first
brought into frictional contact which equalizes their speed, after which these may be engaged
In a gear box arrangement is provided on the top for gear changing mechanism.
This includes gear changing lever, gear changing spindles, gear forks etc.


A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the angular
velocity of one shaft is the average of the angular velocities of the others, or a fixed multiple
of that average.


Torque is supplied from the engine, via the transmission, to a drive shaft or
propeller shaft, which runs to the final drive unit that contains the differential. A spiral bevel
pinion gear takes its drive from the end of the propeller shaft, and is encased within the
housing of the final drive unit. This meshes with the large spiral bevel ring gear, known as
the crown wheel. The crown wheel and pinion may mesh in hypoid orientation, not shown.
The crown wheel gear is attached to the differential carrier or cage, which contains the 'sun'
and 'planet' wheels or gears, which are a cluster of four opposed bevel gears in perpendicular
plane, so each bevel gear meshes with two neighbours, and rotates counter to the third, that it
faces and does not mesh with. The two sun wheel gears are aligned on the same axis as the
crown wheel gear, and drive the axle half shaft connected to the vehicle's driven wheels. The
other two planet gears are aligned on a perpendicular axis which changes orientation with the
ring gear's rotation.

Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier. The carrier is connected
to both the side gears only through the planet gear. Torque is transmitted to the side gears
through the planet gear. The planet gear revolves around the axis of the carrier, driving the
side gears. If the resistance at both wheels is equal, the planet gear revolves without spinning
about its own axis, and both wheels turn at the same rate.
If the left side gear encounters resistance, the planet gear spins as well as revolving, allowing
the left side gear to slow down, with an equal speeding up of the right side gear.
Example and Explanation for MECHANISM:
Thus, for example, if the vehicle is making a turn to the right, the main crown wheel may
make 10 full rotations. During that time, the left wheel will make more rotations because it
has further to travel, and the right wheel will make fewer rotations as it has less distance to
travel. The sun gears will rotate in opposite directions relative to the ring gear by, say, 2 full
turns each, resulting in the left wheel making 12 rotations, and the right wheel making 8
The rotation of the crown wheel gear is always the average of the rotations of the side sun
gears. This is why, if the driven road wheels are lifted clear of the ground with the engine off,
and the drive shaft is held, manually rotating one driven road wheel causes the opposite road
wheel to rotate in the opposite direction by the same amount.
When the vehicle is travelling in a straight line, there will be no differential movement of
the planetary system of gears other than the minute movements necessary to compensate for
slight differences in wheel diameter, undulations in the road.
This is a depiction of an open differential, which is commonly found in most vehicles. They
are quite trouble-free, but do have one disadvantage. On a dry road with good traction, the
power is evenly applied to both wheels.
When one of the tires hits ice or a slippery surface, it begins to spin and the majority of torque
is directed to the spinning wheel, leaving very little for the wheel with the good traction. This
is how vehicles can get stuck in snow or mud.

Another type of differential is the limited slip differential, which is an option on most new
cars. It has a distinct advantage by having a set of clutches and springs within the differential.
Their function is to apply pressure to the side gears should one of the tires begin to slip. By
applying pressure to the opposite wheel from the one spinning, it allows for more torque to be
applied to the wheel with traction. If is far superior to the open differential when it comes to
traction in bad weather.


A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving
system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its
motion, most often accomplished by means of friction.


Brake works on the principle of friction. When a moving clement is brought into
contact with a stationary element, the motion of the moving element affected. This is due to
frictional force, which acts in opposite direction of the motion converts the kinetic energy
into heat energy.
Brakes can be classified as

Mechanical Brakes

Internal expanding shoe type brakes

External contacting shoe type brakes
Disc type brakes

ii. Hydraulic breaks



Two brake shoes made of frictional material fitted on the inside of the brake
drum are held away from the drum by means of springs. One end of each shoe is fulcrum
whereas the other is free to move by the action of a cam which in turn applies force on the

shoes. The movement of the cam is caused by the brake pedal through the linkage. The
drum is mounted on the rear axle whereas the shoe assembly is stationary and mounted
on the back plate.
This type of brake system is normally available on crawler tractors. The brake
band directly surrounds the drum mounted on the drive axle. When the pedal is depressed, the
band tightens the drum.
Two actuating discs have holes drilled in each disc in which steel balls are placed.
When the brake pedal is depressed, the links help to move the two discs in opposite
directions. This brings the steel balls to shallow part of the holes drilled in the disc. As a
result, the two discs are expanded and braking discs are pressed in between the discs and the
stationary housing. The braking discs are directly mounted on the differential shaft, which
ultimately transfers the travelling effect to the differential shaft.


