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Chapter 65: Convection Correlations for PCB

Convection Correlations for

65 Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

Summary 1209

Introduction 1210

Modeling Details 1210

Solution Highlights 1210

Results 1218

Modeling Tips 1219

Input File(s) 1219

Video 1219
CHAPTER 65 1209
Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

Summary
Title Chapter 65: Convection Correlations for PCB
Features • Natural convection correlation 701 by using PCONV1 entry
• Forced convection correlation 507 by using PCONV1 entry
• Contact loads by using PRJCON and SET3 cards
Geometry

The dimension of PCB is 9 x 6 x 0.0093 inches (copper thickness)

Material properties PCB: Copper K = 9.9 W/in C°; Copper Thickness = 0.0093 in
Chips: K = 2.24 W/in°C
Air: K = 6.66e-4 W/in°C; Cp = 456.2 J/lbm°C; ρ = 5.01e-5 lbm/in³;
μ = 1.03e-6 lbm/in s, β = 3.43e-3/°C
Analysis characteristics Solution 400/RC Network solver. Steady state thermal analysis.
Boundary conditions • Wall temperature = 25°C
• For Natural convection model: Tair = 20°C
• For Forced convection: Inlet Air Temperature = 20°C
Applied loads • Total surface heat = 5W, Total Heat on chips: 7.5W, 5W, 5W
• Contact load between PCB and chips with coefficient =12 W/in² °C
• Convection with correlation 701 for natural convection model
• Coupled advection with correlation 507 for forced convection model
Mass flow rate = 3.2E-3 lbm/s
Hydraulic Diameter = 0.2 in
Flow Cross Section = 0.6 in²
Interval between chips and next PCB = 0.1 in
Element type • CQUAD4 for PCB
• CTETRA for chips
• CHBDYP/FTUBE for air flow (for natural convection model)
FE results Temperature result:
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CHAPTER 65

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the convection correlation feature of SOL 400 RC Network Solver.

Modeling Details
The dimension of PCB is 9 x 6 x 0.0093 inches (copper thickness). The two edges are fixed to the slots and have a
constant boundary temperature of 25°C. The total circuit power on the PCB is 5W, and the total power of the three
chips is 7.5W, 5W, and 5W, respectively. The PCB mesh and chip mesh do not match each other. RC Network Solver
has a special contact algorithm to deal with that.
The convection correlation 701 is used to simulate the natural convection of PCB and chips. The air temperature is
20°C. The convection correlation 507 is used to simulate the forced convection. The forced convection is applied to
both sides of the PCB and outer side of the chips. The inlet air temperature is 20°C.

o
Constant Boundary Temperature = 25 C
Contact Coefficient = 1.2 W/in2 oC

5W

0.1 in
Inlet T = 20oC
o
20 C
o
20 C

Figure 65-2 Natural and Forced Convection Models

Solution Highlights
Convection correlations are used to calculate the convection coefficients in different situations. MD Nastran RC
Network Solver supports 44 convection correlations. Each convection correlation consists of three tabs: Correlation
View, Variables, and Additional Coefficient. Correlation View form includes the description, formula, illustration, and
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Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

some geometry related parameters. These parameters are also displayed in the Variable form, along with the fluid
material parameters. Additional Coefficient is reserved for future use for some P/Thermal correlations.

Figure 65-3 Natural Convection Correlation 701 Forms

The natural convection model defines the convection correlation 701 by using PCONV1 entry, which is referenced by
CONV entry. The following are the highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model the natural convection
problem with convection correlations:

......

……
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CHAPTER 65

Figure 65-4 Forced Convection Correlation 507 Forms

constant convection coefficient, a convection correlation is used to calculate the convection coefficient at run time.
PCONV1 entry defines the forced convection correlation 507. This entry is referenced by the CHBDYP and PRJCON
cards. The following are the highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model the forced convection problem
with convection correlations:

......

......

......

......
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Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

PRJCON entry is used to link the two SET3 cards. A convection correlation PID (PCONV1 ID) is referenced if the
HEAT2 option is used. The inlet temperature is defined as a SPC for each inlet node of the fluid stream.
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CHAPTER 65

PCONV1 Thermal Convection Calculation Properties

Defines the properties required to calculate convective heat transfer. It can exist in a simple mode with convection
coefficient defined in the MID or in advanced mode where the H value is calculated using the geometric parameters and
referenced material.

