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Volume 1: Part 2 Land Use

TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOLUME 1 PART 2: LAND USE
List of Tables................................................................................................... x
List of Annexes................................................................................................x

II. THE COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN........ 1


2.1 Development Vision and Mission......... 2
Vision . 2
Mission ........ 2
2.2 Goals and Strategies ... 2
2.2.1 Goals2
2.2.2 Strategies ...4
2.3 Physical Framework Plan 6
2.3.1 National and Regional Development Framework. 6
2.3.2 Conceptual Plan ... 7
2.4 The Land Use Plan 21
2.4.1 Physical Development Goals . 21
2.4.2 Physical Development Objectives .... 22
2.4.3 Land Use Strategies 23
2.4.4 Land Use Plan .. 30
2.4.5 Land Use Zones ... 36
2.4.6 Allowable Land Uses... 37
2.5 Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change
Adaptation (DRR-CCA) in the New Makati Comprehensive Land
Use Plan . 47
2.5.1 Introduction ... 47
2.5.2 Legal Bases.......... 48
2.5.3 Conceptual Framework 50
2.5.4 Planning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change
Adaptation (DRR-CCA) in Metro Manila.. 51
2.5.5 Assessment of Disaster Risks in Makati City.. 54
2.5.6 Land Use and Urban Design Proposals .. 59
2.5.7 Conclusion......................................... 71

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2.6 Priority Programs and Projects .... 71


2.6.1 Internal and External Linkages... 72
2.6.2 Housing ....74
2.6.3 Parks/Open Spaces and Greening Program 74
2.6.4 Cultural and Heritage Preservation Program... 74
2.6.5 Environment, Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change
Adaptation Measures ......... 74
2.6.6 Renewal and Redevelopment Programs ......... 75
2.6.7 Economic Programs......................................... 75

List of Figures
Figure 1: Makati 2023: A Global Center for Business and Finance .............9
Figure 2: Makati 2023: A City with Vibrant Neighborhoods ........................11
Figure 3: Hazard Prone Areas Geologic Hazards, 2012 ........................12
Figure 4: Hazard Prone Areas Flood Hazards, 2012 .............................13
Figure 5: Metro Manila Proposed Expressways ........................................15
Figure 6: Metro Manila Proposed Rail Projects ..........................................16
Figure 7: Proposed BRT and Feeder System ..........................................17
Figure 8: Integration of External and Internal Linkages
(Bikeway Network) .....................................................................17
Figure 9: Expanded Pedestrian Network ...................................................18
Figure 10: Makati 2023: A City of Waterways and Greenways ..................20
Figure 11: Structure Plan ...........................................................................20
Figure 12: Existing Land Use Map, 2012 ...................................................31
Figure 13: Proposed Land Use Map, 2023 ................................................31
Figure 14: Maximum Allowable Land Use Densities, 2023 ........................35
Figure 15: Existing Land Use Densities, 2012 ...........................................35
Figure 16: Projected Land Use Densities, 2023 .........................................36
Figure 17: Framework for Mainstreaming DRR in Land Use Planning .....50
Figure 18: Population Density Map of Metro Manila .................................53
Figure 19: Location Map of Makati City .....................................................53
Figure 20: Barangay Map of Makati City ...................................................54
Figure 21: The West Valley Fault and Areas Prone to Liquefaction in
Makati City Map .......................................................................56
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Figure 22: Areas Susceptible to Flooding in Makati City ..........................58


Figure 23: The West Valley Fault Line in Makati City Map ........................60
Figure 24: Easement of the West Valley Fault Zone .................................60
Figure 25: Inventory of Open Spaces and Recreational Areas .................63
Figure 26: 2012 Population Density Map ..................................................64
Figure 27: Vulnerable Enclaves Map ........................................................65
Figure 28: Satellite Map of Barangay Tejeros ............................................68
Figures 29-32: Redevelopment of Blocks for Flood Mitigation,
Barangay Tejeros ........................................................ 68-69
Figures 33-37: Conversion of Fault Line Easement Into Parks, Barangay
Rizal .................................................................................. 69-70
List of Photos
Photo 1: Makati City as the Financial Capital
by Arch. Olivia Sicam .................................................................53
Figure 2: Satellite Photo of Barangay Tejeros ...........................................68

List of Tables
Table 1. Land Use Changes, 2012 and 2013 ............................................32

List of Annexes
Annex 1. Dreamlandville Subdivision, Brgy. Kaypian,
San Jose del Monte, Bulacan .....................................................76
Annex 2. Calauan Housing Project, Calauan, Laguna ...............................77

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Land Use

Volume 1
Part 2

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2.0 THE COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN


2.1 DEVELOPMENT VISION/MISSION
Makatis Development Vision is a statement that reflects the aspirations of its
people. It is inspirational but also has measurable outcomes. The
Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2013-2023 (CLUP) has a planning horizon of
10 years. The development goals are the detailed ideals or ends that will
help guide the CLUP towards achievement of the vision. Strategies are the
approaches to be adopted to attain the development goals.
Vision
Makati shall lead the Philippines in the 21st century; its global and national
enterprises, leading the creation of a new responsible and sustainable
economy; its citizens, productive, empowered and God-loving.
Mission
The Makati City Government will be the model for world-class local
governance: providing for the well-being of its citizenry through the delivery of
the highest level of basic, social and economic services with breakthrough
technologies, sustainable financing, and competent, responsible and
professional civil servants.

2.2 GOALS AND STRATEGIES


2.2.1 Goals
The Overall Development Goals identified to realize the vision are as
follows:
a.

International Recognition as a Global Center for Business,


Finance, Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), MeetingsIncentives-Conferences-Exhibits (MICE) Tourism, Creative
Economy, and Model for Good Governance
Makati has been acknowledged as the countrys premier
financial center for the last three decades. This stature is very
evident of the ever changing skylines, sheer number of financial
institutions and commercial establishments located in the City.
As it matures and evolves further as the countrys financial and
commercial center, it is imperative for the City to be recognized
internationally as a global center one among a handful in the
Asia Pacific region that serves as a nexus of international
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finance, promotes international cooperation and a model of
urban governance. Already a global center of Business Process
Outsourcing (BPO), the City seeks to be a world leader in the
emerging Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) industry.
Being primarily service-oriented, Makati can also position itself
in the Meetings-Incentives-Conferences-Exhibits (MICE) tourism
market through innovative infrastructures and well-conceived
branding and marketing of the City. The City as the leading
urban tourist destination will be strengthened by developing and
enhancing existing facilities, increasing the number and
improving the quality of hotels and related services.
The creative economy of animation, fashion, design and
advertising that is taking shape in the City should also be
harnessed and nurtured to make the City not only economically
progressive but enriching and culturally vibrant as well.
Moreover, the presence of such creative industries will make the
City energetic, livelier and a trendy place to live in and to visit.
b.

Safe, Secure, and Livable Environment


The City will strive to be a model of disaster resiliency, develop
a culture of safety, and establish a sustainable way of life that
will make it a safe and secure place to live in.
The high quality of living will always be a hallmark of the City. It
will continue to sustain an environment that is ideal to nurture
and raise a family, and conducive in fulfilling dreams.

c.

Innovative Infrastructures
Makati will continue to provide basic infrastructure support such
as roads and bridges, to improve internal circulation and provide
better linkages to the regional and international facilities such as
highways, airports and seaports. Public buildings and structures
shall be built and upgraded to make them disaster risk-sensitive.
A collaborative framework shall be established to allow utility
companies to invest and provide sustainable service even in the
midst of disaster. Information and Communication Technology
providers will be encouraged to continually support the widening
and increasing demand for bandwidth including a high range of
communication facilities to make the City connected.

d.

Imageable City
Following great cities of the world, Makati is a work in progress,
continually changing, its skylines always the countrys
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benchmark of how cities should be developed. A fitting tribute is
to make the City more visually enchanting. As a paragon of
development, Makati should not just be a model of sustainability,
vibrancy and inclusiveness but also an inspiring urban
environment filled with iconic spaces and structures wellintegrated in the fabric of the city. It is expected that the City
with the private sector and the communities will be harnessing
and developing areas for this purpose.
e.

Housing for All


Holistic and inclusive housing is a basic and priority component
of the Citys development. The City in collaboration with national
government agencies and private sector shall build housing that
is affordable, help people to avail, and provide housing support
for the vulnerable members of its community. In partnership with
the different stakeholders including international development
partners, the City will continually seek innovative ways (e.g.
universal housing designed to be usable throughout all life
stages, or housing that allows aging-in-place) to provide
housing to serve various levels of demand.

2.2.2 Strategies
These goals will be pursued according to the following strategies:
Enhanced local governance and fiscal sustainability. The City shall
continue to enhance its institutional capability so that it can better
manage and maximize its assets. Makati shall continuously find ways
to generate and mobilize resources. The City shall judiciously allocate
its resources so that the needed infrastructure and institutions can be
put in place and sustain its robust economy.
Increased number and improved quality of facilities and services
in support of business and investment tourism. Increasing the
quantity and upgrading the quality of facilities and services attract more
businesses and investments in tourism. Aside from providing areas for
these land use types, the City shall create an environment that
encourages business, services and tourism.
Strong Public-Private Partnership (PPP). A healthy economy that
provides opportunities for both private business and the Citys overall
development will persuade the private sector to forge partnerships with
the City Government that will not only be profitable but will also
beneficial in the development of the City.

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Enhanced policy climate for investment and business. The


proposed Land Use Plan shall provide the areas that will attract
investments and new businesses. This should be complemented with
policies that make it easier to do business in the City.
Enhanced human resource capability. New businesses and
economic activities require educated and skilled human resources to
sustain them. The City shall provide the needed educational programs
to meet this future demand and ensure that these programs are
accessible to its citizenry.
Model for disaster and climate change-resiliency. Makati has
several areas that are considered vulnerable to geological and hydrometeorological hazards. The City shall formulate programs to improve
the disaster-resiliency of these identified vulnerable communities.
Increased social inclusiveness and access to social services.
The City allocates a large percentage of its resources to social
services. Inclusiveness does not only mean providing benefits to all
but the City should also encourage public participation in building a
socially-inclusive city.
Reduced crime and fire incidence. A prevailing feeling of safety and
security increases the Citys attraction as a business center and as a
place of residence.
Promotion of a greener environment.
Sustainable urbanism
promotes a clean environment through the reduction of greenhouse
gases. The greening of Makati means that goals can be achieved not
just by planting trees and ornamental plants, but as well by using
green technology and green design. Recovery and creating more
spaces for people to interact and be closer to nature. This can be
achieved through recycling of resources, use of renewable energy,
transit-oriented developments, and maintenance of parks, among
others.
Increased connectivity (physical and logical) and mobility
(goods, people and services). For the City to achieve international
recognition as the center of business and finance, it has to have the
best transport and communication infrastructure to keep it connected
to all parts of the country and the rest of the world.
Improved
utilities
(power,
water,
sewerage,
and
communications). Utility systems should be able to meet future
needs of the City. Private companies that provide these services are
also augmented by services provided by the local government.
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Hence, the City shall encourage private concessionaire and utility
companies to expand and improved their services.
Presence of iconic spaces and landmarks. For the City to become
vividly imageable, it has to create iconic spaces and landmarks that
would give distinctive identities to specific areas in the city and the city
as a whole.
Vibrant mixed-use communities.
The City has limited land
resources so to maximize available space, the CLUP shall provide a
vibrant mix of use and activities.
Exudes Makatis cosmopolitan1 brand and role as international/
diplomatic gateway. The Central Business District (CBD) will remain
as Makatis main area of economic activity. The CLUP should allow for
this core area to further grow and lead the City in achieving
recognition as a significant international city of business and finance.
Other sites of varying sizes where mixed-use developments may
flourish shall also be identified.
Diverse urban culture and arts. Makati has several areas with
distinct characteristics and cultures (e.g. heritage, business, riverside,
entertainment). These areas have to be preserved and even
strengthened so that the City will remain a multi-dimensional and
cosmopolitan city.
Increasing affordable housing stocks. There is the need to increase
the existing housing stocks of the City to accommodate the increasing
demand from different economic levels of the City.

2.3 PHYSICAL FRAMEWORK PLAN


2.3.1 National and Regional Development Framework
The National Framework for Physical Planning (NFPP) 2001-2030
Makati in the formulation of its CLUP is guided by and anchored its
goals and objectives including land use strategies on the basic
principles of sustainable development and growth with social equity
of the NFPP.
A Physical Development Framework Plan for Metropolitan Manila /
The Metro Manila Greenprint 2030
1

A cosmopolitan city is a city populated by people from several countries living together with
different customs, cultures, and languages that all contribute to enrich the citys economy and
urbanity.

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The City in its continual search for innovative ways to cooperate


with its adjacent local government units and the rest of the cities
and municipalities of Metro Manila adopts features of the Metro
Manila Greenprint 2030, basically anchored on its Vision
Statements and its Elements.