Hydraulic brake system is based on the principle of Pascals law. The brake fluid,
which is usually a mixture of glycerine and alcohol, is filled in the master cylinder. When the
pedal is depressed, the piston of the master cylinder is forced into the cylinder and the entire
system turns to a pressure system. Immediately, the pis-ton of the wheel cylin-der slides
outward which moves the brake shoes to stop the rotat-ing drum. When the pedal is released,
the return spring of the master cylinder moves the piston back to its.
The method of actuation decides as to how the braking effort from the point of
application brake pedal, reaches tree brakes.
a. Mechanical Actuation- Most common in tractors.

b. Hydraulic Actuation- used in tractors with higher HP and motor cars.

c. Electric Actuation- use eddy currents for application of brakes.
d. Vacuum Actuation- applied in railways.
e. Pneumatic Actuation-applied in heavy vehicles and special purpose machines.
There are two losses in tractor motion. One is due to Slip and another one is
Rolling resistance. These are the reasons for loss of transmission of power in tractor.
Thus, if we neglect losses in forward motion due to wheel slip and in drawbar pull
due to rolling resistance, all of the power from the engine is available at the drawbar. .But
this is the ideal situation which might apply approximately to the tractor working on hard
surfaces with small drawbar pulls and small wheel slips.
However, in many agricultural situations, wheel slip is significant; hence the
travel speed of the tractor will be lesser than the ideal value. Also, much of the torque on the
rear wheels goes to drive the tractor forward against the rolling resistance of both the driving
and the rolling wheels. Hence the drawbar pull will also be lesser than the ideal value.

Drive wheel diameter = D
Engine speed = Ne
Drive wheel rotational Speed = Nw
Overall transmission ratio r = Ne/Nw
If we assume that there are no losses in motion due to slip between the wheel and the
Travel speed, Vo = Linear speed of wheels
This analysis shows that the travel speed depends directly on the engine speed and inversely
on the gear ratio.
If the tractor is now moving with a speed V
We can then define wheel slip as:
Wheel slip, s = Vo - V/Vo
Where, Vo = theoretical travel speed and V = actual travel speed


Engine torque = Te
Drive wheel torque, Tw = r Te
Equilibrium requires that this torque is equal and opposite to the moment of the soil reaction,
H on the wheel:


If we assume that there are no other horizontal external forces acting (such as rolling
resistance, aerodynamic forces), equilibrium also requires that:
Drawbar pull, P = Soil reaction, H

This analysis shows that the drawbar pull depends directly on the torque generated by the
engine and on the gear ratio.
This assumes that the wheel / ground contact can generate the reaction to P.
A rolling resistance force (R for all wheels) which is assumed to act horizontally on the
wheels at the wheel- ground contact patch, opposes motion of the tractor,
For equilibrium of the external horizontal forces acting on the tractor:

Considering power transmission at the wheels,
Output power = Input power - Power loss
Drawbar power = Wheel power - Power loss
Hence, Power loss = Wheel power - Drawbar power
Hence, Power loss = Wheel power - Drawbar power

Here Vs is the slip velocity,


the velocity of the wheel relative to the surface at the surface- wheel contact.
Total power loss = Power loss due to slip + Power loss due to rolling resistance
Minimizing the total power loss thus is matter of minimizing the sum of the loss due to slip
and that due to rolling resistance.
This is a complex problem when it is realized, for example, that the effect of weight on the
driving wheels is to decrease the slip loss and increase rolling resistance losses.