Format
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PCONV1 PID Corr ID MID Mdot Velocity Length or Flow Cross +
Diameter Section
+ Length Flow Cross Mdot f Velocity f Length or Flow Cross +
function Section Diameter f Section f
type type
+ C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 +
+ C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 +
+ C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24

Example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PCONV1 2 701 2 1.0

Field Contents Type Default

PID Property identification number, referenced by CHBDYP I  0
and/or CONV.
Corr ID ID of convection type in correlation library. I0 0
MID Material identification number for convection I0 0
calculation.
Mdot Mass flow rate. R 0.0
Mdot f Mass flow rate TABLEDj table ID. I0 0
Velocity Fluid velocity. R0 0.0
Velocity f Fluid velocity TABLEDj table ID. I0 0
Length or Diameter Geometry, based on Corr ID. R  0.0 0.0
Length or Diameter f type Geometry function type: I0 2
1= time
2= temperature
Length or Diameter f Geometric function TABLEMj or TABLEDj table ID I0 0
Flow Cross Section Flow Cross Section. R  0.0 0.0
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Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

Field Contents Type Default

Flow Cross Section f type Flow Cross Section function type I0 2
1= time
2= temperature
Flow Cross Section f Flow Cross Section function TABLEMj or TABLEDj table I  0 0
ID.
C1 thru C24 Geometric properties based on chosen convection R 0.0
correlation

Remarks
1. This entry is for RC Network solver only.
2. The PCONV1 entry contains the properties for a CONV and CHDBYP, and can be used for connecting with a
PRJCON. PID must be unique to both the PCONVID in PCONV and the PID in PHBDY. This will be the ID
referenced by CONV, PRJCON, and CHBDYP.
3. MATID must reference a MAT4 fluid material.
4. For Corr. ID and C1 thru C24, please reference MSC SINDA User’s Guide and Library Reference or
P/Thermal User’s Guide.
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CHAPTER 65

PRJCON Thermal RC Element Contact

Specifies a thermal connection between two regions of elements. The connection is automatically determined
geometrically as a projection of the slave region on to the master, and the strength of the connection is calculated based
on the properties given.

HEAT1

Format
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON BID +
HEAT1 SET3 SET3 Slave h
Master

Example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON 1
HEAT1 1 2 1.2

HEAT2

Format
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON BID +
HEAT2 SET3 SET3 Slave PID
Master

Example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON 1
HEAT2 1 2 1001

HEAT3

Format
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON BID +
HEAT3 SET3 SET3 Slave F Emis Emis Slave
Master Master
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Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

Example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON 1
HEAT3 1 2 1. 0.85 0.5

HEAT4

Format
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON BID +
Master Master Slave

Example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PRJCON 1
HEAT4 1 2 1. 1001 1002

Field Contents Type Default

BID BCBODY identification number. I0 Required
HEATx Indicates the start of HEAT elements. C
SET3 Master ID of the master element collection for connection. I0 Required
SET3 Slave ID of the slave element collection for connection. I0 Required
h Convection correlation. R  0.0 Required
for HEAT1
PID PID of the property to be used for h value. I0 Required
for HEAT2
F View factor between parts. 0.0  R Required
 1.0 for HEAT3
& HEAT4
Emis Master Emissivity of master collection. R  0.0 Required
for HEAT3
Emis Slave Emissivity of master collection. R  0.0 Required
for HEAT4
RADC id Master RADMID of the material to be used for master emissivity I0 Required
value.
RADC id Slave RADMID of the material to be used for slave emissivity I0 Required
value.
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CHAPTER 65

Remarks
1. This HEATx and the later parameters are for RC Network solver only.
2. For HEAT2, PID must refer to a PCONV1 type, and not a PCONV or PCONVM.
3. RC Network Solver uses a projection method to determine the connection (not the “nearest neighbor method”).
In most of the cases, the projection method is more accurate than the nearest neighbor method.

Results

Figure 65-6 Temperature Contour of PCB with Forced Convection

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Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

For now, SimXpert can not display the temperature contour on the fluid stream. Apparently, the cooling effect of the
forced convection is much better than the natural convection.

Modeling Tips
In SimXpert Structural workspace, when you pick the back face of the solid chips for the contact loads, you may need
to hide the PCB surface first, so that the back face of the solid chips can be picked correctly.
The convection correlations are defined in Material and Property/1D Properties / Correlation. If you want to use
constant convection coefficient in the coupled advection loads, please select the 1D Fluid Flow option. If you want to
use convection correlation to calculate the convection coefficient, please pick the Convection Correlation option.

Input File(s)
Files Description
QT22_pcb_natural.dat MD Nastran SOL400/RC Network Solver thermal input file
QT25_pcb_forced.dat MD Nastran SOL400/RC Network Solver thermal input file

Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.