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Biogas

Introduction

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the


breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be
produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal
waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a
renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon
footprint.
Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms,
which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of
biodegradable materials.
Biogas is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have
small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases
methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or
oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel;
it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used
in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat.

Typical Raw Materials


o Agricultural waste
o Manure
o Municipal waste
o Plant material
o Sewage
o Food waste

Possible Raw Materials na study pa


o Date
palm

fruit

waste

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.08.139
o Cattle slaughterhouse waste

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.05.068
o Cassava http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.138
o Cassava
http://www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/KLST/10737555.pdf
o Piggery waste water
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.090
o Paper waste doi:10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.012
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Biodiesel

Introduction

Biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable fuel that can be produced


from a range of organic and renewable raw material including fresh or waste
vegetable oils, animal fats, and oilseed plants. Biodiesel has significantly
lower emissions than petroleum-based diesel when it is burned, whether
used in its pure form or blended with petroleum diesel. It does not contribute
to a net rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and leads to
minimize the intensity of greenhouse effect. In addition, biodiesel is better
than diesel fuel in terms of sulphur content, flash point, aromatic content and
biodegradability.

Typical Raw Materials


o Waste Vegetable/Cooking Oils
o Animal Fat
o Oilseed plants
o Edible plant oils
o Non-edible plant oils
o Microalgae
o Sewage sludge

Possible Raw Materials nga study pa


o Moroccan
used

frying

oil

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.05.236
o Rubber seed oil http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.09.057
o Castor oil http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.068
o oleaginous yeasts using livestock wastewater as nutrient source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.084
o wet microalgae http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.09.064
o waste cooking oil for use as fuel in artisanal fishing boats:
Integrating environmental, economic and social aspects

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.167
o