2.3.2 Conceptual Plan


The Conceptual Plan or Structure Plan identifies an areas potentials
and constraints to urban development. Potential areas have to be
capitalized and directed towards the desired urban development while
areas with constraints have to be addressed so that appropriate uses
can be assigned.
The Conceptual Plan for Makati City:
Presents the existing areas that sustain Makatis prominence as
the financial capital and new areas with the potentials to support
its role as a Global Center for Business and Finance;
Identifies resources and initiatives that will help attain a Safe,
Secure, and Livable Environment;
Highlights existing infrastructure that has set it apart from other
cities in the country and new Innovative Infrastructures
needed to help bring it to international prominence;
Indicates potential sites and opportunities that can contribute to
the creation of the Makati brand and the emergence of an
Imageable City.
Connectivity Internally and Externally linking the city
through road network pedestrian walkways, rails, waterways to
regional and international corridors and gateways.
Several concept plans are presented in this section to graphically show
Makatis development potentials. The Structure Plan (Figure 11) at the
end of the section attempts to consolidate all pertinent information and
show the citys future development areas as well as sites that need
immediate attention.
Makati as a Global Center for Business and Finance
Makati has to maintain its prominence as the countrys financial
capital but also aspire to become a recognized global player in
business and finance in the Asia Pacific region. The Makati
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Central Business District (MCBD) will still be the main economic
engine of the city but will have to surpass all previous successes
by introducing new urban developments and innovations that will
set it further apart from other cities. It must pioneer in developing
new industries and businesses (e.g. Knowledge Processing
Outsourcing or KPO, Meetings-Incentives-Conventions-Exhibits
or MICE Tourism, Creative Economy) where it can excel and
ultimately gain international recognition.
The Makati CBD will continue to be the home of big corporations
and international institutions. There is plenty of room to expand
as existing buildings have not even reached the full potential of
Floor Area Ratios (FAR) considered in the 2001 Zoning
Ordinance (ZO). New types of developments for innovative
industries and ground-breaking businesses, however, may wish
to locate away but still within reach of mainstream Makati CBD
or Fort Bonifacio area. These can be located in peripheral areas
where land uses have been converted in 2001 from their original
function (e.g. manufacturing, residential) to mixed-use
developments. The Makati CBD, for example, has naturally
spilled over into lots along Chino Roces Avenue (formerly used
for manufacturing), Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati Avenue, J.P.
Rizal Avenue (e.g. Rockwell) because of their proximity. The
complete transformation of Chino Roces Avenue lots into higher
value land uses, however, is expected to happen in the next few
years.
The Fort Bonifacio area that has been converted into a Special
Mixed-Use Zone and other areas such as Rockwell, Century
City and Picar Place among others have the potential to
complement the development in Makati. The prospect of
creating a super CBD is enormous by efficiently linking MCBD
and other areas in Makati. The challenge will be to connect all
these areas as seamlessly as possible. Adjacent to the MCBD,
the residential villages will likely retain its low density residential
land use in the immediate future, noting that these villages have
been instrumental in attracting the business leaders and
decision-makers that allowed the MCBD to maintain the
premium it has enjoyed over the rest of the country (Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Makati 2023: A Global Center for Business and Finance

Vibrant Neighborhoods (Thematic


uniqueness of the neighborhoods)

vibrancy

to

define

the

Vibrancy is a quality that has been used to measure economic activity


and social interaction in a city or community. Makati is known for the
employment and economic opportunities it provides for many, including
non-Makati residents and recreational facilities that other cities do not
have (e.g. golf courses, polo club, shopping centers). Inclusive growth
is a concept that means shared growth or broad based growth wherein
the benefits are shared by everybody regardless of age, gender,
religion or social status. Inclusive growth strives to reduce poverty and
encourages participation of people in the citys growth process.
There are many ways to allocate the resources of the City and at the
same time deeply involve the marginalized sector in city-building. Aside
from providing the skilled manpower and services that support Makati
Citys economy, residents also have to be involved in the community to
help improve its condition. For example, providing open spaces in
densely populated areas can significantly enhance the air quality, cool
the climate during the summer, encourage social interaction, upgrade
disaster preparedness, and improve the health of the community.

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Many of the Philippines political and business elite reside in Makati


Citys exclusive gated communities. Most of the residents in these
plush villages are the corporate and business elite of Philippine society
that contribute to the citys economy and provide employment and
livelihood opportunities to many. Such affluent barangays may be
described as vibrant as they have access to community parks and
amenities. In this New CLUP, the Makati CBD is under the jurisdiction
of Barangays Bel-Air, San Lorenzo, Pio del Pilar and San Antonio.
Outside of these premier residential enclaves and business districts are
less affluent communities that are nonetheless endowed with strong
community ties and smaller but nonetheless thriving economies.
Proximity to the countrys primary CBD combined with the demand for
new areas for business and commerce present opportunities where
new businesses can locate and for these neighborhoods to participate
in the citys economy. Measures should be introduced for the
barangays in the periphery of the Business Districts and Special MixedUse Zones to transition into higher value land uses.
Many affluent and highly urbanized cities in the world where cost of
land has become very expensive have resorted to high-rise buildings to
maximize the value of their land. The IRR of the NBC (PD 1096)
defines high-rise buildings as sixteen (16) storeys or taller in height (i.e.
from 48 mts. above established grade height). Singapore and Hong
Kong, two cities that are trying to overcome the scarcity of land, have
already moved on to developing extremely tall buildings (40 to 60
storeys) because of the efficient use of their limited land. Makatis
expansion is similarly constrained by its limited land area. To ensure
that demand for office and residential space can be met, high-rise
buildings are becoming increasingly necessary. High-rise buildings as
a strategy for development have many virtues but they are not without
their detractors.
Criticisms range from the tall buildings high energy use to their
residents lack of community spirit. High-rise buildings, however, seem
to work well in the CBD and other Special Mixed-Use Developments as
they are better connected with their surroundings (i.e. ground level and
adjoining buildings). Clustering tall buildings especially if they surround
a mass-transit station is widely regarded as more efficient in terms of
transport. The Citys skyscraper-filled skyline is also a recognizable
image that exudes economic vitality and contributes to its cosmopolitan
brand. (Figure 2)

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Figure 2. Makati 2023: A city with Vibrant Neighborhoods

Safe and Secure Communities


Safety and security are major considerations that boost investor
confidence in the City as a place to do business as well as to reside.
Land use planning is one of the most influential means of ensuring
safety from geological and hydro-meteorological hazards as it
determines the appropriate type and intensity of land uses for all areas
in the city. Quite often, it is best that areas identified as prone to
hazards be left undeveloped. In the case of Makati City, many areas
that were assessed to be prone to hazards have been occupied as a
result of unbridled urbanization in the 1970s and 1980s.
Urban Renewal is a strategy that aims to reverse unmitigated urban
growth and control the spread of pockets of urban blight through
redevelopment. Urban renewal may involve the transfer of businesses,
demolition of structures, the relocation of households, and the use of
eminent domain as a legal instrument to consolidate private land for a
development project that is considered beneficial to the majority.
Occupied areas with natural hazards are prime candidates for urban
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redevelopment in order to remove households located in such areas
from inherent danger and threat of disaster. Moreover, the presence of
natural hazards discourages development because of the vulnerability
of the sites or the uncertainty of the safety of the people living in them.
An assessment of the Citys natural hazards has shown that there are
areas exposed to geological (Figure 3) and hydro-meteorological
hazards (Figure 4). Since all of these high-risk areas are built-up and
inhabited, there should be redevelopment efforts to deal with the
hazards present.

Figure 3. Hazard Prone Areas Geologic Hazards - 2012

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Figure 4. Hazard Prone Areas Flood Hazard - 2012


Livable City
Another concept in the planning and management of cities is livability.
There have been several frameworks (i.e. World Bank, Global
Research Center) that have been used to evaluate the livability of
cities. The concept of livability focuses on the improvement of the
quality of life, which requires a physical as well as a social habitat for
its realization. Livability is defined as the quality of life as experienced
by the residents living in a City that is tied to their ability to access
basic services such as: employment opportunities, health services,
education, transportation, communication, clean water, sanitation,
clean air, food, and decent housing. The quality of life also looks into
the residents access to parks and open spaces, and the kind of social
learning and social interaction available there. The four major
Dimensions of Livability that have been identified are Personal Wellbeing, Environmental Well-being, Lifeworld and Governance. The subdimensions include but are not limited to: livelihood, health, education,
safety and security, quality of water and air, solid waste management,
absence of slums, active community and civil society, participatory
governance, cultural practices and amenities, community, public, and
civic spaces, etc. (Douglass 2002)

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Local, Metropolitan, and International Connectivity


Makatis central location and the availability of transport infrastructure
make it one of the most accessible cities in Metro Manila. Nonetheless,
there are still many prospects for new transport infrastructure that will
benefit Metro Manila but will also further contribute to the Citys
connectivity to other parts of the Philippines and the world (e.g.,
express highways to the international airport(s), transit lines). Many of
these transport infrastructures are initiated and will be implemented by
national agencies (i.e. DPWH, DOTC) but Makati City still has to lobby
for the projects that will be favourable to its interests. The infrastructure
projects that will improve Makati Citys connectivity with the rest of the
metropolis and beyond (i.e. provinces of Southern Tagalog Region and
Central Luzon Region) include the NLEX-SLEX Connector Road,
Skyway-FTI Link, NAIA Expressway Phase 2, South Luna Ramps from
the Fort Bonifacio area, C-3 South Missing Link, MRT-LRT Expansion
and Integration, and the efficient operation of the Pasig River Ferry.
The additional projects that will improve internal circulation and
connectivity are the Makati BRT, Senator Gil Puyat Avenue Grade
Separation, Global Cities Transit System, Riverside Parkway, Pasong
Tamo EDSA Underpass, Expanded Pedestrian Network, Bikeway
Network, and the Greenroutes Network. (Figures 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9)
The Citys built up nature and high daytime population density also
makes it a compact city that is quite suitable for more sustainable
Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs). Mass transit systems should
be complemented by efficient and pleasant walking environments to
provide seamless pedestrian mobility. The Makati CBD and the other
Special Mixed-Use Developments have state-of-the-art pedestrian
facilities (elevated, at grade level, and underground walkways) but
these have to be expanded to further improve mobility. Transportation
and communication systems have to be constantly upgraded to
maintain the citys competitive edge. (Figure 9)
Communication systems complement transportation systems as they
can substitute for face-to-face interactions. Digital infrastructure (e.g.,
Internet, mobile phone) play a major role in modern work, business,
education, accessing information, economic transactions, social
interaction and entertainment. Private service-providers generally
invest in infrastructure in areas where they project a huge demand for
their services. The City Government also invests in transport-related
infrastructure (e.g., walkways, bikeways), traffic management and
communication infrastructure to complement transport and
communication services provided by private corporations.

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Figure 5. Metro Manila Proposed Expressways


Source: The Study of Masterplan on High Standard Highway Network Development, DPWH

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Figure 6. Metro Manila Proposed Rail Projects

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Figure 7. Proposed BRT and Feeder System

Figure 8. Integration of External and Internal Linkages (Bikeway Network)

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Figure 9. Integration of External and Internal Linkages (Expanded


Pedestrian Network)

Green Environment
Urbanization is as a major contributor to carbon emissions, depletion of
resources, and environmental pollution. Sustainable Urbanism (Farr,
2008) which is also referred to as Green Urbanism espouses more
environment sensitive technology, public transport, green building and
green design principles, but more importantly a major lifestyle shift that
favors walking, bicycling, and energy-reducing practices.
In Makati, water is very much a part of the Citys environment with
rivers and creeks defining most of its city boundaries and other water
channels passing through it. Pasig River is a significant body of water
of Metro Manila that connects two equally important bodies of water
(i.e. Manila Bay and the Laguna de Bay). The Riverside Development
Program was identified even before the formulation of the 2001 CLUP
but it must be sustained and expanded to further increase the area
allocated for open spaces. Green spaces can further expand through
recovery of easements along waterways and conversion into linear
parks and the landscaping of main roads and walkways thus, creating
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a succession of greenways. These green initiatives will help improve
the environment and add to the amenities of the City.
Iconic Spaces and Landmarks
Although the City is a recognized international business center, there
are few buildings or spaces that clearly symbolize the city. There are
several opportunities, however, where such landmarks may be
established. The GCZ and the RDZ are two prominent zones where the
Citys new iconic spaces and landmarks can be developed. The two
zones are connected through the Pasig River Waterfront Development.
(Figure 10)
Iconic buildings and civic spaces have the power to create a positive
and indelible image of a city. Many cities have achieved instant
recognition with the introduction of new spectacular architecture (e.g.
Marina Bay Sands in Singapore, Taipei 101 in Taipei, Petronas Towers
in Kuala Lumpur) and green projects (e.g. Cheongyecheon River in
Seoul, High Line in New York City). Since the City is in need of civic
buildings (e.g. performance halls, museums, convention centers),
these new structures have to be designed in the most modern,
innovative, and unique manner that would help portray the citys
international importance. Landmark urban design proposals can also
be educational and informative elements that provide geographic
reference (e.g. gateways, relief maps) or educational value (e.g.
history, environment, geology, biology).
Iconic structures or facilities may also be installed in prominent
locations such as at the intersection of Gil Puyat Avenue and Ayala
Avenue and the intersection of Chino Roces Avenue, Metropolitan
Avenue and Vito Cruz. Imageable places include facilities and spaces
that show off Makatis culture and heritage. Heritage structures, cultural
events, and intangible assets (e.g., dance, festivals, music, literature,
costume, and cuisine) also contribute to the Citys brand.

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Figure 10. Makati 2023: A City of Waterways and Greenways

Figure 10. Makati 2023: A City of Waterways and Greenways

Figure 11. Structure Plan

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2.4 THE LAND USE PLAN


(PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES)
The physical development goals, objectives and corresponding land use
strategies of the City provides the direction that will help translate the vision
into a land use plan. The physical development goals and objectives
present the physical dimension of the Citys development goals and
objectives. They are also the spatial integration of the various sectoral
concerns involved in the development of the city.

