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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN

SCIENCE
SSI3013

TITLE

STELLA SIMULATION

PREPARED FOR :
ENCIK AZMI BIN IBRAHIM
PREPARED BY :
1. NUR FATIN AMIRAH BINTI RAMLI
D20161073920

2. NURUL HUSNA BINTI ABDUL FATAH


D20161073945

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Model and Simulation

Model and simulation give a lot of benefits in education and has become a part of
advanced learning environment. Model and simulation are the best way to provide a foundation
of an effective integrating of teaching and learning. It also can give some kind of virtual reality
in education. Through modelling and simulation, it will increase the level of understanding of a
student and provide fun learning environment. Students will be more interested to learn and
make the learning and teaching process more effective. Then it will helps students to learn in a
better way with the used of modelling and simulation.
Modelling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or
approach to learn and students learn by observing. Modelling is one of essential teaching tool
and it is similar to but it simpler than the system is represents. However, it should not be so
complex that it is impossible for students to understand and experiment with it. A model is
simplified representation of the actual system intended to promote better understanding. Whether
a model is a good model or not depends on the extent to which it promotes understanding.
Simulation is a particular type of modelling. A simulation of a system is the operation of
a model of the system. The model can be reconfigured and experimented with. The operation of
the model can be studied hence, properties concerning the behavior of the actual system or its
subsystem can be inferred. In its broadest sense, simulation is a tool to evaluate the performance
of a system existing or proposed, under different configurations of interest and over long periods
of real time. Simulation model programs give the opportunity to experiment with phenomena or
events and a sense of reality in abstract fields, like information science. The use of simulations
represents the natural way of learn by doing. Just as children do simulation activities by role
playing, adults use computer simulations in order to understand complex systems, real situation
or dynamic processes.

1.2 What is STELLA?


One of the computer simulation-based model building and simulation tool is
STELLA. STELLA is software that can be used to simulate a system over time. It enables
students to creatively change systems and teach the students to look for relationships. It also
clearly communicate system inputs and outputs and demonstrate outcomes. It provide a practical
way to communicate and visualize on how complex system work.

Figure 1 shows the interphase of STELLA software


Some key features of STELLA are it has mapping and model that support the
common language of systems thinking and provide insight into how systems work. For example,
it has diagrams, charts and animation to help visual learners discover relationships between
variables in equation. Next is simulation and analysis that can be run over a time. It shows a
results presented as graphs, tables, animations. QuickTime movies, and file. Then,
communication that describe model components and facilitate manipulation included input
devices such as knobs, sliders, switches and buttons and output devices such as text, graphs,
tables and reports.

2.0 ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION AND MODELLING

Everything will have advantages and disadvantages, same goes with this computer
simulation. There are some advantages and disadvantages in using computer simulation
programs in education. There are some specific advantages connected with the computer
simulation. For example, some general advantages aspects of simulation as a form and method of
learning will be indicated. First, computer simulations offer the opportunity to experiment with
phenomena or events, which for a number of reasons, cannot normally be experimented with in
the traditional way. Simulations provide students with experience that may be difficult or
impossible to obtain in everyday life. Besides, in class it is not possible to experiment actively
with an economic system. The only thing the teacher can do is to discuss the nature and content
of the system. Experimenting would surely be useful because this can generate an insight into the
functioning of the economic system.
Furthermore, computer simulation programs can be used in education to give the
student more feeling for reality in some abstract fields of learning. This is because simulations
can be entertaining because of dramatic and game-like components. It can be shown when a
teacher tries to explain a difficult interrelationship, such as a hybridization experiment with fruit
flies in the traditional way it is likely that part of the class will fail to understand. Execution of
the real experiment is impossible because this would take a number of weeks and therefore
cannot be integrated as such within a lesson. When after the necessary theoretical discussion of
the material, a simulation experiment follows there will be a greater chance that more students
will understand a complete relationship.
Next, when using computer simulation program, the student is experimenting, so
the students will play and active rather than passive role. This active engagement is contrast
when student listening to the teacher, they will listen passively. Using the simulation, it creates
an interactive educational setting which offers the possibility to effect changes in relation to the
learning experience more interesting and efficient way. Next, student will be happy and enjoy
their learning in their class. So their learning will be more interesting compared when not using
computer simulation in the learning process.
Furthermore, the other advantages of computer simulation is the apparatus
necessary to be able to carry out an experiment in reality is too expensive and often this
apparatus can only be operated by specialists, if it can be obtained at all. So, using computer
simulation, it will save the cost. Then, the process to be investigated takes place so quickly in
reality that it cannot be examined through the traditional experiment, for example certain
chemical processes. Changes in a chemical reaction should be presented at such a pace in
educational situations that observation is possible. In reality those changes can hardly be noticed
and they are not interesting for calculations, but only for the acquisition of insight.