TE = Output power/Input power = Drawbar power/Wheel power

The tractive efficiency that appears here contains two terms:

P and (P+R) which represents a force efficiency; thus when there is no rolling resistance (R
= 0) this factor in the tractive efficiency = 1.
(i) (1-s) which represents a speed efficiency; again when there is no wheelslip (s = 0),
this factor in the tractive efficiency = 1.
It might be thought that the tractive efficiency, which is one of the most important
measures of tractor performance, could be determined on the basis of above mentioned
However, the major difficulty with this approach is that, in practice, it is not possible to
determine a relationship between rolling resistance and slip or, in general, to determine
rolling resistance when a wheel is undergoing a slip.
Hence, it is necessary to determine the tractive efficiency by measuring drawbar and
wheel power directly by following relation;
TTE = P V/2 Tw Nw
Drawbar pulls, P, with a tension load (force) cell between the tractor and a load vehicle or
Travel speed, V, by timing over a known distance


Wheel torque, Tw , with a torque load cell in the transmission to the driving wheels
Wheel speed, Nw , by counting wheel revolutions over a known time period


TME = Power to wheels/Power from engine

The maximum transmission efficiency is dependent on the design and the quality of the
transmission elements.
For good quality gears the maximum efficiency is about 98% per pair of gears; hence
with, say, 3 pairs of gears in the transmission and another 2 pairs in the differential / final
drive, the maximum efficiency will be 0.98x0.98x0.98x0.98x0.98 = 90%.
Little improvement in efficiency can be obtained by more accurate or elaborate gearing;
other types of transmission will be no more efficient.


EE= Power from engine/Power in fuel

FC = fuel consumption rate, kg/min
C = calorific value of the fuel, kJ/kg
The maximum value for engine efficiency is dependent on and strictly limited by the
thermodynamics of the engine processes. A maximum value of about 35% for a diesel
engine can be expected; other types of engine will, in general, be less efficient.


Overall efficiency (OE):
= Drawbar power/Fuel power
= Engine power/Fuel power*Wheel power/Engine power*Drawbar power/Wheel
= Engine efficiency*Transmission efficiency*Tractive efficiency
Consider typical maximum values for these variables: o = 0.35 x 0.90 x 0.75 = 22 %

Because the maximum tractive efficiency is low and highly variable and the other
efficiencies like transmission efficiency or strictly limited efficiency of engine, any
significant increase in the overall efficiency of tractor performance will be achieved by
increasing the tractive efficiency. Research into an understanding of the traction process
and into more efficient traction devices are needed.


The performance of a tractor depends to a significant degree on its weight and, in
particular, on the weight on the driving wheels. It is therefore useful to define a
non-dimensional drawbar pull - weight ratio termed:
Tractive coefficient (TC)= Drawbar pull/Weight on driving wheels
The tractive coefficient is a number which characterizes the interaction between
the wheel and the surface in an analogous way to which coefficient of (sliding)
friction characterizes the interaction between one body sliding on another.
Where a different wheel and surface may be considered similar to those for which
the tractive coefficient is known,
then for the same wheelslip:
Drawbar pull = Tractive coefficient x weight on wheel
Where a tractor operates on a slope the tractive coefficient should logically be
based on the total force parallel to the ground, ie, on the drawbar pull plus the
component of the weight of the tractor down the slope.
Where a four-wheel tractor is considered, and with other tractors also, the weight
used may be the total weight on all wheels. In quoting values of tractive
coefficient, it is therefore necessary to state which weight has been used.
The three dashed lines represent three different torque curves, each having exactly the same
shape and torque values, but with the peak torque values located at different RPM values.
The solid lines show the power produced by the torque curves of the same colour.


The torque exerted by an engine is a measure of the moment which it can continuously exert.
For a given gear ratio in the transmission of a tractor, any increase in load on the engine calls
for a corresponding increase in engine torque. If the maximum torque available is
insufficient, the engine will stall. Because tractors are designed to operate in widely varying
load conditions, it is essential for satisfactory performance that maximum torque should be
developed at a lower engine speed than that corresponding to maximum power. Torque and
power curve of a tractor engine. It is indicated that peak torque i.e. 810 lb-ft (1098.21 N-m)
of engine was available at an engine speed of 1500 rpm of the engine. But peak power was
130 hp (96.94 kW) at 2200 rpm of engine, at that speed the torque was 650 pound-ft (881.28
N-m). The peak torque at 1500 rpm is about 25% more as compared to the torque at peak
power position.