2.4.1 Physical Development Goals


Makatis physical development goal is to manage the growth of the City such
that the resulting built-up environment, including the type, extent and location
of land uses:
Supports the development of Makati City to become a global
business and financial center. In order to achieve international
recognition as a financial and business center, the Land Use Plan has
to provide additional areas where growth of business and services can
be accommodated. Expansion areas include possible increase in
building densities (i.e. through FAR increases) as well as new areas
adjacent to the Central Business District and Special Mixed-Use
Developments where developments can spillover. Development of
underutilized areas as well as areas with growth potential as support
nodes. Transportation and infrastructure should also be able to
improve to meet future needs and higher expectations.
Enhances economic productivity, social and physical integration,
access to higher level of services, regional access and local
circulation. The projected increases in business and service areas
have to be supported by sufficient and modern transportation systems,
communications systems and other utility systems that can keep the
City internationally competitive. The Central Business District,
Government Center, and the Special Mixed-Use Developments have
to be seamlessly connected by transport and communication
infrastructure so that they can play vital roles that complement each
other.
Encourages technological advancement. The Land Use Plan
should provide an environment for innovation where new technologies
and techniques in urban management can easily be integrated. There
should be several opportunities to test new technologies and to
pioneer in innovative techniques in urban development.

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Creates a sustainable urban environment. The competitiveness of


world cities today and tomorrow will put a premium on the quality of the
environment (e.g. air quality, presence of parks, water quality of rivers,
access to fresh food, renewable energy, recycling programs, mass
transit systems, and walkable environments). Another is to increase the
inventory of open spaces that help absorb air pollution, promote urban
agriculture, and create a walkable environment. Encouraging
renewable energy, efficient energy use, rainwater harvesting, and
recycling of resources also help support the citys green agenda.
The Land Use Plan should also take into consideration risk reduction
measures to improve safety and increasing resiliency of the
communities.
Provides opportunities for iconic landmarks and spaces. Most
world-renowned cities have iconic landmarks and spaces that help
identify them and also contribute to their brand. These strong images
can be iconic buildings, structures, and public art or innovative public
spaces popular with the resident population. The most famous and
recognizable landmarks and spaces do not happen by accident.
Opportunities are created to make them happen. The Land Use Plan of
Makati City should create these physical environments that become
opportunities for iconic landmarks and spaces.

2.4.2 Physical Development Objectives


The specific objective of the physical development goal is to create a
physical environment that will provide:
The existing and future housing, business, recreational, and
institutional requirements of the city. Although the Citys economy is
driven by its service and commercial areas, a balance of land uses has to
be maintained to promote a live-work-play lifestyle.
A land use pattern that promotes integration and disaster
resiliency. The city has to be assessed in terms of geological and
hydro-meteorological hazards so that vulnerable areas may be
identified and appropriate type and intensity of land use may be
prescribed.
Infrastructure, utilities, and services required by existing
activities and to sustain future growth. Physical plans and
infrastructure programs should anticipate future demand for roads,
bridges, communication systems, and utility systems and should be in
place before the need arises.
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Transportation and communication facilities and management


systems:
1) External and local linkages between production/service
providers and markets are comparable with other major cities of
Asia;
2) Enhance local integration;
An attractive, clean, green and iconic built and natural
environment. The Land Use Plan should allow for more parks and
landscaped roads and walkways and encourage buildings that adhere
to the principles of sustainable or green architecture.
Opportunities to create iconic elements that establish Makatis
unique cosmopolitan image. Allocating large areas for civic spaces
create opportunities for iconic architecture that could establish the
image of certain districts. Heritage areas and open spaces that have
unique features can also stand out in the context of large modern
buildings. Contrast in form, texture, and mass create indelible urban
images.

2.4.3 Land Use Strategies


The following strategies guide the formulation of the Physical Framework
Plan, which are further translated into the Land Use Plan and, eventually,
into a Zoning Ordinance. The strategies describe the logic by which key
features of the Plans were derived. They are aimed towards the attainment
of the Physical Development Goals and Objectives, based on an
understanding of existing conditions and trends as described in the previous
sections.
Expanding Business Opportunities
In order to be a recognized global player in business, finance and
urban tourism, the City has to sustain its domestic dominance in these
sectors and at the same time take the lead in new economic activities
that are expected to grow and become new centers of high value
creation. These may include the development and application of KPO,
creative, design and business-related leisure, recreation and
healthcare industries. It is important that Makati does not seek to lead
and participate in the many sectors or in many market segments of the
business, finance and tourism sectors. Instead, it has to focus on the
high value segments of these sectors and allow other cities of the
metropolitan area and of other countries to take care of the rest. Even
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as the City concentrates on providing high value services, it should
also ensure that the production of such services involve the entire
spectrum of the Citys population.
The Land Use Plan should allow for sites to improve their efficiency to
perform their new functions as business and commercial villages. For
example, development guidelines will provide bonus Floor Area Ratios
(FAR) for parcels that consolidate to form bigger lots or for lots that
give up portions for the widening of streets. The introduction of a new
special zone that will improve the urban environment in these
neighborhoods and promote shared growth wherein more people can
participate in the citys economy is another new intervention to induce
growth on strategic locations.
The Special Precincts for Urban Redevelopment (SPURs) was
conceptualized to make underutilized or declining low to medium
density areas adjacent or accessible to the Makati CBD, Special
Mixed-Use Zones, or major thoroughfares that are envisioned to
become new areas for new industries or start-up businesses. Most of
these peripheral areas are less affluent than their neighbouring
commercial/ business zones. Nonetheless, these strategically located
areas have the potential to transform into higher value developments
that could nurture new business ventures, distribute economic
opportunities to the local community, and add to the citys inventory of
commercial spaces. The proposed SPUR sites have a strong sense of
community, entrepreneurship and other qualities that will allow the
economic activity naturally spill over to them.
Other than SPUR, expansion of the Special Mixed-Use Zones to
include areas needed to facilitate and entice new high-value industries
to locate.
Heritage Preservation Zone (HPZ) was also formally acknowledged
as a separate zone as to preserve existing heritage houses and
structures, intangible cultural assets such as traditions, songs,
cuisines, dances and way of life to flourish, and promote Philippine
cultural vibrancy through the said area. Market niche and businesses
are expected to thrive in the area.
The Riverside Development Zone (RDZ) was also recommended to
be enhanced as to increase its potential to be the site for iconic
spaces and landmarks for the City. Commercial for the area such as
al-fresco restaurants and cafes are encouraged as accessory uses,
walkers and joggers will also be encouraged to take the route.
Increasing the activities and events in the said zone can generate
attention to preserve and appreciate the Pasig River.

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Increasing Business Capacity While Maintaining Environmental
Quality
International competitiveness should not be limited to excellence in
urban-oriented industries (e.g. KPO, creative economy, MICE): it has
to be pursued in all fronts ranging from state-of-the-art infrastructure to
a greener environment. While densities are expected to increase, the
City also has ensure that the resulting environment does not
compromise environmental quality which, as mentioned earlier, is at
the core of its high value service activities and which is expected to
differentiate it from other cities of the country and the region.
Densities, therefore, cannot be increased indiscriminately; they have
to be accompanied by controls and other environmental measures and
guidelines that make them compatible with the development goals and
ultimately with the overall vision.
Density controls are defined in consideration of adjacent land uses,
existing and future infrastructure and utility capacity, and other
strategic objectives of the City. The presence of geological and
hydro-meteorological hazards in certain areas is also factors to be
considered in managing building densities.
The Makati CBD has played a major role in making and sustaining
Makatis role as the countrys financial capital. It is therefore, expected
that the MCBD will be the main driver in Citys push to become a
global center for business and finance. To sustain the primacy of the
MCBD, density controls have to favor the provision of a working
environment, including its necessary support spaces that will meet
future demand and fulfill the Citys role as a global business and
financial center.
Planned Unit Developments (PUD) increased to cater the expected
expansion of services being offered by the City. Social and economic
services are planned and projected to increase as to provide timely
and responsive delivery of services with long term impact such as but
not limited to housing.
Defining density limits will also allow the planning of infrastructure and
other projects needed to address deficiencies in services and utilities.
Properly applied density controls also help achieve preferred urban
design forms (e.g. such as higher densities in the center, reduced
building heights adjacent to parks).

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In the Land Use Plan, density controls will be established according to
the following guidelines:
o

The entire city is subject to some form of density control.

Density controls established in the 2001 Zoning Ordinance will


be re-examined if they can be increased in order to meet
future demand without disrupting the land market to the
detriment of Makatis competitiveness with other cities in Asia.

Maps to determine the presence of geological and hydrometeorological hazards as well as other vulnerability factors will
help determine whether building densities will be reduced.
Buffer areas adjacent to the fault zone will be designated as
no-development zones.

Transit-Oriented-Developments, Pedestrianization and Other Key


Transport Projects
The Citys transportation and traffic requirements have to be
addressed at two levels: regional access and local circulation. In order
to achieve its goal of becoming a global business and financial center,
Makati has to remain accessible at the regional level.
Non-resident investors, entrepreneurs, managers, employees and
visitors need reliable means of transportation to and from the City,
just as residents need to access other parts of Metro Manila. The
most efficient way of transporting more people is through transit
facilities. There are four MRT-3 stations (i.e. Guadalupe, Gil Puyat
Avenue, Ayala Avenue, and Magallanes) three Philippine National
Railways stations (i.e. Magallanes, Gil Puyat Avenue, Vito Cruz).
Additional transit projects such as the proposed Makati Loop will
further increase accessibility. Capacity and connectivity between these
existing transit systems and other transport infrastructure (i.e. airport)
are essential to improve seamless travel.
Pasig River is also a viable inter-city channel for a river ferry that
provides direct access to Metro Manilas core city of Manila. The city
has two existing Pasig River Ferry stations located in Barangays
Guadalupe Nuevo and Valenzuela. In addition, there are two stations
that provide river ferry crossing (tawiran) to/from Mandaluyong City at
Barangay Poblacion and to/from Pasig City at Barangays CemboWest Rembo.
To supplement the existing and proposed transit systems, key road
linkages and projects need to be in place to improve regional access
as well as internal circulation. The Gil Puyat Avenue tunnel at Makati
Avenue/Paseo de Roxas, the Gil Puyat Avenue tunnel at Ayala
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Avenue, Chino Roces tunnel at EDSA, the Skyway link between
NLEX and SLEX, the Airport Express road, the missing C-3 segment
that connects Senator Gil Puyat Avenue with Araneta Avenue, and
the improvement of other key road links will also improve the Citys
regional accessibility and local circulation.
Improvement and enhancement of pedestrian facilities through the
provision of sidewalks, covered walkways, landscaping, traffic
segregation measures and additional grade separated walkways (i.e.
underground walkways, elevated walkways), should also be integrated
into the land use plan. Providing a safe and pleasant pedestrian
environment can take away a lot of the automobiles from the roads
which reduce vehicular traffic and greenhouse gases. Many of the
high-rise buildings in Makati also have helipads for air transport
access.
Model City for Disaster and Climate Change-Resiliency
An assessment of Makatis natural hazards has shown that most of the
areas exposed to geological and hydro-meteorological hazards are
populated. Since all of these high-risk areas are built up and inhabited,
some form of redevelopment is needed to deal with the inherent
hazards. Building up the resiliency of vulnerable communities needs to
be initiated by the city government as individual families have limited
resources to address the risks involved. Either these occupants vacate
the disaster-prone areas or design engineering interventions are used
to significantly reduce the risks. In any case, the issue cannot be
ignored as disasters disrupt or negate social, economic, and physical
development. Deaths, injuries, community dislocation, damage to
infrastructure, destruction of industries, and disruption of economic
activities as a result of disasters can increase poverty.
Recognizing risks and mitigation and prevention of the disasters is
advantageous for both the affected communities and the city
government. Failure to address disaster risks will prove to be more
costly. With limited national and local government resources and the
unpredictability of disasters, some of the resources that would be used
for development will have to be diverted for emergency response and
relief when such calamities do occur. Addressing the risks squarely will
eliminate the negative impacts of natural disasters that will inevitably
occur.
Apart from the potential loss of lives and injury to families living in
vulnerable communities, natural calamities also strain the citys
financial resources. Limited budgets meant to fund basic services can
easily be taken away and realigned to reconstruct and rehabilitate
calamity disaster-stricken areas. Mainstreaming
Disaster Risk
Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in development planning
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helps guide development and allocates resources toward the protection
of life and assets, restoration of productive systems and economic
activities, regaining market access, and rebuilding social and human
capital and physical and psychological health.
Since many identified high-risk areas have been occupied by
communities, drastic redevelopment efforts have to be undertaken to
avert potential disasters.
The creation of a new special development zone to address these
vulnerabilities is inevitable, thus Disaster-Resilient Initiatives for
Vulnerable Enclaves (DRIVEs) is being proposed and introduced as
intervention to disaster prone areas. Based from technical studies
Makati is exposed to three natural hazards (flood, landslide and,
earthquake and its impact) and identifying areas for this DRIVEs is a
crucial task for this Land Use activities. It is then recommended to
identify areas as model for disaster risk reduction measures based on
the three (3) hazards and the following areas are:
o DRIVE West Valley Fault Community Redevelopment Area of
Barangays Pembo-Rizal
Once the alignment of the West Valley Fault is verified through
ground surveys, buildings and additions to existing buildings on
lots/structures straddling the fault should be disallowed. The
ultimate goal is to clear the ten-meter easement (five (5) meters on
each side of the West Valley Fault line) so that it can be
transformed into a linear park. Barangays Pembo and Rizal will be
the site of DRIVE for West Valley Fault Community Development
where in a dedicated area will be developed into a mixed-use
residential community as relocation for disaster prone areas. A
master development plan for the area will be formulated together
with development guidelines. (Figure 13)
o DRIVE Landslide Prone Area, Barangays of West Rembo-East
Rembo
A portion of Barangays West Rembo and East Rembo, there is an
area prone for landslide either by earthquake or heavy-rain induced.
This area is another pilot for disaster risk reduction for landslide. A
development template will be formulated in a form of Master
Development Plan and development guidelines. (Figure 13)
o DRIVE Flood Mitigation and Redevelopment, Barangay Tejeros
Makati City has several barangays that are known to be susceptible
to flooding. Some barangays in the northwest cluster such as
Barangay Tejeros have their entire areas considered as flood
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prone. Many of the neighborhoods that are susceptible to flooding
also need urban renewal that consolidates small and crowded
individual lots so that a medium-rise housing/mixed-use
development that is more disaster-resilient, spacious, and convivial
can replace them. The new development should have provisions for
rainwater harvesting, retention ponds for impounding excessive
surface run-off, and landscaping and permeable surfaces that also
help absorb run-off. Flood-control redevelopment projects have to
be undertaken to improve disaster-resiliency of the flood-prone
communities. (Figure 13)
Increasing and Improving the Quality of Open Spaces
Biophilia is defined as the human love of nature based on the intrinsic
interdependence between human beings and other living systems.2
Planet Earth receives sunlight, naturally cleanses water, produces
oxygen, and sustains plants that feed humans and other animals. As
people moved into cities, opportunities for encountering naturally
vegetated environments replete with fresh air and clean bodies of
water have become less available. Cities have to provide such
opportunities for its citizens to reconnect with nature and living
systems. One of Makati Citys priorities should be the conversion of
some of its built-up areas in the congested barangays into new parks
and open spaces.
Makati Citys has an uneven distribution of parks and open spaces with
gated villages enjoying community parks and facilities while many
densely populated barangays have little or no open spaces at all.
Development of new parks for areas that have limited access to open
spaces should be one of the priority projects.
Legal easements will be recovered to increase the areas of open space
and enhance its functionality. Buffer zones generated from the West
Valley Fault will also be converted to open spaces.
Increasing Housing Stocks
Strengthening existing housing program to include the demands of
different economic levels, specific areas will be intensified in terms of
density, other areas will be encouraged to develop into medium to high
rise mixed-use residential. Mixed-use residential complexes will be
promoted by the City through its Community Development Program,
such as the Dreamlandville in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan and
Calauan Housing Project at Calauan, Laguna. Both resettlement
projects are being developed in collaboration with NGOs, national
government agencies, and the private sector. (Annexes 1 & 2)
2