The other advantages of the computer simulation such as Stella simulation system, the
student can change and insert the parameter values that they think will produce a result that are
interesting for them. They can skip other part or aspects that are not interesting to them. So,
using this simulation, student will know how to learn and conduct experiment systematically.
They also can decide whether they want to approach simulation, how often they want to repeat
the experiment. This is because using computer simulation, student will have many ways to
achieve their understanding.
Besides, if the simulation is well designed, the learning of how to operate the
computer simulation will become easy. Teachers just need to give short introduction to the
student, so that they will enable to run the simulation easily. Then the advantage of the computer
simulation is the student can perceives that not everything can be used as the input. For example,
student will realizes that variables and parameters have their limit and they will learn about what
input is reasonable for a particular variable and what input yields relevant information.

DISADVANTAGES OF SIMULATION AND MODELLING

There are not only advantages connected with the using of computer simulation in
education in school, but this simulation also has some disadvantages. Limitations are in some
cases that result of the wrong or inappropriate use of the program. For example, simulation is
concern about the manipulation of a number of variable of a model representing the real system.
However, the manipulation of a single variable often means that the reality of the system as a
whole can be lost. Then, a simulation of computer cannot develop the students emotional and
intuitive awareness that the use of simulation is specially directed at establishing the relationship
between the variables in a model. So, because of the problems, this intuition has to be developed
in a different way.
Another disadvantage of this simulation is computer simulation cannot react to
unexpected sub goals which the student may developed during a learning process. This sub goal
would be brought up during a teacher-student interaction but they remain unsaid during the
individual student use of simulation. Besides, computer simulation is also cannot be adapted to
take into different student levels into account within the group or class. By the way, a computer
simulation program or system can certainly be made to adapt to different circumstances. During
the experience of the interaction with a computer simulation program, the student is frequently
asked to solve problems in which creativity is often the decisive factor to success. The fact that
this creativity is more present in some pupils than in others is not taken into account by the
simulation. Mutual collaboration and discussion among students while using the software could
be a solution for this.

3.0 SAMPLE MODEL


Predator-prey dynamics
A predator is an organism that eats another organism. The prey is the organism
which the predator eats. This model depicts the basic relationships that can govern the dynamics
of a simple predator. This experiment is about the main species in the desert including show shoe
rabbit and fox populations that existed over the past year in wild forest area. The, theres a
proposal to humanely harvest some portion of the fox population. This is intended to be a onetime event. Nature will compensate for this action to once again balance the population. This
simulation is used to test this assertion. In this simple predator-prey system, experiment with
different predator harvests, and the effects on both the predator and prey populations over time
can be observed. What really happens to the fox and hare populations after a one-time harvest?

4.0 DISCUSSION

The purpose of this attempt is to develop a model of system that illustrates population
dynamics involving predators and their prey. We had used a great deal of the material from
the Stella software. Our attempt here was to abbreviate the discussion and to bring forth the
same ideas.
In order to model predator vs prey relationship we need to understand the relationships at
work for each population and the interplay between the populations. Each population is
dependent on the other and so whatever happens to one effect the other.

5.0 CONCLUSION

Simulation and modelling offer many key advantages over real life and education. It give
many benefit and help us to visualize the data. We are able to see the pattern and draw a
conclusion from the experiment. Through simulation and modelling it can promote the deep
learning that can enhanced the understanding. Moreover, students can know the relationship
between the variables in the model. For example, in this simple model student can change the
parameter and see the result from the graph. The simulation also makes students understand
better about the interaction among preys and predator.
Besides that, student ae able to conduct the experiment more easier and faster.
Simulations help students understand probability and sampling theory. Even though, there are
some disadvantage of simulation such as it can be expensive to measure how one thing affects
another, to take the initial measurements, to create the model itself, and limited portability but
still simulation and modelling provide us with many advantages.