If another engine is having flat torque speed curve having maximum torque only 4% higher
than at maximum power. In the field if 10% overload occurs, the first engine will slow down
and the driver has time to change down to a lower gear if desired, the engine is capable of
taking the tractor. But the second engine will cause the tractor to stall with very little
warning. An engine with a considerable reserve of torque is particularly useful for
agricultural works specially operation of combine/forage harvester, where a troublesome
blockage occurs if the engine stalls.



It is my pleasure that I am being part of Sonalika International Tractors Limited for

6 Week Internship during the months of June and July. I have learnt and observed many
things in production plant of Sonalika Group during my training. I cannot explain the training
experience in words.
Description for the Department where I worked:
I worked in the Assembly Department of the Plant as a trainee. I have worked
under Mr. Jasvinder Singh in the assembly line of the tractor in the Assembly Department.

The Organisation consists of four phases. One is Assembly of the engine and the
Testing of assembled engines i.e. before final assembly of the tractor each and every
component of the engine is checked by the Testing and Quality Assurance of the Group.
The second one is the main assembly line of the tractor which is present in Assembly
Department in which all the main components are attached to the chassis of the tractor. The
third one is the Central Quality Assurance in which the final testing is done. Finally the
tractor is ready and ready for supplying and this done by the Sales and Marketing department
of the group.

The Assembly Line:

The assembly line consists of a track in which some equally spaced benches (can
be Bench vice structures). These systems have a proper setup such that the work should done
according to time allotted for each assembly. As they produce 250 assembled engines during
a shift or session.
Assembly Line in Sonalika Plant

The main assembly line consists of the track in which

some regular interval of chains are fitted and they attach the

chassis of the tractor first and then the assembly of the components done in a regular way by
the workers. Firstly they attach the transmission unit of the tractor i.e. the gear box to the
chassis of the tractor and then they add the engine and then differential unit to that chassis.
After that they add the hydraulic system, Steering, electronic systems, Breaking systems and
they attach the handles for different operations. Finally they attach the fuel tank, the tyres and
they sent then it for colouring and they sent it to fix the body of the tractor. Finally the tractor
is ready. Now it is sent for testing for quality assurance. There are different tests like
hydraulic tests, rope tests and etc. Finally the tractor is ready. In the Sonalika Production
House they produce 123 Tractors for each shift and they are producing around 250 Tractors a
The objective the training is to exposure to Industry. I have learn and observed so
many operations in the plant. I have learn so many things such that they improved my
Technical knowledge, Cognitive learning skills and Professional skills.
Technology and Analytical Learning Outcomes

Development in Technical skills by exposure to industrial automation.

Development in Professional terminology used in the plant for different tasks.
Writing skills and preparing reports and documentation

Professional Learning Outcomes

Improvement in Leadership Qualities

Time management
Ethical behaviour
Listening skills
Way of Grooming
Team participation
Individual Responsibility
Workplace adaptability

Cognitive Learning Outcomes

Demonstrating and understanding of professional customs and practices.

Organising and maintaining information.
Improvement in problem solving and critical thinking.
Identifying, understanding and working with professional standards.
Working with diversity populations.

So, Im very grateful that I got an opportunity to develop my Learning skills.

I have enhanced my technical skills, Professional skill through learning during the training.


It was a wonderful learning experience at Sonalika International Tractors

Limited for Internship for two months in Hoshiyarpur, Punjab. I gained a lot of insight
regarding almost every aspect of transmission system. I was given exposure in almost all the
departments at the plant. The friendly welcome from all the employees is appreciating,
sharing their experience and giving their peace of wisdom which they have gained in long
journey of work. I am very much thankful for the facilities at the plant by the Sonalika
Group. I hope this experience will surely help me in my future and also in shaping my career.



Internet References:


Text book References:

Tractor Designing and Testing by Dr. Manjith Singh, Dr. L.N. Shukla
Tractor Systems and Control by Dr. Rohinish Kumar, Dr. V.M. Duraiswamy
Farm Tractors and Their Maintenance by T.P. Ohja and A.M. Michel