Douglas Farr, Sustainable Urbanism, John Wiley and sons, Inc. 2008

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2.4.4 Land Use Plan

The Land Use Plan for 2013-2023 is a detailed translation of the Physical
Framework/Conceptual Plans. The resulting land use distribution of the 20132023 Land Use Plan is summarized and compared to the 2001-2011 Land
Use Plan in Table 1.
The Existing Land Use as of 2012 (Figure 12) shows that Residential Zone
comprises 35% of the total land area of Makati, followed by Roads with
23.6%, and Commercial 14.8% and SMU accounting for 14.6%. Very few
Industrial uses remain; there is also relatively small amount of Parks and
Open Spaces.
For the Proposed Land Use Plan for 2013 to 2023, (Figure 13) Residential
Area will still be the dominant land use (30.8%) although its share declines
compared with the 2012 Existing Land Use owing to conversion of some
residential lots into low density commercial/mixed use development. There is
minimal change in Commercial Zone but several blocks of the Commercial
Zone are now rezoned into special precincts for redevelopment.
Three new land use zones are introduced in the 2013-2023 Land Use Plan as
a strategy to redevelop areas that either have not reached their full potential
or in most need of enhancement (due to significant City assets they contain),
or restructuring because of their vulnerability to geological and hydrometeorological hazards. Urban Redevelopment Programs for underachieving
areas are designated as SPUR which account for 0.85 sq.km. (3.1% of the
Citys total land area) while for communities in critically hazardous areas are
called DRIVE. The total land area for DRIVE sites is 0.23 sq.km. (0.8% share
to total land area of the City). A Heritage Preservation Zone (HPZ) is also
introduced to spatially designate the area within the Poblacion that is home to
history, arts and cultural facilities. The said Zones are additional to the
existing Special Development Zones which are already established in the
CLUP 2001-2011 namely: Government Center Zone (GCZ), Riverside
Development Zone (RDZ), and Planned Unit Development (PUD).
Note that most of the decreases or increases in the land areas and
corresponding percentages share to total land area of the Proposed Land Use
for 2013-2023 can be attributed to the delineation of several neighborhood
blocks into SPUR, DRIVE, or HPZ.

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Figure 12. Existing Land Use Map, 2012

Figure 13. Proposed Land Use Map, 2023

31

Table 1. Land Use Changes, 2012 and 2023


Proposed 2001-2010
Land Use

Existing 2012

Area
(sq.km.)
9.49
4.09
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.10
4.00

Share to
Total
34.7%
15.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.9%
0.4%
14.6%

Special Precincts for Urban


Redevelopment (SPUR)

0.00

0.0%

0.00

0.0%

0.85

3.1%

Disaster Resiliency Initiatives for


Vulnerable Enclaves (DRIVE)
Government Center Zone (GCZ)
Institutional
Open Spaces
Recreational
Utility
Cemetery
Roads

0.00
0.07
0.51
0.12
0.79
0.14
0.87
6.93

0.0%
0.3%
1.9%
0.4%
2.9%
0.5%
3.2%
25.3%

0.00
0.07
0.85
0.31
1.00
0.12
0.87
6.45

0.0%
0.3%
3.1%
1.1%
3.6%
0.4%
3.2%
23.6%

0.23
0.07
0.57
0.24
1.04
0.10
0.87
6.55

0.8%
0.3%
2.1%
0.9%
3.8%
0.3%
3.2%
23.9%

27.36

100.0%

27.37

100.0%

27.36

100.0%

Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Heritage Preservation Zone (HPZ)
Riverside Development Zone (RDZ)
Planned Unit Development (PUD)
Special Mixed-Use Zone (SMU)

TOTAL

Area
(sq.km.)
9.57
4.06
0.02
0.00
0.06
0.00
4.00

Share to
Total
35.0%
14.8%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
14.6%

Proposed 2013-2023
Area
(sq.km.)
8.44
3.90
0.00
0.03
0.25
0.04
4.17

Share to
Total
30.8%
14.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.9%
0.2%
15.2%

Volume 1: Part II Land Use


Similar to the CLUP 2001-2011, the new Land Use Plan features the
application of building density limits in medium and high density commercial
areas of the City. The Density Model (Figure 14) graphically presents the
maximum allowable densities for the entire City. In order to appreciate how
the City has grown and is expected to grow over the years, it is useful to
compare the Existing Built-up in 2012 (Figure 15) with the Projected Densities
(Figure 16) and the maximum densities prescribed in the new CLUP and
Zoning Ordinance.
The Existing Densities by the end of 2012 in CBD alone is only about a third
of what is theoretically and legally possible in the previous CLUP and ZO
2001-2011. The highest densities in the City, which basically retain existing
limits, are found in core commercial/ mixed-use zones (CBD). The Makati
CBD and Fort Bonifacio area combined has the largest concentration of office
and commercial spaces, accounting for 68% of traditional office space in the
entire Metro Manila and 41% of total BPO sites nationwide. Currently, this
mega CBD is also home to the most number of local, multinational and
international headquarter offices, think tanks, deluxe hotels and premier
residential units. It is also the preferred location of global retailers, embassies
and consulates. Adding to its vibrancy are quality higher education and
specialized institutions (e.g. top business schools, arts and design schools),
architectural/design firms and creative agencies, and excellent medical
facilities. Despite the emergence of newer business districts in Metro Manila,
Makati and Fort Bonifacio continue to enjoy the highest capital values in the
entire country.
Following the strategy of maintaining the Makati CBDs competitiveness and
attractiveness, the existing limits are retained to preserve the market
advantage of this district relative to other parts of the metropolis. At present
this high density CBD has not even reached half of its maximum theoretical
limit implying that there is still plenty of room to grow.
In line with the Citys thrust to expand economic opportunities, the CBD is
expanded to include the already bustling growth corridor of Sen. Gil Puyat
Avenue and the commercial blocks along Chino Roces Avenue and Extension
where further growth is anticipated. The density limits in this expanded CBD
shall be defined carefully so that future growth is accommodated without
sacrificing the current advantages enjoyed by the City by ensuring that new
development will not conflict with adjacent uses, hinder movement, or strain
utilities to the detriment of the whole. These densities taper off into adjacent
commercial areas for more efficient urban form and scale. The densities in
these adjoining low-density commercial/mixed use districts have been slightly
increased to accommodate additional commercial/mixed-use spaces.
The lowest density limits are still in the existing low and medium density
residential villages in the form of height and setback restrictions. The density
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controls for low-density residential villages remain unchanged while the
medium-density residential owners are given the option to increase the height
limit of their structures to cope with incidences of flooding in the area.
For the other uses that have unique or minimal vertical developments (open
space/park, riverside, cemetery, utility zones), density control is defined by
maximum lot occupancy to control and regulate growth.
Assumptions on growth rates and where these may likely occur are made for
planning purpose. With a steady stream of new constructions (3% additional
growth per annum from previous), in ten years time, the building densities in
the CBD are estimated to be closer to the 2023 Maximum Allowable. As was
the case in the 2001-2011 CLUP, transport conditions and planned
infrastructure improvements as well as macro-economic prospects will remain
to be the major determinants of actual growth. The road network in the City is
already nearing its maximum threshold level. Utility system and support
services (e.g. water supply, sewerage, power supply, telecommunications) on
the other hand are mostly provided by private service providers and are in
step in terms of projected demands by the end of the planning period.
Aside from the intensified growth in CBD (using constant 3% annual growth
rate forecast based on continuing service-oriented demand), much of the new
developments in the next ten years are anticipated in the areas that were
converted such as SMU (underutilized strip along Chino Roces Avenue), Fort
Bonifacio, SPUR, HPZ and DRIVE. It is expected that these newly designated
special zones will catalyze development within the vicinity. Moreover, large
blocks recognized as having high real estate potential will likely contribute
significantly in the shaping of the urban form (e.g. former military area along
Lawton Avenue, Santa Ana Racetrack, expansion of Rockwell, former
International School (IS) site, Nicanor Garcia Avenue strip). Even as these
new areas develop, the traditional commercial areas in Poblacion, and along
JP Rizal Avenue will also likely experience intense development as the City
pours investment in infrastructure and utilities upgrade and landscape
enhancement in these areas. The various transit and infrastructure projects
that the City will invest in and lobby for are also expected to serve as impetus
to expand economic opportunities along transit corridors and nodes, and
seamlessly integrate development in different parts of the City.
With a Master Plan that shall guide development in special districts, the HPZ
and RDZ are envisioned to add to the Citys diversity, distinction and
prominence. Enhancements in these areas are expected to trigger
subsequent redevelopment of surrounding neighborhoods catering to a wider
residential market segments and cultural and recreational offerings.
In all these areas, the City shall ensure that the mix and scale of land use
activities are organized and developed in an efficient and sustainable manner.
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Figure 14. Maximum Allowable Land Use Densities, 2023

Figure 15. Existing Land Use Densities, 2012

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Figure 16. Projected Land Use Densities, 2023

2.4.5 Land Use Zones


The Land Use Plan shows the different land use zones of the City,
based on the Physical Framework Plan. Most of the zones feature a
mix of uses, with a dominant character (e.g. residential, commercial,
central business district, institutional, recreational, government center
zone, etc.) that is reflected in the zone classification. Zones within each
major classification are differentiated by density and/or by specific land
use characteristics that need to be accounted for and are described in
greater detail in the accompanying Zoning Ordinance. The following
are the major zones and subzones in the City:
Residential Zones:
o Low Density Residential Zone
o Medium Density Residential/Mixed-Use Zone
o High Density Residential/Mixed-Use Zone

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Commercial Zones
o Low Density Commercial Zone
o Medium Density Commercial Zone
o High Density Commercial Zone
o Central Business District (CBD)
Special Mixed-Used Zone (SMU)
Planned Unit Development (PUD)
Special Precincts for Urban Redevelopment (SPUR)
Disaster Resiliency Initiative for Vulnerable Enclaves (DRIVE)
Heritage Preservation Zone (HPZ)
Institutional Zone
Government Center Zone (GCZ)
Recreational Zone
Open Space
Cemetery
Utility

2.4.6 Allowable Land Uses


Allowable land uses may be differentiated according to principal and
accessory uses, wherein a principal use shall be the dominant use or
activity in a lot and accessory uses support the principal uses allowed in
a lot or in a zone. The following is a general list of principal and
accessory, subject to further requirements and restrictions as defined in
the Zoning Ordinance, for each zone.
LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL ZONE.
This zone shall be used
principally for single detached dwellings with customary ancillary uses,
and compatible accessory uses on a neighborhood scale.
PRINCIPAL USES:
duplex
government facility
multi-family dwelling
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park, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, playlots
playground, sports field/court, garden: for use of its
immediate residential community
single detached family dwelling, with customary ancillary
uses such as house employees quarter, private garage, and
guardhouse
ACCESSORY USES:
day care center
home office
place of religious worship
pre-school/kindergarten school (maximum of two
classrooms)
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants

MEDIUM DENSITY RESIDENTIAL/ MIXED-USE ZONE. This zone


shall be used primarily for medium-density housing, with support
commercial, service, and institutional uses on a neighborhood or
barangay scale.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in low density residential zone
boarding/pension house, dormitory/apartment
community/village association office
daycare center
fire/security station
library, museum, exhibit area, art gallery
place of religious worship
pre-school, kindergarten school elementary school, high
school (maximum of 12 classrooms)
public utility facility
residential inn/apartelle/condotel/condominium
townhouse
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants
welfare/charitable institution/rehabilitation center
ACCESSORY USES:
accessory uses allowed in low density residential zone
club house, multi-purpose hall/room
computer/information technology-related activity
convenience retail / food store/cart/kiosk/stall (neighborhood
service only)
dance/voice/music, other specialty studio
general service/repair
hardware without lumber, gravel and sand
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health center/clinic/sports club, gym
office support service
pawnshop/one-stop payment shop
personal service/repair
restaurant, canteen, other food-serving establishment
showroom/display store
small-scale home industry
specialty school/training facility
sports/recreational facility

HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL ZONE. This zone shall be used


primarily for high-density/high-rise dwellings and limited service support
activities for housing purposes.
PRINCIPAL USES:
government facility
hotel
office/embassy
parking structure
parks, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, garden, playlots,
playground, sports field/court
residential inn/apartelle/condotel/condominium
ACCESSORY USES:
club house, multi-purpose hall/room
convenience/ retail store/food store/cart/kiosk/stall
day care center
health center/clinic/sports club, gym
personal service/repair
place of religious worship
restaurant, canteen or food-serving establishment
sports/recreation facility
telecom station
transit station/terminal
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants
LOW DENSITY COMMERCIAL/MIXED-USE ZONE. This zone shall
be used primarily for mixed use and commercial developments on a
local scale.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in medium and high density residential
zone
auditorium, theater, performance/civic center
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auto-related shop (parts, sales, repair/service)
bank, ATM, finance, insurance, money exchange service
cinema
club house/multi-purpose hall/room
cocktail lounge, disco, dance hall, KTV/music bar
college/university, cultural/educational center
computer/information technology- related activity
convenience/ retail store/food store/cart/kiosk/stall
(neighborhood only)
convent, seminary and related uses
convention/meetings facility
cultural and educational center
dance/voice/music, other specialty studio
entertainment/amusement center
funeral/memorial service
general service/repair
general/specialized hospital, medical center
hardware with lumber, grave and sand
health center/clinic/sports club, gym
hotel
lying-in clinic
machine/welding/metal/junk/furniture shop
nature center/aviary
nursing/convalescent home
office support service
pawnshop/one stop payment shop
personal service/repair
petrol filling/service station
radio/television station,
restaurant, canteen, other food-serving establishment
showroom/display store
small scale home industry
specialty school/training facility
sporting goods/souvenir shop
sports stadium
sports/recreation facility
supermarket/grocery
telecom station
transit station/terminal
warehouse/storage facility
wellness center
wet/dry market
wholesale store/distributor

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MEDIUM DENSITY COMMERCIAL/MIXED-USE ZONE. This zone
shall be used primarily for medium density mixed use and commercial
developments.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in low density commercial zone
shopping center
HIGH DENSITY COMMERCIAL/MIXED-USE ZONE.This zone shall be
used primarily for high density mixed use and commercial
developments on a metropolitan scale of operations.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in medium density commercial zone
except lumber, gravel and sand dealer

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT ZONE. This central business district


zone shall be used primarily for high density office and residential
developments on a metropolitan scale of operations, with
miscellaneous support uses.
PRINCIPAL USES:
auditorium/theater/performance center (not commercial
cinema)
auto related shop
auto-related shop (parts, sales, service, repair)
bank, ATM, finance, insurance, money exchange service
boarding/pension house/dormitory/apartment
cinema
club/multi-purpose hall/room
cocktail lounge, disco, dance hall, KTV/music bar
college/university
community/village association office
computer/information technology-related service
activity
convent, seminary and related uses
convention/meetings facility
convenience/ retail store/food store/cart/ kiosk/ stall
cultural and educational center
dance, voice, music and other specialty studio
daycare center
duplex
elementary, high school
embassy
entertainment/amusement center
fire/security station
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general service/repair
general/specialized hospital, medical center
government facility
hardware without lumber, gravel and sand station
health center, clinic, sports club, gym
home office
hotel
library, museum, exhibit area, art gallery
machine/metal/welding/junk/furniture shop
multi-family dwelling
nature center/aviary
nursing/convalescent home
office
office support service
park, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, playlots,
playground, sports field/court, garden
parking structure
pawnshop/one-stop payment shop
personal service repair
petrol filling/service station
place of religious worship
pre-school/kindergarten school
public utility facility
radio/television station, media service
residential inn, condominium/condotel/apartelle
restaurant, canteen, other food serving establishment
shopping center
showroom/display store
single detached family dwelling
small scale home industry
specialty school/training facility
sporting goods/souvenir shop
sports stadium
sports/recreational facility
supermarket/grocery
telecom station
townhouse
transit station/terminal
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants
warehouse/storage facility
welfare/charitable institution
wellness center
wet/dry market
wholesale store/distributor
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ACCESSORY USES
club house/multi-purpose hall/room
community/association office
convenience/retail store / food store/ cart/ kiosk/ stall
dance/voice/music, other specialty studio
day care center
fire/security station
health center/clinic/sports club, gym
office support service
personal service/repair
petrol filling kiosk
residential unit at penthouse level only
restaurant, canteen and other food-serving establishment
showroom/display store
sports/recreation facility
transit station/terminal
wellness center
INSTITUTIONAL/MIXED-USE ZONE: These zones shall be used
primarily for government, religious, cultural, educational, medical, civic,
residential and supporting commercial and service uses.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in medium density residential zone
auditorium, theater, performance/civic center (not
commercial cinema)
club house /multi-purpose hall/room
college/university, cultural/educational center
computer/information technology-related activity
convent, seminary, and related uses
convention/meetings facility
general/specialized hospital, medical center
health center/clinic/sports club, gym
nature center/aviary
nursing/convalescent home
office support service
parking structure
parks, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, playlots
playground, sports field/court, garden
radio/TV station
specialty school/training facility
sports stadium
sports/recreation facility
transit station/terminal
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ACCESSORY USES
convenience/ retail store/ food store/ cart/ kiosk/stall
restaurant, canteen, other food serving establishment
showroom/display store
GOVERNMENT CENTER ZONE (GCZ): This zone shall be used
primarily for Makati City government functions, institutional and civic
activities, and supporting local community uses.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in institutional zone
ACCESSORY USES:
accessory uses allowed in institutional zone
auto-related shop (parts, sales, repair/service)
bank, ATM, finance, insurance, money exchange service
funeral/memorial service
general service/repair
office
pawnshop/one-stop shop
personal service/repair
RECREATIONAL ZONE.
recreational uses.

These zones shall be used primarily for

PRINCIPAL USES:
club house /multi-purpose hall/room
dance/voice/music, other specialty studio
health center/clinic/sports club, gym
nature center/aviary
park, pocket parks, parkways, promenade, playlots, sports
field/court
specialty school/training facility
sports field/recreation facility/ court
sports stadium
ACCESSORY USES:
auditorium, theater, performance/civic center
club house, multi-purpose hall/room
community/village association office
day care center
fire/security station
government facility
library, museum, exhibit area, art gallery
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parking structure
personal service/repair
place of religious worship
public utility facility
restaurant, canteen, other food-serving establishment
sporting goods/souvenir shop
sports/recreation facility
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants
wellness center
a. OPEN SPACE. This zone shall be used as open space for parks and
playgrounds.
PRINCIPAL USES:
bikeways
parks, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, garden
playground and playlots
b. RIVERSIDE DEVELOPMENT ZONE.
This zone shall be used
primarily for outdoor park and related activities and supporting
commercial, cultural, entertainment, and tourist-oriented developments.
Developments in RDZ zone shall conform to a master development
plan prepared for this zone. The RDZ master development plan shall
feature and preserve an overall park and open space environment
combined with a Medium Density Recreational, pedestrian and tourism
oriented character.
PRINCIPAL USES:
principal uses allowed in medium density/mixed-use zone
auditorium, theater, performance/civic center
auto-related shop (parts, sales, repair, service)
bank, ATM, finance, insurance, money exchange services
cinema
club house, multi-purpose hall/room
cocktail lounge, disco, dance hall, KTV/music bar
computer/information technology related activity
convenience/ retail store/ food store/cart/ kiosk/ stall
dance, voice, music, other specialty studio
daycare center
entertainment/amusement center
general service repair
health center, clinic, sports club, gym
hotel
machine/metal/welding/junk/furniture shop
nature center, aviary
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office
office support service
parking structure
pawnshop/ one-stop payment shop
personal service repair
petrol filling/ service station
radio/TV station
restaurants, canteen, other food serving establishments
showroom/display store
small scale home industry
specialty school/training facility
sports/recreation facility
transit station/terminal
warehouse/ storage facility
wellness center
ACCESSORY USES:
accessory uses allowed in medium density residential/mixed
use zone
club house/multi-purpose hall/room
health center/clinic/club, gym
library, museum, exhibit area, art gallery
c. CEMETERY ZONE (CEM): This zone shall be used primarily for burial
and related activities.
PRINCIPAL USES:
cemetery
columbarium
crematorium
mausoleum
nature center, aviary
park, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, garden
place of religious worship
ACCESSORY USES:
fire/security station
parking structure
public utility facility
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants
UTILITY ZONE (UTL): This zone shall be used primarily for utility
functions.
PRINCIPAL USES:
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nature center, aviary
park, pocket parks, parkway, promenade, garden,
playground, playlots
parking structure
public utility facility
transit station/terminal
utility installation for use of zone/lot occupants
ACCESSORY USES:
fire/security station
petrol filling kiosk

2.5 MAINSTREAMING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND CLIMATE

CHANGE ADAPTATION ON
USE PLAN (2013 2023)
2.5.1.

THE

NEW COMPREHENSIVE LAND

Introduction

It has been acknowledged that natural disasters throughout the world have
occurred with more frequency and severity in the last twenty years, resulting
in the loss of economic, humanitarian, and ecological resources in the areas
struck by them. Many areas in the Philippines, whether urban or rural, are
known to be vulnerable to natural hazards such as typhoons, floods,
landslides, volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis.
In 2010, it was estimated that about 66.40 % of the total population in the
Philippines was living in urban areas.3 Many of the old cities in the Philippines
developed with little consideration for the geo-physical and hydrometeorological hazards of their settlement sites and therefore were not able to
avoid or mitigate the potential risks brought about by earthquakes and floods.
The difficult tasks of disaster management and response in cities have been
made all the more challenging by rapid urbanization and the increase in the
number of densely populated informal settlements. The marginalized sector is
often the most severely affected by natural disasters largely because of the
poor location and lack of physical planning of their communities.
More recent and comprehensive studies of the geology in the Philippines
have provided more precise geophysical information such as the presence of
fault lines (the causal location of earthquakes) and the location of areas prone
to liquefaction. In the mega-city of metro manila for example, there are three
geological fault lines that cross the component Local Ggovernment Units
(LGUs) of Taguig City, Makati City, Pateros, Pasig City, Marikina City, and
3

www.indexmundi.com, accessed in April 5, 2012

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Quezon City.4
Climate change is another recent concern that refers to significant and lasting
changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns in the world that is
currently being experienced and is expected to further occur in the
succeeding decades. In recent years, more frequent typhoons and
unprecedented rainfall have resulted in destructive floods throughout the
Philippines. In September 2009, Metro Manila was hit by typhoon Ketsana
(PAGASA name: Ondoy), considered the most devastating typhoon since
1970. The flooding caused by the typhoon, however, yielded valuable
information that could be used to mitigate potential floods in Metro Manila in
the future. Such actual experiences and projected weather conditions in the
future that are attributed to climate change have to be considered in the
formulation of all development plans including the Comprehensive Land Use
Plan. It is imperative that cities make use of the latest geophysical and hydrometeorological data to identify areas that have to be redeveloped taking into
consideration disaster risk reduction5 and climate change adaptation6.

2.5.2

Legal Bases

Based on the Local Government Code of the Philippines (Republic Act 7160),
all cities and municipalities are mandated to formulate a Comprehensive Land
Use Plan (CLUP) that will designate the type (e.g., residential, commercial)
and intensity of land uses throughout the city or municipality. The Zoning
Ordinance is the legal instrument that enforces the Land Use Plan of the city
or municipality.
In 2005, the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) called for worldwide
implementation of DRR initiatives to substantially reduce by 2015 the loss of
lives as well as socio-economic and environmental resources brought about
by disasters. In response to HFAs call, the National Economic and
Development Authority (NEDA) Regional Development Office prepared a set
of guidelines in 2008 to mainstream risk reduction within development and
land use planning.
As a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
the Philippines passed Republic Act No. 9279 - the Climate Change Act of
2009. It a law mainstreaming climate change into government policy
formulations, establishing the framework strategy and program on climate
change, creating for this purpose the Climate Change Commission, and for
other purposes. The Climate Change Act adopts the ultimate objective of the
4

ncr.denr.gov.ph
disaster risk reduction (DRR) is a term used for techniques that focus on preventing or minimizing the effects of
disasters. The term has been adopted by the United Nations, which has developed an International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction.
6
Climate change adaptation is a response to climate change that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of biological
systems to its effects.
5

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Convention which is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system which should be achieved within a time
frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to
ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic
development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
Recognizing the vulnerability of the Philippine archipelago and its local
communities, particularly the poor, women, and children, to potential
dangerous consequences of climate change such as rising seas, changing
landscapes, increasing frequency and/or severity of droughts, fires, floods and
storms, climate-related illnesses and diseases, damage to ecosystems,
biodiversity loss that affect the countrys environment, culture, and economy,
the State shall cooperate with the global community in the resolution of
climate change issues, including disaster risk reduction. It shall be the policy
of the State to enjoin the participation of national and local governments,
businesses, non-government organizations, local communities and the public
to prevent and reduce the adverse impacts of climate change and, at the
same time, maximize the benefits of climate change.
Further recognizing that climate change and disaster risk reduction are closely
interrelated and effective disaster risk reduction will enhance climate change
adaptive capacity, the State shall integrate disaster risk reduction into climate
change programs and initiatives.
Cognizant of the need to ensure that national and sub-national government
policies, plans, programs and projects are founded upon sound environmental
considerations and the principle of sustainable development, Republic Act No.
9279 declared that it is a state policy to systematically integrate the
concept of climate change in various phases of policy formulation,
development plans, poverty reduction strategies and other development
tools and techniques by all agencies and instrumentalities of the government.
Also in keeping with the HFA, the Philippine Congress passed Republic Act
No. 10121 (RA 10121) or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Act of 2010 to strengthen the Philippines Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management System, provide for the National Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management Framework, institutionalize the National Disaster
Risk Reduction and Management Plan, and appropriate funds therefore and
for other purposes. Section 2 (g) of RA 10121 asserts that it is a policy of the
State to mainstream disaster risk reduction and climate change in
development processes such as policy formulation, socio-economic
development planning, budgeting, and governance particularly in the area of
environment, agriculture, water, energy, health, education, poverty reduction,
land use and urban planning, and public infrastructure and housing, among
others.

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2.5.3

Conceptual Framework

Figure 17. Framework for Mainstreaming DRR in Land Use Planning


Source: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Sub-national Development
and Land
Use/Physical Planning in the Philippines, NEDA, 2008
The Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9279) defines Climate Change as a
change in climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or
variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically
decades or longer, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human
activity. 7 Climate Change Adaptation is the response to climate change that
aims to reduce the vulnerability of biological systems to its effects. Adapting to
climate change is particularly important in developing countries like the
Philippines where the severe effects of climate change are expected to occur.
Adaptive Capacity8 is closely linked to social and economic development as
the economic costs of climate change adaptability will cost billions of dollars in
the next few decades. The most common and widespread climate changerelated disaster in Metro Manila will be floods. For the cities adjacent to
Manila Bay, they will also experience sea level rise and storm surges. Other
7
8

Republic Act No. 9279 Climate Change Act of 2009.


Adaptive Capacity is the capacity and potential for humans to adapt to Climate Change.

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problems that may arise that is related to climate change are typhoons,
climate-related illnesses and diseases, and hot and humid summers. It should
be realized that the adaptation challenge grows with the magnitude and the
rate of climate change.
According to the Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (National Economic
Development Authority, 2008), Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) is the
process of studying risks caused by natural hazards and their effects on
elements at risk (e.g. people, buildings and structures, infrastructure,
economic activities, and public services).9 Risk assessment is the process of
quantifying and evaluating risk. The quantification of risks may be presented
as the number of elements lost (e.g. loss of lives), proportion of elements
affected (e.g., 30% of buildings), and monetary value of damaged property.
DRA involves:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Hazard characterization/ frequency analysis;


Consequence analysis;
Risk estimation; and
risk prioritization.

In the process of formulating the New Makati Comprehensive Land Use Plan
(2013-2023), hazard characterization/frequency analysis was completed. The
other steps (i.e. consequence analysis, risk estimation, and risk prioritization)
have to be completed in a more detailed undertaking involving more experts
and consultation with the communities in all the barangays in Makati. Such a
consultative process will require more time and resources to complete.
Through characterization/frequency analysis and analysis of available
information, however, several critical areas that require immediate
intervention can be identified. DRA was incorporated in the land use planning
process in the:
a) analysis of the planning environment;
b) identification of issues and problems;
c) formulation of goals, objectives and targets;
d) formulation of development strategies; and
e) identification of programs, projects and activities.

2.5.4 Planning for Disaster Risk Reduction and ClimateChange Adaptation (DRR-CCA) in Metro Manila
Disasters can disrupt social, economic, and physical development and even
set back gains. Deaths, injuries, community dislocation, damage to
infrastructure, destruction of industries, and disruption of economic activities
as a result of disasters can increase poverty. Because of the limited
resources of both national and local governments and the unpredictability of
9

Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction, National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), United Nations
Development Program (UNDP), European Commission Humanitarian Aid, VJ Graphics Arts, Inc. (2008)

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disasters, some of the resources that would otherwise be used for
development will have to be diverted for emergency response and relief when
such calamities do occur. It should be pointed out that disaster risks may also
result from wrong development policies and poor land use planning. The siting
of settlements, production areas, and infrastructure, urban growth and
development, and the use of resources all have to be carefully planned and
managed to prevent disasters.
Sustainable development policies reduce disaster risks. A city or barangay
with a thriving economy is expected to have more employment and livelihood
opportunities, better social services, and good infrastructure. The existence of
such conditions in a community will make it more disaster-resilient or more
capable of overcoming natural hazards. The opposite of disaster-resiliency is
disaster-vulnerability. Communities that are exposed to natural hazards and
are in a poor economic, social and physical state are considered highly
vulnerable.
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation
DRR-CCA) in the land use planning process in Metro Manila is particularly
difficult because of the highly built-up nature of the metropolis. For example,
the 2002 Metro Manila Earthquake Impact Reduction Study (MMEIRS)
provided geophysical information that should be considered in the planning of
Metro Manila. However, it was not surprising to discover that urban
developments have already occupied areas where geological hazards are
present. The layouts and land uses in the component LGUs of Metro Manila
would have been very different in the areas where geological and hydrometeorological hazards exist had the information been available in the
beginning. To reduce loss of life, injuries, and more serious infrastructure
damage brought about by disasters, areas that have been identified as highrisk may be planned for redevelopment or urban renewal based on the
information that is available today.

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Volume 1: Part II Land Use

Figure 18.
Population Density
Map of Metro Manila
The most densely populated cities in
the Philippines are in Metro Manila and
its periphery. (Areas that are colored
red and dark red in map)

Figure 19. Location Map of


Makati City

Makati City is southeast of Metro


Manilas core city Manila.

Photo 1. Makati City as the


Financial Capital
Makati City is one of the richest
cities in the Philippines. It has the
Central
Business
District
(foreground) and the new Bonifacio
Global
City
business
district
(background).

Makati City and Metro Manila


With a total land area of only 638.55 square kilometers (0.2% of the
Philippines total land area), Metropolitan Manila accounts for about 13% of
the national population and 33% of the National Gross Domestic Product.
Makati is one of 17 Local Government Units (LGUs) that comprise Metro
Manila. In spite of Makati Citys limited land area of 27.36 square kilometers, it
has consistently been in the list of top five richest cities in the country. As the
financial capital of the Philippines, Makati hosts the biggest banks and
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Volume 1: Part II Land Use

corporations, highest number of embassies, and the most affluent residential


enclaves. Ironically, the city also has its share of high-density residential
areas that are highly vulnerable to disasters.
For the New Makati Comprehensive Land Use Plan (2013-2023), the City will
have the opportunity to utilize more scientific data (hazard maps) and
integrating Disaster Risk Reduction in the land use planning process. It is with
much expectation that the updated CLUP will effectively improve the disaster
resiliency of its communities.

2.5.5

Assessment of Disaster Risks in Makati City

The poor and informal settlers are considered the most vulnerable to disasters
as they have the least resources and are often given the least attention by
local governments.10 Urban low-cost housing are often located in areas with
narrow roads and congested conditions, while informal settlements are
situated in the most hazardous locations close to where there are livelihood
opportunities (e.g., along railroad tracks, creeks and rivers, underneath
bridges)

Figure 20. Barangay Map of Makati City


Makati City has a total land area of 27.36 square kilometers and
consists of 33 barangays.

10

Christine Wamsler, Managing Urban Disaster Risk, Chapter 1, 2007

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The West Valley Fault


The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Philippine Institute of
Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and the Metropolitan Manila
Development Authority (MMDA) conducted the Metro Manila Impact
Reduction Study (MMEIRS) from August 2002 to March 2004 to formulate a
master plan for earthquake impact reduction in Metro Manila. The MMEIRS
Study (2004) identified 18 possible earthquake scenarios that may heavily
affect Metro Manila. The three scenarios considered for damage estimation
are as follows:
Model 13 which is a huge subduction type magnitude 7.9 earthquake
along the Manila Trench that generates a tsunami;
Model 18 which is a magnitude 6.5 strike slip earthquake reminiscent
of the 1863 earthquake in Manila Bay; and
Model 8 which is a magnitude 7.2 strike slip type earthquake occurring
along the 67 kilometer segment of the West Valley Fault.
Among the eighteen scenarios, Model 8, which is expected to produce high
ground shaking levels, is considered the worst-case scenario for cities
traversed by the West Valley Fault.11 The West Valley Fault System consists
of two faults, the East and West Valley Fault Systems. The scenarios
presented in the study illustrate the vulnerability of highly urbanized cities like
Metro Manila to earthquakes.
All 16 cities and 1 municipality in Metro Manila are vulnerable to earthquakes
but the areas traversed by the West Valley Fault are regarded as high risk
for the Model 8 scenario. The West Valley Fault cuts across Marikina City,
Quezon City, Pasig City, Pateros, Makati City, and Taguig City. However, the
higher density and more inadequately planned residential areas that it
traverses are located in the cities of Makati and Taguig. The West Valley Fault
cuts across the eastern portion of Makati City through Barangays East
Rembo, Pembo, Comembo, and Rizal.12 Horizontal or vertical shifting of the
ground or a combination of both may result from surface rupture or the
breaking and movement of the ground along the active fault trace. Buildings
or structures that are sitting on faults are at risk of structural damage when an
earthquake occurs.

Areas Prone to Liquefaction


Liquefaction refers to instances when soil loses strength due to an increase in
pore water pressures on the saturated subsurface caused by ground shaking
during a high magnitude earthquake. A subsurface made-up of loose sand
with the static water level near the ground level is generally considered
11

Metro Manila Earthquake Impact Reduction Study (MMEIRS), 2004


Alfredo Mahar A. Lagmay, Geohazard Assessment Report for Makati City (Preliminary
Report), 2012

12

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susceptible to liquefaction. Ground shaking will cause the sand to behave like
a liquid with an upward flow towards the surface which would consequently
lead to differential settlement. The potential for liquefaction in Makati City
ranges from low to none in areas that have Guadalupe Tuff as subsurface and
moderate in areas that have Quaternary Alluvium underneath.
Forthcoming Planned Unit Developments (PUD) and urban renewal projects
have to contend with this limitation.
Earthquakes Impact on Lifelines
Lifelines are infrastructures that are essential for a community to function (e.g.
roads, water supply lines, sewage lines, power lines and telecommunication
systems). The MMEIRS report (2004) presented estimates of impacts of an
M7.2 earthquake originating from the West Valley Fault (WVF) on Makati
Citys lifelines. Earthquakes can just as easily damage underground systems
(water supply, sewage, power, communication) as much as surface
infrastructure. Based on the report, most of Makati City will experience very
minimal damage to underground pipe systems in the event of an M7.2 tremor
originating from the West Valley Fault. The pipe systems in Barangays
Comembo, San Lorenzo, San Antonio, Santa Cruz, Tejeros, La Paz, Palanan,
San Isidro, Bangkal, and Dasmarias are slightly more at risk of damage,
although considered manageable in a post-disaster scenario.

Figure 21. The West Valley Fault and Areas Prone to Liquefaction
in Makati City
Four barangays on the east side of Makati City straddle the West
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Valley Fault Line. There are also large sections on the west and north
sides of Makati City that are moderately prone to liquefaction (areas
in brown).

The lack or inadequacy of disaster response may result in more deaths and
injuries after an earthquake rather than during the occurrence of the event
itself. Emergency response is crucial in the saving of lives and property. Apart
from the quality of equipment and trained personnel, accessibility is also a
consideration in reducing loss of lives and property damage. Areas have to
be permeable (can be accessed through several routes) which means there
should be no dead-ends and roads have to be wide enough for emergency
response teams to get through.

Areas Prone to Flooding


In Makati City, most of the flooding occurs in areas adjacent to rivers and
creeks especially if they are low-lying (downstream) and have gentle slopes.
Based on the flood hazard map of the Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB)
of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), areas that
are prone to 2-to-10-year flood cycles are the areas along creeks, along Pasig
River and with low elevations. The 50 and 100-year flood cycles, on the other
hand, affect areas along Pateros River and in areas where it joins Pasig
River. The volume of rainfall during Typhoon Ondoy (Typhoon Ketsana) in
2009 was considered a 150-year extreme rainfall event.
Floods in the city by and large occur in areas surrounding rivers and creeks
with the exception of some western barangays where floods are more
widespread over very low and flat topography. In the western barangays,
flood levels range from 1 to 3 meters along the creeks and 0.15 to 1.0 meter
for residential areas alongside these creeks. The extent of residential areas
affected by floods stretches to almost a kilometer in certain sections. In the
eastern part of the city, flood levels reach from 1 to 3 meters along the
Pateros River and 0.15 to1.0 meter for a narrow area adjacent to the river. 13
The eastern barangays (Barangays East Rembo, Pembo, Comembo, Rizal)
and the northwestern barangays (Barangays Kasilawan, Tejeros, Singkamas,
Olympia) have some of the highest population densities in the city which
means that more people are affected by floods in these areas.
Makati Citys Most Vulnerable Communities
A large section of Makati is comprised of what used to be a 25.78 squarekilometer military camp established during the American Colonial period
known as Fort Mckinley, and later renamed Fort Bonifacio when it was turned
13

Alfredo Mahar A. Lagmay, Geohazard Assessment Report for Makati City (Preliminary Report), 2012

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over to the Philippines in 1949. The privatization of Fort Bonifacio in 1995


gradually transformed a large section of the military camp into a master
planned business district called the Bonifacio Global City (BGC) which has a
full complement of high-priced residential, office and mixed-use
developments. However, to the north and east of the Bonifacio Global City are
situated some of the most vulnerable communities in Makati. Many of these
settlements were established in the 1950s as housing for the families of the
enlisted men serving in the military camp but were later occupied by other
families seeking low-cost urban housing in the 1970s up to the 1990s. These
settlements are now known as Barangays Cembo, South Cembo, West
Rembo, East Rembo, Comembo, Pembo, and Rizal.
Since most parts of the barangays that belong to the Eastside Cluster
developed in a spontaneous manner, geo-physical and hydro-meteorological
hazards were simply overlooked or ignored when informal settlements started
to develop. After several years since land tenure was finally granted, many of
the settlers have transformed their houses into permanent structures in spite
of the presence of the natural hazards. The communities in these barangays
can be characterized as having narrow streets, small lots, and practically no
open spaces. Many of the families in the densely populated Barangay Rizal
belong to the lowest income group in Makati.

Figure 22. Areas Susceptible to Flooding in Makati City


The areas in the city that are most susceptible to 2 to 10-year cycle
flooding (areas in yellow) are the northwestern barangays bordering
the City of Manila. Barangay Magallanes which is drained by the

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Maricaban Creek has areas adjacent to the creek and other drainage
channels also prone to flooding. The Eastside barangays (areas in
blue) are susceptible to 50 to 100-year cycle floods.

2.5.6

Land Use and Urban Design Proposals

According to the Philippines NEDA manual Mainstreaming Disaster Risk


Reduction, DRR measures may be classified into four major categories as
follows:
a. Risk avoidance or elimination removal of the risk trigger by not
locating in areas of potential hazard impact, not acquiring/utilizing
vulnerable land or building, or denying a risk by refusing to engage in a
function that could potentially be affected by risks;
b. Risk reduction or mitigation reduction of frequency of occurrence or
the severity of the consequence by changing physical characteristics or
operations of a system or the element at risk;
c. Risk sharing or risk transfer transfer of risk-bearing responsibility to
another party, involving financial measures particularly the use of
insurance system to cover and pay for future damages; and
d. Risk retention or acceptance the do nothing approach where risks
are fully accepted and arrangements are made to pay for financial
losses related to the impact of the hazard.
Since physical planning is mainly concerned with the first two categories, the
land use and urban design proposals presented here will not dwell at all with
the last two categories. Land use interventions which fall under the Risk
avoidance or elimination category will also be limited in terms of application
considering that practically all the land in the City have been built up. It would
be easy to designate or zone a fault line area as a green belt or a flood plain
as a wetland reservation if the areas being planned are greenfields but not
when these areas are already occupied by communities.

Securing the West Valley Fault (WVF)


Knowing about the existence and the location of the West Valley Fault (WVF)
has given the city government the following levels of physical planning
response:
a. No new building, addition or renovation to existing building policy along
the 10-meter easement (5 meters on both sides) of the WVF line which
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is currently partially enforced;


b. Removal/demolition of public buildings owned by city government that
are on the WVF easement to guarantee safety of the occupants and to
serve as an example for others to follow; and
c. Condemnation of buildings or gradual clearing by private owners of
buildings that are situated along the WVF.
The third level of response is considered the most difficult to enforce (see
Figures 7 and 8).

Figure 23. The West Valley Fault


Line in Makati City
The West Valley Fault (red broken
line) cuts across Barangays East
Rembo, Comembo, Pembo, and
Rizal.

Figure 24. Easement of the


West Valley Fault Zone
The drawing shows the
buildings including a public
school that have been built
above the WVF line easement.

Controlling Building Densities in Areas Prone to Liquefaction


Areas that have been identified as prone to liquefaction also have to be
addressed in the New Makati Comprehensive Land Use Plan (2013-2023).
The height and density of new buildings in these areas will have to be
controlled based on what the sub-surface conditions will allow. Structural
engineering designs that are able to withstand the impact of liquefaction will
also have to be required.
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Increasing Building Height Limits for Areas Prone to Flooding


To cope with the frequency and rising levels of floods in Makati City, flood
prone areas such as residential areas have been considered for increase in
Building Height Limits. Such a provision will allow existing and new buildings
in these flood-prone areas to raise floor levels that would prevent or reduce
the damage caused by floods. Such Climate Change Adaptation measures
that allow increases in Building Height Limits will be reflected in the Zoning
Ordinance.

Clearing the Easements of Rivers and Creeks


Flood hazard maps have shown that most floods in Makati are in areas
adjacent to drainage channels such as rivers and creeks. More frequent and
extreme rainfall attributed to Climate Change will put areas adjacent drainage
channels at risk to floods especially if the waterway easements are illegally
occupied by informal settlers. One of the first tasks is to strictly enforce the
standard easements of these drainage channels as they increase the volume
of water that can be conveyed. Furthermore, constant programs of preventing
the throwing of trash into creeks and dredging will allow these channels to
continue doing their job of draining the run-off in Makati. All of the rivers and
main creeks of Makati are actually the natural boundaries with adjacent cities.
This only means that all programs that aim to improve the drainage channels
should be planned and managed in collaboration with the adjoining city.
It would also be a good idea for the bigger buildings and residences to install
individual rain water harvesting systems that store rainwater on site rather
than discharging into the citys storm drainage systems. This sustainable
practice of water management will relieve the pressure on the rivers and
creeks during extreme rainfall events. With new mixed-use developments
anticipated along Chino Roces Avenue, rainwater harvesting systems may be
imposed on the new developments before they are allowed to construct. Huge
lots along Chino Roces Avenue are transitioning from warehouse-type
buildings to high-rise mixed-use developments. The new developments along
Chino Roces Avenue are mostly in Barangays Pio del Pilar, Bangkal and
Magallanes. Barangays Post Proper Southside and Post Proper Northside are
areas where new high-density developments are also taking place. Barangays
Pio del Pilar, Bangkal, and San Lorenzo have creeks that eventually drain in
to Estero Tripa de Gallina while Barangays Forbes Park, Dasmarias, Post
Proper Northside, Post Proper Southside, and Magallanes drain into
Maricaban Creek. Barangay Magallanes is situated downstream of Maricaban
Creek and is the southern natural boundary with Pasay City.
Collected rainwater can be used for watering landscaping and cleaning of
grounds and paved areas. To encourage building/property owners to invest in
such rainwater harvesting systems, tax breaks or other incentives may be
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offered.
In residential areas adjacent to the City of Manila (western barangays) that
are situated in low elevations, community retention or detention ponds have to
be set up to help impound surface run-off. Such detention ponds have to be
creatively designed so that they can be used as parks, playgrounds, and other
community spaces during dry periods.

Increasing Parks and Open Spaces


Makati has a disproportionate distribution of open spaces wherein the
exclusive gated communities have huge but underutilized parks while highdensity barangays (e.g. eastside barangays) have none. Parks and open
spaces have the potential to serve secondary roles as evacuation centers or
staging areas for emergency response and relief during disasters. Moreover,
increasing unpaved areas or permeable surface areas provide opportunities
for surface runoff to percolate into the ground and thereby reducing the
severity of floods. Another policy response to climate change is climate
change mitigation which seeks to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
and/ or enhance the removal of these gases from the atmosphere. Aside from
reducing the use of fossil fuels, parks with trees and natural vegetation also
contribute to offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. The multiple uses offered
by parks and open spaces provide the impetus to actually increase the citys
inventory of such amenities.
The 10-meter easement of the West Valley Fault Line if it is ever cleared of
structures is an excellent opportunity for conversion into a strip park.

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Figure 25. Inventory of Open Spaces and Recreational Areas


Many barangays in Makati are deprived of open spaces. Potential
open spaces may be recovered by re-blocking existing developments.

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Figure 26. 2012 Population Density Map


The most densely populated barangays in Makati City are Barangays
Pitogo, South Cembo and Cembo. Sadly, these areas have limited
access to open spaces.
Urban Redevelopment Disaster Resiliency Initiatives for Vulnerable
Enclaves (DRIVE)
The redevelopment of degraded areas has been a constant preoccupation of
cities for centuries. Many of the large-scale urban renewal projects in the
twentieth century have been undertaken to remove urban blight, improve the
social and economic conditions of the communities, and to prevent further
depreciation of real estate values. Urban renewal may entail the transfer of
businesses, demolition of structures, the relocation of households, and the
use of eminent domain as a legal instrument to consolidate private land for a
development project that is considered for the benefit of the majority.
An assessment of Makatis natural hazards has shown that many areas are
exposed to geological and hydro-meteorological hazards. Since all of these
high-risk areas are built up and inhabited, there should be some kind of
redevelopment efforts to deal with the hazards present. The vulnerability of
communities occupying the hazardous areas should be a compelling enough
reason for their redevelopment. A vulnerability-focused urban renewal
program called Disaster Resiliency Initiative for Vulnerable Enclaves or
DRIVE is proposed to focus on highly vulnerable communities. Based on the
presence of natural hazards and other vulnerability factors (shown in previous
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maps), a composite map has been formulated to highlight communities in the


City that are considered most vulnerable (See Figure 10 - areas in dark blue
and blue).

Figure 27. Vulnerable Enclaves Map


The Vulnerable Enclaves Map is a composite map incorporating all
thematic maps that indicate the location of natural hazards and other
factors that determine vulnerability. Based on the presence of natural
hazards and other vulnerability factors, several areas in Makati have
been identified which need immediate attention (Areas in dark blue and
blue).
Away from Makatis Central Business District and plush residential enclaves
are some of the most congested and blighted areas that are vulnerable to
disasters. In such areas, urban renewal and disaster risk reduction are only
possible if the community comes together and lot owners pool their lots so
that an efficient layout that is more disaster-resilient may be drawn. Such a
voluntary urban renewal initiative in a highly urbanized area has never been
successfully executed but should still be attempted if a natural disaster is to
be averted. Other means of consolidating lots include expropriation by the
local government (eminent domain) and land banking through purchase.
Concept plans have been prepared for three pilot DRIVE sites which
demonstrate urban design interventions that would deal with specific hazards
present in a site. The three demonstration sites are as follows:

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a. DRIVE Site 1: Redevelopment of an In-City Resettlement

Barangays Rizal and Pembo


Barangays Pembo and Rizal are two of the more congested and inadequately
planned areas in Makati City. The two barangays have predominantly medium
density residential land uses (2-3 storeys), narrow roads and hardly any open
spaces. The narrow roads will slow down any emergency response teams
during disasters and the absence of open spaces deprives residents of safe
refuge during evacuation. The West Valley Fault cuts across the barangays of
the Eastside Cluster which includes Barangays Pembo and Rizal. Structures
along the West Valley Fault are considered as Highly Vulnerable Enclaves
(See Hazardous Areas Map). Since several buildings are already at risk of
structural damage because they are sitting on faults, some kind of urban
renewal has to be undertaken in the area that involves removal of households
situated on the West Valley Fault as well as other vulnerable areas and
relocation to a new in-city housing development. The five meter easements on
both sides of the West Valley Fault have to be gradually cleared and
converted into a linear park (See Drive Site 3). It was estimated that there are
about 115 parcels (11,560 square meters) in Barangay Pembo and another
115 parcels (11,030 square meters) in Barangay Rizal traversed by the West
Valley Fault.
Areas in Barangays Pembo and Rizal have to be identified for redevelopment
into a low to medium-rise housing complex where affected families can be
relocated. The site for the new medium to high-rise housing complex could be
several parcels consolidated into a bigger lot. The new housing complex has
to be designed in such a way that at least 30% of the consolidated lot will be
allocated for open space. This will ensure that the community will have a
space for recreation as well for evacuation during emergencies.

b. DRIVE Site 2: Redevelopment of Blocks for Flood Mitigation


Barangay Tejeros
Several areas in Makati have also been identified as flood prone areas with
severity ranging from the 50-100 year cycle to the more frequent 2-10 year
cycle. Many of the flood-prone (2-10 year flood cycle) barangays are located
in the northwest cluster. The entire areas of Barangays Kasilawan,
Singkamas, and Tejeros, for example, are considered flood prone. A DRIVE
project for Barangay Tejeros has been conceptualized which consists of
redeveloping entire blocks including a BLISS Housing Project. The project will
involve housing, complementary commercial spaces and the provision of
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open spaces. To mitigate the flooding in the area, it is proposed that the open
space be designed as a sunken park which will also function as a detention
pond during extreme rainfall events. The sunken open space can temporarily
impound excessive run-off to prevent the flooding of streets and homes.
Some of the recreational/ community facilities that can be introduced include a
skateboard park (X-Park or extreme sports park), amphitheater or outdoor
performance venue, and a childrens playground.
The BLISS Housing Project in Barangay Tejeros can also be redeveloped to
create more residential units that can accommodate not only the existing
residents but also additional units that can be sold at free market prices.
Public-Private Partnership arrangements will allow the DRIVE renewal project
in Barangay Tejeros to pay for itself. Similar projects may be developed for
other flood-prone barangays once the DRIVE pilot project in Barangay
Tejeros is proven to be successful.

c. DRIVE Site 3: Redevelopment of Land Slide Prone Area


Barangay West Rembo-East Rembo
A portion of Barangays West Rembo and East Rembo, there is an area prone
to landslide either by earthquake or heavy-rain induced. This Area is another
pilot for disaster risk reduction for landslide. A development template will be
formulated in a form of Master Development Plan and development
guidelines.

d. Conversion of Fault Zone Easements Into Parks and Open Spaces


Eastside Cluster has been consistently identified for its vulnerability to
disasters. The West Valley Fault cuts across several buildings and residences
in the Eastside Cluster thereby, exposing many of its residents to life
threatening risks. The presence of so many homes and buildings over the
West Valley Fault is probably the most serious disaster risk present in in the
Eastside Cluster specially Barangay Rizal. Areas adjacent to the Taguig River
are also susceptible to frequent floods while the rest of the barangays are
considered susceptible to 50-100 year floods. Other factors that contribute to
the Eastside Clusters vulnerability are susceptibility to liquefaction of its
eastern half specially Barangay Rizal, high population density, poor layout
(i.e. narrow roads, minimal individual setbacks), lack of open spaces, and
generally lower household incomes).
The prepared concept plan for Barangay Rizal under Makati Risk-Sensitive
Urban Redevelopment Planning Project (MRSURP Project) should
considered the provisions of the New CLUP and Zoning Ordinance such as it
entails the prohibition of building new structures along the identified 10-meter
wide West Valley Fault easement (5.0 meters on both sides of the fault). Lots
sitting on the fault also have to be acquired so that no households are put in
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harms way. The goal is to recover the ten-meter easement so that it can be
converted into a linear park that also increases the inventory of open spaces
in the barangay. The linear park will improve the environment, provide a safe
walking and bicycling path and increase the mobility of the residents. The
linear park should terminate in a bigger park on the western part of the
barangay beside Circumferential Road 5. The recovery of lots that are on the
West Valley Fault to convert into a strip park is expected to take several years
but each household removed will mean one less family at risk. The DRIVE
project can be piloted in Barangay Rizal but can also be undertaken
simultaneously for all the barangays crossed by the West Valley Fault.

DISASTER RESILIENCY INITIATIVES


FOR
VULNERABLE
ENCLAVES
(DRIVE)
Redevelopment of Blocks for Flood
Mitigation, Barangay Tejeros

Figure 28. Barangay Tejeros is one of


the northwest barangays that are
considered both flood prone and
moderately susceptible to liquefaction.

Figure 29. By allocating an area for a


sunken open space, it can also serve as
a detention pond in cases of extreme
rainfall events.

Photo
2.
Barangay
Tejeros is also one of the
densely
populated
barangays in Makati City.

Figure 30. Redevelopment


of strategic blocks could
mitigate the floods and
create new open spaces
for the community.

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Figure 31.
The sunken open space
can have an amphitheatre and a
skateboard park.

Figure 32. A new open


space with flood mitigation
provisions will improve the
neighborhood environment
and
help
generate
economic opportunities.

DISASTER RESILIENCY INITIATIVES FOR


VULNERABLE ENCLAVES (DRIVE)
Conversion of Fault Line Easement Into Parks,
Barangay Rizal

Figure 33. The West Valley Fault traverses five


barangays in the eastern part of Makati City
including Barangay Rizal in the foreground.

Figure
34.
A
proposed
linear
park will cut across
9
blocks
and
terminate
in
a
bigger park along
C-5.

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Volume 1: Part II Land Use

Figure 35. It is proposed that five-meter easements Figure


36.
Plan
on both sides of the West Valley Fault be cleared of shows conversion of
buildings and converted into a linear park.
easement into linear
park.

Figure 37. Concept Drawing of entrance to Barangay Rizals Green Line at


Block 9. Clearing of the easement reduces the vulnerability of the
communities in Barangay Rizal.

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2.5.7

CONCLUSION

The national government has made Disaster Risk Reduction-Climate Change


Adaptation (DRR-CCA) a national priority and made the necessary measures
to empower the local governments to prepare development plans that take
into account Disaster Risk Reduction. National agencies that are entrusted to
gather and analyze geological, hydro-meteorological, and volcanic data have
also been instructed to make information available to cities and municipalities.
Like most cities in the Philippines, the City is complying with the national
policy of mainstreaming DRR-CCA in the formulation of its Comprehensive
Land Use Plan (2013-2023).
Makati has completed its disaster risk assessment and has mapped most of
the identified natural hazards. Appropriate land uses and urban design
interventions have been proposed to reduce the identified disaster risks.
A major part of disaster risk reduction-Climate Change Adaptation is the
dissemination of the information of the disaster risks and the use of
knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience
at all levels. Education plays a key role in the awareness of geo-physical and
hydro-meteorological hazards and it is best if this knowledge is introduced
early. The nature of natural hazards is part of the science classes in the grade
school curriculums. More importantly, emergency drills are conducted on a
regular basis not just as a reminder of the constant threats but more
importantly to be ready for such eventualities.
The Hyogo Protocol calls for disaster preparedness for effective response at
all levels and Makati City has taken the initiative of upgrading its disaster
response capabilities, medical centers, and facilities for emergencies.
However, it should be realized that when a natural disaster occurs, the
nearest place where the assistance and rescue will come from is the
community itself. A strong sense of community has to be sustained by the
community members in order for them to help themselves. Much of the
success of the land use and urban development proposals depend on local
communities participation and willingness to carry them out.

2.6 PRIORITY PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS


Even as the City enjoys competitive advantages, there are, however, risks to
maintaining its preeminent position. Undertaking a number of high-impact,
game-changing projects that will define what the City stands for and what it
aspires to be is therefore critical in upholding its primacy, Significant
improvement in the physical environment, widening economic base, reducing
social disparity, and improving transport networks are keys to attaining global
city standards in all indices of growth and liveability The following are the
priority programs and projects to support these objectives:
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2.6.1

Internal and External Linkages


Road Projects These roads may provide alternative route
to vehicles that are currently using the roads serving as
Makati gateways.
o Sen. Gil Puyat Grade Separator (Tunnel) improving
internal circulation as well as enhancing regional
linkages.
Bypassing Paseo de Roxas and Makati Ave.
Bypassing Ayala Ave. Intersection
o Connector Road Project (connecting NLEX and SLEX)
The Project will use the air space of the railway tracks for
almost its entire stretch except along Osmena Highway
where the Connector will be elevated on top of the
existing highway.
o C-3 along South Avenue
Improving regional connectivity of the City.
o Pasong Tamo-EDSA Tunnel
Proposed project to introduced engineering solutions to
improve the traffic flow.
o Pasig River Parkway
Proposed project to develop parkway along the Pasig
River as part of the Riverside Development Zone.
Transit Projects
o MRT3 Extension into the CBD
o Makati Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
The proposed project will provide a strategic internal
circulation and connectivity. Its initial phase, called the
Red Line, will run along Ayala Avenue and Sen. Gil Puyat
Avenue, thereby providing direct connectivity between
LRT 1 and MRT 3 through Sen. Gil Puyat Station and
Ayala Station, respectively.
o Monorail Project
A proposed project to connect vital locations and improve
the mass transport system in the City.

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o PNR Commuter Line (South and North Rail Project)


The Metro Manila component of the Northrail Project is
on extension of the on-going Northrail using PNR Tracks,
which plans to be integrated with Connector Road
Project.
Airport Access
o NAIA Expressway Phase 2
This project will connect the existing NAIA Expressway
Phase 1 and will run elevated following the alignment of
Sales Avenue, Andrews Avenue, Domestic Road and
NAIA Road.
Mobility and Walkability
o Pedestrian Walk Network
The proposed expanded pedestrian walkway network will
expand the coverage of the existing pedestrian network in
the Central Business District to Northeast Cluster. This is
intended to further enhance the integration of the financial
district with the seat of local government and residents in
Barangay Poblacion.
o Bikeway Network
There is a proposed bikeway network that aims to
promote use of non-motorized bikes for travel by way of
delineated bike pathways.
Transport Hubs and Terminals
o Guadalupe Transport Hub
Interconnecting all the transit and road facilities to serve
and improve the eastern access of the City.
o Magallanes Transport Hub
Interconnecting all the transit and road facilities to serve
and improve the southern access of the City.
o Parking Buildings
Construction of Multi-storey parking buildings outside of
the CBD to decongest the streets of illegally parked
vehicles and ease the traffic flow.
Ferry System
Linking the City through the river by improving the Citys
connection to river terminals.

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Traffic Signalization
Installation of traffic lights to all strategic intersections to Improve
traffic flow and safety.
Makati Transport Masterplan
Rationalization of the Citys Transport and Road System,
making the Citys internal and external circulation network
efficient.

2.6.2

Housing
Housing Component of DRIVE and WVF Relocation
o Retrofitting and disaster proofing of communities
o Relocation of communities in danger zones
Redevelopment of Guadalupe BLISS Housing Project
Redevelopment of Tejeros Garden BLISS Housing Project
Community Development Program- relocation sites outside of
City
o Makati-Gawad Kalinga San Jose del Monte, Bulacan
o Calauan, Laguna

2.6.3

Parks/Open Space and Greening Program


Makati Green Code
o Rationalization of the Citys environmental effort to
include green designs and architecture
Pasig Riverside Master Development Plan
Parks Development
Open Space provisions in SPUR, DRIVE, HPZ, RDZ
Implementation
Waterways Easement Improvement Program
Conversion of WVF easement to open space/park/greenway

2.6.4

Cultural and Heritage Preservation Program


Poblacion Heritage Conservation Masterplan Implementation

2.6.5

Environment and Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change


Adaptation Measures
Makati Drainage Masterplan and Implementation
Makati Waterways Improvement Program
Citywide Upgrading of Sanitation and Drainage System
Flood Retention Facilities
Makati Environment Master Plan Updating and Implementation
Citywide Waste Management Program
Material Recovery Facilities Improvement
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2.6.6

Renewal and Redevelopment Programs


Formulation of DRIVE/SPUR Masterplans and Guidelines
Makati Risk-Sensitive Urban Redevelopment Program
Formulation of a Strategic Recovery and Rehabilitation Plan
West Valley Fault/ Open Space Zone Guidelines and
Implementation
Climate Change Framework and Plan
Multi-Hazard and Risk Assessment

2.6.7

Economic Programs
Investment and Incentive Code
Tourism Masterplan
Skills-Job Matching Program
Expansion of CBD and support facilities

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ANNEX 1 - DREAMLANDVILLE SUBDIVISION, Brgy. Kaypian,San Jose


Del Monte, Bulacan
LAND AREA ALLOCATION
Total land Area :
32,341 sq.m.
Less : Commercial Area :
988 sq.m.
Net Area for development :
31,326 sq.m.
Less: Open Space
12,125 sq.m.
A) ROADS/ALLEYS
B) LEGAL EASEMENT
C) PARKS/PLAYGROUND

9,685 sq.m.
417 sq.m.
2,023 sq.m.

=====================================
Residential Area : 19,201 sq.m.
Total No. Residential
: 471 lots

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ANNEX 2 - CALAUAN HOUSING PROJECT, Calauan, Laguna

LOT ALLOCATION DATA


Gross Project Area :
400,418.00 sq.m.
Excluded Area:
1,284 sq.m.
Area for Development:
399,159.46 sq.m.
Number of Saleable Lots :
6,169
Roads :
113,702.09 sq.m.
Parks & Playground:
16,087.91 sq.m.
Community facilities :
6,993.03 sq.m.
Easements:
70.53 sq.m.
Standard Lot sizes:
40.00 sq.m.

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REFERENCES FOR MAINSTREAMING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION


AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ON THE NEW COMPREHENSIVE
LAND USE PLAN (2013 2023)

Michael V. Tomeldan, Disaster-resilient Urban Renewal, 2012 Inter-University


Seminar on Asian Mega-cities (17th IUSAM), Khabarovsk, Russia, September
2012
Christine Wamsler, Managing Urban Disaster Risk, 2007
Douglass Farr, Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design With Nature, John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 2008
Alfredo Mahar A. Lagmay, Geohazard Assessment Report for Makati City
(Preliminary Report), 2012
Metro Manila Earthquake Impact Reduction Study (MMEIRS), 2004
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction, National Economic Development
Authority (NEDA), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), European
Commission Humanitarian Aid, VJ Graphics Arts, Inc. (2008)
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, www.mmda.gov.ph
The Local Government Code, Republic Act 7160, 1991
The Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan (RSLUP) and Risk Sensitive Zoning
Ordinance (RSZO) Model Templates, C2CSI for DRR (Makati-QuitoKathmandu)

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